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You are on page 1of 12

(EET3132)

Sl. No. Name Registration No. Signature

1. Rishav Chakraborty 1441014131

Lab Partners

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

AFD (EET3132) 2

Design a practical audio amplifier with a gain K N = 500 in the frequency range

f f [ 3 dB ] =30 KHz . The circuit should be very inexpensive and should use LM741 ICs.

a. Use the circuit shown in Fig. 1. Derive the expression for the transfer function.

Find the values of R1and R2 for achieving the required gain.

the frequency response.

a. Calculations

i. Derive the expression for the transfer function.

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132) 3

Ans.Let the current I1 flows through R1 from the source voltage V1 which is equals to

the summation of Iin that is the current due to virtual ground concept and the IR 2 ,

where Iin=0.

Thus I1 = IR2

V V 2

R2

V

V 1 =

R1

V V 2

R2 R2

V

=

R1

V1

R1

G2V 2 G2

G 1=V

V 1 G1V

G

( 1+G 2)=V 1 G 1 +V 2 G 2

V

G

( 1+G 2)(1)

V G +V G

= 1 1 2 2

V

Both the Opamps we have choosen are identical ones.

Thus V2 = (A- x A2)V-

V2 = -A2V- --------------------------- (2)

Now substituting V- from equation (1) in (2) we have:

V 1 G 1 +V 2 G 2

V 2=A

2

( G 1 +G 2 )

A 2 V 1 G 1 A 2 V 2 G 2

V 2= +

G 1 +G 2 G 1 +G 2

A 2 V 2 G 2 A 2 V 1 G 1

V 2+ =

G1 +G2 G1 +G2

V2 G 1

=

V1 G 1 +G 2

G2 + 2

A

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132) 4

1

V2 R1

=

V1 1 1

+

1 R1 R 2

+

R2 A2

V 2 R 2 1

(( ( ) ))

=

V1 R1 R2

+1

R1

1+

A2

R2

Assuming =K N

R1

We have:

V2 1

V1

=K N

(( 1+ ))

( K N +1 )

A2

( 3)

The above equation-3 represents the transfer function of the given system of

combination of opamps.

ii. Calculate the values of the parameters of the circuit shown in Fig. 1.

t

Ans. Integrator model A(s) =

s

1

V2

V 1 = -KN x 1 [

2 1+ K N

2

]

t

500

= 501

12 [ 2 ]

t

V2

V1

= when

1 2

[ ]501

t

2

=0

2

[ ]501

t 2

=1

ft

f= = 67kHz

501

Ans. R1 = 1k and R2 = 500 k.

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132) 5

b. Observations

i. Implement the circuit in Multisim.

ii. Perform an AC analysis of the Circuit.

iii. Paste the circuit and the results in this section.

Without Potentiometer

Result:

AC Analysis Without Potentiometer:

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132) 6

Frequency at which it occurs is 65.88kHz.

c. Suggested Improvements

i. Does the frequency response look alright?

Ans. No the frequency response does not look right since there is step in frequency

curve at 65kHz.

ii. Find the reason of the badly-behaved frequency response of this circuit.

Ans.This occurred because of these frequency specifications.

iii. Can this be avoided?

Ans. This error can be avoided only if we add a potentiometer in the feedback circuit in

relevance with the first opamp.

iv. Suggest the improvements for this circuit.

Ans. The improvements done in this circuit is using a 20 k potentiometer.

i. Implement the improved circuit in Multisim.

ii. Perform an AC analysis of the Circuit.

iii. Paste the circuit and the results in this section.

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132) 7

Result:

AC Analysis With Potentiometer:

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132) 8

e. Conclusion

1. Did the suggested improvement work? Why?

Ans.Yes, it worked. The overshoot is minimised.

signal expressed as a binary number to an analog value. Consider, for example, the

following 4 bit binary weighted ladder DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) shown in Fig.

2. The binary inputs, ai (where i = 1, 2, 3 and 4) have values of either 0 or 1. The value,

0, represents an open switch while 1 represents a closed switch. :

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132) 9

a. Show that the output voltage, given by

V ref Rf a1 a 2 a3 a4

V out = ( R )( + + +

2 4 8 16 )

b. Implement the circuit in MultiSim and compare the values of output voltages for all

16 combinations of a1, a2, a3 and a4.

a. Calculations

i. Derive the expression for the output voltage for the circuit shown in Fig. 2.

V out

similarily we have Iout =

Rf

1 1 1 1 V out

V ref ( + + +

2 R 4 R 8 R 16 R

=

Rf )

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132)

10

V ref 1 1 1 1

+( + +

R f 2 R 4 R 8 R 16 R

=V out )

V ref 1 1 1 1

V out = ( + + +

Rf 2 R 4 R 8 R 16 R )

(1)

The above equation 1 is only valid when all the switches i.e. a 1 , a2 , a3 and a4 are

connected.

V ref a 1 a2 a3 a4

V out = ( + + +

R f R 2 4 8 16 ) , which is the output voltage relationship equation

Ans. Assuming the given circuit we have assumed the feedback resistance i.e. R f =

1k and the other resistors are corresponding said to be 2 k , 4k , 8k , 16k.

Ans. The reference voltage chosen is +5 voltsVcc and Vee will be 12V , and the

resistors that is the feedback resistor Rf is taken to be 1 k and simultaneously the

other value of the input resistors are taken to be 2 k , 4k , 8k , 16 k .

b. Observations

i. Implement the circuit in Multisim.

ii. Paste the circuit and the results in this section.

Ans.

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132)

11

iii. Find the calculated and observed values of the output voltage and complete the

following table.

Sl. No. Digital Inputs Calculate Observed

a1 a2 a3 a4 d Vout (V) Vout (V)

1. 0 0 0 0 0 1.116 mV

2. 0 0 0 1 -312 mV -311.31 mV

3. 0 0 1 0 -625 mV -623.75 mV

4. 0 0 1 1 -937 mV -936.18 mV

5. 0 1 0 0 -1.25 V -1.249 V

6. 0 1 0 1 -1.562 V -1.561 V

7. 0 1 1 0 -1.875 V -1.873 V

8. 0 1 1 1 -2.187 V -2.186 V

9. 1 0 0 0 -2.5 V -2.498V

Lab.: 1

AFD (EET3132)

12

13. 1 1 0 0 -3.75 V -3.748 V

c. Conclusion

i. What are the limitations in this circuit?

Ans. The limitations of this binary weighted resistor summing circuit are:

Need large range of resistor values with high precision in low resistor

values

Need very small switch resistances

Op-amp may have trouble producing low currents at the low range of a

high precision DAC

ii. List some of the better DAC circuits and their relative merits.

Ans. Some of the better DAC circuits are:

Motor speed controller

Digital Motor Control

Computer Printers

Sound Equipment (e.g. CD/MP3 Players, etc.)

Digital Thermostat

The merits of these circuits are:

The settling time required for the voltage to settle within +/- the voltage

associated with the VLSB. Any change in the input time will not be reflected

immediately due to the lag time.

When the output voltage overshoots the desired analog output voltage , then the

overshoot occurs

Lab.: 1

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