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1,2005 15

COSATI: 20-12, 01-03

This work defines an effective computation procedure that combines Neuber`s Rule and the finite element method

with strainlife criterions in order to accurately predict fatigue crack initiation life and then establish an estimated

schedule of fatigue life. The proposed procedure is applied to the representative aircraft structural components such

as a plate with hole to obtain predicted lives. Computation results are compared with experimental results. Compara-

tive results demonstrate that the fatigue life estimated by the novel procedure closely approximates the experimental

results.

Key words: fatigue, aircraft, aircraft structures, scyclic loading, crack initiation, finite element method, numerical

simulation.

stress-strain concept. The basic premise of the local stress-

S EVERAL different analysis procedures are currently

available for use in uniaxial fatigue life evaluations. The

procedures can be broadly classified as either crack initia-

strain approach is that the local fatigue response of the ma-

terial at the critical point, that is, the site of crack initiation,

tion or crack propagation approaches.In the recent years is analogous to the fatigue response of a small, smoth spe-

it has been recognized that the fatigue failure process in- cimen subjected to the same cyclic strains and stresses14.

volves three phases. A crack initiation phase occurs first, The cyclic stress-strain response of the critical material may

followed by a crack propagation phase; finally, when the be determined from the characterizing smooth specimen

crack reaches a critical size, the final phase of unstable through appropriate laboratory testing. To properly perform

rapid crack growth to fracture components, the failure proc- such laboratory tests, the local cyclic stress-strain history at

ess. The modeling of each of these phases has been under the critical point in the structure must be determined, either

intense scrutiny, but the models have not yet been devel- by analytical or experimental means, thus, valid stress

oped in a coordinated way to provide a widely accepted en- analysis procedures, finite element modeling, or experimen-

gineering design tool. Fatigue design against crack initia- tal strain measurements are necessary, and the ability to

tion may lead to different material selection criteria and properly account for elastic-plastic behavior must be in-

structural design from fatigue design against crack propaga- cluded. In performing smooth specimen tests of this type, it

tion. must be recognized that the phenomena of cyclic hardening,

The aim of the study is to define a complete procedure cyclic softening, as well as sequential loading accumulates

for fatigue life prediction of structural elements up to crack fatigue damage presumed to be the same as at the critical

initiation. The procedure for fatigue life estimation is based point in the structural component being simulated. Some

on combining computation stress analysis with strain-life data have been accumulated to support the validity of this

methods. Methods for stress analysis that will be used here postulate [14,15] .

are analytical and FE method. The analytical method pro- The strain-life method may be summarized as follows [ 4] :

ved to be easier while FEM is adequate for application with

complex structures. FEM is favorable for detection of criti- 1. By means of linear static finite element analysis (FEA),

cal locations. Additionally, FEM is a reliable method for derive the local stress-strain time history from the load

the stress analysis, both for linear and elastic-plastic time history. This includes super positioning of multiple

domain. Material behavior and analytical description of cy- FEA/load time history load cases.

clic curve is analyzed and included during fatigue life esti- 2. Extract the fatigue cycles in the local stress time history

mation for structural elements up to crack initiation. During by means of the rain flow algorithm.

fatigue life estimation of the structural elements it is neces- 3. Make the elastic-plastic correction using Neubers rule

sary to adopt and use adequate criteria up to crack initia- or nonlinear FEA.

tion, as it was done here. 4. Model the fatigue crack initiation process using hystere-

sis loop simulation based on the cyclic stress-strain

Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Local Stress- curve.

Strain Concept 5. Assess the damage contribution of each closed hysteresis

Although progress has been much slower in modeling loop by referring to the selected damage curve (strain-

the crack initiation phase, the most promising approach to life, Morrow, SWT curves).

1)

Military Technical Institute (VTI), Ratka Resanovia 1, 11132 Belgrade

16 S.MAKSIMOVI: FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS

6. Linearly sum the damage associated with each cycle by In the formula (3) S1 , S2 , S3 mean three main

using Miners rule. stresses of single axial.

