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Unit 1

Objetivos
Al finalizar la Unidad I los participantes estarn en capacidad de:

1. Definir e identificar los vocablos relacionados con las partes de un


diccionario.

2. Distinguir las diferentes categoras lxicas dadas, fuera o dentro de un


contexto, utilizando el diccionario que tengan a su disposicin.

Actividad de Lectura 1
Read this text to understand how to use your dictionary in a better way.

USINGANENGLISHDICTIONARY

For foreign students of English, a good dictionary is a necessary reference book. Like
all tools, however, it is valuable only if it is used correctly and efficiently. A short time
spent on learning what a dictionary contains and how it should be used will save you
much time later.

Dictionaries to Avoid

Because new words come into the language and old meaning frequently change, it is
important to use only a dictionary that has been recently published or revised. Avoid a
dictionary that is more than ten or at most fifteen years old.

Small paper-covered dictionaries have only a limited value for your study needs. They
are abridgements of abridgements. Also, though they may have been published recently,
many of these pocket-size dictionaries are copied without changes from older
dictionaries.

Avoid a native-language-to-English dictionary (for example, Japanese-English, French-


English, Persian-English). Dictionaries of this kind are frequently poorly edited and out
of date. Although they may serve an occasional and immediate convenience, their great
danger is the assumption that there is a one-for-one correspondence between the words
of the two languages. Sometimes there is, most often there is not. Word translations of
the kind that such dictionaries encourage can lead you into many mistakes. Furthermore,
you will not increase your English vocabulary but only temporarily find what may be a
false equivalent.

Why Use a Dictionary


1) to learn meanings of unfamiliar 1) para aprender significados de palabras
words desconocidas

2) to find correct spellings 2) para ubicar la correcta escritura

3) to find out how to correctly use a 3) para descubrir su uso correcto


word as what part of speech
4) para encontrar la pronunciacin
4) to find the pronunciation for a word correcta

5) to find the derivation of a word (the 5) encontrar las palabras derivadas (su
origins of the word ) origen)

6) to find the correct spellings of 6) encontrar la correcta escritura de


derivatives (root words with derivados (raz de palabra con sufijos
suffixes or other regular endings ) u otras terminaciones regulares)

Actividad de Lectura

Words to Know
GUIDE WORDS - two words listed PALABRAS GUAS dos palabras en el borde
at the top of each dictionary page superior de cada pgina que sealan las palabras
that signal the words alphabetically enlistadas en la misma.
listed on the page

PALABRAS ENTRADA siempre en negritas, da


ENTRY WORDS - in boldface type, la escritura (y algunas veces estn divididas en
gives the spelling (and is sometimes slabas)
divided to show syllables)

PRONUNCIACIN los smbolos usados para


PRONUNCIATION - the symbols mostrar como pronunciar la palabra
used to show how to pronounce the apropiadamente (los sonidos que representan los
word properly (the sounds the smbolos mostrados en la pronunciacin estn
symbols represent is shown in the presentados en la tabla) (cuando las
pronunciation key ) (when pronunciaciones son etiquetadas en 1 o 2, las
pronunciations are labeled "for 1" or mismas deben ser usadas para la definicin con el
"for 2" that pronunciation should nmero) (cuando se presentan dos
only be used for the definition with pronunciaciones para una palabra con una o
that number) (when two entre ellas, pueden ser usadas indistintamente)
pronunciations for one word have an
"or" between them the
pronunciations can be used DEFINICIN significados de palabras. Son
interchangeably) explicados brevemente y aparecen enumerados
para separar uno de otro.

DEFINITION - gives the meanings


of the word. They are stated briefly ORACIONES ILUSTRATIVAS (o frase)
and are numbered to separate each oracin utilizada para demostrar el uso de una
one. palabra

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCE - (or ETIQUETA una palabra descriptiva usada para


phrase) sentence used to demonstrate mostrar como es usada una palabra (ejemplo
how a word is used USO VIEJO o ARCAICO le dice al lector que la
palabra no es usada comunmente hoy da pero
puede ser necesaria una definicin porque la
LABEL - a descriptive word used to palabra puede ser usada en literatura).
show how a word is used ( example
OLD USE or ARCHAIC tells the
reader the word is not commonly ARGOT una etiqueta usada para decirle al lector
used in today's speech but a que la definicin es para un uso no estndar de la
definition may be necessary because palabra de entrada.
the word may be used in literature )

