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Design and Performance Analysis

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Pump System at Gaibandha, Bangladesh

S. M. Shamim Reza Md. Nazmul Islam Sarkar

International Training Network Centre Institute of Energy

Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology University of Dhaka

Dhaka, Bangladesh Dhaka, Bangladesh

Email: shamim01716@gmail.com Email: sarkarmni@gmail.com

fuel, demand of electricity for irrigation need is increasing.

Harnessing solar power to meet this increasing demand can be

a good solution. In this paper, we have shown the design and

performance analysis of a directly coupled solar photovoltaic

(PV) motor-pump system operating at Gaibandha, Bangladesh.

Three 1kW DC series motor coupled with pumps were powered

by photovoltaic panels of 2kWp. The motor pumps were directly

connected without any converter. All of the components of the

system were available and bought from the local market. With

average insolation, the system can lift 1,20,000 to 1,72,000 lit/day.

We have calculated the efficiency of the motor-pumps at different

Fig. 1. Circuit diagram of a directly coupled solar photovoltaic water pump.

time of the day. Finally, we have calculated the simple payback

period of the system. We found the system to be viable technically

and economically.

KeywordsSolar irrigation; Green farming; Photovoltaic fantastic initial assessments and analysis by the researchers we

pumping; Solar for agriculture formatting; Green energy. have implemented the idea of solar irrigation in real practice.

II. T HEORETICAL STUDY

I. I NTRODUCTION A. Circuit diagram of photovoltaic solar pump

In this work, we have designed and studied an off-grid

Application of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy for water

directly coupled solar PV powered water pumping system

pumping gained popularity recent years because of drastic

situated at Gaibandha, Bangladesh. We have used DC series

decrease of PV panels price. Also direct coupling of PV

motor in this design. Koner [3] has given a circuit diagram

panels with the pump system has shown great potential with

of a directly coupled series DC pump-motor system which is

low cost for water pumping applications. Direct coupling of

illustrated in fig.1.

mechanical load with PV array requires a systematic study of

load which might be cumbersome but eventually leads to a B. Motor-Pump characteristics

very simple and reliable design [1]. Usually, the output of the The Koner [3] has given the following formula to calculate

PV array is time-dependent and also non-linear in nature which the working water head of the pump:

directly varies with solar insolation level and cell temperature

[2]. The proper matching of components is greatly essential h = K1 (wp )2 K2 (w0 wp )2 (1)

in a direct coupling Pump-motor system.

where,

M. A. Hossain, M. S. Hassan, and M. A. Mottalib [11]

h: working water head, (m), wp : pumping speed (rads1 )

have done a feasibility study on solar irrigation in Bangladesh

K1 : voltage dependent water head constant, m(rads1 )2

in which they have shown solar irrigation as profitable and

K2 : flow rate dependent water head constant, m(rads1 )2

environment friendly. S. I. Khan, M. M. R. Sarkar, and M.

w0 : the speed of motor-pump system at no-flow condition,

Q. Islam [12] of Bangladesh University of Engineering &

(rads1 )

Technology have done a design and analysis of a low cost solar

Braunstein and Kornfield [4] have given the relation of water

water pump for irrigation in rural Bangladesh. The prospect of

discharge to water head of the pump as:

hybrid solar irrigation system in Bangladesh was also studied

by M. A. Hasnat, M. N. Hasan, and N. Hoque [13]. After these Q = K3 (h0 h)1/2 = K3 K20.5 (w0 wp ) (2)

978-1-5090-0169-9/15/$31.00
2015

c IEEE

where,

Q: flow rate of a pump (ls1 ),

h0 : water head of a pump at no-flow condition, (m),

K3 : flow speed constant, (ls1 m0.5 )

The speed-torque relationship is given as:

T p = K4 (wp )2 (3)

where,

T p : pump torque, (N m), K4 : flow-water head constant of a

pump, (ls1 m1/2 )

Hsiao and Blevins [5] deduced the equations for DC series

motor as follows:

V m = M I m w m + I m Rt (4)

T m = M (I m )2 (5)

M = M0 (wm /(w0m )) (6)

where,

V m : motor terminal voltage, (V ), Fig. 2. Monthly averaged daily solar radiation with superimposed clearness

index of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

M0 : motor constant, (N mA2 )

I m : armature current of a motor, (A)