One of the important aspects of the study of fatigue is a

never-ending search for simple experimental or analytical

methods [ 4] that can be used for the prediction of fatigue Cycle Stress Strain Relation and Plastic Revision

behavior in relatively complex situations. A good example

Under Multi-axial Loading

of this approach was the use of monotonic (cyclic) test data For an elastic plastic material, subjected to cyclic load-

in attempting to predict the fatigue life. Even for the sim- ing, the stress and strain history will initially go through a

plest and most ideal specimen geometry and loading pattern transient state which asymptotes to a cyclic state. In this cy-

such a prediction is a substantial step forward. In a similar clic state, the behavior of the body can be divided in three

manner we can conceive the prediction of fatigue behavior alternative regions: 1. Elastic, 2. Elastic plastic and 3.

in a notched structural element on the basis of known cyclic Failure.

behavior in a simpler smooth specimen. Recent advances in The cyclic stress strain curve is possible to obtain by

this area have produced interesting results and raise the connecting the tip of stable hysteresis loops for different

hope of having fairly useful methods in the future [5,10] . strain amplitudes of fully reversed strain controlled tests.

For cyclic multi-axial loading, the stable cycle stress

Stress is determined through analytical estimation and strain curve can be represented in analytical form by the

with application of FEM. For the analytical estimation, Ne- Ramber Osgood equation. The cycle stress strain for-

ubers rule was used to predict the notch strain and stress mula can be expressed as follows:

amplitudes. After stress determination, fatigue life estima-

tion was evaluated for structural elements with stress con- eq

1

eq n

centrations for constant amplitude loading and variable am- eq = + =

e p

+ 2 (4)

2K

eq eq

plitude loading. During their working life, structural ele- E

ments are subject to complex loading; i.e. multi-axial load-

ing and they have to be analyzed. Single axial fatigue has In the formula (4), eq , eq are the equivalent range

greatly developed for long time such as local stress method of the local stress and strain of the multi-axial loading; E

and energy method. Now most of the method is to equalize is Youngs modulus; n is the cyclic hardening exponent;

the multi-axial fatigue damage to single axial damage style, K is the cyclic strength coefficient; eqe and eqp mean

and then use the single axial fatigue damage theory to pre-

dict multi-axial fatigue life. Multi-axial fatigue damage equivalent elastic and plastic strain range, respectively.

model can be divided into three classes, which is based on

the following criterion: one is the largest main stress The Stress Analysis

(strain), the other is von Misses criterion and the last is Tre-

sca criterion. In this paper the von Misses criterion will be In general, stress analysis has a dual role to play in fa-

explained. tigue life assessments. The first part is to determine the

critical locations, the areas most at risk in the components,

so that subsequent service load measuring can be made

Von Misses Criterion most effectively. The extent of the stress analysis required

With von Mises criterion, the axial strain and the shear can range from simple examination of a failed component

strain can be composed to equivalent strain amplitude: through techniques such as brittle lacquer methods to finite

element stress analysis. The second role of stress analysis is

eq , a = 1

(1 + ) 2

( ( 1, a 2, a ) + ( 2, a 3, a ) +

2 2 to overcome the very localized nature of fatigue. In engi-

neering components it is often impossible to locate a strain

(1) gage at the critical site. The latter is generally at a stress

)

1

+ ( 3, a 1, a )

2 2

concentration such as a fillet radius of a hole where the stra-

in gradient can be very steep. The importance of stress

In formula (1) 1,a , 2,a , 3,a mean three main strains of concentrations was understood at a very early stage in the

development of fatigue life prediction techniques. An accu-

simple axial loading, is the Poissons ratio. rate determination of stress is very important since it has a

The next important thing to find is the equivalent strain

significant effect on fatigue life prediction up to the crack

range eq From the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel initiation. In this paper, structural elements with geometric

code Procedure [10] which is based on the von Misses hy- discontinuities were considered and it is necessary to apply

adequate methods for stress determination, which include

pothesis, it is possible to get equivalent strain range eq . stress concentrations. Stress determination will be defined

by analytical method (Neuber`s rule) and with application

eq =

(1 + )

