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STRENGTHENING GOVERNANCE

PROGRAMMING THROUGH
TACKLING VIOLENCE AGAINST
WOMEN AND GIRLS
LEARNING FROM OXFAMS RAISING HER
VOICE PROGRAMME

Introduction anecdotal evidence that in a limited number


of cases, GBV against women was triggered
I believe that men and women are or exacerbated by the programme. The
created equal and therefore should be report goes on to recommend integrating
treated equally in all matters. The time is strategies to manage the potential
past when women couldnt raise their repercussions of challenging and changing
traditional gender roles.
voice against violence. Through
seminars, discussion and raising The rich RHV experience documented here,
awareness, by working with the media, I reflecting many years of work by womens
want to help local women influence local movements, Oxfam staff, activists and allies,
decision makers. Being a woman leader provides valuable guidance for governance
has helped me accomplish my goals and and active citizenship programming across
I will continue the struggle, with or the Oxfam confederation and for other
without a platform. organizations working in similar areas.
Razia Sultana, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, one of
50 Women Leader Group members A wealth of examples from 45 RHV partners
supported by RHV partner, Aurat and 450 coalition member organizations
Foundation highlights the critical relationship between
womens political leadership, participation
We start on a positive note, hearing one and VAWG/ GBV. Practical strategies from
womans passion in speaking out against our partners for tackling VAWG/GBV
violence against women and girls (VAWG1). through work directly linked to womens
Razia is one of the thousands who, with political leadership and participation are
Raising Her Voices (RHV) support,2 has shared throughout, demonstrating the
increased her confidence and leadership recognition of VAWG/GBV as both a barrier
skills to inspire others to take action, and to engaging in this work and often a tragic
support each other in speaking out against a consequence of womens political
culture of VAWG at all levels of society. participation.

