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fluid mechanic (rewrite)

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Eka O. N.

KINDS OF MOTION

by

Eka Oktariyanto Nugroho

Basic Equation 1

Eka O. N.

In mathematical terms, the motion of the fluid elements along their own paths is considered as the

superposition of different kinds of primary motions. The physical interpretation of these motions is

given first by considering the simple case of a two-dimensional fluid element, where all velocities

are parallel to the OX axis and depend only on y (like a laminar flow between two parallel

planes). Consider the infinitesimal square element ABCD of area dx dy at time t and the same

element at time t dt : A1B1C1D1 (Fig. 1.1).

The velocity of A and D is u , and the velocity of B and C is u u u u y dy since

AB dy and u in this case is a function of y only.

It is possible to go from ABCD to A1B1C1D1 in three successive steps.

1. A translatory motion which gives A1B2C2D1; the speed of translation is u

2. A rotational motion which turns the diagonals A1C2 and D1B2 to A1C3 and D1B3, respectively

3. A deformation which displaces C3 to C1 and B3 to B1.

If in the limit dt tends to zero, C1C2 tends to zero. If this occurs the angle C2C1C3 will tend to 450

when dx dy . Hence

C 2 C3

C1C 2

u y dydt

2 2

The rate of angular rotation is:

, by using trigonometric rules

dt dt radius dt A1C2 dt 2dy

Introducing the value C2C3 previously given, it is found that the rate of angular rotation is:

dr 1 u

dt 2 y

Similarly, the rate of deformation would be found to be equal to:

C 3C1 1 u

t A1C 3 2 y

In the general case, there are three major constituents of particle motions and deformations. They

are:

1. The velocity components V u , v, w : translation

2. The variation of velocity components in their own direction: dilatation

3. The variation of velocity components with respect to a direction normal to their own direction:

rotation and angular deformation

Basic Equation 1

Eka O. N.

Consider the particle at the point A x, y , z at time t .The point is a corner of a small

rectangular element, the edges of which are parallel to the three axes OX , OY , OZ respectively

(Fig.1.2). When the particle moves so that the edges of the rectangular elements remain parallel to

these axes, and maintain a constant length, it is a translatory motion only. This implies no space

dependence of the velocity components. The translation can be along a straight line or a curved

line. If x, y, and z are the coordinates of A at time t , then x x , y y and z z are the

coordinates at time t t . The translatory motion is defined by the equations.

x ut dx udt

y vt or dy vdt

z wt dz wdt

The flow of particles along parallel and straight streamlines with a constant velocity (so-called

uniform flow) is a case of translatory motion only (Fig. 1.3). The translatory motion may be defined

more rigorously as the motion of the center of the rectangular element instead of the motion of the

corner of the element. However, this change complicates slightly the development of figures and

equations and gives, finally, the same result. Hence in the following discussion, translatory motion

will be defined as the motion of a corner. In the following, the physical meanings and the

corresponding mathematical expressions are studied in the case of a two-dimensional motion at

first, and then they are generalized for a three-dimensional motion.

1.3. DEFORMATION

It is easier to explain this kind of motion with the aid of an example. Two kinds of deformation have

to be distinguished: dilatational deformation and angular deformation.

Basic Equation 1

Eka O. N.

In a converging flow, the velocity has a tendency to increase along the paths of particles.

Therefore, the velocities of the edges perpendicular to vector V (or to the streamlines) are not the

same (Fig. 1.4). The particle becomes longer and thinner. It is a case of dilatational or linear

deformation superimposed on a translation only provided the angles between the edges do not

change.

Now consider the two-dimensional particle ABCD of which the velocity in the x direction of the

edge AB is u , and the velocity of the edge CD is u du u u x dx , since AD dx (Fig.

1.5). Similarly, the velocity of AD in the, y direction is v , and the velocity of BC is:

v dv v v y dy . Note that here the derivatives of u with y or v with x are not

considered and the derivatives of velocity u x dx and v y dy , do not depend upon

time. The velocities of dilatational deformations are u x dx and v y dy . After a time

dt and, BC becomes B'C', the length BB' being equal to the product of the change of velocity and

the time, that is, BB v y dydt . [The velocity v y dy is negative in the case of Fig.

1.5] CD becomes C'D' and similarly DD' is equal to: DD u x dxdt .

The velocities of dilatational deformation are per unit length:

u x dx u

v y dy

v

,

dx x dy y

The sum u x v y is the total rate of dilatational deformation, i.e., the rate of change of

area per unit area. Areas BCEB' and D'C'ED must be equal in the case of an incompressible fluid.

Their difference gives the rate of expansion or compression in the case of a compressible fluid.

Basic Equation 1

Eka O. N.

Angular deformation may be illustrated by the behavior of a fluid particle flowing without friction

around a bend. It is a matter of common observation that it is windier at a corner than it is in the

middle of a street. In the similar case of fluid flow around a bend, neglecting the effects of friction,

the velocity has a tendency to be greater on the inside than it is on the outside of the bend. The law

V x R = constant may be approximately applied where V is the velocity and R is the radius of

curvature of the paths. Hence, if the particle A is the corner of the rectangle ABCD, the edge AB of

the rectangle moves at a greater velocity than the edge CD and there is angular deformation (Fig.

