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# ENGR-627 Performance Evaluation of Constructed Facilities, Lecture # 4

Fall 2004

## Prof. Mesut Pervizpour

Office: KH #203
Ph: x4046

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

Soil Strength

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

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Soil Strength
Shear Strength of Soil (τ):
Internal resistance of soil / unit area.

## Theory of rupture for materials Æ failure under combined σ and τ

Æ any stress state that combined effect reaches the failure plane
Along the failure plane τf = f(σ)
Failure envelope is a curved line Æ approximated by linear relationship

## Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria:

τ
τf = c + σ tanφ Mohr’s failure
envelope
In terms of effective parameters: φ: internal friction angle
τf = c’ + σ’ tanφ’ Cohesion Mohr-Coulomb
failure criteria
c
σ

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

Soil Strength
Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear:
Failure Æ when shear stress on a plane reaches τf (line)
Æ determine inclination (θ) of failure plane with major & minor
principal plane
τ h
σ1

A B τf = c + σ tanφ
d
σ3 σ3 g
F
θ c
C f φ e 2θ b
D E
O σ3 a σ1 σ
σ1 σ1 > σ3

## fgh Æ failure plane s = c + σ tanφ σ1 = σ3 tan2(45+φ/2) + 2c tan(45+φ/2)

ab Æ major principal plane
ad Æ failure plane Æ θ to 2θ angled Similarly for effective parameters.
Angle bad = 2θ = 90 + φ Shear failure for saturated soils:
τf’ = c’ + σ’ tanφ’
Î θ = 45 + φ/2

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Soil Strength
Shear Strength Parameters in Laboratory:

## Unconfined Compression Test of Saturated Clay:

Æ A type of unconsolidated-undrained triaxial test
Æ For clayey samples (Cohesive)
Æ σ3 = 0 (confining pressure)
Æ Axial load (σ1) applied to fail the sample (relatively rapid)
Æ At failure σ3f = 0 and σ1f = major principal stress
Æ Therefore undrained shear strength is independent of confining pressure

τf = σ1 / 2 = qu / 2 = Cu or Su
σ1
τ
qu: unconfined compressive strength,
cu (Su): undrained shear strength
σ1
φ=0
Cu
or
Total stress Mohr’s
Su Circle at failure
σ3 σ1 = qu σ

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

Soil Strength
Direct Shear Test (stress or strain controlled):
Specimen is square or circular
Box splits horizontally in halves
Normal force is applied on top shear box
Shear forces is applied to move one half of the box relative to the other (to fail specimen)
Stress Controlled: Shear force applied in equal increments until failure
Failure plane is predetermined (horizontal)
Horizontal deformation & ∆H is measured under each load.
Strain Controlled: Constant rate of shear displacement
Restraining shear force is measured
Volume change (∆H)
(Advantage: gives ultimate & residual shear strength) Peak shear
strength
Normal force Dense Ultimate shear
Shear Stress

sand strength
plate τf τf
Loose
Porous sand Shear Displacement
Stone
Sample Expansion Dense
Shear τ sand
Force τ ∆H
Shear Displacement

## Shear Box Loose sand

Compression 6
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Soil Strength
Direct Shear Test (continued):

## Repeat Direct Shear under several normal stresses.

Plot the normal stress vs. shear stress values.

τf
τf = σ tan φ

## c = 0 for dry sand and σ = σ’

Dry sand
φ = tan-1(τf / σ)

φ
σ

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

Soil Strength
Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated Sand & Clay:
Test conducted on saturated sample at slow rate of loading Æ allowing excess pore water to
dissipate.
For sand (k is high Æ pwp dissipates quickly) Therefore φ under drained conditions ~ same
For clay (k is low Æ under load consolidation takes time, therefore load needs to be applied
very slow).

## Failure is not along the weakest plane

OC clay τf = c’ + σ’ tan φ’ (forced at horizontal plane)
Represents angle of friction between soil
and foundation material:
φ’ NC clay,
c=0
τf = σ’ tan φ’ τf = ca + σ’ tan δ
c’
φ’
δ: angle of friction between soil and
σ foundation material

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Soil Strength
Triaxial Shear Test:
Reliable method for determination of shear strength parameters.
Axial stress (deviator stress) is applied to cause failure (shear) by
cap
Three general types of triaxial test are:
σ3 σ3
1. Consolidated – drained test (CD)
2. Consolidated – undrained test (CU)
Porous
stone 3. Unconsolidated – undrained test (UU)
σ1

