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2016 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud, IEEE International Conference on High Performance

and Smart Computing, IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data and Security

Security-Aware Information Classications Using


Supervised Learning for Cloud-Based Cyber Risk
Management in Financial Big Data
Keke Gai1 , Meikang Qiu2 , Sam Adam Elnagdy3
1
Department of Computer Science, Pace University, New York, NY 10038, USA, kg71231w@pace.edu;
2
Department of Computer Science, Pace University, New York, NY 10038, USA, mqiu@pace.edu;
3
Department of Computer Science, Pace University, New York, NY, 10038, se85420n@pace.edu

AbstractWith the fast development of Web-based solu- switched based on the practical demands, which is delivered
tions, a variety of paradigms and platforms are emerging by the cloud vendors. This trend has empowered the means
as value creators or improvers in multiple industries. This of information sharing in the nancial industry with a quick
trend has also enable nancial rms to improve their business
processes and create new services. Sharing data between response to the markets [13][18].
nancial service institutions has become an option of achieving Despite many strong desire of using new techniques for
value enhancements. However, the concern of the privacy exchanging information, systems using Web-based solutions
information leakage has also arisen, which impacts on both still encounter a variety of interferences, such as disruptions,
nancial organizations and customers. It is important for
stakeholders in nancial services to be aware of the proper unauthorized alterations, and unexpected usage [19][21].
information classications, by which determining which infor- The core businesses of each nancial enterprise usually
mation can be shared between the nancial service institutions. consist of sensitive information, which need to be pro-
This paper focuses on this issue and proposes a new approach tected from any unanticipated operations or data retrievals.
that use combined supervised learning techniques to classify Moreover, classifying individual information or dataset is
the information in order to avoid releasing those information
that can be harmful for either nancial service providers insufcient since many associated data may contain sen-
or customers. The proposed model is entitled as Supervised sitive information [22][28]. Financial companies concern
lEarning-Based Secure Information Classication (SEB-SIC) about the data sharing since it is challenging to be aware
model, which is mainly supported by the proposed Decision of which information can be shared without triggering any
Tree-based Risk Prediction (DTRP) algorithm. The proposed harmful effects to both nancial service institutions and
scheme is a predictive mechanism that uses the historical data
as the training dataset. The performance of our proposed their customers [29][36]. Having an effective approach
mechanism has been assessed by the experimental evaluations. that can identify whether the target dataset can be securely
shared among nancial rms is an urgent issue, which needs
Index TermsCybersecurity insurance, supervised learning to be solved for dismissing the obstacle of executing the
technique, cloud computing, big data, risk management, cy- information exchanges.
bersecurity
To deal with this problem, we propose the Supervised
I. I NTRODUCTION lEarning-Based Secure Information Classication (SEB-
Contemporary nancial service institutions have an in- SIC) model, which is designed identify the datas shara-
creasing desire of using Web-related technologies to up- bilities among diverse nancial stakeholders. Our proposed
grade service qualities and facilitate new services. This model creates a secure mechanism that distinguishes data
development trend has been remarkably impacting on the for the purpose of protecting privacy information. This goal
industrial growth and new technologies implementations will be achieved by using supervised learning techniques to
[1][4]. As an emerging marketing paradigm, information predict whether the information sharing will be hazardous
sharing has become an important approach for nancial for any relevant parties. The prediction process will be
rms to enlarge their views and create values from multiple executed by the proposed algorithm, Decision Tree-based
perspectives. Cloud computing is an alternative platform Risk Prediction (DTRP) algorithm.
for nancial rms to exchange or share information in a Our DTRP algorithm uses decision tree technique to assist
scalable manner [5][12]. The system congurations can be nancial organizations to perceive when and which data can
be securely shared with other institutions. The determina-
M. Qiu is the corresponding author of this paper. Email address:
tions are based on the data labels and the purposes of data
mqiu@pace.edu.
This work is supported by NSF CNS-1457506 and NSF CNS- sharing. With using the training dataset, a deterministic label
1359557. (Prof. M. Qiu). will be generated to suggest the datas sharability level. The

