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Analog Filter Design

(EET3132)

Lab2: Design of Bilinear Transform Filters

Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar.

Branch: EEE Section: A Sub-group Number:


Sl. Name Registration No. Signature
No.
1. SOUMYA RANJAN MOHAPATRA 1441014091

Lab Partners

Sl. No. Name Registration No. Signature


2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
AFD (EET3132) 2

Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar.

1. Assignment 2.1

Design a first order highpass filter with a DC gain T(0)=0.3 and high
frequency gain T() = 1. The filter must have a zero on the negative real axis
at fz= -159 Hz.

a. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of
pole and zero.

b. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response
of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

i. MATLAB Program

ii. Zero Plot

iii. Frequency Response / Bode Plot

c. Find the suitable values of components and implement the circuit in


Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

i. Multi Sim Circuit

ii. Frequency Response

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d. Compare the results obtained from MATLAB and Multisim. Comment
and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

Ans.

a.

Assuming both ideal and integrator model of opamp we need to design an amplifier with 14 dB
gain.
Under ideal condition V- = V1.
Thus KCL equations can be written as:

V
R3
V V V 0
V 2 = 1 +
R 2 R1+ X L

Taking the ideal condition:
(V2 Va)G2 = V0G3 + (Va V1)(G +SC)

V2G2 VaG2 = V0G3 + VaG1 + VaSC V0(G1 + SC)

V 2 G2 +V 0 G1 +V 0 SC
Va =
G1 +G2 +G3 +SC

V0
A=
V 1 a

V0 = A (V1 Va)
Now substituting Va in the above equation we have,
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V 2 G2+V 0 G1 +V 0 SC
V0 = (
A V 1
G1 +G2 +G3+ SC )
V
V 1 [ G1+ G2+G 3 + SC ][ 2 G2+ V 0 G 1 +V 0 SC ]
= G1 +G2 +G3 +SC

A
V 0 ( G 1+G2 +G3 + SC ) = A(V 1 [ G1+G 2+G 3 + SC ] V 2 G2V 0 G1V 0 SC)

V 0 ( G1+G2 +G3 + SC ) +V 0 ( A G1 + ASC )= A V 1 [ G1+ G2+G3 + SC ]V 2 G2

A V 1 [ G 1 +G2 +G3+ SC ] V 2 G2
V 0=
G1+G2 +G 3 + SC+ A G1 + ASC

Thus by simplifying this we have the transfer function as :


s+ w
T(s) =
s+ 3 w
Given fz = -159 Hz
1
T(s) = G
1+ 2
S C1
S C1
T(s) =
S C 1+G 2
S+ Z 1
Since we know that tf = k ( )
S+ P1
S C1 +G 1
T ( s )=
S ( C 1+G 2 ) +G 1 +G 2

S C1 +G1
T ( s )=
S C1 +G1 +G2

G1

=
(
C 1 S+
C1 )
G1+G 2
(
C 1 S+
C1 )
G1

T ( s )=
( S+
C1 )
G1 +G 2
( S+
C1 )
S+ Z 1
T ( s )=
S+ P1
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G1 1
Where Z 1= = = -159 Hz
C1 R1C1
1 1
+
G 1+G2 R 1 R 2 R1 + R2
P 1= = =
C1 C1 R1 R 2 C 1

According to the question it is given that zero is at -159 Hz , thus


1
=2 x 159 tim e1=1000 tim e1
R1C1
Let C1 = 10 F

1
R 1= 6
=100
10 x 10 x 1000

G1
For DC gain T ( 0) = = 0.3
G1 +G2
R2
0.3=
R 1 + R2
0.3 ( R1 + R2 )=R 2

0.7 R2=30

30
R 2= =42.857 .
0.7
On solving the above and substituting R1 = 100 , we get R2 = 42.857

Thus we get
G1+G2
P 1=
C1

1 1 1
P 1= ( +
C 1 R 1 R2 )
Now substituting all the values of C1 , R1 and R2 , we get P1 = -3333.34 Hz

Thus the transfer function becomes :


s+1000
T ( s )=
s+3333.34

b.

(i) MATLAB CODE :


clc
clear all
close all

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s=tf('s')
num = [1 , 1000];
den = [1 , 3333.3411];
z = tf(num,den)
figure (1)
pzmap(z)
grid on
figure (2)
bode(z)
grid on

(ii) POLE ZERO PLOT :

(iii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE / BODE PLOT :

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c.

(i) MULTISIM CIRCUIT :

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(ii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE :

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d.

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results
that in MATLAB at -3db we get the frequency response of 3.33 kHz whereas in multisim
we get a frequency response of 482.7 Hz , hence the matlab results are much
predictable with the calculated values theoretically and the multisim results vary
slightly due to the errors in values of resistors and little variations of the DC gain of the
low pass filter circuit.