## σ3: confining pressure ∆σd

applied all around sample
(air/water/glycerine)
σ3

σ3 σ3

Porous
stone
σ3
σ = σ3 + ∆σd
∆σd 1

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

Soil Strength
Triaxial Shear Test: Consolidated-drained test:
Specimen is subjected to confining stress σ3 all around.
As a result the pwp of the sample increases by uc.
If the valve is opened at this point the uc will dissipate and sample will consolidate
(∆V decreases under σ3)
σ3
uc
B= Skempton’s pwp parameter (B~1.0 for saturated soils)
σ3 σ3 σ3

σ3
End of consolidation stage uc = 0.
∆σd
σ3 Application of deviator stress (∆σd):
For drained test ∆σd is increased slowly, while the drainage valve
σ3 σ3 is kept open, & any excess pwp generated by ∆σd is allowed to
ud = 0 dissipate.
(∆V can be measured by measuring amount outflow-water, since S=100%)
σ3
∆σd CD test Æ excess pwp completely dissipated Æ σ3 = σ3’

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Soil Strength
Triaxial Shear Test: Consolidated-drained test (Continued):
At failure (Axial stress) Æ σ1 = σ1’ = σ3 + (∆σd)f
σ1’ Æ major principal stress at failure
σ3’ Æ minor principal stress at failure
Conduct other triaxial (CD) tests under different σ3 (confining) pressure and obtain the
corresponding σ1’ at failure and plot the Mohr’s circle for each test. φ

σ1 anφ
τ σ’ t Total and
θ = 45 + φ / 2 τf = Effective Stress
Failure Envelope
σ3 σ3 B

for OC
clays A
σ1
φ1
c σ
2θ 2θ
O σ3 = σ3’ σ1 = σ1’

(∆σd)f
(∆σd)f
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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

Soil Strength
Triaxial Shear Test: Consolidated-undrained test (CU):
Consolidation of S=100% sample under σ3 (confining stress) & allow uc to dissipate.
Drainage valve is closed after complete consolidation (uc = 0)
Deviator stress (∆σd) is applied and increased to failure.
∆ud is developed (due to no drainage).
σ3

σ3 σ3

σ3
End of consolidation stage uc = 0 (and close valves).
∆σd
σ3 ∆ud
A= Skempton’s pwp parameter
σ3 σ3
∆σ d
∆ud ≠ 0
Loose sand & NC clay Æ ∆ud increases with strain
σ3 Dense sand & OC clay Æ ∆ud increases with strain up to a certain
∆σd point and drops & becomes negative
(due to dilatation of soil)

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Soil Strength
Triaxial Shear Test: Consolidated-undrained test (Continued):
Total and Effective principal stresses are not the same.
At failure measure (∆σd)f and (∆ud)f
Major principal stress at failure is obtained as:
Total: σ3 + (∆σd)f = σ1
Effective: σ1 - (∆ud)f = σ1’ Mohr’s Circle for CU Test:
Minor principal stress at failure is obtained as: φ’ Effective Stress
n
Total: σ3 ta Failure Envelope
σ’ φcu
Effective: σ3 - (∆ud)f = σ3’ τf
=
φ’ nφ c u
τ σ ta Total Stress
τf = Failure Envelope
Note:
σ1 - σ3 = σ1’ - σ3'

B
A
σ
O σ3’ σ3 σ1’ σ1
(∆ud)f (∆ud)f
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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

Soil Strength
Triaxial Shear Test: Consolidated-undrained test (Continued):

For OC Clay:
φcu

nφ c u
τ σ ta
τf =

for OC n φ 1cu
clays + σ ta
τ f = c cu
φ1cu
B
ccu A
σ
O σ3’ σ3 σ1’ σ1

## (∆ud ) f 0.5 Æ 1 for NC clay

A = Af = -0.5 Æ 0 for OC clay
(∆σ d ) f
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Soil Strength
Triaxial Shear Test: Unonsolidated-undrained test (UU):
Drainage in both stages is not allowed.
Therefore application of σ3 Æ uc = B σ3
And application of ∆σd Æ ∆ud = Ặ ∆σd
u = uc + ∆ud Æ u = B σ3 + Ặ ∆σd = B σ3 + Ặ (σ1 - σ3)
It can be seen that tests conducted with different σ3 results in the same (∆σd)f, resulting in

τ φ
Effective

φ = 0 Failure envelope

Cu
σ3 σ1
σ3’ σ3 σ1’ σ1 σ

## σ1’ = [σ3 + (∆σd)f] – (∆ud)f = σ1 - (∆ud)f

σ3’ = σ3 - (∆ud)f
Example: σ3 ↑ by ∆σ3 ⇒ ∆uc = ∆σ3
σ3’ = σ 3 + ∆σ3 - ∆uc = σ3 Æ (∆σd)f will be the same.
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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

