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A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO

M/S ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD CHENNAI

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO


VELS INSITITUTE OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND ADVANCED STUDIES (VISTAS)
(VELS UNIVERSITY)
(Estd.U/s 3 of the UGC Act, 1956)

In partial fulfillment of the requirement


For the award of the degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


Submitted by

MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL M

(REG.NO:10301127)

Under the Guidance of,


Ms S.SARA MBA, M.Phil.
(Asst Professor)

SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES (VIBA)


VELS UNIVERSITY
P.V.VAITHIYALINGAM ROAD,
OLD PALLAVARAM
CHENNAI-600 117.

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__________________________________________________________________

School of Management Studies (VIBA)

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that project report titled A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL


CULTURE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO M/S ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD
CHENNAI Is a Bonafide record of work carried out by MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL.M
school of management studies, under VELS UNIVERSITY submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration
from the VELS UNIVERISTY for the fourth semester during 2010 2012 under our
guidance.

M/S S.PREETHA. Ms S.SARA

HOD-Management Studies (PROJECT GUIDE)


D.R Y LAKSHMAN KUMAR

(DIRECTOR, School of Management Studies)

Internal Examiner External Examiner

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DECLARATION

I MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL.M student of MBA, School of Management Studies, VELS UNIVERSITY

hereby declare that this project work titled A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE WITH

SPECIAL REFERENCE TO M/S ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD CHENNAI, Submitted to VELS

UNIVESITY in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree Master of Business

Administration is a record of bonafide research carried out by me under the guidance of Ms S.Sara, School of

Management Studies, VELS UNIVERSITY and no part of it has been submitted for any other degree or

diploma

PLACE:CHENNAI MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL M

DATE: REG NO:103011127

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my great pleasure to regard my deep sense of gratitude to honourable


Chancellor Dr. ISHARI K. GANESH, M.com M.B.A., Ph.D.,Dr. P. Govindarajan ,M.A.,
Ph.D., Registrar of Vels University, Chennai for the patronage and all facilities offered to
Complete the project successfully.

I like to thank MS. S.PREETHA, M.B.A. , M.Phil. Asst Professor express and Head,
School Of Management Studies, for the encouragement and guidance to do the project
effectively

I am also thankful to my guide MS S.SARA M.B.A. M.Phil, Asst Professor,School of


Management Studies, Vels University, for her encouragement and guidance given towards
The preparation of this report.

I express my sincere gratitude to MR C.P MOHAMMED ANEEZ.MANAGER H.R

ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD CHENNAI for granting me permission to carry out
Project

I also express extend my gratitude sincere for my parents and friends, without whom this
project would not have been completed also thank God almighty for giving me the strength &
confidence to make the report successful

MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL.M

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TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE NO
1 1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Need of the Study 15

1.3 Statement of Problem 16

1.4 Company Profile 17

1.5 Industry Profile 21

2 Statement of Objectives 27

Primary Objective 27

Secondary Objective 27

3 Review of literature 28

4 Research Methodology 32

4.1 Research Design 32

4.2 Sample Size 32

4.3 Sampling Technique 32

4.4 Questionnaire Design 32

4.5 Period of Study 32

4.6 Data Collection 32

4.7 Statistical tool 33

4.8 Scope of Study 35

4.9 Limitation of Study 36

5 Data Analysis & Interpretation 37

6 Findings of the Study 66

7 Recommendation and Suggestions 68

8 Conclusion 69

9 Bibliography 70

10 Annexure 72

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LIST OF TABLES & CHARTS
Tables:

TABLE NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO

1 Experience of the respondent 37

2 Improvement in working condition 38

3 Feel comfortable with working environment 39

4 Quality of material provided to perform job is good 40

5 New method of Work had been introduced 41

6 Organization had diplomatic future 42

7 The organization has become more positive 43

8 cordial relationship with your sub ordinates 44

9 Appreciation for work 45

10 Knowledge and skill to do your job properly 46

11 Spending time usefully 47

12 Competitive Organization Culture 48

13 feel comfortable with working here 49

14 Leadership abilities 50

15 The work has become more interesting 51

16 proud of working for this organization 52

17 Health insurance and accidents benefits 53

18 Information on management policies 54

19 Grievances Solving 55

20 Organization is concern for social welfare 56

21 Safety measure given by the management 57

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22 respondent opinion about the quality of material provided to perform job 58
is good

23 Employee Relationship 59

24 Comfortability of working environment 60

25 Health insurance and accidents benefits 61

26 Welfare measures 62

27 ranking method 63

28 To find the opinion about improvement in working condition is 64

independent of their age.


29 To find the opinion about receiving proper appreciation is independent of 65

their age.

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CHAPTER NO -1

INTRODUCTION

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1.1 INTRODUCTION

DEFINITION

Organizational culture is the collective behaviour of people that are part of an organization, it is also formed by
the organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, and symbols, it includes beliefs and habits It
is also the pattern of such collective behaviours and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members
as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling. Organizational culture affect the way people and groups
interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders

Organizational culture is defined as a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered or developed by a given
group, as it learns to cope with the problems of external adaption and internal investigation that has worked well
enough to be considered valid and therefore is to be taught to the new members as the correct way to perceive,
think, and feel in relation to those problems. Organizational culture is a set of shared understandings, norms,
values, attitudes and beliefs of an organization which can foster or impede change.

When people join an organization, they bring with them the values and beliefs that they have been taught. Quite
often, however these values and beliefs are insufficient for helping the individual succeed in the organization.
The person needs to learn how the particular enterprise does things.

A common misconception is that an organization has a uniform culture. However, at least as anthropology uses
the concept; it is probably more accurate to treat organizations as if they had a uniform culture. All
organizations have culture, in the sense that they are embedded in specific societal cultures and are part of them.
According to this view, organization culture is a common perception held by the organizations members.
Everyone in the organization would have to share this perception. However, all may not do so to the same
degree. As a result, there can be a dominant culture as well as subcultures throughout a typical organization.

A dominant culture is a set of core values shared by a majority of the organizations members. The values that
create dominant cultures in organizations help guide the day-to-day behavior of the employees. Important, but
often overlooked, are the subcultures in an organization. A subculture is a set of values shared by a minority,
usually a small minority of the organizations members. Subcultures typically are a result of problems or
experiences that are shared by members of a department or unit. Subcultures can weaken and undermine an
organization if they are in conflict with the dominant culture and overall objectives. Successful firms, however
find that this is not the case always. Most subcultures are formed to help the members of a particular group deal
with the specific day-to-day problems with which they are confronted. The members may also support many, if
not all, of the core values of the dominant culture.

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Changing the attitudes about the organizations is one of the basic changes of today world. Today world
belongs to the organizations. Human being is the founder of all organizations. This means that human is the most
valuable source of the organizations. Organizational culture means all common beliefs in an organization. Then
more and deeper common beliefs may result in more powerful culture and more different beliefs may result in
little common aspects and weaker organizational culture.
According to the recent researches it is possible to specify seven major specifications including the
organizational culture which are:
1- Innovation
2- Risk acceptance
3- Pay attention to details
4- Pay attention to the result
5- Pay attention to people
6- Team making
7- Change, Fixedness.

Followings are different factors with basic roles in creation of an organizational culture:

A: Founders: It means the founders of an organization who will make final decisions about the nature of the
established organization and/or further goals. Therefore they have a basic and critical role.

B: Environment: Environment has a critical and indirect role in creation of an organizational culture. It may
specify any organizational policies and manner of finding them. Any organizations with lack of compatible
culture without organizational necessities and surrounding environment of organization will never find any
success and finally will be ruined.

C: Organizational personnel: Any election of non-compatible persons with organizational culture, primary
methods Created by the founder and /or any persons who may not accept the primary culture of the organization
especially master people and/or managers may finally resulted in changing of the organizational culture. For this
purpose it is necessary to appoint any people for the organization and its activities who are in compatible with it.

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FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:

These are the functions being served by the organization

Sense of identity
Sense making device
Reinforcing the values in organization
Control mechanism for shaping behavior

SENE OF IDENTITY:

Culture provides a sense of identity to the members and enhances their commitment towards the organization.

SENSE MAKING DEVICE

Culture in the organization provides the employees to interpret the meaning of the organizational events.

VALUE REINFORCEMENT:

Values in the organization can be reinforced by the cultural activities.

CONTROL MECHANISM:

In shaping the behavior of members in the organization culture plays the big role.

CULTURAL PERPECTIVES:

THE STRONG PERSPECTIVE


THE FIT PERSPECTIVE
THE ADAPTATION PERSPECTIVE

THE STRONG PERSPECTIVE:

The strong culture facilitates performance with the intensity visible to the outsiders.It states that organization
with strong culture performs better than other organizations.

THE FIT PERSPECTIVE:

Fit perspective argues that the culture of the organization is valid, if it fits the industry or firms strategies. It is
useful in explaining short term performances.

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THE ADAPTATION PERSPECTIVE:

The cultures that help organizations adapt to environmental change are deeply associated with excellent
performance. It encourages confidence and risk taking capacity among the employees.