978-1-5090-2403-2/16 $31.00 2016 IEEE 197


DOI 10.1109/BigDataSecurity-HPSC-IDS.2016.66
algorithms executions are within our proposed architecture. A. Supervised Learning in Financial Risk Management
As one of the common tools in machine learning, super-
vised learning can be considered a group of techniques using
labeled training set that produce functions for data analyses,
such as classications and regressions. Executing this ap-
proach can assist to group target data into a few categories.
The performance improvement of using supervised learning
techniques has been addressed by many recent researches.
First, supervised learning techniques can improve the
classication performance by the advanced training set
Fig. 1: The three-layer architecture of the proposed SEB- congurations [37]. As the matter of fact, the classication
SIC model. generation is a challenging issue in practice since the model
highly depends on the training sets. Whether or not the
training set can accurately represent the features of the
Fig. 1 represents a high level architecture of our proposed target objects is complex when the analysis can be done
model. There are three layers in this architecture, including across multidisciplinary applications with multiple labeled
Financial Stakeholders (FSD), Security Manager (SMG), data [38]. One optimization has been proposed to utilize the
and Data Sharing (DSI) layers. FSD layer refers to a group shared tasks from multitask learning [39].
of nancial institutions that intend to share some data with Next, in the nancial industry, the companies use super-
each other for specic purposes. The DTRP algorithm will vised learning for predicting potential risks based on the
be implemented at SMG layer, in which ensures the data nancial history records [40], [41]. Financial rms intend
security before the data sharing is processed. DSI layer to use supervised learning technique to detect insecurity op-
represents a series of mechanisms of data sharing, such erations, decisions, or investments [42]. This approach can
as data transmissions, data storage, exchange channels, and prevent data from further loss once the unusual operations
data validation methods. are revealed. However, most prior researches have focused
Moreover, our research work is signicant for both re- on detecting improper behaviors in the system, instead of
searchers and practitioners in the nancial security domain. proactively protecting data from information leakage.
The main contributions of this paper are twofold: Moreover, many prior researches also addressed semi-
1) We propose a novel scheme that can secure data sharing supervised learning methods. For instance, a learning ap-
via executing information classications for increasing proach has been proposed for increasing the detection ratio
the security level of privacy protection. of the unknown objects in a video stream [43]. Another
2) Our model is a cloud-based solution that is a new problem was solved by using semi-supervised learning,
attempt aiming to improve the quality of risk manage- which was reducing the semantic gaps in image annotations
ment in the nancial industry. The proposed scheme [44]. Similarly, many prior researches have proved that
can be used as a reference for establishing an effective using semi-supervised learning can dramatically reduce the
cybersecurity insurance policy for nancial rms. error ratio, which can be used in searching, monitoring, and
supervising data or systems [45]. Nevertheless, most prior
The rest of this paper is organized by the following sec- explorations cannot be used to protect data before the data
tions. First, we accomplish a survey in the relevant domains are shared between organizations.
in Section II. Next, we represent the detailed descriptions
of our model in Section III. Furthermore, algorithms are B. Big Data Analytic Techniques
displayed in Section IV and the experimental congurations
Mass storage and Internet have also enabled nancial
as well as the evaluation results are given in Section V.
organizations to extract features from phenomenon, which
Finally, the conclusions are drawn in Section VI.
can assist enterprises to recognize the causes of the risks or
threats [46]. Cyber vulnerabilities can be detected through-
II. R ELATED W ORK out an analysis maneuver based on a large volume of data
[47]. The main benet of using big data in increasing
Using cloud-based approaches for empowering nancial information protection eld is that nancial service institu-
risk management is an alternative for current nancial tions can not only inspect structured data but also examine
service providers, which has been researched in recent unstructured data, by which unexpected actions may be
years. We focus on two dimensions in this section in order detected.
to provide sufcient research background and theoretically This advantage empowers the usage of multimedia and
support our proposed mechanism. Two dimensions include various applications across different operation platforms,
supervised learning and big data analytic techniques. such as data sciences, Internet-of-Thing (IoT), and cloud