2. Assignment 2.2

Design a circuit to realize the bilinear transfer function with a zero at fz= 830
Hz, a pole at fp= 13 kHzand a high frequency gain of 23 dB using an inverting
amplifier configuration.

a. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of
pole and zero.

b. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response
of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

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i. MATLAB Program

ii. Zero Plot

iii. Frequency Response / Bode Plot

c. Find the suitable values of components and implement the circuit in


Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

i. Multi Sim Circuit

ii. Frequency Response

d. Compare the results obtained from MATLAB and Multisim. Comment


and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

Ans.

a.

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V2 s+ z 1
T ( s )=
V1
=k ( )
s+ p1

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V 2 Z 2 1
=
V 1 Z1
( 1+
1
A (s)
Z
( ))
1+ 2
Z1

Idealing A(s)

V 2 Y 2
We have =
V1 Y1

1
Z 1=R 1+
S C1

Y 1=G1 +S C1

Similarly ,

Y 2=G 2 + S C2

Y 1 G1+ S C 1
T ( s )= =
Y2 G2 +S C2

G1

( )
S+
C1
T ( s )=
( )
C 1
C2 G
S+ 2
C2
C1 G1 1 G2 1
Where k = , Z 1= = and P 1= =
C2 C 1 R1 C1 C2 R2 C 2
Given gain = 23 dB.
20 log(x) = 23
20
x= 10 23 =14.125
Fz = 830 Hz.
Fp = 13 kHz.
T ( s )=14.125 ( s+s+13
0.83
)
b.

(i) MATLAB CODE :


clc
clear all
close all
s=tf('s')
num = [1 , 0.83];
den = [1 , 13];
z = -14.125*tf(num,den)
figure (1)
pzmap(z)
grid on
figure (2)
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bode(z)
grid on

(ii) POLE ZERO PLOT :

(iii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE / BODE PLOT :

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c.
(i) MULTISIM CIRCUIT :

(ii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE :

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d.

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results
that in MATLAB at a gain of 20 dB we get a frequency of 12.9 Hz and in multisim at the
dc gain of 14.125 and and at same 20 dB frequency on ac Analyses we get the
frequency response to be 11.0656 Hz

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3. Assignment 2.3

Design a circuit to realize the bilinear transfer function with a zero at fz= 830
Hz, a pole at fp= 13 kHz and a high frequency gain of 23 dB using an non-
inverting amplifier configuration.

a. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of
pole and zero.

b. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response
of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

i. MATLAB Program

ii. Zero Plot

iii. Frequency Response / Bode Plot

c. Find the suitable values of components and implement the circuit in


Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

i. Multi Sim Circuit

ii. Frequency Response

d. Compare the results obtained from MATLAB and Multisim. Comment


and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

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Ans.

a.

V2 s+ z 1
T ( s )=
V1
=k ( )
s+ p1
V2 Z
( ) 1
V1
= 1+ 2
Z1
(
1+
1
A ( s)
Idealing A(s)
( ))
Z
1+ 2
Z1

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Z2
We have T ( s )=1+
Z1

1
Z 1=R 1+
S C1

Y 1=G1 +S C1

Similarly ,

Y 2=G 2 + S C2

Y1 G +S C1
T ( s )=1+ =1+ 1
Y2 G2 + S C 2

G2 + S C2 +G1 + S C1

G2 + S C2

G
( 2+G1)+ S( C1 +C 2)
G2 + S C2

G
C
( 1+C 2 )+S
( 2+G1)


G2
(
(
C2
+S )
)

C 1+ C 2

C2

G2 +G1

( )
S+
C1 C 1 +C2
1+( ) C2 G
S+ 2
C2

C1
Where k = 1+
C2

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G2 +G1 G2
Z 1= and P1=
C 1 +C2 C2

Given high frequency gain (w) = 23

0.05(23)
k =10 =14.125

Fz = 230 Hz.

Fp = 13 kHz.

T ( s )=14.125 ( s+s+13
0.83
)

Z 1=0.83

P1=13

C 1 (n)
=14.125=K
C 2 (n)

To check whether our transfer function is an ideal bilinear transfer function or not , we
will test the conditions :

1. K1>0

14.125 1 > 0

13.125 > 0

2. KZ1 P1 = 14.125(0.83) 13 = -1.27 < 0

From the 2nd condition , we can say that the system is not satisfying the perfect bilinear
transfer function condition. So we have to increase the value of k.

KZ1 P1 = 0

P1 13
k= = =15.663
Z 1 0.83

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Y 1=S ( k 1 )P1=C 1+ s C 2

Y 2=S+ P1

Y 1=S ( 15.6631 ) +15.663 ( 0.83 )13=C 1+ s C 2

Y 1=S ( 14.663 )=C 1+s C 2


Now equating the above equations we have
C1 = 0 & C1(n) = 14.663
1
=0
R 1(n)
R1 ( n )= p

Y 2=S+13=C1 ( n ) + S C2 ( n )

C1 ( n )=1

C2 ( n )=13

1
R2 ( n )=
13

We will denormalise all the parameters by taking w s = 2(1000) and Rs = 116.7 k

Thus RS = 120 k.