A FEW DIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

VIGILANCE

Prior to pondering whether or not to communicate an ethical, compliance, or legal concern, an employee must
first be in a position to detect violations. "What are the standards in this organization?" "What is my role in
upholding these standards?" Accordingly, the first step in supporting employee communication and reporting
behaviors is to influence a culture that promotes not only awareness of an organization's commitment to
integrity, but a shared understanding of organizational standards. A look out for threats to organizational
integrity also must be cultivated among organization members.

Thoughtful attention to training employees on the values and standards outlined in the organization's code of
conduct will facilitate awareness building. However, the most fundamental and powerful values of an
organization are not written down and exist only in the shared norms, beliefs, and assumptions reflected in the
organization's culture. These norms, beliefs, and assumptions guide how organization members think and act.
The organizational culture informs members how to relate to each other and to outsiders, how to analyze
problems, and how to respond to situations encountered in the organization. To promote a shared understanding
of which "code" to follow, the formal code of conduct or the unwritten code of culture, the dynamics of
organizational culture on an employee's ability to accurately interpret the ethical standards of the organization
must be addressed.

To support a culture of vigilance, employees also must be educated on the relationship between organizational
integrity and the organization's strategic positioning. Employees who observe wrongdoing may not report it
because they cannot fully estimate the resulting damage. Therefore, the organization should ensure employees
are in a position to identify the potential consequences of ethical, compliance, and legal breaches, including
opportunity costs and harm to the organization, its reputation, and stakeholders.

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ENGAGEMENT:

The cultural dimension of engagement is multifaceted and complex. Engagement is concerned with
organizational and individual factors that contribute to a personal state of authentic involvement in the
organization. Organizational processes used to recruit, orient, socialize, and manage employees influence
engagement. Employees sense making, psychological contracts, and perceptions of fairness in organizational
dealings influence the degree of authentic involvement by them. Managing these organizational processes and
individual perceptions to facilitate high degrees of organizational commitment and identification encourages a
culture of engagement that supports internal whistle blowing.

If an organization member is not committed to high ethical standards there may be a tendency to rationalize
questionable behavior as a common or even necessary practice in performing job duties. On the other hand, if an
employee has high ethical standards that are not supported by the organization, there is a tendency for the
employee to experience internal conflict. Such conflict will arise when organizational demands on employees are
inconsistent with personal or professional values. The result is decreased commitment and an unwillingness to
exert effort on behalf of the organization.

Once employees enter the organization, socialization methods, including training on ethical standards can be
used to deepen employee commitment to organizational values and norms.

CREDIBILITY:

A culture of engagement that supports organizational commitment and identification, however, may not be
sufficient for prompting employee disclosures. An employee will also seek to "test" the organization's
commitment to integrity. Leadership behavior is a key determinant of employee perceptions and beliefs.

The most powerful strategy that can be relied upon to facilitate credibility is employee belief in espoused ethics
and values including organizational expectations for employee disclosure, attending to and monitoring
congruence in the organizational culture. The role of leadership is central to this strategy.

Aligning leadership behaviors with formal policies and consistent modeling of espoused values are important
practices for fostering credibility. Demonstrating personal commitment to organizational values builds trust and
creates a safe environment for employees to come forward and report concerns.

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ACCOUNTABILITY:

Accountability for communicating knowledge of wrongdoing will be carefully judged by employees. "Is it my
job to report?" "Isn't this someone else's responsibility?" "Why should I get involved? After all, I am not the only
one aware of what is going on here." Again, values, beliefs, and norms embedded in the organizational culture
and picked up by employees will influence employee reflections.

IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE

A common platform where individuals work in unison to earn profits as well as a livelihood for
themselves is called an organization. A place where individuals realize the dream of making it big is called an
organization. Every organization has its unique style of working which often contributes to its culture. The
beliefs, ideologies, principles and values of an organization form its culture. The culture of the workplace
controls the way employees behave amongst themselves as well as with people outside the organization.

The culture decides the way employees interact at their workplace. A healthy culture encourages the
employees to stay motivated and loyal towards the management.

The culture of the workplace also goes a long way in promoting healthy competition at the workplace.
Employees try their level best to perform better than their fellow workers and earn recognition and
appreciation of the superiors. It is the culture of the workplace which actually motivates the employees to
perform.

Every organization must have set guidelines for the employees to work accordingly. The culture of an
organization represents certain predefined policies which guide the employees and give them a sense of
direction at the workplace. Every individual is clear about his roles and responsibilities in the
organization and know how to accomplish the tasks ahead of the deadlines.

No two organizations can have the same work culture. It is the culture of an organization which makes it
distinct from others. The work culture goes a long way in creating the brand image of the
organization.The work culture gives an identity to the organization. In other words, an organization is
known by its culture.

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The organization culture brings all the employees on a common platform. The employees must be treated
equally and no one should feel neglected or left out at the workplace. It is essential for the employees to
adjust well in the organization culture for them to deliver their level best.

The work culture unites the employees who are otherwise from different back grounds, families and have
varied attitudes and mentalities. The culture gives the employees a sense of unity at the workplace.

Certain organizations follow a culture where all the employees irrespective of their designations have to step into
the office on time. Such a culture encourages the employees to be punctual which eventually benefits them in the
long run. It is the culture of the organization which makes the individuals a successful professional.

Every employee is clear with his roles and responsibilities and strives hard to accomplish the tasks
within the desired time frame as per the set guidelines. Implementation of policies is never a problem in
organizations where people follow a set culture. The new employees also try their level best to
understand the work culture and make the organization a better place to work.

The work culture promotes healthy relationship amongst the employees. No one treats work as a burden
and moulds himself according to the culture.

It is the culture of the organization which extracts the best out of each team member. In a culture where
management is very particular about the reporting system, the employees however busy they are would
send their reports by end of the day.

Role of Communication and Relationship for a Healthy Organization Culture The ideologies, principles,
rules and policies of an organization form its culture. The ways the employees interact amongst
themselves and with others outside the organization contribute to the culture of the workplace. The
culture gives an identity to the organization and makes it distinct from others.

Communication and relationship play an important role in a healthy organization culture. Effective
communication is essential for a positive culture at the workplace. Transparency in communication is
mandatory at all levels for better understanding of work and better bonding among individuals. Culture is
simply the result of the interaction amongst the employees working for a considerable period of time in
the organization. A better employee relation promotes a positive culture whereas conflicts and
disagreements spoil the ambience and spread negativity all around at the workplace. Communication
plays an important role in increasing the comfort factor amongst the employees.

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HOW DID ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE START
While organizational cultures developed in different ways, the process usually involves some version of the
following steps:

A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise


The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common
vision with the founder
The founding core group begins to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds, obtaining
patents, incorporating, locating space, and building.
At this point, others are brought into the organization and a common history begins to be built

Most of todays successful corporate giants in all industries basically followed these steps. Three well-known
representative examples are Motorola, McDonalds and Wal-Mart.

McDonalds:Ray
Kroc worked for many years as a salesperson for a food supplier. He learned how retail food operations were
conducted. He also had an entrepreneurial streak and began a sideline business with a partner. They sold
multimixers, machines that were capable of mixing up to six frozen shakes at a time. One day Kroc received a
large order for multimixers from the McDonald brothers. The order intrigued Kroc and he decided to look in on
the operation the next time he was in their area. When he did, Kroc became convinced that the McDonalds fast
food concept would sweep the nation. He bought the rights to franchise McDonalds units and eventually bought
out the brothers. At the same time, he built the franchisee on four basic concepts: quality, cleanliness, service and
price. In order to ensure that each unit offers the customer the best product at the best price franchisees are
required to attend McDonald University, where they are taught how to manage their business. Here they learn
the McDonald cultural values and the proper way to run the franchisee. This training ensures that the franchisees
all over the world are operating their units in the same way. Kroc died several years ago, but the culture he left
behind is still very much alive in McDonalds franchisees across the globe. In fact, new employees receive
videotaped messages from the late
Mr. Kroc.

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Wal-Mart:
Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., opened his first Wal-Mart store in 1962. Focusing on the
sale of discounted name brand merchandise in small town markets, he began to set up more and more stores in
the Sun Belt. At the same time, he began developing effective inventory control systems and marketing
techniques. Today, Wal-Mart has not only become the largest retailer but also one of the biggest firms in the
country. Although Sam died a few years ago, his legacy and cultural values continue. To ensure that these values
get out to all the associates, the company has a communication network worthy of the Pentagon. It includes
everything from a six-channel satellite system to a private air force of numerous planes. Everyone is taught this
culture and is expected to operate according to the core cultural values of hard work, efficiency and customer
service.

LEVELS OF CULTURE:

ARTIFACTS
VALUES
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

ARTIFACTS:

Artifacts are the most visible and accessible level of culture. It is symbol of culture in the physical and social
work environment of the organization.

Artifacts of culture are:

PERSONAL ENACTMENT
RITES AND CEREMONIES
STORIES AND LEGENDS
RITUALS
SYMBOLS

PERSONAL ENACTMENT:

Personal enactment is a behavior that reflects the value of organization, through the examination of the behavior
of organization members.

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CEREMONIES AND RITES:

Set of activities that are enacted time and again on important occasion.It provides the opportunity to reward and
recognize the employees whose behaviors are according to the values of the organization. Rites to the
employees can be awarded as

Rites of passage
rites of renewal
Rites of integration
Rites of conflict reduction
Rites of degradations

RITES OF PASSES:

Rites of passes show the changed status of individuals in the respected organization.Retirement dinner

RITES OF RENEWAL:

Rites of renewal show the holistic changing in organization by enhancing the dedication towards learning and
growth.