TABLE I

wm : motor shaft speed, (rads1 ) S UMMARY OF E XPERIMENTAL S ETUP

Rt : Field coil and armature resistances of motor, ()

Finally, the efficiency of the motor pump is given by Kolhe, Parameter Value

Joshi, and Kothari [2] as: No. of Pumps 3

gQH Pump rated power 1 kW

mp = (7) Pump motor type DC series motor

VI Total Power of Solar Panel 2 kWp (2000 Wp)

System Voltage 48 60 V (DC)

and the overall efficiency as: Type of Panel Mono Crystalline

No. of Cells per panel 72

= e mp (8) Bore hole / Housing Dia Shallow, 6 inch pipe, 120 feet depth

Static water level Max. 30 feet

where, Suction Pipe size 1.5 inch, 2 inch & 3 inch

e : PV array efficiency, Q: flow rate, (m3 s1 ) Delivery Pipe 1.5 inch, 2 inch & 3 inch

H: head of water, (m), g: constant of gravity (9.81ms2 ) Total Water Lifting 1,20,000lit-1,72,000 lit/ day

: density of water, (kgm3 )

C. Solar Radiation and PV feasibility of Bangladesh or during hours of darkness at night. The summary of the

The effectiveness of solar irrigation pump largely depends experimental setup is given in Table 1.

on the solar insolation availability. As a tropical country The three motors will start to work at minimum 24V. From

Bangladesh receives sufficient amount of solar radiation to 7am-12 pm, at the starting of the day with low insolation at

run irrigation pumps. The 22 years (1983-2005) average of least one motor with small boring will start to run. From 12pm-

solar radiation data of Dhaka, Bangladesh along with clearness 3pm, at the middle of the day two motors can run equally. With

index is shown in fig. 2 [6]. the availability of sufficient insolation 3 motors can operate

simultaneously. The excess water can then be stored in the

III. E XPERIMENTAL S ETUP storage tank for later use. The schematic diagram of the design

There are three PV arrays, 3 DC series pump-motors and a is shown in fig 3.

control panel. Each unit of solar array contains four panels The motors are adjusted to a boring system. The lifting

of 12V each and capacity of total array is 2 kWp. Three three pipes are connected to 6 bore well system. The length

pipes are connected to the 6 main bore well which has a of bore is 120 ft. and the static water level is 20 to 30 feet.

depth of 120 feet and the static water level is 20 to 25 feet. The diagram of irrigation pump boring sizes are shown in fig.

The project was carried out at Gaibandha, Bangladesh. This 4.

design was committed to contribute to sustainable agriculture

development, where the use of fossil fuels can be reduced IV. I RRIGATION WATER R EQUIREMENT

by using solar energy systems. There was also a storage tank Changes in irrigation demand has grown very rapidly due

to enable us to preserve and use the irrigation water during to the increasing demand of the food requirement. Boro rice is

periods when the sun radiation is not received sufficiently the main crop product during dry season when water is very

(a) Solar panels at Gaibandha (b) Pumps at operation

Fig. 5. Operation of solar irrigation pump at Gaibandha, Bangladesh

TABLE II

RPM AND F LOW R ATES OF THE T HREE M OTOR - PUMPS

Time Voltage, (V) Current, I (A) Voltage, (V) Current, I (A) Voltage, (V) Current, I (A)

9:00 24.0 14.8 33.8 16.0 31.6 14.0

9:15 22.8 13.0 35.8 20.3 31.6 15.0

9:30 24.4 14.3 31.8 16.9 33.1 15.1

9:45 21.9 13.4 31.8 15.2 33.0 14.2

10:00 24.2 15.0 32.8 18.4 34.1 16.2

10:30 24.3 13.2 24.0 15.3 27.5 12.9

11:00 24.5 15.5 26.0 14.9 28.3 14.1

11:15 23.8 13.1 26.3 14.6 29.3 13.8

12:00 20.7 12.3 26.9 15.3 30.6 15.9

12:15 25.3 14.8 28.6 13.5

1:00 25.9 12.7 29.0 11.7

1:30 25.8 16.2 29.2 15.1

2:00 25.2 16.1 28.6 14.5

2:30 24.3 14.1 27.8 13.3

3:00 18.7 10.6 22.8 10.5

3:15 24.7 13.8 30.3 14.4

3:30 14.6 8.4 19.2 12.2

3:45 27.0 13.4

4:00 19.4 8.8

scarce due to scanty rainfall. Let us find the water requirement V. M OTOR - PUMP P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS

of Boro rice per hectare area of land. The formula to find

The performance of the PV powered motor-pump system

required water for irrigation [10] is given as follows:

is studied. Data for rpm and flow rate is taken at 15 minutes

Required W ater V olume = (Required water height) interval. Table 2 shows the rpm and flow rates of three motor-

(Area) (N o. of irrigation) pumps. Pump 1 has a smaller bore hole than other two pumps.