Integrating approaches to address The examples seek to prove beyond all


VAWG/Gender-based Violence (GBV) is not doubt that tackling VAWG/GBV is non-
only essential in good governance negotiable, not just in RHV but all
programming, but in all of Oxfams work. programme thinking, by examining what has
One of the lessons noted in a synthesis of changed for women and girls facing violence
40 evaluations of Oxfam GBS Sustainable in the 17 RHV countries and how RHV is
Livelihoods programmes3 was evidence of changing that.
unintended negative impacts on women
resulting from a failure to implement In Bolivia for example, RHV partners and
effective strategies for identifying and Oxfam, as part of a wider womens
managing the potential repercussions of movement, have lobbied successfully for a
challenging existing gender relationsand Political Violence Law, which explicitly seeks
to protect women candidates from the threat
1
and reality of political violence. In Nepal, 90 and the prosecution rate is negligible. A
per cent of RHV participants in a 2012 culture of silence prevailed until the
control group study reported being actively concerted intervention of civil society
involved in efforts to check and stop organizations, government agencies and
violence compared to 0 per cent from social institutions under various platforms. 6
villages not involved in RHV. Amongst the many barriers to development
Furthermore, the analysis offers guidance that such violence creates, it severely limits
on how to integrate work addressing womens ability to participate in public and
VAWG/GBV into all programmes and political life. Women who live with violence
campaigns, by explicitly recognizing and or the threat of violence are unlikely to
tackling the barrier that it represents to have the confidence or self-esteem needed
womens participation and leadership across to participate politically, let alone the
all of Oxfams work whether working mobility, time and resources required. It is
through the lens of resilience, sustainable one of the reasons that in many countries
livelihoods, or humanitarian protection and women are largely absent from public life,
assistance. and poorly represented in leadership and
public decision-making. Worldwide, women
In the words of a local woman leader hold just 19 per cent of the worlds
engaged in RHV in Pakistan, Restoring one parliamentary seats,7 and make up only 16
right helps to protect other connected rights of its 188 directly elected leaders.8
... thus womens right to identity ensures
their subsequent access to justice, health When womens consciousness and
care, education and right to vote. confidence is raised and they do decide to
move beyond the confines of the home to
Gender-based Violence and participate in more public spaces, this often
Womens Participation and creates tension within the household and
Leadership: The Facts beyond, as their aspirations threaten the
established order of power relations, and
Seeking to understand what is responsible this can expose them to the risk of further
for Razias transformational change, and violence. In the 2008 elections in Nepal, for
thousands like hers, we will briefly revisit the example, 26 per cent of female political
current landscape of violence to remind candidates faced violence.9
ourselves of its pervasiveness and the need
Women who succeed in the public sphere,
for this kind of work. VAWG/GBV is
and those advocating for political freedoms
responsible for more deaths and injuries in
(including their male allies), may also be
the world of women aged between 15 and
subject to intimidation and violence as a
44 than cancer, malaria, traffic accidents
result of their activity. This escalates at
and war combined.4 This violence
times of political instability when existing
experienced by one in three women and
protection mechanisms can quickly
girls worldwide and often for sustained
disappear. Women activists challenging the
periods can take the form of beatings,
2009 coup dtat in Honduras faced
sexual assault, rape, mutilation, physical
institutionalized state repression and
and emotional torture, slavery and murder. It
violence. The women and men who defend
is a global phenomenon, a shared shame: in
and support the lodging of complaints and
the UK, on average two women every week
calls for justice for Honduras horrifically high
are killed by a current or former partner.5
rates of femicide10 are at immense risk of
In countries where justice systems function violence themselves.
poorly and the police are seen as more of a In Pakistan, RHV partners tell us that it is
threat than a protection, violence against
partly the increasing risk (both real and
women and girls is committed with impunity.
perceived) of violence facing women in
politics that leads men to restrain their wives
RHV partners in Nigeria tell us the police
from engaging politically.
regard domestic violence as a private or
family matter, police stations are places In 2005, Zubaida Begum, a local councillor
where women are likely to get raped again, working with the AURAT Foundations
2
programme of community action committees
alongside the RHV project, was killed for her How Has Change Happened?
activism. Defying the decree of local tribal
leades forbidding women to vote in local The experience of RHV in 17 hugely varied
elections, Zubaida submitted her nomination country contexts reminds us that barriers to
papers and was elected unopposed, womens participation and leadership have
becoming the first-ever woman politican much in common all around the world: as
from the most conservative area of the most well as being structural forms of exclusion,
conservative province in Pakistan. When they are deeply rooted, constantly evolving
local government elections for 2005 were and cannot be effectively overcome without
announced, both women and men a similarly well thought through, long-term,
encouraged her candidature due to her agile response.
leadership to improve local services.
Zubaida again ignored the warning from The RHV programme recognizes the
angry tribal elders and she and her 19-year- complexity of the barriers that women must
old-daughter were gunned down at home overcome in their personal, social and
days before the election. political spheres, and the necessary
interconnectedness of the pathways for
At national level, including within political change. Partners have found the simple
parties, discriminatory norms and practices model of the RHV Theory of Change (TOC)
persist in their exclusion of women from extremely helpful in thinking through more
resources, spaces for training and holistic, strategic and, ultimately, more
education, and the discriminatory ways in effective programming and partnerships.
which party policies are implemented. Many
women have neither the power, money, In the personal sphere, a womans personal
connections nor networks to even enter the capacity and confidence have a strong
electoral race. At local level violence is influence on her ability to act and be heard
exercised ... to either keep women confined in the other spheres. In the social sphere,
in private spaces or, if they are able to take the norms and attitudes promoted and
up public roles, define and constrain those upheld by cultural institutions and the media,
roles (to those lacking power and influence). and the platforms
for action offered by womens groups and
This impedes any substantial progress for other civil society organizations, determine
women who, particularly for those who are the extent to which womens voices can be
poor, rural and indigenous, have to struggle heard. And in the political sphere, this will be
against multiple forms of discrimination and determined by legal frameworks, public and
violence not only in the home but in the traditional decision-making structures and
public arena. In a world where men processes, and access to leaders who can
command and women obey, many women represent the concerns and needs of
rarely dare to participate in political issues. marginalized women.
Maritza Gallardo, Raising Her Voice
Coordinator, Honduras