1

2

(( x y ) + ( y z ) +

2 2

(2)

of FEM. Both methods for stress determination were used

since it is easier to use analytical method while in some ca-

+ ( z x ) + 6 ( xy2 + yz2 + xz2 ) )

2

ses it is necessary to use FEM. The analytical method is

used for structural elements with simple geometry. The ne-

Using the static yield theory of multi-axial loading and cessity to use FEM, in some cases, originates from the great

von Misses criterion, equivalent multi-axial stress range is: complexity of geometry in the structural elements. The final

development of stress analysis methods to be considered is

2 (

Seq = 1 ( S1 S 2 ) + ( S2 S3 ) +

2 2

the consideration of plasticity. Although most components

used in the aircraft structures remain nominally elastic, at

(3)

)

1

+ ( S1 S3 ) the critical location where failure will take place a plastic

2 2

S.MAKSIMOVI: FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS 17

be effectively used to describe nonlinear stress-strain rela- where eq and eq are equivalent strain range notch

tionships.

root stress and strain range, and Seq and eeq are equiva-

The Analytical Method based on Neuber`s Rule lent strain range nominal stress and strain range, respec-

In loading of notched structural components, the highly tively.

stressed material is localized around the notch root. To

compute local stresses and strains from external loading The Stress Analysis based on Finite Element Method

and geometry, Neuber`s rule is often used in conjuction It is well known that stresses analysis with application of

with the cyclic stress-strain properties and properties and FEM provides the most accurate results. For the stress

fatigue stress concentration factor. The Neuber`s rule may analysis MSC/NASTRAN software [11] was used. It is

be written as [8] : necessary to use FEM in the cases where geometry of struc-

tural elements is complex as well as in those cases where

k t = ( k k )1 / 2 (5) loading is complex (multi-axial). For the stress determina-

tion non-linear (elasto-plastic) analysis was used, which

where: kt is theoretical stress concentration factor, provides the most accurate results. Additionally, it should

k ( = S ) is the local stress concentration factor be noted that in this non-linear (elastic-plastic) analysis, the

cyclic curve for material behavior was used.

k (= / e) is the local strain concentration factor, -local Obtained values of local stresses with application of

strain, e - nominal strain, -local stress, S -nominal stress. FEM will be used for fatigue life estimation and with appli-

This relationship was modified for application to fatigue cation of adequate criteria.

loading [15] by utilizing the fatigue stress concentration

factor together with nominal stress range, S , nominal The Fatigue Life Analysis

strain range e , local stress range , and local strain For life estimation strain-based approach is used. In this

range to transform (5) into: approach, local strains at notches, and , are estimated

and used as the basis of life predictions. The analytical

k f ( S e)1/ 2 = ( )1/ 2 (6) method is based on low cycle fatigue data in terms of the

strainlife curve, as they are conveniently used to present

If loads are small enough that the material behavior of

the strain cycling resistance of materials by describing the

the overall? member is nominally elastic, then S / e = E endurance as a function of both an elastic and plastic strain

and (6) becomes: amplitude. The relationship between the applied strain ran-

kt2 S 2 ge and fatigue life under multi-axial loading is given by

= (7) Morrow [ 7 ] equation:

E

Since for a given loading and geometry, the left-hand eq /f m

( 2N f ) + /f ( 2 N f )

b c

side of eq (7) is known, this alternative form of Neuber`s = (11)

2 E

Rule provides one relation between the two unknowns

and . Also, is related to the through the mate- In formula (11), eq is equivalent strain range; b is Bas-

rial stress-strain behavior. The two relations, Neuber`s Rule quins coefficient; c is fatigue ductility exponent; f is

and material stress-strain law, completlely determine

and . Thus, using the cyclic stress-strain relation widely Basquins fatigue strength coefficient; f is fatigue ductil-

accepted for fatigue problems: ity coefficient and m is local mean stress.