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computing [48][50]. Cyber security inspectors can utilize individual data set transmissions but also the entire prior
multiple data analytic techniques to obtain unusual infor- shared data set.
mation or behaviors occurred in the system, such as super- Based on this cognition, we dene the problem as the PO-
vising images, investigating audios, assessing videos, and tential Data-sharing rIsk (PODI) Problem and the problem
examining texts. Moreover, using state-related techniques statement is given by Denition 1 as the following.
for identifying objects status is an effective approach for
Denition 1. Inputs include a labeled training set, T,
nding the relations between the observable factors [51].
consisting of n instances. Each instance Ii has m ordered
Next, in a big data manipulative environment, cyber
binary attributes that is associated with an output state
threats can take place when using the user-level side attacks
label, S. Each attribute A refers to whether or not this type
to expose information workow systems [52]. Multiple data
of data is shared. Each Si S refers to the information
retrieval channels provide adversaries with various opportu-
classication type. The output will be a decision tree, DT.
nities to invade users systems [53]. For instance, malicious
Our target problem is to identify each Si s type in infor-
attack can take place while the big data transmissions are
mation classication, which will be used for determining
monitored and interrupted. Adversaries can pretend to being
whether the information can be shared.
single or multiple normal users to spread harmful messages.
One of the solutions is to use data analytic tools to assess As mentioned in Denition 1, the main input is a train-
the operators of the system, such as clustering manipulative ing set from each rm, which will be used to generate
plots by using k-mean-based algorithms and identifying information classication criterion. We dene that there is
incidents relations with using associated rules [54], [55]. a labeled training set T that contains a group of instances
Moreover, some researchers attempted to increase the Ii that are associated with a few attributes as well as their
computing efciency of deploying big data techniques. One information classication type Si . In specic, there are m
of the research directions has been explored in enhancing ordered binary attributes in each instance and the binary
the performance of MapReduce, such as using the data attributes are aligned with one output state in T.
anonymization approach [56]. Meanwhile, prior research Moreover, the information classication needs to follow
also addressed the time-aware energy minimization by using the nancial privacy protection regulations, such as con-
dynamic programming [27]. dential, restricted, ofcial, or normal data. Financial enter-
In summary, being aware of harmful information sharing prises will dene which level of the information leakage
is still at its infancy stage in spite of many accomplished can be considered a harmful sharing. Assume that there
research work in vulnerability detections by using machine are x states for S, which has S = {S1 , S2 , . . . , Sx }. The
learning techniques. For contemporary nancial rms, gen- mathematical expression of the input D is given by Equation
erating an effective mechanism that can proactively prevent 1.
A A2 . . . Am S
risks is more important than threat detections, because any 1
threat occurrences can result in serious consequences. Our I1 A11 A12 . . . A1m S1
model concentrates on this reality and aims to protect I A21 A22 . . . A2m S2
D= 2 ...
(1)
nancial enterprises by identifying secure data sharing. The ... ... ... ...
following section represents our model and main concepts. In An1 An2 . . . Anm Sn

III. C ONCEPTS AND THE P ROPOSED M ODEL Where Aij {0, 1}, Si {S1 , S2 , . . . , Sx }.
Next, the main output is a decision tree DT, which
We present our proposed model, SEB-SIC, which aims will be used for identifying the risk level of data sharing.
to identify the potential risks of sharing data by using There are many well developed approaches for generating
supervised learning techniques. We select decision tree a decision tree, such as ID3 and C4.5 algorithms [57].
as the main technique for identifying the possible threats
because of its wide adoptability in predictions. This section B. Model Description
represents the dened main problem that we aim to solve We represent the main manipulative processes in our
as well as the explanations of the proposed model. proposed model. Fig. 2 illustrates the manipulative process
workow structure of SEB-SIC model. A training set is
A. Problem Formulation required for the purpose of the assessment, which is set on
Our model is designed to solve the data sharing security the cloud server. The generation of the training set can be
problem that usually take place in the normal data exchanges processed by using Monte Carlo simulation [58]. The cloud
without awarenesses. For instance, sharing users birthday vendors will regularly update the decision tree to involve
information individually will not affect privacy. However, continuous merging risks. As shown in the gure, there are
sharing users birthday information along with users infor- three main required phases before the decision tree is gen-
mation will be considered privacy leakage. Therefore, for erated. They are Information Classication Congurations,
protecting privacy, data sharing should concern not only Preprocess, and Attributes Extractions:

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Fig. 2: Manipulative process workow structure of Supervised lEarning-Based Secure Information Classication (SEB-SIC)
model with main operational components.

Information Classication Congurations: At this Algorithm IV.1 Decision Tree-based Risk Prediction
phase, nancial rms need to dene the informa- (DTRP) Algorithm
tion classications, which may include condential, Require: T, A, S, I, T
restricted, ofcial, or normal data, as shown in the Ensure: SF inal
gure. 1: Input T, A, S, I
Preprocess: A few tasks need to be done at this phase. 2: if T then
Data sharing purposes need to be identied in order 3: Output
to clarify a few facts: between which organizations the 4: else if all variables in T refer to the same output
data will be shared, why the data need to be shared, information classication type Si then
what the relevant laws and regulations are, and what 5: Return a single node with the classication type
relationships are between the involved stakeholders. 6: end if
Attributes Extractions: Leverage privacy-oriented 7: if attributes A1 , A2 , . . . , Am then
searching method to list all sensitive data and their 8: for each Ai do
related data. Based on the history data usage, extract 9: Compute the InfoGain [57]
attribute entities from both secure and insecure 10: Select the maximum value of the InfoGain and
operations. choose this attribute as the root
Once these phases are accomplished by the nancial 11: end for
rms, a decision tree can be created by using the out- 12: Dividing T to generate new training sets
comes of the phases above. By cognizing the output state 13: end if
label, nancial companies can make rm decisions with 14: Repeat the process until the decision tree DT is created
the awarenesses of data sharings possible consequences. 15: Input T
The following section gives descriptions about the main 16: for all attributes in T do
algorithm used in our model. 17: if The values of all attributes in T have a match from
DT then
IV. A LGORITHMS
18: Return the corresponding SF inal
The purpose of DTRP algorithm is to produce a decision 19: else if There is no match then
tree that can be used to referee whether the data sharing 20: Return
combinations can be harmful for nancial enterprises or 21: end if
their customers. Since the generation of the decision tree is 22: end for
a well developed eld, our model can be achieved by many 23: Output SF inal
existing decision tree algorithms. The algorithm proposed
in this paper derive from ID3 algorithm, which shows the
main idea of the risk prediction methods. 3) Input the objective set. Search and determine whether
The inputs of our algorithm include the training set T and the objective sets attributes have a match in DT.
the objective set T . The output is the labels corresponding 4) Output the information classication label SF inal if
with the information classications. The pseudo codes of there is a match. Otherwise, output an empty set.
DTRP algorithm is given in Algorithm IV.1.
The main phases of our algorithm include: V. E XPERIMENT AND D ISCUSSIONS
1) Input the training set T as well as instances I, attributes We assessed our proposed scheme by simulations. The
A, and classication labels S main objective of the experimental evaluations was ex-
2) Generate decision tree DT by using the training set. amining the accuracy performance. A virtual training set

200
was generated to produce a decision tree. The target set 1) Generate an optimized decision tree generation algo-
was made, which consisted of the same attributes in the rithm that requires shorter computation time.
training set. Two assessment means were selected, including 2) The training set updates will be addressed in the
Precision and Recall. future work, by which an optimized mechanism for
establishing cyber incident data repository.
3) Efciency-aware approaches bridging up security man-
agers and cloud-based data sharing side will be ex-
plored, too. Our future work will improve this issue
from the perspective of cloud resource management.

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