MODISMO una frase o dicho en el cual un uso


SLANG - a label used to tell the especial est hecho de una palabra, ejemplo:
reader that the definition is for a raining cats and dogs (est lloviendo a cntaros,
nonstandard use of the entry word con truenos y rayos)

IDIOM - a phrase or saying in which DERIVACIN el origen de la palabra de entrada


a special use is made of a word de donde viene la palabra (usualmente escrita al
example - raining cats and dogs final de la definicin en corchetes)

DERIVATION - the origin of the ABREVIATURAS (de categoras lxicas= -


entry word where the word comes identifica cada uso de una palabra por su funcin
from (usually written at the end of en una oracin.
the definition in brackets )

ADJ. Adjetivo ayuda a describir un nombre d


ABBREVIATIONS - ( of parts of un significado ms exacto.
speech) - identify each use of a word
by its function in a sentence
ADV.- adverbio ayuda a describir un verbo al
dar un significado ms exacto
ADJ.- adjective - helps describe a
noun gives a more exact meaning
CONJ.- conjuncin connecta palabras, frases o
clusulas
ADV.- adverb - helps describe a verb
by giving a more exact meaning

CONJ.- conjunction - connects


words, phrases or clauses
INTERJ.- interjeccin palabra independiente que
expresa sentimientos fuertes
INTERJ.- interjection - independent
word which expresses strong feeling
N.- nombre/sustantivo nombra a una persona,
lugar o cosa.
N.- noun - name of a person, place
or thing
PREP.- preposicin muestra la relacin entre
sustantivo y alguna otra palabra en la oracin
PREP.- preposition - shows
relationship between noun and some
other word in the sentence PRON.- pronombre usado en lugar de un
nombre o sustantivo

PRON.- pronoun - used in place of


noun VB.- verbo indica la accin o dice algo acerca
del sujeto

VB.- verb- indicates action or tells


something about the subject PL.- plural la forma de un sustantivo, adjetivo, o
verbo que indica que se est hablando en la
oracin de ms de una persona, lugar, o c
PL.- plural - form of a noun,
adjective, or verb which indicates
that more than one person, place, or
thing is being spoken about in the
sentence

Actividad 1
Este enlace lo llevar a una hoja de prctica en espaol.

El ejercicio es un pareo, en el cual debe presionar el botn izquierdo


del

mouse sobre la definicin (lado derecho) y llevarla encima del


trmino seleccionado (lado izquierdo).
http://www.materialesdelengua.org/WEB/hotpotatoes/diccionario/jmach_entrada.htm
Activity 2
Practice: Using your dictionary, choose the best
definition for each term in bold as it is used in each
sentence.
Question