Another relationship proposed by Smith, Watson and

( 2K )

1/ n '

= + 2 ' (8) Topper [9] is formulated as:

E

( f )

2

and substituting into Eq (7), one obtains an expression re- max max

/

( 2N f ) + /f /f ( 2 N f )

2b b+c

lating local stress range to the applied nominal stress = (12)

2 E

range S and kt from which may be solved for

Where max is the local maximum stress on the max pla-

( )

1/ 2

ne, max / 2 is the maximum local strain amplitude. The

'

1/ n

( )1/ 2 + 2 ' =

E 2K relation (12) is used for materials domaged by tensile

(9) loading. Multi-axial loading can be consisted of shear (and

( )

1/ 2

1/ 2 S

1/ n'

= kt ( S ) +2 S sometimes shear is dominated), in that case it is possible to

E 2K ' use relation proposed by Fatemi and Socie [ 2] :

( 2N f ) + /f ( 2 N f )

b0 c0

so obtained is then substituted back into eq (8) to solve = (13)

2 G

for . In the case of multi-axial loading, eq. (5) needs to

be modified in such a way that all stresses and strains need Where , f , f , b0 , c0 are the shear strain range, the

to be replaced with equivalent stresses and strains, i.e.: shear fatigue strength coefficient, the shear fatigue ductility

coefficient, the shear fatigue strength exponent, the shear

kt2 Seq2

eq eq = (10) fatigue ductility exponent, respectively. These properties

E can be obtained from torsion fatigue tests, or they can be

18 S.MAKSIMOVI: FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS

estimated from uni-axial strain life properties as: Table 1. Cyclic Stress strain curve

1. 0 0

2. 50 2.3810-4

Fatigue Cumulative Damage 3. 100 4.7610-4

Fatigue life evaluation of mechanical components under 4. 150 7.1610-4

complex loading conditions is of great importance to opti- 5. 200 9.6610-4

mize structural design, and improve inspection and mainte- 6. 250 1.2610-3

nance procedures. 7. 300 1.7110-3

Under variable amplitude loading, every same stress 8. 300 1.7110-3

strain cycle make the same damage, and is independent of 9. 350 2.5610-3

the place in the load spectrum. Fatigue damages under vari- 10. 400 4.3210-3

able amplitude were estimated by Palmgren-Miner rule. 11. 450 7.9610-3

The Miner [ 6] law is adopted, the damage D is expressed 12. 500 1.5210-2

13. 550 2.8610-2

as follows:

14. 650 9.3610-2

ni

D= (14)

i N fi

SAE 1045

In the formula (14), N fi is the cycle count at the time of 700

failure under of axial loading, the value ni is the actual cy- 600

cle count at the adequate stress level. Then the block load 500

a [MPa]

spectrum T when the structure is failure can be expressed 400

as follows: 300

T= 1 . (15) 200

n

i Nifi 100

0

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

The above equation represents statements of the linear dam- a

age rules used by the local strain fatigue life predictions.

Cyclic curve

Numerical Examples

To illustrate previous computation fatigue life procedure Figure 1. Cyclic curve a - a for steel SAE 1045

various examples are included in this paper. These exam-

ples consider structural elements with notches under con- Using material cyclic stress strain curve (4) and Neu-

stant amplitude load and load spectrum. Crack initiation ber equation (eq.5), we can get the real stress and strain

lives of notched specimens subjected to axial loading with spectrum. Then using the fatigue performance data, accord-

the life prediction procedure described in the above sec- ing to the structure specialty and fatigue accumulated dam-

tion.The predicted and available experimental results of the age model, we can obtain the fatigue life of the structure.

crack initiation lives of notched specimens are compared. Here, we use Morrow criterion up to crack initiation. Ob-

Example 1: Initial Fatigue Failure Analysis of Plate with tained results were compared with available experimental

Hole Under Cyclic Loads results. The results are shown in Table 2 and Fig.2.