Soil Strength

## Failure plane not predetermined

Field strength Æ function of rate of application of load and drainage
Granular soil Æ drained shear strength parameters
NC Clay Æ Under footing Æ Undrained conditions
Excavation in OC Clay Æ Drained case (more critical)
Control of stress states are possible in Triaxial test

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Soil Strength

## NC clay Æ undrained shear strength cu or Su increase with effective

overburden pressure

## Ladd for OC clas (1977) (cu/σ’)OC / (cu/σ’)NC = (OCR)0.8

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

## Due to Poisson’s effect Æ lateral flow (creep)

z
εx = µ εz 0.0 ≤ µ ≤ 0.5
h x
σv = γt h
K Æ Ratio of lateral to vertical stress: K = σh / σv
σh
Kf Æ Maximum strength failure line

K0 < 1 NC soils

## K0 > 1 Highly OC soils Æ OCR > 3

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## CD Æ Long-term Stability (earth embankments & cut slopes)

(slopes in earth dams after rapid drawdown)
UU Æ End of construction stability of saturated clays, load rapidly & no

## drainage (Bearing capacity on soft clays)

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Slope Stability

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Slope Stability

## Slope Stability: The engineering assessment

Of the stability of natural and man-made
Slopes as influenced by natural or induced
Changes to their environment.
Studied by analytical (closed-form) or
numerical (approximate) methods.
Both methods are simplification of actual
Geological, mechanical and other aspects.

## The stability of a slope depends on

its ability to sustain the effects of
changes.
Pre-failure analysis: to assess
safety of slope and its intended
performance.
Post-failure analysis: study of
failure and processes causing it.

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Slope Stability

## Slope Stability analysis (continued): Determination of shear stress developed on the

most likely rupture surface and comparing to shear strength of soil.
Likely rupture surface: is the critical surface with minimum factor of safety.

## Steepened Slope to Wall

To increase space

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Slope Stability

## • Mechanisms of movement ( kinematics – potential failure

modes)

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Landslide Components

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Landslide Components

## Varnes (1978), Morgenstern (1985)

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Rotational Slides

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Slope Stability
Components of Slopes
Facing
Crest

Toe
Slope angle
Foundation

Reinforcement

Reinforced
fill Retained
Fill

Foundation

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Slope Stability
Possible Failure Modes of Slopes

Local
failure

Slope
Surficial failure failure
Global failure

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Slope Stability
Typical Surfical Failure:
• Shallow failure surface up to 1.2 m (4ft)
• Failure mechanisms:
– Poor compaction
– Low overburden stress
– Loss of cohesion
– Saturation Original ground
Slip Surface
– Seepage forces surface

Slide Mass

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Slope Stability
Analytical Solutions – Limit Equilibrium:

## • Widely applied analytical technique, where force (or moment) equilibrium

conditions are determined based on statics.
• The analyses is based on material strength, rather than stress-strain
relationships.
• A “Factor of Safety”, is defined as a tool of evaluating the slope stability with
limit equilibrium approach.

## resisting forces shear strength of material

FS = =
driving forces shear stress required for equilibrium

Where FS > 1.0 represents a stable slope and FS < 1.0 stands for failure.
Required values:
Limit Equilibrium: FS = 1.0
Under Static Loads: FS ≥ 1.3 – 1.5
Under Seismic Loads: FS ≥ 1.1

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Slope Stability
Limit Equilibrium:
Overall measure of the amount by which the strength of the soil would have to fall short
of the values described by c and φ in order for the slope to fail.

## resisting forces shear strength of material

FS = =
driving forces shear stress required for equilibrium

c + σ tan φ τf
FS = =
τ eq τd

## τf : Average Shear strength of soil

τd : Shear stress developed on
potential surface

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Slope Stability
Limit Equilibrium (continued):

## • Slip mechanism results in slope failure

• Resisting forces required to equilibriate disturbing mechanisms are found
from static solution
• The shear resistance required for equilibrium is compared with available
shear strength in terms of Factor of Safety
•The mechanism corresponding to the lowest FS is found by iteration