1.6). This angular deformation is proportional to the difference of velocity between AB and CD. Now

considering, for example, the case presented in Fig. 1.7, in which the velocity of AB is u , and the

velocity of CD is u du u u y dy , then the distance CC' (or DD') after a time dt is

u y dydt .The angular velocity is

u y dy

u

dy y

Note that in contrast to the case of dilatational deformation. the derivatives of u with y ,and v

with x are retained here. The derivative of the velocity u y dy does not depend upon time.

Similarly BB' (or DD") is equal to v x dxdt . When these two deformations exist at the same

time, the sum of the angular velocities u y v x is the rare of angular deformation.

Note that u y was chosen equal to v x in Figure 1.7, and the bisectors of the angles

made by the edges of the square element tend to remain parallel to their initial positions during the

angular deformation. When the bisectors do not remain parallel to their initial positions, the motion

is said to be rotational.

Basic Equation 1

Eka O. N.

1.4. ROTATION

Although flow motions can be classified in various ways according to some of their typical

characteristics (such as laminar or turbulent, frictionless or viscous, with or without friction, steady,

or unsteady), one of the most important divisions in hydrodynamics consists of considering whether

a flow is rotational or irrotational. Hence, the abstract concept of irrotationality is fully developed in

the following sections.

For a two-dimensional motion, it has been shown that the angular velocities of deformation are

u y and v x . The rotation of a particle is proportional to the difference between these

components. Indeed, if u y v x , there is angular deformation without rotation and the

bisectors do not rotate (Fig. 1.7). But if u y v x , the bisectors change their direction,

and there is either both rotation and angular deformation, or rotation only (Fig. 1.8). The difference

u y v x defines the rate of rotation, and therefore, a two-dimensional irrotational motion

is defined mathematically by u y v x 0 . Angular deformation can be considered

without rotation when u y v x 0 and u y v x 0 , and theoretically, rotation

can exist without deformation when u y v x 0 and u y v x 0 . This case

is rare in practice, since rotation generally occurs with angular deformation in physical situations.

PARTICLE

Consider a fluid element ABCD at time t (Fig. 1.9). The velocity components u and v are functions

of x and y such that du u x dx u y dy and dv u x dx v y dy . At time

t the space coordinates of A are x , y and of D are x dx , y dy . The coordinates of A and D at time

t dt are qiven in Equation 1-1

Basic Equation 1

Eka O. N.

x udt

A'

y vdt

x dx u du dt

D ' (1.1)

y dy v dv dt

Or

u u

x dx udt dx dy dt

x y

D '

y dy vdt v dx v dy dt

x y

1 1

Adding and subtracting v x dydt to the x coordinate and u y dxdt to the y

2 2

coordinate leads to the form for the coordinates of D' expressed in Equation 1-2. The physical

meaning of the terms becomes apparent by reference to the previous paragraphs.

u 1 u v 1 v u

x dx udt dxdt dydt dydt

x 2 y x 2 x y

v 1 u v 1 v u

D' y

{ dy vdt

{ dydt dxdt dxdt (1-2)

y 2 y x

1 4 2 43 2 x y

1 4 2 43

Initial Translation

14 2 43

coordinates

Dilatational Rate of angular Rate of

or linear

deformation

deformation

1 4 44 2 4 4 43 rotation

1442443

Angular or shear deformation Rotation

Basic Equation 1

Eka O. N.

Similar to the two-dimensional case, the coordinates of a point D ' x dx, y dy, z dz of a

three-dimensional fluid element after a time dt become Equation 1-3.

u u u

x dx udt dx dy dz dt

x y z

v v v

y dy vdt dx dy dz dt (1-3)

x y z

w w w

z dz wdt dx dy dz dt

x y z

Adding and subtracting

1 v 1 w

dydt and dzdt to the first line

2 x 2 x

1 w 1 u

dzdt and dxdt to the second line

2 y 2 y

1 u 1 v

dxdt and dydt to the third line

2 z 2 z

Leads to equation 1-4

The following notations will be used: The coefficients of dilatational deformation will be defined as

u v w

a b c

x y z

u 1 v u 1 u w 1 u w 1 v y

x dx udt dxdt dy dz dz dy dt

x 2 x y 2 z x 2 z x 2 x y

v 1 w v 1 v u 1 v u 1 w v

y dy vdt dydt dz dx dx dz dt (1-4)

y 2 y z 2 x y 2 x y 2 y z

w 1 u w 1 w v 1 w v 1 u w

z dz wdt dzdt dx dy dy dx dt

z 2 z x 2 y z 2 y z 2 z x

The coefficients of shear deformation will be defined as

1 w v 1 u w 1 v u

f g h

2 y z 2 z x 2 x y

The coefficients of rotation will be defined as

1 w v 1 u w 1 v u

2 y z 2 z x 2 x y

The coordinates of the point D are now written as equation 1-5, in which 2 , 2 , and 2 are the

components of a vector which represents the vorticity of the fluid at a point. A three-dimensional

irrotational motion is defined by 0, 0, and 0 ; that is,

w v u w v u

, ,

y z z x x y

Basic Equation 1

Eka O. N.

y dy vdt bdydt fdz hdx dt dx dz dt

(1-5)

z dz {

{ wdt cdzdt

{ gdx fdy dt dy dx dt

Initial Translational Dilatational

1 44 2 4 43 1 44 2 4 43

coordinates deformation Angular Rotation

deformation

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