1. I started school during the fall semester.

Answers

Option 1

to drop or come down freely

Option 2

to lose office

Option 3

a season of the year

Option 4

armed capture of a place under siege

Feedback

Question

2 . We built a run for our new greyhound so she could get daily
exercise

Answers
Option 1

to sew a line of stitches

Option 2

an outdoor enclosure for animals or poultry

Option 3

to smuggle

Option 4

to compete in a race for elected office

Feedback

Question

3. The president of the association has complete rule.

Answers

Option 1

governing power

Option 2

a standard method or procedure for solving problems

Option 3

to make as with a ruler


Option 4

to be in total control or command

Feedback

Question

4. Will you please pick the pods from the vines?

Answers

Option 1

a casing forming part of a vehicle

Option 2

a school of marine animals

Option 3

a fruit of a leguminous plant such as the pea

Option 4

the lengthwise groove in boring tools such as augers

Feedback

Question

5. After she broke her tooth, she had to get a bridge from her
dentist

Answers
Option 1

a fixed or removable replacement for one or several of the natural teeth

Option 2

an electrical shunt

Option 3

the upper section of the human nose

Option 4

a span

Feedback

Question

6. Dont forget to turn off the iron when you have finished ironing
your clothes

Answers

Option 1

a golf club with a metal head

Option 2

a harpoon

Option 3
a metal appliance with a handle and a flat bottom

Option 4

great hardness or strength

Feedback

Question

7. Diane has such class. She carries herself well and always dresses
with perfection

Answers

Option 1

a group of students

Option 2

social rank or caste

Option 3

a grade of mail

Option 4

elegance of style, taste, and manner

Feedback

Question

8. The airline will have to charge extra if you want your cat to join
you onboard

Answers
Option 1

something for which an additional charge is made

Option 2

surprising news

Option 3

something of very high quality

Feedback

Question

9. The young boy and his dog had to be saved when the raging river
flooded their village.

Answers

Option 1

to rescue from danger

Option 2

to avoid waste

Option 3

to copy a file from a computers main memory

Option 4
to treat with care by avoiding fatigue

Feedback

Question

10. Be sure to fill the bucket to the very top.

Answers

Option 1

to supply as required

Option 2

to put into as much as can be held

Option 3

to supply with material

Option 4

a built-up piece of land

Categoras Lxicas.
Parts of Speech

Learning about the parts of speech is the first step in grammar study just as
learning the letters of the alphabet is the first step to being able to read and write.
From learning the parts of speech we begin to understand the use or function of
words and how words are joined together to make meaningful communication. To
understand what a part of speech is, you must understand the idea of putting
similar things together into groups or categories. Let's look at some examples of
categories.

COLORS FRUITS DRINKS LANGUAGES


blue banana milk Spanish
red apple water Arabic
yellow orange soda Japanese
green grape beer English
black lemon coffee Korean

Colors, fruits, drinks, and languages are categories. If I tell you that Grebo is a
language, you would understand exactly what Grebo is. If we did not have the
category language, it would be hard to explain what is meant by the word Grebo. It
is very convenient to have categories to talk about similar things. Let's look at some
more examples of categories. In the list below, which does not belong with the
others?

a) violin
b) hammer
c) drums
d) piano
e) guitar

If you chose hammer, you are right. Violin, drums, piano, and guitar are used to
make music, but a hammer is not used to make music. Hammer doesn't fit with the
other words because it is a tool and all of the others are musical instruments.

Let's try another example. Which of these does not belong with the others?

a) hammer
b) saw
c) violin
c) screwdriver
d) wrench

This time, the word violin does not belong because it is not a tool. It is very useful
to have categories like musical instruments and tools to organize our ideas. The
parts of speech are categories used to organize or classify words according to how
they are used. We use parts of speech as a way to make it easier to talk about
language.

The philosopher Aristotle and later scientists studied animals and classified them
according to what they have in common. For example, eagles, robins and sparrows
are kinds of birds;sharks, salmonand tuna are kinds of fish; and dogs, horses and
elephants are kinds of mammals. Aristotle and others also studied language and
classified words according to what they have in common. We usually use 8
categories or parts of speech to classify all the words we use in English. This
classification is not perfect. Sometimes it is hard to tell which category a word
belongs in. The same word may belong in different categories depending on how it
is used. There may be better ways to classify English than by using the 8 parts of
speech. But this classification has been used for a long time and many grammar
books use it, so it is easier to keep on using it. It is possible to speak or learn a
language without knowing the parts of speech, but for most of us, knowing about
parts of speech makes things easier.

Here is an example of how it can be helpful to know about the parts of speech. Look
at the sentence: The man surreptitiously entered the room. You probably don't
know the meaning of the word surreptitiously, but if you know about parts of
speech, you will recognize that it is an adverb and that it tells you something about
how the man entered the room. You may still not understand the exact meaning of
the word, but you can understand the whole sentence better than if you did not
know about parts of speech.

When you look up a word in a dictionary, you will find not only the meaning of the
word but also what part of speech it is. This information is very helpful in
understanding the full meaning of the word and knowing how to use it.

The 9 parts of speech that are used to describe English words are:

Nouns (Common Nouns and Proper Nouns)


Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs
Pronouns
Prepositions
Conjunctions
Articles

Interjections

This set of lessons will teach you about each of the parts of speech and show how
they are different from each other. They will help you recognize which part of
speech each word in a sentence is and that will help you become a better reader.
Review this lesson as many times as you want.

Actividad de Lectura
Additional Reading

Parts of Speech
NOUNS Name a person, place, thing or idea.