3
RHV Theory of Change Model

The important thing is that the work in each The RHV global mid-term evaluation12
area and at each level reinforces the (MTE) found that country projects that
others: this is when transformative change, were working across all three spheres had
like shifts in the balance of power, can the greatest impact on womens
begin to happen. Eliminating violence meaningful participation and leadership.
requires transformations of power in Similarly, working in all three spheres is
institutions at all levels, from the family to essential for tackling GBV/VAWG. The
the state, which challenge the universal MTE evaluators noted A lesson for all
culture of gender discrimination, patriarchy gender and governance programmes is to
and impunity. It requires transformations in make sure that good balance is achieved
the individual and collective beliefs that across the different spheres. For
condone the social acceptability of example, the RHV project in Uganda
VAWG/GBV and in the institutions with a realized that successfully influencing
duty to protect citizens from violence whose legislation at the national level would make
structures and policies perpetuate it.11 little difference to womens lives if the
project did not also engage with
As a result, RHV supports work in all three grassroots women and support them to
spheres, strengthening womens capacity use that legislation to claim their rights. It
and confidence in the personal sphere, is now piloting in-depth capacity building
and supporting their capacity to act with 90 activists in three targeted
effectively in social and political spheres, communities in Mityana, Apc and Luuka
thereby helping to make governments more Districts.
representative and accountable.
Since the MTE, many projects have used
the analysis to adapt and refine their
programming, to redress the balance of
work in the personal, social and political
spheres. In Mozambique, where there has
been a strong (and singular strategic)
focus on public-awareness raising around
the 2009 Domestic Violence Law, they
have developed an innovative way to audit
progress of the four ministries responsible
for the Laws implementation. Using
scorecard findings they compare ministry
performance and hold them to account on
Women demonstrating in Kampala, Uganda, for Domestic
Violence legislation which passed into law in December 2010 commitments they have made. This shows
4
a shift from working exclusively in the
social sphere to connecting this to I was speaking very little before. Now I
programming in the political sphere. RHV can express my thoughts and speak out in
partners in South Africa, Nepal, Pakistan, public. I have my own vision and can
Honduras, Armenia and Guatemala have initiate something on my own.
all shifted to a deliberate new engagement Project participant, Armenia
with political parties. Similarly, many RHV
projects strengthened their work at the In the personal sphere, alongside RHVs
personal level. For example, in Honduras, work to build womens awareness of their
Bolivia, Nepal and Indonesia, partners rights, confidence and self-esteem, and
facilitated focussed reflection and analysis their understanding of how to influence
of intra-family power dynamics, and policy processes, networking and
divisions of household roles and lobbying, there is also a need to provide a
expenditure as a powerful mechanism for network of support for women who have
exploring barriers, including feared or real experienced VAWG/GBV.
violence.13
RHV Strategies in the personal
Part of the added-value that RHV brings is sphere to address VAWG/GBV as a
to facilitate linkages between these barrier to increasing political
different levels: supporting grassroots and
participation and leadership
national coalitions and movements, and
developing alliances to bring womens
include:
collective voice to international debate and
1. Creating safe and supportive social
policymaking.
spaces for women to collectively
analyse their experiences of violence,
Central to this is the need for context-
build their confidence to reject the
specific analysis of the centres of power
notion of it as normal and socially
that act as barriers to womens political
acceptable, and to challenge the
participation and leadership and our
attitudes and values which condone
understanding of the interplay between
and sustain it.
them.