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Slope Stability
Stability of Infinite Slopes without Seepage (Surficial slope stability):
Soil Shear Strength: τf = c’ + σ’ tanφ’ Forces:
Pore water pressure: u=0 Na = γ L H cosβ
Failing along AB at a depth H Ta = γ L H sinβ
Static equilibrium of forces on the block. σ‘ = γ L H cos β / (L/cosβ) = γ H cos2β
Assume F on ab and cd are equal. τ= γ L H sinβ / (L/cosβ) = γ H cosβsinβ
Along line AB: Nr = γ L H cosβ
Tr = γ L H sinβ
Developed resistance:
τf = cd’ + σ’ tanφd’
= cd’ + γ H cos2β tanφd’ L d
Driving force due to weight:
a
τd = γ H cosβsinβ
F
β W
Factor of Safety: Na
β
2c tan φ B
FS = + F Ta
γ H sin 2β tan β c
H
For c = 0:
tan φ Tr
FS = b
tan β β
A β Nr
FS = 1 Æ H = Hcr R
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Slope Stability
Stability of Infinite Slopes with Seepage (Surficial slope stability):
Soil Shear Strength: τf = c’ + σ’ tanφ’ Forces:
GWT at surface, pore pressure u=γwh= γwHcos2β Na = γsat L H cosβ
Failing along AB at a depth H Ta = γsat L H sinβ
Static equilibrium of forces on the block. σ = γsat L H cos β / (L/cosβ) = γsat H cos2β
Assume F on ab and cd are equal. τ= γsat L H sinβ / (L/cosβ) = γsat H cosβsinβ
Along line AB: Nr = γsat L H cosβ
Tr = γsat L H sinβ
Developed resistance:
h= Hcos2β
τf = cd’ + σ’ tanφd’ = cd’ + (σ-u) tanφd’
= cd’ + (γsat - γw) H cos2β tanφd’ L d
Driving force due to weight: E
a PAG
τd = γ H cosβsinβ SEE
Factor of Safety: β W F
2 c' γ ' tan φ ' Na
β
FS = + B
γ sat H sin 2β γ sat tan β
F Ta
c Equipotential
For c = 0: H line
γ ' tan φ '
FS = b Tr
γ sat tan β β
A β Nr
FS = 1 Æ H = Hcr R
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Slope Stability
Slope Stability with Plane Surface:
AC Æ Trial failure place

B C

W
θ Ta
Na
H

Tr

A β θ

## Factor of Safety: For c = 0:

tan φ
2 c sin β + H γ sin (β − θ ) cos θ tan φ FS =
FS = tan β
Hγ sin (β − θ )sin θ

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Slope Stability
Modes of Failure of Finite Slopes:

Shallow slope
failure

Base failure
Slope failure
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Slope Stability
Circular surface – Slip circle analysis (φ = 0):

Circular slip surfaces are found to be the most critical in slopes with homogeneous soil.
There are two analytical, statically determinate, methods used for FS: the circular arc
(φ=0) and the friction circle method.
M r cu LR resisting moment
FS = = =
Md Wx driving moment
Circular failure surface in φ=0
soil is defined by its undrained
strength, cu.

Mr cu R 2θ
FS = =
M d W1l1 − W2l2 W1

W2 l2 l1

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Slope Stability
Circular surface – Friction circle (φ, c soil):
Trial circle through toe.
The friction circle method attempts to satisfy the requirement of complete equilibrium by
assuming that the direction of the resultant of the normal and frictional component of
strength mobilized along the failure surface corresponds to a line that forms a tangent to
Procedure (Abramson et al 1996 more detailed)
C parallel to ab
Rf = R sinφm
P passes through intersection W-C
P makes φm with line through center
of friction circle, & tangent to FC
U often taken 0
Force polygon Æ determine C
Critical circle Æ developed cohesion is
maximum
For FS = 1, the critical height:
C’ / (γ Hcr) = f(α, β, θ, φ’) = m (stability No.)

β
φ > 3 deg Æ critical circles all toe circles
P φm
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Slope Stability
Method of Slices (limit equilibrium):
Soil divided to vertical slices, width of each can vary.
The previous methods do not depend on the distribution of the effective normal stresses
along the failure surface. The contribution is accounted for by dividing the failing slope
mass into smaller slices and treating each individual slice as a unique sliding block.

Non-circular: Circular:

## The discretization of the slip surface to elements results in two

force components acting on each: Normal and Shear forces. The
other unknown is the location of line of action of the normal force
for each element.
However the equilibrium conditions:
ΣFx=0, ΣFy=0, ΣM=0
No. of unknowns = No. of slices * 3
Therefore assumptions should

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Slope Stability
Circular surface (Bishop method):
Soil divided to vertical slices, width of each can vary.
Can be applied to layered soil, with different properties.
Find minimum FS by several trials. ΣM0 = 0
n

## ∑ (c' ∆l i + Wi cos α i tan φ ')

FS = i =1
n

∑ (W sin α )
i =1
i i

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Slope Stability
Search for Minimum Factor of Safety:
Minimum FS values for the failure surface for every center is obtained, and recorded by
the center of rotation, the contours indicate the location of the center with minimum overall
FS.