Examples: teacher school desk book language recess


PROPER NOUNS Name a special person, place or thing.

Examples: Ms. Taylor Daniel Hunt Park September


Tuesday

PRONOUNS Take the place of a noun.

Examples: he she it her his they their we our

She called her mother

ADJECTIVES Are modifying words that describe a noun, such as size, color
and number.

Examples: small heavy yellow many new soft

The young boy rode his bike.

It has been a good day

ADVERBS We have seen that an adjective is a word that gives more


information about a noun or pronoun. An adverb is usually
defined as a word that gives more information about a verb, an
adjective or another adverb. Adverbs describe verbs,
adjectives and adverbs in terms of such qualities as time,
frequency and manner.

Examples:

In the sentence Sue runs fast, fast describes how or the


manner in which Sue runs.

In the sentence Sue runs very fast, very describes the adverb
fast and gives information about how fast Sue runs.

Most, but not all adverbs end in -ly as in But not all words that
end in -ly are adverbs (ugly is an adjective, supply and reply
can both be nouns or verbs). Many times an adjective can be
made into an adverb by adding -ly as in nicely, quickly,
completely, sincerely.

Adverbs of time tell when something happens and adverbs


of frequency tell how often something happens.
VERBS Show action or state of being.

Examples: see run read swim think watch sing

I walk to school. (present)

Sam drove the car. (past)

PREPOSITIONS Show how a noun or pronoun is related to another word in a


sentence. When used with a verb, it changes the meaning of the
verb.

Examples: in with from about to above on

The boy with curly hair ate lunch in the park

CONJUNCTIONS Join words, phrases and clauses together.

Examples: and as or so because however

Randy and Kim called because it was my birthday.

ARTICLES Three special words that can be used before a noun

Examples: a the

A bird flew in the tree

INTERJECTIONS State an exclamation or remark!

(Usually followed with an exclamation mark!)

Examples: Ouch! Hooray! Oh! Yes! Wow!

Activity 1: Choose the best option. Do not check before


you answer each question.
Question

1) Which does not belong with the others?


Answers

Option 1

September

Option 2

March

Option 3

Wednesday

Option 4

October

Feedback

Question

2) Which does not belong with the others?

Answers

Option 1

apple

Option 2

cherry

Option 3
peach

Option 4

lettuce

Feedback

Question

3) Which does not belong with the others?

Answers

Option 1

car

Option 2

radio

Option 3

train

Option 4

airplane

Feedback

Question

4) Which does not belong with the others?

Answers
Option 1

woman

Option 2

mother

Option 3

daughter

Option 4

aunt

Feedback

Question

5) Which does not belong with the others?

Answers

Option 1

adjective

Option 2

article

Option 3

category
Option 4

pronoun

Feedback

Question

6) Which is not a part of speech?

Answers

Option 1

conjunction

Option 2

classification

Option 3

noun

Option 4

preposition

Feedback

Question

7) Which word means to put into categories?

Answers

Option 1
belong

Option 2

explain

Option 3

classify

Option 4

name

Feedback

Question

8) Which of the following is the name of the category that the other words belong
to?

Answers

Option 1

philosophy

Option 2

subject

Option 3

history
Option 4

math

Feedback

Question

9) Which is a part of speech?

Answers

Option 1

subject

Option 2

clause

Option 3

object

Option 4

preposition

Feedback

Question

10) Which is not a noun?

Answers

Option 1
yellow

Option 2

face

Option 3

Colorado

Option 4

notebook

Activity 2
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
When you select your option, it will take you to another
site to give you feedback
Identify the part of speech of the highlighted word in each of the
following sentences:

The clown chased a dog around the ring Cloze (1):


and then fell flat on her face.
The geese indolently Cloze (2):
waddled across the intersection.
Yikes! Cloze (3):
I'm late for class.
Bruno's shabby Cloze (4):
thesaurus tumbled out of the book bag when the bus suddenly pulled out into
traffic.
Later that summer, she asked herself, "What was I Cloze (5):
thinking of?"
They wondered if there truly was honour among Cloze (6):
thieves.
She thought that the twenty zucchini plants would not be Cloze (7):
enough so she planted another ten.
Cloze (8):
Although
she gave hundreds of zucchini away, the enormous mound left over frightened
her.