C1 ( n )=w s R s C 1

C 1(n )
C1 = =20 nF
ws Rs

C 2(n )
C2 = =1.4 nF
ws Rs

R1 = , R2 = 8.977k

b.

(i) MATLAB CODE :


clc
clear all
close all
s=tf('s');
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num=[1 5215.04];
den=[1 81681.40];
T=15.663*tf(num,den);
figure(1)
pzplot(T)
grid on
figure(2)
bodeplot(T)
grid on

(ii) POLE ZERO PLOT :

(iii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE / BODE PLOT :

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c.

(i) MULTISIM CIRCUIT :

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d.
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Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results
that in MATLAB at a gain of 20 dB we get a frequency of 1.3x10 4 Hz and in multisim
without voltage divider , when direct 10 V p-p is applied we get a frequency response of
20.5742 dB at a frequency of 10.69466 kHz and when voltage divider rule is applied ,
we get a frequency response of 31.4278 dB at 22.7362 kHz.

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4. Assignment 2.4

Design a filter whose transfer characteristic satisfies the asymptotic Bode


Plot in Fig. 1.

Fig.1. Asymptotic Bode plot for Q 1.4

a. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of
pole and zero.

b. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response
of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

i. MATLAB Program

ii. Zero Plot

iii. Frequency Response / Bode Plot

c. Find the suitable values of components and implement the circuit in


Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

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i. Multi Sim Circuit

ii. Frequency Response

d. Compare the results obtained from MATLAB and Multisim. Comment


and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

Ans.
V2 s+ z 1
a. T ( s )=
V1
=k
s+ p1 ( )
V2 Z
( ) 1
V1
= 1+ 2
Z1
1+
1
(
A ( s)
Idealing A(s)
Z
1+ 2
Z1 ( ))
Z2
We have T ( s )=1+
Z1

1
Z 1=R 1+
S C1

Y 1=G1 +S C1

Similarly ,

Y 2=G 2 + S C2

Y1 G +S C1
T ( s )=1+ =1+ 1
Y2 G2 + S C 2

G2 + S C2 +G1 + S C1

G2 + S C2

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G
( 2+G1)+ S( C1 +C 2)
G2 + S C2

G
C
( 1+C2 )+S
( 2+G1)


G2
(
( C2
+S )
)

C 1+ C 2

C2

G2 +G1

( )
S+
C1 C 1 +C2
( )
1+
C2 G
S+ 2
C2

C1
Where k = 1+
C2

G2 +G1 G2
Z 1= and P1=
C 1 +C2 C2

s + z1
T 1 ( s )=k ( )
s+ p 1

jw + z 1
T 1 ( jw )=k ( jw + p1 )
(1)

Similarly for the 2nd configuration we have a T2 transfer function.

s + z2
T 2 ( s )=k ( )
s + p2

jw + z 2
T 2 ( jw )=k ( jw + p2 )
(2)

Now when T1 and T2 are taken together and the poles and zeros are taken common from
the equations 1 and 2 , then we get a final transfer function as .
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s+ z 1 s + z2
T ( s )=T 1 ( s ) . T 2 (s)=k ( )( )
s + p1 s + p2

jw+ z 1 jw+ z2
T ( jw ) =T 1 ( jw ) .T 2 ( jw )=k ( jw+ p1 )( jw+ p 2 )
jw jw

( )( )
1+ 1+
Z1 Z2
T ( jw ) =k
jw jw
1+ 1+
P1 P2

Let k = 1

We have been given Z1 = 103 , Z2 = 104 , P1 = 102 and P2 = 105 .

jw jw

( )( )
1+ 1+
103 104
T ( jw ) =1
jw jw
1+ 2 1+ 5
10 10

3 4
T ( s )=T 1 ( s ) . T 2 (s)=1 ( s+10
s+10
2 )( s+ 10
s +10
5 )

s+ 103 s+10 4
T 1 ( s )= ( s+ 102 )
T 2 ( s)= (
s+ 105 )
Here we have C1 = 0.01F C2 = 0.01F

1 1
Z 1=10 3= Z 2=10 4=
R1C1 R2 C 2

1
Let R1 = 100k = R2C2 R1 = 10k , P1 = 105 =

1
R2C2

R2 = 1 M R2 = 1 k

b.

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(i) MATLAB CODE :
clc
clear all
close all
s=tf('s')
num1 = [1 , 1000];
den1 = [1 , 100];
num2 = [1 , 10000];
den2 = [1 , 100000];
z1 = tf(num1 , den1);
z2 = tf(num2 , den2);
z = z1 * z2;
figure (1)
pzmap(z)
grid on
figure (2)
bode(z)
grid on

(ii) POLE ZERO PLOT :

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(iii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE / BODE PLOT :

c.