RITES OF INTEGRATION:

It emphasize on the commitment of the employees by uniting diverse group within the organization. Company
function, annual picnic, cultural fest are the rites of integration in the organization.

RITES OF COFLICT REDUCTION:

Its primal objective is to dwindle the disagreements and keep up with the positive environment inside the
organization by satisfying the tangible and intangible needs of the employee. Grievance hearing, negotiation of
union contracts is rite of conflict reduction.

RITES OF DEGRADATION:

It is basically punishment oriented and organization people may be punished visibly if they dont follow the
organizational norms. Ribbon of shame, demotion in the organizational post, reduction in salary can be under the
rites of degradation.

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STORIES AND LEGENDS:

Stories are the most effective way to reinforce the organizational values. it give meaning and identity to the
organizations and very helpful in orienting new employees.

Stories can be delivered in different ways

Stories about the boss


Stories about getting fired
Stories about company details
Stories about employees
Stories about rules

RITUALS:

Rituals are unwritten and shows the way the employee follow the things to be done in the organization. These
are the everyday organizational practices repeated over and over.

SYMBOLS:

Symbols are again one important artifact of the organization which communicates about the organizational
culture by unspoken messages.

VALUES:

Values reflect a persons underling believes in the organization, it is often consciously articulated both in
conversation and the companys mission statement or annual report. a firms values and how it promotes and
publicizes them can also affect workers feeling about their job and themselves.

ASSUMPTIONS:

Assumptions are deeply held believes that guide behavior and awakens the members of the organization how to
perceive and go about the things.

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LEADERS ROLE IN SHAPING CULTURE:

WHAT LEADERS PAY ATTENTION TO


HOW LEADERS REACT TO THE CRISES
HOW LEARERS BEHAVE
HOW LEADERS ALLOCATE REWARDS
HOW LEADERS HIRE AND FIRE PEOPLE

ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION:

Another process that perpetuates culture is the way it is handed down from generation of employees. Newcomers
learn the culture through organizational socialization The process by which newcomers are transformed from
outsiders to participating, effective members of the organizations. The process is also a vehicle for bringing
newcomers into the organizational culture.

STAGES OF THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS

The organizational socialization process is generally described as having three stages:

Anticipatory Socialization.
Encounter.
Change and Acquisition.

ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION

The first stage encompasses all of the learning that takes place prior to the newcomers first day on the job. It
includes the newcomers expectations. The two concerns at this stage are:

Realism.
Congruence.

Realism is the degree to which a newcomer holds realistic expectations about the job and about the organization.
One thing newcomers should receive information about during entry into the organization is the culture.
Information about values at this stage can help newcomers begin to construct a scheme for interpreting their
organizational experiences. There are two types of Congruence between an individual and an organization:
Congruence between the individuals abilities and the demand of the job, and the fit between the organizations
values and the individuals values. Value Congruence is particularly important for organizational culture. It is also
important in terms of newcomer adjustment.

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ENCOUNTER

The second stage of socialization, encounter, is when newcomers learn the tasks associated with the job, clarify
their roles, and establish new relationships at work. This stage commences on the first day at work and is thought
to encompass the first six to nine months on the new job.

TASK DEMAND

Task demand involves the actual work performed. Learning to perform tasks is related to the organizations
culture. In some organizations, newcomers are given considerable latitude to experiment with new ways to do
the job, and creativity is valued.

ROLE DEMAND

Role demand involves the expectations placed on newcomers. Newcomers may not know exactly what is
expected of them or may receive conflicting expectations from other individuals. The way newcomers approach
these demand depends in part on the culture of the organization.

INTERPERSONAL DEMAND

Interpersonal demand arises from relationships at work. Politics, Leadership style, and group pressure are
interpersonal demand. All of them reflect the values and assumptions that operate within the organization.

CHANGE AND ACQUISITION

In the third and final stage of socialization, change and acquisition, newcomers begin to master the demands of
the job. They become proficient at managing their tasks, clarifying and negotiating their roles, and engaging in
relationship at work. The end of the process is signaled by newcomers being considered by themselves and
others as organizational insiders.

OUTCOMES OF SOCIALIZATION

Newcomers who are successful socialized exhibit good performance, high job satisfaction, and the intention to
stay with the organization. In addition, they should exhibit low levels of distress symptoms. High levels of
organizational commitment are also marks of successful socialization. Successful Socialization is also signaled
by mutual influences When socialization is effective, newcomers understand and adopt the organizations values
and norms. This provides employees a context for interpreting and responding to things that happen at work.
Newcomers adopt the companys norms and values more quickly when they receive positive support from
organizational insiders.

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SOCIALIZATION AS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Socialization is a powerful cultural communication tool. While the transmission of information about cultural
artifacts is relatively easy, the transmission of value is more difficult. The communication of organizational
assumption is almost impossible.

The primary purpose of socialization is the transmission of core values to new organization
members. Newcomers are exposed to these values through the role models they interact with, the training they
receive, and the behavior they observe being rewarded and punished.

ACCESSING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Although some organizational scientists argue for assessing organizational culture with quantitative methods,
others say qualitative methods yield better results. Quantitative methods such as questionnaires are valuable
because of their precision, comparability and objectivity.

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE INVENTORY

The OCI focuses on behaviors that help employees fit into the organization and meet the expectations of
coworkers. Using Maslows motivational need hierarchy as its basis, it measures twelve cultural styles. The two
underlying dimensions of the OCI are task/people and security/satisfaction. There are four satisfaction cultural
styles and eight securities cultural styles.

KILMANN-SAXTON CUKTURE-GAP SURVEY

The kilmann- saxton culture-gap survey focuses on what actually happens and on the expectations of others in
the organization. Its two underlying dimensions are technical/human and time. With these two dimensions, the
actual operating norms and the ideal norms in four areas are assessed. The areas are task support task innovation
social relationships and personal freedom.

TRIANGULATION

A study of a rehabilitation centre in a 400-bed hospital incorporated triangulation to improve inclusiveness and
accuracy in measuring the organizational culture. Triangulation has been used by anthropologists, sociologists
and other behavioral scientists to study organizational culture. Its name comes from the navigational technique of
using multiple reference points to locate an object.

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1.2 NEED OF THE STUDY

People are affected by the culture in which they live. Similarly, an individual working for any

organization with a firmly established culture will be taught the values, beliefs, and expected behaviours

of that organization. There is at least some sound evidence that variations in cultural values may have a

significant impact on employee turnover and possibly employees job performance. Hence the study of

organizational culture is important for the understanding and practice of organizational behavior

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1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Human resource is the vital resources among all other organizational resources. Without the effective

organizational culture, an organization cannot achieve its goals. Protecting and maintaining the human resource

by providing various welfare measures is the pivotal role of any management. Organizational culture plays a

crucial role in the development of the organization. The employees job satisfaction and motivation are also

closely linked with social welfare. Organization culture in the area human resources management has attracted

many research all over the world. There are many studies related to this area.

In this study, an attempt has been made to study the effectiveness of organization culture measures

provided by ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD. The main aim of study is to study the level of employees

satisfaction towards the organization culture measures of the company.

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1.4 COMPANY PROFILE

ETA Engineering Pvt. Ltd., the Indian operations of M&E was established in 1994. Headquartered at Chennai,
it has branches at New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Cochin, and Pune. Incorporated in 1994, ETA
Engineering undertakes HVAC projects, Electro-mechanical projects & services (EMPS) and Mechanical,
Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) work including BMS, Internal Electrification and Sub-station Works meeting
International Standards. ETA Engineering has two manufacturing plants with capacity to manufacture a wide
range of Ducted Split, Chillers & Air Handling Units. ETA Engineering is a subsidiary of Electromechanical
Technical Associates Ltd, Mauritius, owned by Emirates Trading Agency LLC, Dubai, which is part of Dubai-
based industrial conglomerate, the ETA Group, which includes the ETA-ASCON Group of companies and the
ETA-Star Group of companies.

ETA ASCON, Dubai is a multi-faceted group having a turnover in excess of USD Six Billion with diverse areas
of expertise in activities such as Builders & Constructions, Engineering Electromechanical & Elevator Works,
Advanced Fire Fighting, Shipping & Trading, High Voltage transmission, Desalination, Powder coating, Retail
& Leisure Business, Tours & Travels, Facilities Management, Automobiles, Environment, Manufacturing, etc.,

ETA Engineering Pvt. Ltd. is a Company registered in India having its registered office in Chennai and
Branch offices at Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur,
Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Mysore & Pune.

ETA Engineering has state-of-art Manufacturing Facilities at Sriperumbudur, 40 Kms outside Chennai city &
Pondicherry. The Company manufactures & markets full range of Air-conditioning products including Air-
Cooled & Water cooled Scroll Chillers, Air Handling Units, Fan Coil Units, Ducted Splits, Floor Mounted
Packaged, Unitary type Self Contained Packaged Air conditioners, DC- Inverter & Digital VRF (Variable
Refrigerant Flow), Cassettes, High-wall Splits & Window Air conditioners. These are ideally suitable for
installation in applications such as Bank, Hospitals, Office premises, Shopping / Commercial Complexes,
Restaurants, Retails outlets etc. The Company has been consistently driven by belief in Global Quality Standard
as a norm.We thrive for raising the Quality Standard in all our Operations, be it Projects, Products, Services &
Manufacturing.