In this example, crack initiation fatigue life estimation

was carried out. The structural element was subject to con- Table 2. Number of cycles up to crack initiation of the plate with central

hole (SAE 1045, kt = 2.5 i R = -1).

stant amplitude loading and variable amplitude loading. As

a structural element we used the plane with central hole of Pmin Pmax Smin Smax Sa Nf

SAE 1045 steel, axially loaded. Characteristics of used ma- No.

[kN] [kN] [MPa] [MPa] [MPa] [cycles]

terial are as follows:

1. -33.6 33.6 -140 140 140 0.14688 107

b = - 0.067; K = 812.53 MPa; 2. -36 36 -150 150 150 0.87262 106

c = - 0.500; S y = 390 MPa; 3. -48 48 -200 200 200 0.14077 106

4. -54 54 -225 225 225 0.74616 105

f = 805.93 MPa; Su = 650 MPa;

5. -60 60 -250 250 250 0.43854 105

f = 0.941; E = 2.1 105 MPa; 6. -66 66 -275 275 275 0.27742 105

7. -72 72 -300 300 300 0.18541 105

Type of material: SAE 1045.

8. -78 78 -325 325 325 0.12933 105

Geometry characteristics of plate with central hole are: 9. -84 84 -350 350 350 0.93354 104

w = 40 mm ; 2 R = 8 mm ; t = 6 mm ; L = 100 mm . Based 10. -96 96 -400 400 400 0.52728 104

on known material characteristics it is possible to define the 11. -108 108 -450 450 450 0.32342 104

cyclic curve with application of eq.(4). Materials behavior

can be presented by cyclic curve (Fig.1).

S.MAKSIMOVI: FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS 19

SAE 1045 (kt = 2.5, R = -1)

FE stress Analysis

500

Similarly to ex. 1, fatigue life prediction up to initial fai-

400 lure of the plate with central hole was carried out. Both

analytical method and FEM were used. External loading is

Sa [MPa]

200

Obtained results were compared with available experimen-

tal results12. Material characteristics under cyclic loading

100 are:

0

b = - 0.081; n = 0.123;

1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 c = - 0.67; K = 1062.1 MPa;

Nf [ cycles]

Experiment

f = 1165.6 MPa; S y = 648.3 MPa;

Analytical solution

f = 1.142 Su = 786.2 MPa;

5

Figure 2. Fatigue life up to crack initiation of the plate with a central hole E = 2.069 10 MPa;

using analytical method (SAE 1045, kt = 2.5 i R = -1, experiment1)

Geometry characteristics are: w = 25.6 mm ; 2R = 12.8

Fig.2 shows the comparison of the experimental fatigue mm; t = 7.68 mm; L = 100 mm. As in the previous exam-

life against the predicted results. It is shown that the predic- ple, the cyclic curve for material was obtained with applica-

tions with analytical approach have good accuracy by com- tion of eq.(4). Requested material curve (medium strength

parison with experimental results [1] .The obtained number steel) is shown in Fig.4.

of cycles N f is for constant amplitude loading. In this ex-

Table 4. Cyclic stress strain curve

ample we considered both constant and variable amplitude

loading. Thus, for selected load spectrum, we carried out a No. a [MPa] a a

number of blocks N b1 up to crack initiation estimation. The 1. 0 0

type of general load spectrum was presented in Fig.3. 2. 50 2.42 10-4

3. 100 4.83 10-4

4. 150 7.25 10-4

5. 200 9.68 10-4

6. 250 1.22 10-3

7. 300 1.48 10-3

8. 350 1.81 10-3

9. 400 2.29 10-3

10. 450 3.10 10-3

11. 500 4.61 10-3

12. 550 7.41 10-3

13. 600 1.25 10-2

14. 650 2.16 10-2

15. 700 3.71 10-2

16. 750 6.28 10-2

17. 800 1.04 10-1

18. 850 1.68 10-1

Figure 3. Load spectrum

First, the number of cycles up to crack initiation N f 1 based Medium strength steel

900

on known characteristics of material and geometry was de-

800

termined through calculation. Later, the number of blocks

700

up to initial crack initiation N b1 using Miner's rule (eq.10).