Violence impedes any substantial


progress for women who, particularly for
those who are poor, rural and indigenous,
have to struggle against multiple forms of
discrimination and violence not only in the
home but in the public arena.
Maritza Gallardo, RHV Honduras

Given the interconnectedness of womens


political participation/leadership and
Community Discussion Class, Nepal
VAWG/GBV, our work on governance can
only be truly effective if it seeks to address
both areas of work in a holistic way. In Nepal, community discussion
classes (CDCs) have enabled women
to explore and challenge the cultural
Raising Her Voice in the acceptability of VAWG/GBV and have
PERSONAL sphere: Identity, begun to gain the support of their
skills and confidence, knowledge families and local men. An evaluation
of rights showed that 40 per cent of participants
have become actively engaged in work
RHV experience tells us that personal to end domestic violence. In the three
change is at the heart of any year project period CDC members
transformation in the social and political from 81 villages solved 448 cases of
spheres. VAWG and referred a further 106 to
5
the police, courts, village development Raising Her Voice in the SOCIAL
committees and other bodies. sphere: Women organizing
together, working with the media,
2. Building womens individual capacity to opinion leaders and vested
play a role in influencing policy on
VAWG/GBV. interests
In the social sphere, RHV is helping to
After training in advocacy and lobbying create a supportive environment for women
skills by RHV partners in The Gambia, to challenge gender stereotypes and social
grassroots women leaders, with a norms that condone VAWG/GBV by
number of men (as strategic allies), working with civil society organizations,
formed grassroots pressure groups to particularly womens organizations, at local,
ensure the implementation of the district and national levels to raise public
African Womens Rights Protocol. One awareness around the rights of women to
of the issues that the group has agreed live lives free from violence.
is a series of actions in the event of a
VAWG/GBV has proven to be an effective
girl or woman being raped; these
rallying calling for womens organizations
include discussing with the mother and and civil society organizations enabling
daughter to confirm who is them to find their collective voice and put
responsible, report and obtain a aside tribal, party political, religious and
medical report, report this to the socio-economic differences.
Village Chief and, in the event of him
not taking action, inform the local RHV Strategies in the social sphere
administration and then the police. to address VAWG/GBV as a barrier
to increasing political participation
3. Scoping at the outset of all programme and leadership include:
planning to identify support networks
and services for survivors of violence. 1. Strengthening womens collective
voice: RHV projects have formed
In Mozambique, RHV partners have strategic alliances with womens
lobbied for separate spaces in police organizations with experience of
waiting rooms for women reporting tackling VAWG/GBV. Learning from
violent crimes. Without this kind of each other, RHV projects have
personal support, women threatened deepened their understanding of
by or experiencing violence may be unequal gendered power relations as
reluctant or unable to engage with the root cause of VAWG/GBV, whilst
womens organizations with
initiatives such as RHV.
experience in working on VAWG/GBV
4. Drawing on existing guidelines to build have developed political agendas and
into programme planning and advocacy plans articulating the
monitoring and evaluation framework demands of women for protection from
strategies to protect those working on violence.
or engaging with processes to
overcome VAWG/GBV. In Pakistan, RHV partners set up 30
district level women leader groups to
AWID have developed guidance on bring together women elected
supporting and protecting Women representatives and increase their
Human Rights Defenders and there influence, dialogue and relationships
are guidelines for conducting research with key stakeholders in government
on violence against women, including and civil society. In each group, 50
ethical considerations and minimizing women who are representatives of
harm to respondents and research different political parties, community
staff. 14 and civil society organizations came