ETA Engineering is the only Indian Manufacturer of Air Handling Units to achieve prestigious Eurovent
Certification. It is also One of the 6 Companies Globally to achieve UL Accreditation for its AHUs. It
produces Cooling & Heating Coils which are ARI Certified. The entire Range of Ducted Splits is CE Certified.

ETA Engineering has large number of Dealers as Channel Partners for offering ETA Range of Products with
Cooling Solutions to Customers.

25
Company has a well Structured After Sales - Service & Spares management for its Dealers & Customers.
ETA Engineering is rated as the biggest turnkey Electro - Mechanical Contractor in the country and offers
electro mechanical services to meet the needs of demanding clients. ETA has supported a wide array of projects
that include Software Campuses / Parks, Offices, Business establishments, Hotels, Hospitals, Schools,
Commercial Complexes, Industries, Marriage Halls, etc. We have participated in projects for large Air
Conditioning Systems involving imported equipment manufactured to international standards. We ensure much
superior quality of equipment and workmanship with advanced engineering skills. We have full-fledged team of
qualified engineers and technical staff in the air-conditioning and electrical divisions to carry out large turnkey
projects. ETA Engineering has consistently provided clients with timely and high value service, competitively
priced without sacrificing quality.
The Entire Company is certified for ISO 9001: 2008 by LRQA.

ETA Engineering is also a founding member of Indian Green Building Council (I.G.B.C)

Accreditations from

The division offers electromechanical services to hotels, commercial buildings, hospitals, industries, IT parks
etc.

It has executed many projects in different parts of India. Notable among the prestigious projects are:

CHENNAI:

Tidel Park.
Standard Chartered Bank.
American International School.

DELHI:

Delhi Metro Rail.


SAB Shopping Mall.
National Institute of Immunology.

26
MUMBAI:

ICICI.
National Stock Exchange.
Colgate Palmolive.
Reliance Corporate Office.

BANGALORE:

WIPRO office.
The Forum shopping Mall.
Leela Palace Hotel.

HYDERABAD:

ICICI Knowledge Park.


HSBC Bank.
GE Capital.

KERALA:

Kerala Institute of Medical Science.


Le Meridien Hotel.

PUNE:

Osho Commune International.


Rubby Hall Clinic.

DELHI METRO PROJECT:

Electrical & Mechanical (E&M) services are being provided to more that 4km of underground tunnels and
stations for the prestigious Delhi Metro Rail Project, part of the Mass Rapid Transport System.

MISSION

Our Mission is to provide Quality M.E.P services for our Customers by meeting customer requirements in design
, time schedule , prompt after sales service and thereby achieving total Customer loyalty & repeat business.

27
VISION

To be the No.1 and the preferred Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing and Fire Fighting contractor as well as
Manufacturers of HVAC Equipments and Allied Products in India

VALUES

Customer Care
Quality Workmanship
Team Work
Flexibility

QUALITY POLICY

We are committed to be the preferred organization in M & E contracting as well as manufacturing of HVAC
Equipment and Allied Products by meeting customer requirements through continual improvement of Quality
Management System to Achieve Satisfaction of all stake holders.

QUALITY OBJECTIVES

To strive for Continual Improvement in all our activities.


To focus on timely completion of job.
To support employees through training and teamwork.
To achieve results to enhance stake holder's need and expectations.

28
1.5 INDUSTRY PROFILE

ETA Engineering Pvt. Ltd. is a wing of ETA ASCON group of companies from Dubai. Since 1973 ETA
ASCON has diversified in various fields of Business and now stands as a conglomerate globally, having its
offices in around 22 countries. ETA started its contracting division in India in the name of ETA Engineering
around 1994. In few years ETA realized the market potential for the HVAC products in India and started its
manufacturing facility in the year 1998.

The manufacturing facility was started in Pondicherry with state of the art technologies and manufacturing
process with a joint venture with M/s Noviar of Italy for Air handling Units and M/s Century of Korea for Scroll
Chillers, Screw Chillers and Package Units. Within few years of starting the manufacturing facility at
Pondicherry, ETA products acceptability level rose multi folds with the clients for its performance and quality
standards. Due to the rise in the market demand for ETA products, a second plant was started at Chennai in the
year 2004 to manufacture Ducted Splits and Floor mounted package unit.
In less than three years after the start of Chennai plant ETA wanted to have a world class manufacturing facility
to take their products globally, since the demand for exports were more due to the technology behind the
product.

By 2008, ETA inaugurated a world class facility for manufacturing, with highly automated machineries and test
facilities for products, which Indian HVAC industry was never exposed to at Sriperumbadur near Chennai. With
in a year of start of the facility ETA leaped to great heights by claiming various International accreditations for
the products and started leading the industry on the quality standards.

MEP CONTRACTING:

Branch Offices of the Company undertake Projects of various types involving HVAC, Electrical, Plumbing,
Electro Mechanical Contracts and MEP Contracts. Each Branch Office is equipped with Engineers to undertake
Design, Estimation, Planning, Procurement, Installation, Commissioning, Testing and After Sales Service. The
entire Operation of the Company is covered through well documented Method Statements.

The Company uses most modern Techniques to enhance the effectiveness of its Project Management capability
including related Drawing and Design activities. It undertakes MEP Services to reduce the coordination and
conflicts between various Services and its Agencies to avoid rework and delays.
The success of good coordination depends on excellent Coordinated Drawings where there are no clashes
between Services. ETA has experienced Engineers to take up these Coordinated Drawings using the most
modern Building Information Modeling (BIM) Software.

29
The experience of handling International Contracts of Mega size gives ETA the added advantage of bringing the
most modern Concepts, Processes and Methods to India in Projects .

COMMERCIAL PROJECTS
BANKS Location
ICICI Bank Mumbai
Dena Bank Mumbai
UBS Hyderabad
OFFICES
National Stock Exchange Mumbai
EMC Sqare Bangalore
Prestige Cyber Towers Chennai
Ecospace Business Park Hyderabad
Eurospace Business Park Kolkata
MCD Civic Centre Delhi
HICC Hyderabad
IT / ITES
Mahindra Satyam Hyderabad
Wipro Technologies Hyderabad
Google Omega Hyderabad
Softsol Hyderabad
HCL Technologies Hyderabad
Computer Science Corporation Hyderabad
Convergys Hyderabad
ANANTH Oracle Hyderabad
GE Capital Hyderabad
ORACLE Hyderabad
CAPGEMINI Hyderabad
Accenture Hyderabad
Computer Associates Hyderabad
GENPACT Hyderabad
Satyam Hyderabad
Value labs Hyderabad

30
Yahoo @ Begmane Tech Park Bangalore
Wipro Bangalore
Accenture Chennai
Prestige Cyber Towers Chennai
TECCI PARK 1 Chennai
Wipro CDC 5 & 6 Chennai
Wipro Chennai
South City Pinnacle Kolkata
RETAILS MALLS & MULTIPLEXES
Big Shopping Centre Mumbai
Gold Souk Mall Delhi
Mega Sports Complex Kolkata
GVK One Mall Hyderabad
Central Hyderabad
CMR Central Mall Hyderabad
Ishanya Mall Pune
JMD Galleria Delhi
Forum Value Mall Bangalore

HOSPITALS
BL Kapoor memorial Hospital New Delhi
Monash IVF KVM Kinder Hospital Cochin

HOTELS
Trident Hotel Mumbai
ITC Grand Maratha Sheraton Mumbai
Novotel Hotel Hyderabad
Highland Star Hotel Cochin

STUDIOS
Yashraj Film Studios Mumbai
Sun TV Network Chennai
AUTOMOBILE
Mumbai International Airport Mumbai

31
INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

BUILDERS
Belicia Tower Chennai
UB city Bangalore

AIRPORTS
Delhi International Airport Delhi
Mumbai International Airport Mumbai
Oberoi Flight Services Cochin

METRO RAIL
Delhi Metro (D.M.R.C) Delhi

TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Airtel Chennai

SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES (SEZ) OWER PLANTS


Pritech Park Bangalore

Pharmaceuticals
Biological Events ltd Hyderabad

INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS
ELECTRONICS / SEMICONDUCTOR
Sanmina Sci Technology Chennai
SCI SAMINA Chennai
BYD Electronics Chennai
AllisonTransmission Chennai
FACTORY
Areva Chennai
Areva T & D limited Chennai
Coca Cola Plant Hyderabad
Nokia Chennai
UNIPRES Chennai

32
R&D

TA has a dedicated R&D team to work on product development. The R&D team works towards to bring in
latest technology on the product to save energy and to be ECO friendly. The factory has the highly automated
test facilities complying with ASHRAE Standard for the R&D team to make use of it to bring out products with
optimum design to meet various climatic conditions of India.
The R&D team is also equipped with softwares like Pro-E, Auto CADD to build a virtual prototype to bring
down the development period. Other than the 3D softwares, there are Air handling Unit selection software
certified by Eurovent and Coil Selection software certified by AHRI are used by R& D team for the product
designing.

MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENTS

PRESS SHOP
The press shop has the latest CNC Turret press from AMADA Japan, to bring out precise sheet metal punched
components. It also has AMADA make CNC bending machine for the sheet metal fabrication. The sheet metal
components for all products are fabricated in these machines to keep the tolerance level to the minimum and
achieve high productivity and better finish. The press shop also has got a de-coiler and shearing machine.

COIL SHOP
The coils manufactured in the facility are AHRI certified. All coils are selected in the AHRI certified software
and manufactured in the highly automated line having machines imported with the latest technology. The entire
coil line is flexible to produce both and 3/8 tube coils. The coil shop has all machines, which makes the
facility one of its kind and self sustainable. The machines are High Speed Fin press, Vertical Expander,
Horizontal expander, Tube straightner cum hair pin bender, Auto Brazing line, Return bend former, O ring
former, O ring insertion machine etc.

SYSTEM TUBING.
3-Axis CNC controlled system tubing machine imported to form system tubing for the precise dimension and
system tubing with minimum joints to produce leak free products.

BRAZING
The coils are brazed in an Auto Brazing line to produce strong and fine bond between the copper tubes. Apart
from the auto brazing line, there are stand alone brazing equipments to carry out brazing operations for non
standard coils. All these operations are carried out complying with the highest safety level. The coils are leak
tested to a pressure of 400PSI to find for any leak and then it is sent to the assembly line.

33
PU FOAM PANELS
The PU injected panels are made from an imported High pressure foaming machine from Canon Italy. These
machines give panel with an uniform density for the set value. The panels can be fabricated for any depth. The
facility fabricates 25mm and 50mm thick panel with a density of 40Kg/m3 for their Air handling Units.

ASSEMBLY
The final product is assembled in the conveyor lines with various stages of quality inspection. The conveyor line
implemented for the Air handling Unit is one of its kinds among the Indian manufacturer. The final product is
inspected for all Quality standards and then packed.

MANUFACTURING FACILITY

The new facility is spread out in an area of 130,000 Square Feet of land area near Chennai at Sriperumbadur.
The new facility has employed around 300Nos of Man power including the management staff. The new
manufacturing facility in houses all modern manufacturing machines like CNC Turret, Auto Brazing, High speed
fin press etc to bring out world class products. Also, the facility has the state of the art Test facility for AHU,
Chiller & DX products. The manufacturing of products takes place by adapting to the renowned systems like
5S, Kanban etc.

34
CHAPTER NO 2
STATEMENT OF

OBJECTIVE

35
2. STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVE

Primary Objective

To assess the organizational culture at ETA Engineering Pvt Ltd Chennai Tamil Nadu, and the employees

attitudes towards the organization.

Secondary Objectives

To study the employees opinion towards attitude physical and social structure of the organization.

To assess various attitudes of the employees towards their welfare measures and towards the climate of

the organization.

To understand the working environment of ETA Engineering Pvt Ltd.

36
CHAPTER NO -3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

37
3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1
Litwin & Stringer, (1968) in their study entitled has given a macro perspective of analyzing the

organization. According to them, Climate can be defined as the perceived attributes of an organization and its

sub-systems as reflected in the way an organization deals with its members, groups and issues. The emphasis is

on perceived attributes and the working of sub-systems. This frame work emphasizes on motivational linkages

and seems to be quite relevant for studying organizational climate.

2
Schneider and Barlett(1968,1970) - in their article entitled Individual attribute approach Schneider

and Barlett view organizational climate as perceptual as well as an individual attribute. Climate in this approach

is viewed as summary or global perception held by individuals about their organizational environment. Some of

them are encompassed by the work environment scale developed by Moos in 1994. It includes various broad

dimensions like Involvement, Co-worker, Cohesion, Supervisor Support, Autonomy, Task Orientation, Work

Pressure, Clarity, Managerial Control, Innovation, Physical Comfort and others.

3
Sociological studies of complex organizations chronicle a long history of analytic concern with the

linkages between wider societal arrangements and the structure and activities of organizations (Perrow, 1986,

2002). In fact, it is only in recent decades and among some theorists and empirical researchers that attention has

narrowed from a focus on institutionally-rich studies of labor unions, schools, firms, government bureaus, social

movement organizations, advocacy groups, nonprofit agencies, and sundry varied organizations, to a focus on

formal organizations as abstract instrumentally-oriented entities operating in environments that are narrowly

conceptualized as material resource spaces. Over the past decade, however, there have been an increasing

number of calls to revisit the dynamics of organizations and society (e.g. Friedland & Alford, 1991;Scott, 2001;

Stern & Barley, 1996; Stinchcombe, 1997).

1
Litwin & Stringer , (1968) perspective of analyzing the organization D.M.Pestonjee,Job Satisfaction as a function of Role Stress, Locus of
Control, Participation and Organizational Climate in an Electrical company,
2
Schneider and Barlett(1968,1970) -Individual attribute approach the Organisational Efectiveness through HRD-Cultural
Dynamics,JIMS,8:3,December,PP.54-61
3.
(Perrow, 1986, 2002) in the journal of Social Structure and Organizations Revisited, Volume 19, pages 336. Copyright 2002 by Elsevier Science
Ltd.

38
4
Social sustainability is far more difficult to define. As social issues comprise the legal context of a firm,

the assessment shows the extent to which a firm shows compliance to the social standards. In our days,

companies make use of the differing social standards, such as wages, working time, extent of labour unions

power and taxes. Porters concept of the comparative advantage of nations (PORTER, M. in

BARTLETT/GHOSHAL, 1992) underlines a management approach that builds upon those differences. In the

past decades, the nations of the South mainly provided cheap labour and raw material

As social standards differ from one country to another, it is difficult to compare the social performance of

national based companies. The compliance to the legislation in China requires different practices than in the UK

or in Ghana. The national limitation of legislation reflects the historical and cultural context of societal values on

which laws are built upon. Mere compliance to national standards is therefore not a sufficient criterion to assess

a companys social performance

5
Cultural sustainability introduced a broader scope. The basic requirement is, that a company should

respect the culture of its host nation. This comprises, that a business should not interfere and change the culture

in order to maximize its profits (HOFFMANN, 1997).

6
The corporate culture is the expression of collective staff attitudes and shared values this enables them

to believe in the organizations values and goals, and to want to keep working for that organization (Kono &

Clegg, 1998). Organizational culture also recognized as a powerful concept that portrays many facets of a

workplace (Stewart, 1996).

4
(PORTER, M. in BARTLETT/GHOSHAL, 1992) in the journals of Intercultural assessment of sustainability by Simeon Ries by 2001.

5
(HOFFMANN, 1997). A "Corporate architectures for sustainability", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 21 Iss: 12, pp.1573
1585

6
Kono & Clegg, 1998 Transformations of corporate culture: Experiences of Japanese enterprises. Vol xxi pp 445 Kono, Toyohiro by 1988

39
7
Charan, Ram (2001) Dialogue, not products, business models or operational strengths constitutes an
organizations most enduring competitive advantage. Anyone can copy your services. No one can duplicate your
culture of incisiveness and creativity, or your ability to honestly inquire, discuss and make intellectually rigorous
decisions. Functional dialogue can only take place within a culture characterised by openness, candor,
informality and closure. Openness ensures the outcome is not predetermined. Candor means it is OK to speak
the unspeakable. Informality promotes candor and reduces defensiveness. Closure means that at the end of a
meeting everyone knows who has to do what by when. The author acknowledges that this is not easy. The
leader must exercise inner strength by repeatedly signaling which behaviors are acceptable and by sanctioning
those who persist in negative behavior. If less sever sanctions fail, the leader must be willing to remove the
offending player from the group.

8
Detert, J. R., Schroeder, R. G. & Mauriel, J. J. (2000) A organisations cultural characteristics can inhibit or
defeat a quality or re-engineering effort before it even begins. For example, people working within
organisational cultures biased against overt conflict may be uncomfortable challenging long-established rules, or
a short-term quarterly-profit-oriented culture may make it difficult for people to extend their vision to re-
engineering's longer time horizons. The authors review existing culture frameworks and organize them through
qualitative content analysis into a set of eight overarching, descriptive dimensions of culture. Organisational
cultures vary depending on how they value data versus gut feel as a legitimate basis for decision-making
(dimension #1 - Basis of Truth and Rationality). Cultures vary in terms of the nature of their time horizons (#2 -
short-term or long-term). In some cultures, it is assumed that people are naturally motivated and do not need
elaborate control systems (#3 motivation) or vice versa. Ideas about peoples desires for stability versus
change/innovation/personal growth (dimension # 4) also vary across cultures. The fifth dimension they
identified (orientation to work, task, and coworkers) relates to the importance of work to life as a whole and to
work/life balance. Whether or not people work best alone or collaboratively in groups, and ideas about the
centralisation versus decentralisation of control, coordination, and responsibility are the sixth and seventh
dimensions. The final dimension they identified has to do with whether the organisational culture is focused
more internally on people and process, or externally on customers and competitors.

