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Boolean Matrices Comprehensive Guide

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a matrix with entries from the Boolean domain B = {0, 1}. Such a matrix can be used to represent

a binary relation between a pair of finite sets

which, for n = 1, 2, ..., gives 2, 16, 512, 65536, etc. and is thus finite.

be manipulated simultaneously. The algebra is similar to conventional matrix

algebra and its structure includes a topological description of logic circuits. The

matrices are readily manipulated by the digital computer.

Theorems

1. A Boolean matrix has an inverse if and only if it is orthogonal, ie, if A O A T !

= I, then no inverse exists.

2. A Boolean matrix can be uniquely decomposed into the disjoint union of a

symmetric and skew-symmetric Boolean matrix.

3. A Boolean matrix can be uniquely decomposed into the joint intersection

of a symmetric and tranjugate Boolean matrix

Tranjugate matrix is a matrix for which A U A T is I.

If a Boolean matrix is tranjugate, then diagonal elements must be 1.

Applications / Examples :

1. Matrix representation of a relation

If R is a binary relation between the finite indexed sets X and Y (so R XY), then R can be

represented by the logical matrix M whose row and column indices index the elements

of X and Y, respectively, such that the entries of M are defined by:

< MATRIX RELATION > (function 1)

The binary relation R on the set {1, 2, 3, 4} is defined so that aRb holds if and only

if a divides b evenly, with no remainder. For example, 2R4 holds because 2 divides 4 without

leaving a remainder, but 3R4 does not hold because when 3 divides 4 there is a remainder of 1.

The following set is the set of pairs for which the relation R holds.

{(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 2), (2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 4)}.

The corresponding representation as a Boolean matrix is:

(matrix 2)

2. A bitmap image containing pixels in only two colors can be represented as a (0,1)-matrix in

which the 0's represent pixels of one color and the 1's represent pixels of the other color.

3. The matrix representation of the equality relation on a finite set is an identity matrix, that is,

one whose entries on the diagonal are all 1, while the others are all 0.

4. An adjacency matrix in graph theory is a matrix whose rows and columns represent the

vertices and whose entries represent the edges of the graph. The adjacency matrix of

a simple, undirected graph is a binary symmetric matrix with zero diagonal.

Let G and H be two directed graphs with the same vertex set. Let A be the

adjacency matrix for G and B the adjacency matrix for H. Then the adjacency

matrix for G H is A + B, where Boolean addition used on the entries of

matrices A and B

< DIAGRAM >

compute the adjacency matrix A+ for G+, the transitive closure of G:

G + = G1 G2 Gn

A + = A1 + A2 + + An

Matrix Multiplication

Let A and B be n m matrices.

Let A = [aij ] be m k and B = [bij ] be k n. The Boolean product of A and B, A

O B, is the m n matrix C = [cij ] defined by

cij = (ai1 b1j ) (ai2 b2j ) (ai3 b3j ) (aik bkj ).

Where

1. The meet of A and B: A B = [aij bij ] (LOGICAL AND)

2. The join of A and B: A B = [aij bij ] (LOGICAL OR)

standard operations, except we use the Boolean operators (logical AND) and

(logical OR) on the binary digits instead of ordinary multiplication and addition,

respectively.

Boolean matrix multiplication is like normal matrix product, but with addition

defined as 1+1=1 (logical OR), and multiplication defined as 1.1 = 1 (logical

AND).

Example

A = |1 1 0|

|0 1 0|

|0 0 1|

and

B = |1 0 0|

|1 1 1|

|0 0 1|

(matrix 3)

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