600

a [MPa]

500

Table 3. Number of cycles and blocks up to crack initiation for plate with

400

the central hole (SAE 1045, kt = 2.5 i R = -1).

300

Smin Smax Sa N fi 200

No ni N b1

[MPa] [MPa] [MPa] [cycles] 100

1. 1000 -150 150 150 0.87262 106 0

4 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

2. 10 -450 450 450 0.32342 10 a

5 3

3. 100 -250 250 250 0.43854 10 0.15432 10

Cyclic curve

For load spectrum presented in Fig.3 the calculated val-

ues for the number of cycles up and requested number of

blocks to crack initiation N f 1 (eq.7) are listed in Table 3. Figure 4. Cyclic curve a - a for medium strength steel

20 S.MAKSIMOVI: FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS

possible to start with fatigue life estimation. Since we are Medium strength steel ( R = -1)

dealing with the plate with a central hole, it is necessary to

determine local stresses first, so in this example FEM will 350

be used. Results obtained with application of FEM, i.e. val- 300

ues of local stresses are presented in Table 6. In this paper

we will present obtained stress distribution for a loading ca- 250

Smax [MPa]

se 4 (Table 6). Fig.5 presents stress distribution for the plate 200

with a central hole for selected loading level that appears

150

within considered spectrum (Fig.7). In this case, axial force

is P = 47390 N. 100

60.21

50

56.67

0

53.13

1.0E+01 1.0E+02 1.0E+03 1.0E+04 1.0E+05 1.0E+06

49.6

log Nf [cycles]

46.06

42.52 Experiment

38.98

FEM solution

35.45

31.91

28.37 Figure 6. Fatigue life up to crack initiation of the plate with a central hole

24.83 using FEM (Medium strength steel, R = -1, experiment3).

21.3

14.22 life against the predicted results using FEM. The results

10.68 show that FEM gives conservative solution.

7.146

Again, in this example, we will evaluate the number of

blocks up to crack initiation for the load spectrum shown in

3.609

ses Stress

120

100

elastic

stress [daN/mm ]

cyclic elastic-plastic

2

80

60

40

20

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

coordinate x

Figure 5. Stress distribution for the plate with a central hole Figure 7. Load spectrum

Based on the known characteristics of the material and For load spectrum shown in Fig.7, the local stresses were

geometry, calculated values of the local maximal stress determined for each level first (analytical approach (eq.7)

(FEM) and the number of cycles up to crack initiation (us- and FEM). Afterwards the number of cycles up to crack ini-

ing Morrow criterion) are presented in Table 5. tiation (eq.11) was determined.

Table 5. Number of cycles up to crack initiation of the plate with a central Table 6. Number of cycles up to crack initiation for plate with the central

hole (Medium strength steel, R = -1) hole (Medium strength steel, R = -1).

Nf [cycles] Nfi [cycles] Nbl

Pmax Smax Analytical Analytical

Pmax Smax max (FEM) Predicted life No. ni FEM FEM

No. Experiment3 [kN] [MPa] solution solution

[kN] [MPa] [MPa] (FEM)

1. 50 25.27 130.56 0.21399 105 0.37459 105

1. 62.25 321.61 722.50 0.68000 102 0.65840 102 2. 5 40.18 207.60 0.22140 104 0.19216 104

2. 56.29 290.85 671.90 0.19000 103 0.15985 103 3. 10 31.14 160.91 0.67311 104 0.95469 104

3. 53.89 278.43 653.60 0.26500 103 0.22475 103 4. 1 47.39 244.84 0.11901 104 0.61964 103 0.14449 103 0.151278 103

4. 47.39 244.84 602.10 0.12500104 0.61964 103 Finally number of blocks Nbl up to crack initiation was

5. 40.18 207.60 550.30 0.24000 104 0.19216 104 calculated. All results are shown in Table 6.