So with lower amount of insolation at the morning or at

The required average water height for Boro rice is 8.5 cm the evening pump 1 can operate. The other two pumps start

and area of the land is assumed to be 1 hectare (10000 m2 ) operating when there is sufficient amount of insolation usually

and approximate number of irrigation required is 25 times [7]. at mid day. When pump 2 and pump 3 starts operating at

So, we can now calculate the water requirement per hectare rated load then pump 1 is switched off. So actually at a time

as: maximum 2 kW rated load are operating and thus 2 kWp solar

panel is sufficient for operation.

T otal W ater required f or one hectare of Boro irrigation =The voltage and current curves of the three motor-pumps

(8.5/100)m 10000m2 25 = 21250m3 /h are shown in fig. 6 and the power curves are shown in fig.

7. We can see that at the morning from 9:00 to 10:00 am

As the total time required for Boro production is 75 days the pumps have maximum power as the insolation is high at

[7] and as 1m3 = 1000l: that time. But interestingly, from fig. 8 we can see that all

T otal average water required per day per hectare = the pumps flow rate remain approximately constant without

(21250m3 /h 1000l)/75days = 2, 83, 333l/h/day. drastic change with the change in insolation. This indicates

We can see that our pumps can irrigate approximately half that the system is stable and will operate properly even there

hectare land each day. is minor fluctuation in solar radiation level.

TABLE III

C OST OF S OLAR I RRIGATION P UMP S YSTEM

Name of the Equipment / Setup Unit Price (USD) Quantity Cost (USD)

Solar Panel total 2 kWp 1 / Wp 2000 2,000

Motor - 1000 W 125 3 375

Pump 62.5 3 187.5

Boring Well - - 1,250

Panel Structure - - 500

Electrical Wiring and Misc. Cost - - 625

Installation charge - - 125

Total in USD = 5,062.5

(1 USD = 80 BDT approx.) Total in BDT = 4,05,000

TABLE IV

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of solar irrigation pump C OST OF I RRIGATION PER H ECTARE OF D IFFERENT A REA

The efficiency of the three motor-pumps are calculated using Netrokona 18,500 231.25

Gopalgonj 21,800 272.50

equation (7) and shown in fig. 9. It was seen that motor-pump Sherpur 18,700 233.75

3 has the maximum efficiency among the three pumps. Moulovi Bazar 20,500 256.25

Habigonj 19,700 246.25

While performing the experiment it was also found that Average 19,840 248.00

with a fixed rpm of the motor, the discharge will remain

the same but rpm of the motor do not remain same due to

mechanical loss due to friction and electrical loss. So, even

the rpm is increased but correspondingly discharge did not

increase due to above reason. During low insolation in the important. Also there is a high fraction of excess electricity

morning only motor -1 was operating due to the smaller size of produced in non-irrigation seasons. This excess electricity can

the discharge pipe but when insolation increased, both motor-2 be supplied to drive other farming load like weed cutter, crop

& 3 could operate simultaneously. In this study it is observed harvester etc. The excess electricity can also be supplied to

that operators judgment to extract maximum yield, is very nearby village to power solar home systems (SHS).

TABLE V

Y EARLY C ASH I NFLOW C ALCULATION OF THE P ROJECT

Season Type Amount of irrigated land Cash Inflow (BDT) Cash Inflow (USD)

Mid January - Late April (Boro Season) 1/2 hectare 19,840/2 = 9,920 124

April - June (Supplementary irrigation for any crop) 1/4 hectare 19,840/4 = 4,960 62

July - August (Rainy season) No irrigation required - -

September - November (Supplementary irrigation for any crop) 1/4 hectare 19,840/4 = 4,960 62

November - March (Wheat & Mustard irrigation) 1/2 hectare 19,840/2 = 9,920 124

Total - 1 21 hectare 29,760 372

VII. C ALCULATING S IMPLE PAYBACK P ERIOD

To calculate simple payback period we need to know the

VI. C OST OF PV I RRIGATION P UMP S YSTEM cost of irrigation per area of land to calculate yearly cash

inflow of the project. The irrigation cost per hectare of

different areas of Bangladesh is given in Table 4 [9].