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(i) MULTISIM CIRCUIT:

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(ii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE:

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d.

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results
that in MATLAB at a gain of absolute value of 0.77 on the both the sides of frequency
response curve we get a frequency of 1.5x10 4 and 16.8 Hz respectively and in multisim
we get a frequency response of 15.49 and 16.01 Hz at -3dB frequency drop on the both
sides of the frequency response curve.

5. Assignment 2.5

Design a filter whose transfer characteristic satisfies the asymptotic Bode


Plot in Fig. 2.

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Fig.2. Asymptotic Bode plot for Q 1.5

a. What could be potential application of such a filter?

b. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of
pole and zero.

c. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response
of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

i. MATLAB Program

ii. Zero Plot

iii. Frequency Response / Bode Plot

d. Find the suitable values of components and implement the circuit in


Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

i. Multi Sim Circuit

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ii. Frequency Response

e. Compare the results obtained from MATLAB and Multisim. Comment


and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

Ans.
V2 s+ z 1
a. T ( s )=
V1
=k
s+ p1 ( )
V2 Z
( ) 1
V1
= 1+ 2
Z1
1+ (
1
A ( s)
Idealing A(s)
Z
1+ 2
Z1 ( ))
Z2
We have T ( s )=1+
Z1

1
Z 1=R 1+
S C1

Y 1=G1 +S C1

Similarly ,

Y 2=G 2 + S C2

Y1 G +S C1
T ( s )=1+ =1+ 1
Y2 G2 + S C 2

G2 + S C2 +G1 + S C1

G2 + S C2

G
( 2+G1)+S(C1 +C 2)
G 2 + S C2

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G
C
( 1+C 2 )+S
( 2+G 1)


G2
(
( C2
+S )
)

C 1+ C 2

C2

G2 +G1

( )
S+
C1 C 1 +C2
( )
1+
C2 G
S+ 2
C2

C1
Where k = 1+
C2

G2 +G1 G2
Z 1= and P1=
C 1 +C2 C2

s + z1
T 1 ( s )=k ( )
s+ p 1

jw + z 1
T 1 ( jw )=k ( jw + p1 )
(1)

Similarly for the 2nd configuration we have a T2 transfer function.

s + z2
T 2 ( s )=k ( )
s + p2

jw + z 2
T 2 ( jw )=k ( jw + p2 )
(2)

Now when T1 and T2 are taken together and the poles and zeros are taken common
from the equations 1 and 2 , then we get a final transfer function as .

s+ z 1 s + z2
T ( s )=T 1 ( s ) . T 2 (s)=k ( )( )
s + p1 s + p2

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jw+ z 1 jw+ z2
T ( jw ) =T 1 ( jw ) .T 2 ( jw )=k ( jw+ p1 )( jw+ p 2 )
jw jw

( )( )
1+ 1+
Z1 Z2
T ( jw ) =k
jw jw
1+ 1+
P1 P2

Let k = 1

We have been given Z1 = 100 , Z2 = 400 , P1 = 200 and P2 = 200 .

jw jw

( )( )
1+ 1+
100 400
T ( jw ) =1
jw jw
1+ 1+
200 200

T ( s )=T 1 ( s ) . T 2 (s)=1 ( s+100 s +400


s+200 s +200 )
)(

T 1 ( s )= ( s+s+ 100
200 )2T (s)=(
s+ 400
s +200 )

Here we have C1 = 0.01F C2 = 0.01F

1 1
Z 1=100= Z 2=400=
R1C1 R2 C 2

Let R1 = 1M R1 = 250k

1
P1 = 200 = R2C2 P1 = 200 =

1
R2C2

R2 = 500 k R2 = 500 k

Gain = 1

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b.

(i) MATLAB CODE :


clc
clear all
close all
s=tf('s')
num1 = [1 , 100];
den1 = [1 , 200];
num2 = [1 , 400];
den2 = [1 , 200];
z1 = tf(num1 , den1);
z2 = tf(num2 , den2);
z = z1 * z2;
figure (1)
pzmap(z)
grid on
figure (2)
bode(z)
grid on

(ii) POLE ZERO PLOT:

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(iii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE / BODE PLOT :

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c.

(i) MULTISIM CIRCUIT:

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(ii) FREQUENCY RESPONSE:

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d.

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results
that in MATLAB at a gain of absolute value of 1.0688 on the both the sides of frequency
response curve we get a frequency of 8.555 and 117.9 Hz respectively and in multisim
we get a frequency response of 77.0615 and 13.2360 Hz at 1.0775 and 1.0769
frequency drop on the both sides of the frequency response curve.

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