6. 40.14 207.39 550.10 0.36000 104 0.19213 104

7. 31.14 160.91 485.90 0.11500 105 0.95469 104

8. 25.27 130.56 439.40 0.55400 104 0.37459 105 Conclusion

9. 22.02 113.80 407.00 0.16078 106 0.11106 106 This work defines an effective complete procedure to

10. 20.92 108.08 394.60 0.18800 106 0.17367 106 predict fatigue life up to crack initiation. The presented

S.MAKSIMOVI: FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS 21

procedure includes into analysis cyclic elastic-plastic mate- Stocholm, 27.June 2002, Vol.1, pp.675682.

rial behavior, nonlinear finite elements analysis and strain [4] MAKSIMOVI,S.: Efficient Method in fatigue Failure Analysis of

life criteria. Additionally, this procedure considers the in- Complex Structures Under Variable Amplitude Loading, Int. Journal

Communications in Dependability and Quality Management, 2001,

teraction between loads time history. Miners rule was Vol.4, No.2.

used to calculate the accumulative damage in the fatigue [5] MAKSIMOVI,S.: MLADENOVI,J., FAILURE-3 Fatigue

crack initiation phase. This procedure is then applied to a Analysis of Structures Subjected to General Load Spectra (in-house

plate with a central hole (structural elements with concen- software), Internal Report VTI, Belgrade 1996.

trations), and the results were compared with analytical lo- [6] MINER,M.A.: Cumulative Damage in Fatigue, J. Appl. Mech., 12,

cal strain method and available experimental data. Com- 159-164, 1945.

parative results demonstrate that the fatigue life estimated [7] MORROW,J.: Fatigue Design Handbook, Advances in Engineering,

by the presented procedure closely approximates experi- Society of Automotive Engineers, Warendale, Pa., 1968, Sec.3.2,

pp.2129.

mental results. Critical stress estimated with Neuber`s Rule

[8] NEUBER,H.: Theory of Notch Stresses: Principles for Exact Stress

in this work is in close agreement with results obtained by Calculation, trans. from the German F. A. Raven for the David Tay-

the finite element method. Compared with FEM, Neuber`s lor Model Basin, U.S. Navy, 1945. Also published by Edwards

Rule is much easier to use for estimating stress concentra- Brothers, Ann Arbot, Michigan, 1946.

tion. [9] SMITH,R.N., WATSON,P. and TOPPER,T. H.: A Stress Strain

It is very important to stress that presented procedure for Function for the Fatigue Materials, J. of Materials, 5(4), pp. 767-

prediction of fatigue life up to crack initiation provides go- 778, 1970.Wetzel, R. M., Smooth Specimen Simulation of the Fatigue

Behavior of Notches, Journal of Materials, Sept. 1968, Vol.3, No.3,

od correlation with experimental data even with low and pp.646657.

high fatigue domains. [10] ASME Code Case N-47-23 (1988) Case of SME Boiler and Pressure

Additionally, the above-mentioned procedure can be Vessel Code, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

used for complex structural elements (which contain geo- [11] MSC/NASTRAN Manual

metric discontinuities). The defined procedure, for fatigue [12] MAKSIMOVI,S. and JANKOVI,M., Life Estimation of Struc-

life prediction of notched aircraft structural components up tural Components at the Low-Cycle Fatigue, IRMES`04, Kragujevac.

to crack initiation, can take into consideration uni-axial and [13] BOLJANOVI,S., MAKSIMOVIC,S., Initial Fatigue Life Predic-

multi-axial loading with constant and variable amplitude. tions of a Notched Structural Components Under Variable Amplitude

Loading, The First Int. Conference on COMPUTATION

MECHANICS, Belgrade, 15-17 November 2004, Eds. D. Mijuca and

References S. Maksimovi.

[14] MORROW,J.D., MARTIN,J.F., and DOWLING,N.E.: Local Stress-

[1] HAIBACH,E. and MATSCHKE,C.: The Concept of Uniform Scatter

Strain Approach to Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis, Final Re-

Bands for Analyzing SN Curves of Un-notched and Notched Speci-

port, T.& A. M. Report No. 379, Department of Theoretical and Ap-

mens in Structural Steel, Low-Cycle Fatigue and Life Prediction,

plied Mechanics, University of Illinois, Urbana, January 1974.