6
together for the first time on one 3. Raising public awareness to increase
platform, developed mutual trust and understanding of the rights of women
strengthened the collective voice of to violence-free lives. Working with the
local women. The women leaders think media and using drama have been
alike on many womens rights issues innovative RHV strategies.
despite different ideological and party
political backgrounds, and have In Nigeria, RHV organized a mock
worked together to resolve local tribunal, where women spoke publicly
problems, such as violations of about their real experiences of
womens employment rights and cases violence. Although some victims used
of domestic violence. an alias and requested not to be video-
recorded, about 90 per cent of the
women confidently and openly
testified. This exposed the devastating
consequences of violence against
women. Rosemary shared her story:
Violence against women is real. As an
acid bath survivor, I testify to that. It is
not just the physical abuse but also the
psychological trauma I go through
whenever I realize I have to face
society wearing this face. With the
support I have been receiving from
Women leaders demanding their rights on 100th
International Womens Day rally, Islamabad [RHV partner] WRAPA, I am finding it
easier to cope. The tribunal
It is said that one and one is eleven, highlighted the failure of the formal
alone, one person is only one, but, when justice system and increased public
another person joins, they gain the power and political support for the passage of
of eleven. the Violence Against Persons
Razia Mudasser, Women Leader Group, Prohibited Bill.
Attock, Pakistan
4. Raising awareness and engagement
2. Strengthening the advocacy capacity with those in positions of influence,
of RHV projects and partners for anti- including men, religious and traditional
VAWG/GBV policy change. institutions, and political parties on the
issue of VAWG/GBV, and working to
In Honduras, a national coalition, La challenge men on the division of labour
Tribuna de Mujeres contra los with women in order to free women up
Femicidios,15 has brought together for greater political participation and
eight organizations and networks to leadership.
develop a national campaign against
the murder of women. The campaign is In Nigeria, following training given to
raising awareness of VAWG/GBV and grassroots women leaders to increase
demanding that public authorities their understanding of womens rights,
make a strong commitment to reducing VAWG/GBV and skills in negotiation
impunity. Already, the number of and advocacy for womens inclusion, a
women reporting incidences of group of Hausa women in Kano State
violence is increasing at municipal drafted plans to curtail VAWG in
level, as women become more collaboration with religious and
confident that they will be taken traditional leaders and succeeded in
seriously. voicing their opinions and initiating a
debate on marital rape.

7
The African Women Protocol is actually power dynamics in their private lives.
strengthening our good culture that is Equally critical is enabling civil society
gradually fading away in the heart of organizations to act collectively and
modernization. Its provisions are not totally effectively on VAWG/GBV in the political
strange to our cultures; it is part of our sphere in order to be able to hold
forgotten cultures overtaken by ages. institutions to account on their duty to
Chief Ibiang Enang, traditional ruler from protect women from violence.
Nko community
RHV has played an important role in
5. Using power analysis to inform the fostering links between strong grassroots
creation of strategic and catalytic legal organizations and national partners and
and political spaces: developing coalitions. These alliances, when well
political agendas; influencing planning balanced, can reinforce both the personal
and budgeting; and networking with and collective power of women.
and supporting progressive allies in
government. Raising Her Voice in the
POLITICAL sphere: laws, and
6. Developing leadership models that local and traditional government
bridge the gap between community-
level mobilizing and national-level structures
influencing and lobbying.
In the political sphere, RHV aims to get
the voices of marginalized women heard
The Pakistan model, working with by: supporting government institutions to
1,500 local and district government engage with women; opening up spaces
representatives, is a good example of for active dialogue; strengthening or
this approach. Razia Mudasser is drafting new laws and policies, and
committed to changing perceptions advocating for their passage; and
and raising awareness about womens supporting women to participate formally
role. She claims that women leader and safely as voters, elected
groups have sparked a sense of representatives and candidates.
accomplishment; women leaders
collectively counter incidences of RHV Strategies in the political
violence or injustice against women. sphere to address VAWG/GBV as a
With Razias help, the mother of 17- barrier to increasing political
year old Khalida (killed by family participation and leadership
members after refusing a forced include:
marriage to an elderly man) took the
1. Advocacy to strengthen anti-
case to the police and the courts, VAWG/GBV legislation (with domestic
confronting the traditional decision violence laws often as a starting point)
making body, the Panchayat. Winning including: working with progressive
their case in spite of strong opposition members of parliament to produce
and harassment led to a landmark drafts; lobbying parliamentarians; and
ruling and a written commitment from opening up spaces for debate at the
the Panchayat to end so called honour highest levels.
killings. Since then no incidence has
taken place in Bahadur Khan in Tehsil, In Nigeria, RHV coordinates the
Hazro, Attock Distict, north west of campaign of the Legislative Advocacy
Islamabad. Coalition on Violence Against Women
(LACVAW), which calls for legislation
Being part of such initiatives in the social to prohibit VAWG in private and public
domain can give individual women spaces and to provide redress for
experiencing violence the confidence, violations and discrimination. An
capacity and supportive social innovation was the engagement of a
environment to challenge the unequal Legislative Technical Expert (a former
8
MP) to use her political contacts and programme interventions and collaboration
strategic influence to facilitate the can increase the risk of VAWG/GBV, and
reintroduction of the Violence Against how we have a duty of care to minimize
Persons Prohibition Bill. these risks and provide protection.