7
Charan, Ram (2001). Conquering a culture of indecision. Harvard Business Review, April, Vol. 79, # 4, pp. 75-82.
8
Detert, J. R., Schroeder, R. G. & Mauriel, J. J. (2000). A framework for linking culture and improvement initiatives in organizations. The Academy of

Management Review, Vol. 25, # 4, 850-863.

40
9
There are past study that proved the strong relationship between organizational culture and organizational
commitment. Boon and Arumugam (2006) was proved in their study that all dimensions in organizational
culture have a strong relationship with organizational commitment. While study from Rashid et al. (2003) also
showed that there is a significant correlation between corporate culture and organizational commitment among
managers in public listed company

10
Organizational Culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the
organization from other organizations. This system of shared meaning is actually a set of key characteristics that
the organization values (Robbins and Sanghi, 2007).

Organizational culture is a descriptive term which is concerned with how employees perceive the characteristics
of an organizations culture, not with whether or not they like them. This appraisal of the organization on its
characteristics gives a composite picture of the organizations culture. This picture in turn becomes the basis for
feelings of shared understanding that members have about the organization, how things are done in it, and the
way members are supposed to behave (Robbins and Sanghi, 2007).

9
Boon and Arumugam (2006) Sunway Academic Journal 3, 99115 (2006)

10
Robbins, S. P. and S. Sanghi Organizational Behavior, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2007.

41
CHAPTER NO 4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

42
4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The objective of the current study is accomplished by conducting a market research. The market

Research process that will be adopted in the present study consist of the following stages:

4.1 Research design


Research designs are concerned with turning the research question into a testing project. The research
design has been considered as a blueprint for research. Here the descriptive research design is used.

4.2 Sample size:


A Sample of 50 respondents was taken into consideration for my study and the data was collected.

4.3 Sampling technique


To study the project a simple random sampling technique under lottery method is used

4.4 Questionnaire Design


A questionnaire is being framed for collecting the appropriate data required for collecting the information based
on 4 variable physical factor, social factor, climate factor, welfare factor.5 question framed to test each variable

4.5 Period of study


The period of study for the study was a course of 4 months.

4.6 Data Collection


Collection of data was done by

Questionnaires
Interview

Source of Data
The data collected for this project work was from two sources

1. Primary Source
2. Secondary Source.

Primary Source:

43
Primary data is collected from managers, employees of ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD,CHENNAI,
Some data was also collection employees by using structured questionnaire.

Secondary Source:
The secondary data was collected by company website, books and internet, Wikipedia.

4.7 Statistical tools used:


For the purpose of analysis CHI-SQUARE, PERCENTAGE RANKING methods are used for
calculations and the result were interpreted. These methods are used to minimize the error of data collected.
Graphs were used to represent the data for the better and accurate interpretation of result.

Statiscal tools used for analysis are as follows:

Weighted Average
Chi-square.
Ranking Method.

Weighted Average:
Mean in which each item being averaged is multiplied by a number(weighted) based on the items
relative importance. The result is summed and the total is divided by the sum of the weighted averages are used
extensively in descriptive statistical analysis such as index numbers, Also called weighted mean.

Chi square Analysis:


The chi square test is one of the most widely used non-parametric test in statistical work. It makes no
assumption of population being sampled. Chi square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed
data with expected data to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. Identify goodness to fit between the
observed and expected.

Were the deviation between observed and expected result of chance, or were they due to other factors. How
much deviation can occur before the investigator, must conclude that something other than chance is at work,
causing the observed to differ from the expected. The chi-square test is used for testing the null hypothesis,
which states that there is no significant difference between the expected and observed result.

44
Ranking Method.

A ranking is a relationship between a set of item such that. For any two items , the first is either ranked
higher than ranked lower than or ranked equal to the second. In the mathematics. this is known as weak order
or total preorder of objects. It is not necessarily a total order of object because two different objects have same
ranking. The ranking themselves are totally ordered for example, materials are totally preordered by hardness,
while degree of hardness are totally ordered.

45
4.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

It is necessary for any management to ensure that employees are satisfied with their job, For the benefits

of the organization, A study on organization culture measures helps the management to understand the attitude of

the employees towards their job. It tells how the people feel about their relationship with an industry, and their

welfare of job. It scientifically contributes towards employees productivity and morale.

The present study has made an attempt to measure the organization culture In ETA Engineering Pvt

Ltd. This study has been conducted with 50 employees in the study area. This study mainly concentrates on

studying the organization culture measures provided by the company, This study can be further related to

measure organization culture, employee job satisfaction, and labour turn over of the company. For

development and better satisfaction of the employees, the company must concentrate on the

dissatisfied area.

46
4.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study was restricted to ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD CHENNAI. This could have given rise to a
unique perception of the culture.

Since there has been a gap of a few months between data collection and the consolidation of the report,
the findings might not accurately reflect the current attitudes and perceptions of the employees, as these
could have changed over time.

Some of the respondents were hesitated to express their opinion about organization culture measures due
to fear of management

The survey is based on the opinion of the employees, which may be biased.

Period of study is too short and hence it is a major limitation.

47
CHAPTER NO 5

DATA ANALYSIS AND


INTERPRETATION

48
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTRERPRETATION

TABLE NO 1
EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENT

S.no Experience No of Respondent Percentage

1 Less than 2 years 7 14%

2 2-3 years 20 40%

3 3-6 years 18 36%

4 6 yrs above 5 10%

Total 50 100.0

CHART:
25

20
PERCENTAGE

15

10

0
Less than 2 years 2-3 years 3-6 years 6 yrs above

INFERENCE:
It is stated from the above table that most of the respondents have 2-3 years experience.

49
TABLE NO 2

IMPROVEMENT IN WORKING CONDITION

S .no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 7 14%

2 Agree 21 42%

3 Neutral 19 38%

4 Disagree 2 4%

5 strongly disagree 1 2%

Total 50 100.0

CHART:

25

42%
20
38%
PERCENTAGE

15

10 21
19
14%
5
7
4%
2 2%
1
0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
IMPROVEMENT IN WORKING CONDITION

INFERENCE
From the above table stated that 42% of respondent agree that there is improvement in working condition. And
2% of them disagree, that there is no improvement.

50
TABLE NO 3

FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH WORKING ENVIRONMENT.

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 Strongly agree 8 16%

2 agree 31 62%

3 neutral 11 22%

4 Disagree 0 0%

5 Strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.00

CHART:

35

30

25
PERCENTAGE

20

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
COMFORTABLE WITH WROKING ENVIRONMENT

INFERENCE:
62% of respondents are comfortable with the current working environment.

51
TABLE NO 4

QUALITY OF MATERIAL PROVIDED TO PERFORM JOB IS GOOD


S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 8 16%

2 agree 26 52%

3 neutral 13 26%

4 disagree 3 6%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART:

30

25

20
PERCENTAGE

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
QUALITY OF MATERIAL

INFERENCE:
From the above table it is stated that 52% of respondents felt that the company is providing quality material to
perform their jobs well.

52
TABLE NO 5

NEW METHOD OF WORK HAD BEEN INTRODUCED


S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 3 6%

2 agree 13 26%

3 neutral 26 52%

4 disagree 7 14%

5 strongly disagree 1 2%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

30

25
PERCENTAGE

20

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
NEW METHOD OF WORK HAD BEEN INTRODUCED

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated that 52% of the respondents neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the new
methodologies introduced in the organization

53
TABLE NO 6

ORGANIZATION HAD DIPLOMATIC FUTURE

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 7 14%

2 agree 23 46%

3 neutral 20 40%

4 disagree 0 0%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

25

20
PERCENTAGE

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
ORGANIZATION HAD DIPLOMATIC FUTURE

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated that 46% of the responded are agree that their organization had diplomatic
future. 40% of the respondents are neutral. 14% of the respondents are strongly agreed. That the organization had
diplomatic Future
54
TABLE NO 7

THE ORGANIZATION HAS BECOME MORE POSITIVE

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 9 18%

2 Agree 24 48%

3 Neutral 15 30%

4 Disagree 2 4%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

30

25

20
PERCENTAGE

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
ATTITUDE TOWARDS WORK BECOME POSITIVE

INFERENCE

From the above table it is stated 48% of the responded agree attitude towards your work become positive 30%
of responded are neutral. 18% of the responded are strongly agree. 4% are disagree.

55
TABLE NO 8

CORDIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH YOUR SUB ORDINATES

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 11 22%

2 agree 27 54%

3 neutral 12 24%

4 disagree 0 0%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100%

CHART

30

25
PERCENTAGE

20

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
RELATIONSHIP WITH SUB ORDINATES

INFERENCE

From the above table it is stated 54% of the respondents are agree that they have cordial relationship with their
sub ordinates. 24% of responded are neutral. 22% of responded are strongly agree

56
TABLE NO 9

APPRECIATION FOR WORK


S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 10 20%

2 Agree 18 36%

3 Neutral 17 34%

4 Disagree 5 5%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

20
18
16
14
PERCENTAGE

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
RECIEVE PROPER APPRIECIATION

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated that 36% of the respondents are receiving proper appreciation for their work
34% of respondents fell neutral.10% of respondents are strongly agree.5% of the responded are disagree.