ASTM STP 770, C. Amzallag, B. N. Leis and P. Rabbe, Eds., Ameri-

can Society for Testing and Materials, 1982, pp. 549-571. [15] TOPER,T.H., WETZEL,R.M., and MORROW,J.: Neuber`s rule Ap-

plied to Fatigue of Notched Specimens, Journal of Materials, 1969,

[2] FATEMI,A. and SOCIE: Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Ma-

Vol.4, No.1.

terials and Structures, 11(3) 1988, pp.149165.

[3] MAKSIMOVI,S., BOLJANOVI,S. and MAKSIMOVI,K.: Im-

Received: 14.02.2005

proved Numerical Procedure in Fatigue Life Prediction of Structural

Components Under Variable Amplitude Loads, IFC-8-Fatigue 2002,

U okviru rada definie se pogodna proraunska procedura, koja se bazira na kombinaciji Nojberovog zakona i me-

tode konanih elemenata sa kriterijumima na bazi deformacija-vek, kako bi se obezbedilo tano predvianje zamor-

nog veka do pojave inicijalnog oteenja a potom uspostavio kompletan pristup za procenu zamornog veka. Pred-

loena procedura je primenjena na reprezentativni strukturalni element kao to je ploa sa otvorom optereena cik-

linim optereenjima da bi se odredio njen proraunski vek. Proraunski rezultati su uporeeni sa eksperimentima.

Procena veka primenom predloene proraunske procedure je u dobroj saglasnosti sa eksperimentalnim rezultatima.

Kljune rei: zamor materijala, avion, struktura letelice, ciklino optereenje, inicijalna prskotina, metod konanih

elemenata, numerika simulacija

Ce travail dfinit un procd de calcul efficace bas sur la combinaison de la loi de Nojber et de la mthode des le-

ments finis. Les critres en sont bass sur la dformation de la dure de vie dans le but dassurer une prvision prcise

de la dure de fatigue jusqu lapparition de la dfaillance initialle et pour tablir une approche complte concernant

lestimation de la fatigue du matriel.Le procd propos est appliqu sur un lement structural reprsentatif. Il

sagit dune plaque avec ouverture charge de charge cyclique pour dterminer la dure de son calcul. Les rsultats

de ce calcul ont t compars avec les essais. Lestimation de la dure de vie par application du procd de calcul est

en bon accord avec les rsultats dessais.

Mots cls: fatigue de matriel, avion, structure daronef, charge cyclique, fissure initialle, mthode dlements finis,

simulation numrique

22 S.MAKSIMOVI: FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS

konstrukcii samoletov

V ramkah &toj rabotw opredel}ets} podhod}|a} ras~etna} metodika, kotora} baziruets} na kombinacii zakona Nojberga

i metoda kone~nwh &lementov so kriteri}mi na baze deformaci} - srok slu`bw, kak bw obespe~ilosx to~nee predusma-

trivanie sroka ustalosti (materiala) do po}vleni} iniciiruy|ego povre`deni}, a potom vosstanovlenie komplektnogo

podhoda dl} ocenki sroka ustalosti (materiala). Predlo`enna} metodika ispolxzovana na obrazcovoj sostavnoj ~asti

konstrukcii samoleta, kak panelx s lykom, nagru`enna} cikli~eskimi nagruzkami, kak bw opredelils} ee ras~etnwj

srok. Ras~etnwe rezulxtatw sravnenw s &ksperimentami. Ocenka sroka slu`bw (resursa) so primeneniem predlo`ennoj

metodiki nahodits} v polnom soglasii s rezulxtatami &ksperimentov.

Kly~evwe slova: ustalostx materiala, samolet, planer letatelxnogo apparata, cikli~eska} nagruzka, iniciiruy|a}

tre|ina, metod kone~nwh &lementov, cifrova} simul}ci}

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