2. Campaign for an end to political RHV projects have been strongest


violence against women and girls and in addressing VAWG/GBV where:
ensure perpetrators of violence are
brought to justice.16 1. The TOC and programme design
explicitly analysed the barrier that
3. Ensure perpetrators of violence are VAWG/GBV presents for womens
brought to justice by sensitizing and leadership and participation, in order to
training law enforcement officers and inform strategies for interconnected
the judiciary, and holding them to action in the personal, social and
account by monitoring the investigation political spheres.
and prosecution of VAWG/GBV cases. 2. From the outset there are resources
and strategies to minimize risks and
4. Support progressive women to stand protect activists, staff and allies.
for political office and help them
develop feminist political agendas, 3. There is country specific power-
which tackle VAWG/GBV; this includes mapping for effective alliance-building
protection for women in elected and analysis to develop effective
positions of power or those seeking strategies to influence change. This can
office. be explicit about the mutual benefits of
working together for RHV partners and
Summarizing Raising Her Voices womens organizations already working
learning about strengthening to end VAWG/GBV, and the value of
governance programming safety in numbers especially in fragile
and conflict settings.
through addressing VAWG/GBV
4. RHV projects have built indicators on
The numerous examples in this paper
VAWG/GBV into their monitoring and
show how governance programmes are
evaluation frameworks, and allocated
strengthened by explicit work to
resources for focussed reflection and
address VAWG/GBV.
analysis.
It has been a moment to pay tribute to the RHV experience clearly demonstrates that
courageous work of so many in the face of transformative change takes time. The
so much, and to pull together some of the barriers to womens participation and
ingredients for effective governance leadership are deeply rooted and require
/VAWG/GBV planning. We must not fail to holistic, long-term, yet agile, responses.
remind ourselves of the shared RHV recognizes their complexity and the
phenomenon that is VAWG/GBV; it knows necessary interconnectedness of the
no cultural, geographical or political strategies for change to overcome them.
boundaries, and affects one in three girls
and women worldwide. Integrating a multilevel, interweaving
programme approach and alliance building
As a result, its consequences are felt in can be challenging. However, RHVs work
all aspects of daily life, not only as a has shown that it is possible and a lot can
barrier to womens political be achieved with relatively small resources.
participation and leadership, and as RHV country budgets averaged 120,000
such NGOs and civil society per annum (at one end of the scale, The
organizations have a responsibility to Gambia programme, for example,
integrate thinking about effective averaged 35,000 per annum) and yet the
strategies to address VAWG/GB into all transformative and catalytic nature of the
areas of their work. This includes the work, particularly around strengthening
imperative to explicitly assess how womens collective voice, has produced
9
concrete results and represents real value
for money essential as NGO budgets context-dependent, VAWG/GBV will be used
become increasingly constrained by global throughout the paper
2
recession. Raising Her Voice (RHV) is a five year DFID-
funded Governance and Transparency
Furthermore, natural disasters or political Programme. See
instability can and do rapidly reverse http://raisinghervoice.ning.com/ for more about
the gains of input focussed development the 17 country projects, videos, resources and