57
TABLE NO 10

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL TO DO WORK PROPERLY

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 15 30%

2 agree 30 60%

3 neutral 5 10%

4 disagree 0 0%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

35
30
25
PERCENTAGE

20
15
10
5
0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
KNOWELDGE AND SKILL TO DO JOB PROPERLY

INFERENCE

From the above table it is stated 60% of the respondents are agree that they have knowledge and skill to do job
properly. 30% of responded are strongly agree that they have knowledge and skill .10% are neutral.

58
TABLE NO 11

SPENDING TIME USEFULLY

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 9 18%

2 agree 34 68%

3 neutral 6 12%

4 disagree 1 2%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

40

35

30
PERCENTAGE

25

20

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
YOU SPEND TIME MORE USEFULLY THAN BEFORE

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated 68% of the respondents are agree that they are spend time more usefully than
before. 18% of respondents are strongly agree. 12% of respondents are neutral.

59
TABLE NO 12

COMPETITIVE ORGANIZATION CULTURE

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 5 10%

2 agree 24 48%

3 Neutral 18 36%

4 Disagree 3 6%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

30

25

20
PERCENTAGE

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
ORGANIZATION CULTURE IS COMPETIIVE

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated 48% of the respondents say that their organization culture is competitive. 36%
of respondents felt neutral. 8% of responded are strongly agree the organization culture is competitive.

60
TABLE NO 13
FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH WORKING HERE

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 10 20%

2 Agree 29 58%

3 Neutral 9 18%

4 Disagree 0 0%

5 strongly disagree 2 4%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

35
30
25
PERCENTAGE

20
15
10
5
0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
FEEL COMFOERTABLE WORKING HERE

INFERENCE
From the above table it stated that 58% of the respondents feel comfortable working in the organization. 20% of
the respondents strongly feel comfortable. 18% are neutral.

61
TABLE NO 14

LEADERSHIP ABILITIES

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 4 8%

2 Agree 35 70%

3 neutral 10 20%

4 disagree 0 0%

5 strongly disagree 1 2%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

40
35
30
PERCENTAGE

25
20
15
10
5
0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
LEADERSHIP ABILITIES

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated that 70% of the respondents are agree that they are happy with their own
leadership abilities.20% of respondents feel neutral.

62
TABLE NO 15

THE WORK HAS BECOME MORE INTERESTING


S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 20 40%

2 agree 19 38%

3 neutral 10 20%

4 disagree 1 2%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

25

20
PERCENTAGE

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
WORK HAD BECOME MORE INTERESTING

INFERENCE
From the above table its stated that 40% of respondents are strongly agree that work had become more
interesting. Similarly 38% of responded say they agree the work become more interesting. 20% of the responded
are neutral.

63
TABLE NO 16

PROUD OF WORKING FOR THIS ORGANIZATION


S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 21 42%

2 Agree 20 40%

3 Neutral 9 18%

4 Disagree 0 0%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

25

20
lPERCENTAGE

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
PROUD OF WORKING THIS ORGANIZATION

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated that 42% of responded are strongly agree that they are proud of working in this
organization. Similarly 40% of responded are also agree they are proud of working this organization.

64
TABLE NO 17

HEALTH INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTS BENEFITS TO THE EMPLOYEES

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 16 32%

2 agree 22 44%

3 neutral 12 24%

4 disagree 0 0%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

25

20
PERCENTAGE

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
HEALTH INSURANCE AND ACCIDENT BENEFITS

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated that 44% of respondents are agree that management provides health insurance
and accident benefits. 32% of responded are also agree. 24% of responded are neutral

65
TABLE NO 18

INFORMATION ON MANAGEMENT POLICIES.

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 7 14%

2 Agree 23 46%

3 Neutral 17 34%

4 Disagree 2 4%

5 strongly disagree 1 2%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

25

20

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
YOU HAVE BEEN IFORMED ABOUT MANAGEMENT POLICY

INFERENCE

From the above table it is stated that 46% of responded are agree that they have been informed about
management policy. 34% of responded are neutral. 14% of responded are strongly agree

66
TABLE NO 19

GRIEVANCES SOLVING

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 4 8%

2 agree 16 32%

3 neutral 26 52%

4 disagree 3 6%

5 strongly disagree 1 2%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

30

25

20

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
GRIEVANCES SOLVING

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated that 52% of respondents are neither agree, nor disagree with the grievances
handling mechanism of the organization. And 32% of responded are satisfied with grievances handling
mechanism of the company.
67
TABLE NO 20

ORGANIZATION IS CONCERN FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 5 10%

2 Agree 25 50%

3 Neutral 16 32%

4 Disagree 4 8%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHART

30

25
PERCENTAGE

20

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
ORGANIZATION IS CONCERN FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

INFERENCE
From the above table 50% of the respondents are agree that organization is more concern for social welfare
activities 10% of responded are strongly agree.And 32% are neutal.

68
TABLE NO 21

SAFETY MEASURES GIVEN BY MANAGEMENT

S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage

1 strongly agree 5 10%

2 agree 26 52%

3 neutral 18 36%

4 disagree 1 2%

5 strongly disagree 0 0%

Total 50 100.0

CHARTS

30

25

20

15

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree
SAFETY MEASURES GIVEN BY MANAGEMENT

INFERENCE
From the above table it is stated that 52% of the respondent are satisfied with the safety measures provided by
management. 36% of respondent are neutral.
69
WEIGHTED AVERAGE

TABLE NO 22

RESPONDENT OPINION ABOUT THE QUALITY OF MATERIAL PROVIDED TO


PERFORM JOB IS GOOD

Weighted Mean
S.no Opinion No of Respondent Weight(w) (wx)

1 strongly agree 8 5 40

2 Agree 26 4 104

3 Neutral 13 3 39

4 Disagree 3 2 6

5 strongly disagree 0 1 0

Total 50 189

Weighted Average = (wx)/x

= 189/50

= 3.78

We taken the value 4

So respondent Opinion about the quality of material provided to perform job is good.

70
TABLE NO 23

EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP.

Weighted Mean
S.no Opinion No of Respondent Weight(w) (wx)

1 strongly agree 11 5 55

2 agree 27 4 108

3 neutral 12 3 36

4 disagree 0 2 0

5 strongly disagree 0 1 0

Total 50 199

Weighted Average = (wx)/x

= 199/50

= 3.98

We taken the value 4

So the respondent Opinion about relationship with sub ordinates are satisfied

71
TABLE NO 24

COMFORTABILITY OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT


Weighted
Mean
S.no Opinion No of Respondent Weighted(w) (wx)

1 strongly agree 10 5 50

2 Agree 29 4 116

3 Neutral 9 3 27

4 Disagree 0 2 0

5 strongly disagree 2 1 2

Total 50 195

Weighted Average = (wx)/x

= 195/50

= 3.9

We taken the value 4

So respondent Opinion about feel comfortable with working here.

72
TABLE NO 25

INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTS BENEFITS

Weighted Mean
S.no Opinion No of Respondent Weighted(w) (wx)

1 strongly agree 16 5 80

2 agree 22 4 88

3 neutral 12 3 36

4 disagree 0 2 0

5 strongly disagree 0 1 0

Total 50 204

Weighted Average = (wx)/x

=204 /50

= 4.08

We taken the value 4

So respondent Opinion health insurance and accident benefits to employees are satisfied

73
TABLE NO 26

WELFARE MEASURES

Weighted Mean
S.no Opinion No of Respondent Weight(w) (wx)

1 strongly agree 5 5 25

2 Agree 25 4 100

3 Neutral 16 3 48

4 Disagree 4 2 8

5 strongly disagree 0 1 0

Total 50 181

Weighted Average = (wx)/x

= 181/50

= 3.62

We taken the value 4

So respondent Opinion about organization is concern for social welfare

74
RANKING METHOD

TABLE NO 27

S.no Factors Weighted Rank


Average score

1 Quality of material 189 IV

2 Relationship with sub-ordinates 199 II


3 Comfortable working here 195 III
4 Insurance and accident benefits 204 I
5 Social welfare 181 V

INTERPRETATION

It is seen from the above table that. Insurance and accident benefits occupied with weighted average score of
204 points. It is followed by relationship with sub-ordinates is ranked second with weighted score of 199 points.
The third and second rank goes to Comfortable working here and quality of material. With weighted average
score of 195 and 189 points. Respectively. On the other hand social welfare was placed in the last rank with
weighted score of 181 points.

75
CHI-SQUARE TEST

Table No 28

To find the Opinion about improvement in working condition is independent of their age.

Null hypothesis (HO) - There is no significant relationship between experience of


respondents and their opinion on improvement in working
condition.

AGE OF RESPONDENT * improvements in working condition


Improvements in working condition
OPINION Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Total
disagree agree
Age Of LESS
Respondent THAN 2 0 0 3 4 0 7
YRS
2-3 YRS 1 0 10 5 4 20
3-6 YRS 0 0 5 10 3 18
6 YRS 0 2 1 2 0 5
ABOVE
Total 1 2 19 21 7 50

CALCULATION

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 26.059a 12 .011

a. 16 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.

INFERENCE

76
TABLE NO 29

To find the Opinion about receiving proper appreciation is independent of their age.

Null hypothesis (HO) - There is no significant relationship between experience of


respondent and receiving appreciation.

AGE OF RESPONDENT * receive proper appreciation for your work. Cross tabulation

Receive Proper Appreciation For Your Work.