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Slope Stability
Slope Stability with Seepage (u ≠ 0):
Obtain the average pwp at the bottom of the slice using the phreatic line.
Total pwp for the slice is un ∆Ln

Phreatic
surface

h z
Seepage
H

## FS modified (from Bishop method) for pore pressure:

n

∑ [c' ∆l + (W − u ∆l )cos α
i i i i i tan φ ']
FS = i =1
n

∑ (W sin α )
i =1
i i
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Lateral Earth Pressure

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## Lateral Earth Pressure

Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient:

σz’
H

σx’
P=(1/2)K γ H2

1/3 H

K=σx’/σz’
σx’ = Kσz’= KγH

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Lateral Earth Pressure
Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient at Rest:
Relationship between σz’ and σx’ at a given depth (at rest means no shear).
Ko : Coefficient of earth pressure at rest, Ko = σx’ / σz’

Rigid Wall
No movement For coarse-grained soils:
Ko = 1 - sinφ’ (ok for loose sand)
σz’ For fine grained NC soils:
H
σx’ Ko = m - sinφ’
P=(1/2)K γ H2
m: 1 for NC cohesionless or cohesive
1/3 H
m: 0.95 OCR > 2
K=σx’/σz’ σx’ = Kσz’= KγH Massarch (1979)
Ko = 0.44 + 0.42 (PI% / 100)
For OC clays:
Ko = Ko(NC) (OCR)(1/2)
Or
Ko = (1 - sinφ’) OCRsinφ’

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## Lateral Earth Pressure

Coefficient of Active Lateral Earth Pressure:
Wall moves away from the soil (pushed out).

Movement

σz’
H
σx’

Ka=σx’/σz’

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Lateral Earth Pressure

## (From CGS, 1992)

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

## Lateral Earth Pressure

Coefficient of Passive Lateral Earth Pressure:
Wall moves towards the soil (pressed in).

Movement

σz’
H
σx’

Kp=σx’/σz’

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Lateral Earth Pressure

## (From CGS, 1992)

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

## Lateral Earth Pressure

In Summary:

1. If the wall moves away from the fill (soil) pressure will decrease and reach to
active state. (σh = Ka σv)
2. If the wall moves towards the fill (soil) pressure will increase and reach to passive
case. (σh = Kp σv)
3. More deformation is generally required to achieve passive case than the active
case.

Kp

Ko

Ka

## Movement away Movement towards backfill

From backfill
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Lateral Earth Pressure

## • Rankine’s Earth Pressure Theory (1857)

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## Lateral Earth Pressure

Rankine’s Earth Pressure Theory:
Assumptions:
• The soil is homogeneous and isotropic
• Frictionless wall
• Failure surfaces are planar
• The ground surface is planar
• The wall is infinitely long (plane strain condition)
• At the active or passive state (plastic equilibrium, every point in soil about to fail)
• The resultant on the back of the wall is at angle parallel to ground surface

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Lateral Earth Pressure
Rankine’s Earth Pressure Theory:

## Attainment of Rankine’s Passive State

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## Lateral Earth Pressure

Rankine’s Earth Pressure Theory – Force Diagram:

C β

## β Rankine’s Earth Pressure Theory -

P Force Equilibrium
T N
A θ
P
N
β

T
W
θ

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Lateral Earth Pressure
Rankine’s Theory – Critical Angle of Failure Plane:

## Critical angle of failure plane:

The angle (θ) when the thrust (P) reaches the maximum value for the
condition or the minimum value for the passive condition
At the active state:
θcritical = 45o + φ / 2
At the passive state:
θcritical = 45o - φ / 2

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Dr. Mesut Pervizpour ENGR-627 Fall 2004

## Lateral Earth Pressure

Rankine’s Theory – Earth Pressure Distribution (c’=0):

H P = (1/2) K γ H2
β
PH = P cosβ = (1/2) K γ H2 cosβ
H/3
σ = K σz = K γ H
β

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Lateral Earth Pressure

## cos β − cos 2 β − cos 2 φ '

For β ≤ φ’: Ka =
cos β + cos 2 β − cos 2 φ '

 2

## cos β + cos 2 β − cos 2 φ '

For β ≤ φ’: Kp =
cos β − cos 2 β − cos 2 φ '

## For β = φ’: K p = tan 2  45 o + φ ' 

 2

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