blogs. Please note that RHV (and hence the
programmes. Conversely, investment in
analysis of its relationship to VAWG/GBV) only
developing personal, social and political considers certain forms of womens political
agency is more enduring; little can take participation and not its full gamut.
away the confidence, knowledge and 3
R. Nelems and R. Lee, Independent
passion that grassroots activists and Consultants (2009) Evaluation Synthesis:
national advocates gain from working Outcomes and lessons learned from Oxfam
together to stand up for their rights and to GB's livelihoods programme evaluations 2006-
say no to violence. 2008, Oxford: Oxfam,
http://policy-
Being serious about meaningful support practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/evaluation-
for women to raise their voices means synthesis-outcomes-and-lessons-learned-from-
explicitly addressing the violence that so oxfam-gbs-livelihoods-pr-119471
4
many face in their daily lives. Facts and Figures on VAW,
http://www.unifem.org.gender_issues/violence_
If we are serious about contributing to against_women/facts_figures.html
5
robust, sustainable and deeply rooted Womens Aid,
http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic_violenc
social movements for change, we must not
e_topic.asp?section=0001000100220041&secti
ignore VWG/GBV anywhere in our work. onTitle=Domestic+violence+%28general%29
6
Based on interviews with Hadeezah Haruna-
This paper has been developed by Jacky Usie (RHV Nigeria), Marittza Gallardo (RHV
Repila (RHV Learning and Honduras) and Emily Brown (RHV Global
Communications) on the basis of a more Coordinator).
7
detailed paper by Fiona Gell (Consultant in UNIFEM (2010) Gender Justice: Key to
Gender and Social Development), which achieving the Millennium Development Goals,
drew on contributions from Emily Brown http://www.unifem.org/materials/item_detail6f2e
(RHV Global Coordinator), Maritza .html?ProductID=192
8
Statistics about women for International
Gallardo (RHV Honduras), Hadeezah
Womens day,
Haruna-Usie (RHV Nigeria), Ines Smyth http://colailibrary.edublogs.org/2012/03/08/statis
(Senior Gender Adviser), Jo Rowlands tics-about-women-for-international-womens-
(Senior Governance Adviser) and day/
9
Adrienne Hopkins (former OGB International Institute for Democracy and
Programme Learning Officer). Electoral Assistance, 2008,
http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/nepal/index.cfm
10
Estimated one every 18 hours.
NOTES 11
OI Global Program on Ending
VAWG/GBV/VAW
1
This discussion paper focuses on the violence http://blogs.oxfam.org/en/blogs/12-12-12-ending-
faced by women and girls on account of being violence-against-women-guide-oxfam-staff
12
women rather than other parts of their gender Lessons from the Mid-Term Evaluation of
identity, such as their sexual identity. Its Raising Her Voice,
important to acknowledge here both the limits of http://raisinghervoice.ning.com/
13 th
the paper and the importance of other work Raising Her Voice Annual Report, 29 June
around violence against other vulnerable 2012, http://raisinghervoice.ning.com/
14
groups, including the gay, bi- and transsexual AWID (2012), Ten insights to strengthen
communities, as well as against boys and men. responses for women human rights defenders
Gender-based violence (GBV) encompasses all at risk, http://www.awid.org/Media/Files/WHRD-
physical, sexual and psychological violence that Ten-Insights-ENG.pdf
15
is rooted in individuals gender roles and http://www.contralosfemicidios.hn/quienes-
identities. The most common and pervasive somos/tribuna-de-mujeres
16
form is Violence against Women and Girls For example, the Campaign against Femicide
(VAWG). Since the use of these terms is in Honduras.
10