OPINION Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Total
agree
AGE OF LESS THAN 2 0 4 3 0 7
RESPONDENT YRS
2-3 YRS 4 5 6 5 20
3-6 YRS 1 7 7 3 18
6 YRS ABOVE 0 3 1 1 5
Total 5 19 17 9 50

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 8.264a 9 .035
a. 12 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.

INFERENCE

77
CHAPTER NO 6
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

78
FINDINGS

It is found from the analysis that maximum of respondents have 2-3 years of experience.
42% of respondents agree that there is improvement in working condition. And 2% of them disagree,
that there is no improvement.
62% of respondents are comfortable with the current working environment.
52% of respondents felt that the company is providing quality material to perform their jobs well.
52% of the respondents neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the new methodologies introduced in
the organization
46% of the respondents are agree that their organization had diplomatic future. 40% of the
respondents are neutral. 14% of the respondents are strongly agreed. that the organization had
diplomatic Future
48% of the respondents agree attitude towards your work become positive 30% of responded are
neutral. 18% of the responded are strongly agree. 4% are disagree
54% of the respondents are agree that they have cordial relationship with their sub ordinates. 24% of
responded are neutral. 22% of responded are strongly agree
36% of the respondents are receiving proper appreciation for their work 34% of respondents fell
neutral.10% of respondents are strongly agree.5% of the responded are disagree.
60% of the respondents are agree that they have knowledge and skill to do job properly. 30% of
responded are strongly agree that they have knowledge and skill .10% are neutral.
68% of the respondents are agree that they are spend time more usefully than before. 18% of
respondents are strongly agree.12% of respondents are neutral.
48% of the respondents say that their organization culture is competitive. 36% of respondents felt
neutral. 8% of responded are strongly agree the organization culture is competitive
58% of the respondents feel comfortable working in the organization. 20% of the respondents
strongly feel comfortable. 18% are neutral.
70% of the respondents are agree that they are happy with their own leadership abilities.20% of
respondents feel neutral.
40% of respondents are strongly agree that work had become more interesting. Similarly 38% of
responded say they agree the work become more interesting. 20% of the responded are neutral
42% of respondents are strongly agree that they are proud of working in this organization. Similarly
40% of responded are also agree they are proud of working this organization
44% of respondents are agree that management provides health insurance and accident benefits. 32%
of responded are also agree. 24% of responded are neutral

79
46% of respondents are agree that they have been informed about management policy. 34% of
responded are neutral.14% of responded are strongly agree
52% of respondents are neither agree, nor disagree with the grievances handling mechanism of the
organization. And 32% of responded are satisfied with grievances handling mechanism of the
company.
50% of the respondents are agree that organization is more concern for social welfare activities 10%
of responded are strongly agree.And 32% are neutal.
52% of the respondents are satisfied with the safety measures provided by management. 36% of
respondent are neutral.

80
CHAPTER NO 7

RECOMMENDATION

81
RECOMMENDATION

Since the organization is perceived to be effective, and since most of the respondents have positive
feelings about it, the management should take care to maintain the current way of working, and ensure
that it does not regress to the old bureaucratic model.

It might however help to look into the reasons behind some of the employees experiencing stress as well
as fear / insecurity. If the triggering factors for these feelings could be identified and dealt with, employee
dissatisfaction, poor performance, absenteeism and even attrition, could be prevented.

Work should be planned well in advance, taking care that work assignments do not overlap with one
another. Information regarding the work should reach in time. Sufficient time should be given for the
completion of work.

ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD also feel the need for more autonomy (freedom) to think and make
decisions at work. This will prevent the ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD from feeling undue stress, and
will also facilitate higher quality of work.

There should be a proper system in place for regular monitoring and review of the work of the ETA
ENGINEERING PVT LTD.

There should be a mechanism for prompt redressal of grievances. sometimes feel ill-treated by their
supervisors, and even by the superior. Sometimes they perceive unfairness or partiality in work allotment.
They feel a need to be protected from their seniors (supervisors) who sometimes threaten them.

82
CHAPTER NO 8

CONCLUSION

83
CONCLUSION:

The perceptions of the ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD about the organization culture at Chennai Tamil Nadu

were assessed. It appears that the organization has a single strong culture, which is perceived favorably by the

ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD. The attitudes of the ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD towards their jobs as

well as towards the organization are also positive. The respondents attitudes towards their jobs are positive, with

a majority of the respondents agreeing that there has been an improvement in their attitudes in the recent past.

Among the reasons for this positive improvement are the following: the work has become more interesting, their

jobs / roles are now clearer than before, they now have the knowledge / skills to do their jobs properly, and they

feel they are spending their time more usefully than before. To a lesser degree, the fact that they now receive

appreciation for their work has also helped to improve their positive attitude With regard to the organization, a

vast majority of the respondents have a strong sense of belonging, and they take pride in working for the organization.

Most of them feel comfortable working here

84
CHAPTER NO 9

BIBLOGRAPHY

85
BIBLOGRAPHY

1 Boon and Arumugam (2006) Sunway Academic Journal 3, 99115 (2006)

2 Cummings, T. G. and C. G. Worley Organization Development and Change, Thomson South-Western,


Delhi, 2007.

3 Charan, Ram (2001). Conquering a culture of indecision. Harvard Business Review, April, Vol. 79, # 4,
pp. 75-82.

4 Detert, J. R., Schroeder, R. G. & Mauriel, J. J. (2000). A framework for linking culture and
improvement initiatives in organizations. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 25, # 4, 850-863.

5 DeVellis, R. F. Scale Development Theory and Applications, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, 1991

6 HOFFMANN, 1997. A "Corporate architectures for sustainability", International Journal of Operations


& Production Management, Vol. 21 Iss: 12, pp.1573 1585

7 Kono & Clegg, 1998 Transformations of corporate culture: Experiences of Japanese enterprises. Vol
xxi pp 445 Kono, Toyohiro by 1988

8 Luthans, F. Organizational Behavior, Irwin / McGraw-Hill, Massachusetts, 1998.

9 Litwin & Stringer perspective of analyzing the organization D.M.Pestonjee,Job Satisfaction as a


function of Role Stress, Locus of Control, Participation and Organizational Climate in an Electrical
company,
10 Muchinsky, P. M. Psychology Applied to Work An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational
Psychology, Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, Belmont, CA, 2000.

11 Perrow 2002 in the journal of Social Structure and Organizations Revisited, Volume 19, pages 336.
Copyright 2002 by Elsevier Science Ltd
12 Robbins, S. P. and S. Sanghi Organizational Behavior, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2007.
13 PORTER, M. in BARTLETT/GHOSHAL, 1992) in the journals of Intercultural assessment of
sustainability by Simeon Ries by 2001.

14 Schneider and Barlett-Individual attribute approach the Organisational Efectiveness through HRD-
Cultural Dynamics,JIMS,8:3,December,PP.54-61

86
WEBLIOGRAPHY.

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_culture
2. www.icmrindia.org
3. http://www.eta-engg.com/index.html
4. http://www.eta-engg.com/company_info.html
5. http://www.eta-engg.com/manufacturing_equipments.html
6. http://www.eta-engg.com/mep_contracting.html
7. http://www.eta-engg.com/projec_gallery.html

87
CHAPTER NO 10

ANEXXURE

88
10 ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE.
A STUDY ON ORGANIZATION CULTURE
Instructions for filling in the questionnaire:

Please do not leave any question unanswered.

For statements given in the following format

Part 1

Name:

Designation: Gender:( )Male ( )Female

Years of exp:

(a) Less than 2 yrs b) 2-3 yrs.

(b) 3-6 yrs d) 6 yrs above:

PART II

1 2 3 4 5
*
Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree.

PHYSICAL FACTORS:
1 In the recent past, there have been some improvements in working 1 2 3 4 5
condition of the organization.

2 You feel comfortable with the work environment. 1 2 3 4 5


3 The quality of material provided by the organization to perform your job 1 2 3 4 5
is good.

4. New methodologies of work have been introduced in the organization. 1 2 3 4 5

5 Your organization had diplomatic future. 1 2 3 4 5

SOCIAL FACTORS:
6. In the recent past, your attitude towards your work and / or the 1 2 3 4 5
organization has become more positive.

7 Cordial relationship with your sub-ordinate. 1 2 3 4 5


8 You receive proper appreciation for your work. 1 2 3 4 5

89
9 You have the knowledge and / or the skills to do your job properly. 1 2 3 4 5
10 You spend time more usefully than before. 1 2 3 4 5
CLIMATE FACTORS:
11 Your organization culture is competitive 1 2 3 4 5

12 You feel comfortable working here. 1 2 3 4 5

13 You are happy with your own leadership abilities. 1 2 3 4 5


14 The work has become more interesting. 1 2 3 4 5

15 You are proud working for this organization. 1 2 3 4 5

WELFARE FACTORS:
16 The Management provides health insurance and accidents benefits to the 1 2 3 4 5
employees

17 You have been informed about all the management policies. 1 2 3 4 5

18 The management solve all your grievances. 1 2 3 4 5

19 Organization is concern for social welfare. 1 2 3 4 5


20 In general are you satisfied with the safety measures given by 1 2 3 4 5
Management.

*****Thank you.*****

90