IDCOL (Infrastructure Development Company) Bangladesh From the above Table 4, we have calculated average cost

and donor agencies give 40% of total cost as grant to encour- of irrigation per hectare of land. In Table 5, we have shown

age solar irrigation [8]. So, setting up a solar irrigation system the yearly total amount of irrigated land by the project and

would cost less than the costing shown here for this project. total cash inflow of the project. Now we have calculated the

Table 3 shows the related cost for the set up in BDT and the payback period as follows:

total amount is 4, 05,000 BDT.

Simple payback period =

(Initial Investement)/(Y early Cash inf low) =

(4, 05, 000(BDT ))/(29, 760(BDT /year)) = 13.6years

It is worth mentioning here that the solar panels usually have

a lifetime of 30 years and the pumps can operate 20 years

with little maintenance easily. So the project has a positive

cash flow in its lifetime.

VIII. R ESULTS & C ONCLUSION

The performance of the motor-pump system is illustrated in

fig. 6-9 and we have also calculated the simple payback period

which is only 13.6 years without any grant from government

or donor agency. So project is lucrative in technical point

of view as well as in economical point of view. Excees

electricity produced during non-irrigating seasons can be used

in Solar Home Systems or to drive other farming load. Also

the advantage of the solar power is that it is non-polluting.

The GHG emission of diesel is very high. The emission can

be reduced by implementing solar powered pump as it emits

no GHG. So the environmental benefit is also very high.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We would like to express our gratitude to Institute of

Energy, University of Dhaka and Bangladesh University of

Engineering and Technology for aiding with technical support.

We would also like to thank anonymous reviewers who helped

us to improve the quality of the paper.

R EFERENCES

[1] F. Loxsom and P. Durongkaveroj, Estimating the performance of a

photovoltaic pumping system, Sol. Energy, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 215219,

1994.

[2] M. Kolhe, J. C. Joshi, and D. P. Kothari, Performance Analysis of

a Directly Coupled Photovoltaic Water-Pumping System, IEEE Trans.

Energy Conversion, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 613-618, September 2004.

[3] P.K. Koner, Optimization techniques for a photovoltaic water pumping

system, Renewable Energy, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 53-62, 1995.

[4] A. Braunstein and A. Kornfield, Analysis of solar powered electric water

pump, Solar Energy, vol. 27, no.3, pp. 235-240, 1981.

[5] Y. R. Hsiao and B. A. Blevins, Direct coupling of photovoltaic power

source to water pumping system. Solar Energy, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 489-

498, 1984.

[6] (2015) NASAs Data. [Online]. Available: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/

[7] M. Abdus Sattar, Dr. M.Motiur Rahman, Agriculture Technology Hand-

book 3rd ed., Joydebpur, Gazipur, 2004.

[8] (2015) Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL) website.

[Online] Available: http:idcol.org/home/solar ir

[9] (2015) Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC) website. [On-

line]. Available: http://www.barc.gov.bd/

[10] M. T. Khan, S. Sarkar, S. Hossain, A. U. Ahmed, and B. B. Pathik, The

Feasibility Study of Solar Irrigation: Economical Comparison between

Diesel and Photovoltaic Water Pumping Systems for Different Crops,

International Conference on Electrical Information and Communication

Technology (EICT), 2013.

[11] M. A. Hossain, M. S. Hassan, and M. A. Mottalib, Feasibility of solar

pump for sustainable irrigation in Bangladesh, Int J Energy Environ Eng,

Vol 6, pp. 147-155, 2015.

[12] S. I. Khan, M. M. R. Sarkar, and M. Q. Islam, Design and alalysis

of a low cost solar water pump for irrigation in Bangladesh,Journal of

Mechanical Engineering, Vol. ME 43, No. 2, December 2013.

[13] M. A. Hasnat, M. N. Hasan, and N. Hoque, A brief study of the

prospect of hybrid solar irrigation system in Bangladesh, International

Conference on Mechanical, Industrial and Energy Engineering 2014, 25-

26 December, 2014, Khulna, BANGLADESH.

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