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Backpropagation Algorithm

Kesari Verma1 *, Ligendra Kumar Verma2 , Priyanka Tripathi1

1 Computer

Applications, NIT Raipur, India.

2 Department

of Computer Science, NIT Raipur, India.

*Corresponding author: keshriverma@gmail.com

Abstract:

Automatically Image Classification is one of the challenging problem of recent era.. Several

diverse research disciplines have been confluent on this important theme for searching powerful

solutions. In this paper we have implemented and tested Neural Network Backpropagation

algorithm for large image dataset. Backpropagation algorithm is one of the powerful technique

that works efficiently for numeric and huge dataset. We also compared the performance of our

algorithm with existing Machine Learning algorithm like naive bayes classifier, decision tree, lazy

classifier and others. We found Backpropagation is one of the best solution for this problem it

give 97.02 % of accuracy.

Keywords:

Image Classification; Neural Network; Machine Learning; Backpropagation Algorithm

1. INTRODUCTION

In creasing use of electronic devices, laptops, I-Pads, smart phones we are drowning with data. Image

classification, or image categorization, has been intensively studied in several fields such image processing,

computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, and data mining. In literature many techniques

are available in order to categorized or classify the image like minimum distance classifiers, Parallelepiped

Classifier, Maximum-likelihood classification, fuzzy classifiers and many other techniques. Initially

global features like histograms of intensity, texture feature, edge information, corner information were

used to express and classify images [3, 4, 6, 10]. The main objective of the research is to improve the

accuracy of the classification process by applying extracted knowledge from the spatial image data using

Artificial Neural Network. In present study we have used 5 kinds of images like building, person, shoes,

car and flower as shown in Figure 2.

Let D be the training data set with n attributes (columns)A1 , A2 , , An and |D| rows. Let C be a list of

class labels. Specific values of attribute Ai C. For a new test data set T extract the features A1 , A2 , , An ,

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JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION

Discriminant function di (x) A function of the measurement vector, x, which provides a measure of the

probability that x belongs to the it class. A distinct discriminant function is defined for each class, under

consideration as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Classification system diagram: discriminant functions perform some computation on input feature vector

x using some technique K from training and passes results for classification.

The remaining part of the paper is organized as follows. In section 2 the related work is elaborated. In

section 3 we discussed the feature extraction. Backpropagation Neural Network algorithm is elaborated

in section 4. The experimental works is described in section 5. The paper is concluded in section 6. In

2. RELATED WORK

8

Image Classification using Backpropagation Algorithm

tures Classification Al- Mechanism

gorithm

Bagdanov and Various image variety of statis- statistical

Worring [2] features including tical classifiers classifiers

global image (such as 1-NN,

features, zone Nearest Mean,

features and text Linear Discrim-

histogram inant, Parzen

classifier)

Hu et al.[7] Block informa- Hidden Markov Learn prob-

tion of segmented Model (HMM) abilities

document of HMM

(manually

define model

topology)

Hroux et al. [8] Image features be- K Nearest Neigh- Automatically

fore block seg- bor (KNN) populate NN

mentation; Vari- space and

ous levels of pixel learn weights

densities in a form for NN

distance

computation

Ciaran et. al. [5] Histogram and Histogram Based on

Spatiogram the intensity

distribution

of Pixel in

gray level

Sangkyum Kim et. Sequential pat- DisIClass: Dis- SPM+B2S

al. [13] terns of Images criminative and DisI-

Frequent Pattern- Class.

Based Image

Classification

Chapelle et. al [4] Histogram Histogram for Machine

Support Vector Learning.

Machine

Table 1. Characterization of classifier according to Image features and recognition stage, feature representations,

class models and classification algorithms and learning mechanisms

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JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION

3. FEATURE EXTRACTION

whose axes represent the gray values in the original bands. If some or all of the original bands are replaced

with other variables it is called feature space.

Feature vector Feature vector (x) : x = (k1, k2, k3, ..., kn) The feature (or measurement) vector locates a

pixel in feature (or measurement) space.

Classification is a procedure for sorting pixel and assigning them to specific categories. x = feature (or

measurement) vector di (x) = discriminant function

The extraction of efficient features is the fundamental step for image classification. The images features

can be classified as texture, shape features, statistical features of pixels, and transform coefficient features.

Haralick et. al [11] describe 14 statistical features that are described as below.

Texture features can be describe by statistical moment of the intensity histogram of image. Let

p(zx i), i = 0, 1, 2, 3, ....L 1 be the corresponding histogram, where L is the number of distinct intensity

levels.

Mean

L1

m= zi p(zi ) (1)

i=0

Variance

L1

2 = (k )2 p(zi ) (2)

i=0

Skewness

1 L1

3 = (k )3 p(zi )

3 i=0

(3)

Kurtosis

1 L1

4 = (k )4 (p(zi ) 3)

4 i=0

(4)

correlation A measure of pixel correlation to its neighbour over the entire image.

K K

(i mr )(i mc

r c (6)

i=0 i=0 p i, j

K K

(i j)2 pi j (7)

i=0 i=0

10

Image Classification using Backpropagation Algorithm

K K

p2i j (8)

i=0 i=0

K K

pi, j

1 + i j| (9)

i=0 i=0

K K

pi j log2 pi j (10)

i=0 i=0

All these selected features were stored in the form of two dimensional matrix. For each feature are

stored in the form of vector (x1 , x2, x3 .......xn and corresponding class label C.

In the present study we implement backpropagation Neural Network algorithm for classifying the

image dataset. The algorithm is explained in 1. The algorithm is taken from Simon Hykin [12].

Preliminaries

Training set : (d p ,

o p ), 1, 1 p P

x p = (x p , 0, ......x p , N) // Input patterns

d p = (d p , 0, ......d p , K) // desired output for d p

o p = (o p , 0, ......o p , K) // Actual Output

e p, j = |d p, j o p, j | //error

(1) (1,0)

net j = ni=0 w j,i .x p,i j is hidden layer, net input of jth node in hidden layer.

(i+1,i)

wk, j : weight from jth node in ith layer to kth node of i + 1th layer

(2,1) (1)

o p,k = ( j .wk, j .x p, j : Output of kth node in output layer.

(i)

xp

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JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION

netk = j=0 wk, j .x p, j k is output layer, net output of kth node in output layer

(1) (1,0)

x p, j = (ni=0 w j,i .x p,i ) : Output of jth node in the hidden layer

1

activation function logistic sigmoid (net) = 1+e.net

: proportional to actual error |dk ok | multiplied by derivative of output node i.e. k = (dk

ok .ok .(i ok )

j proportional to weighted sum of errors coming to the hidden node from node in upper layer

(2,1) (1) (1)

i.e. j = k .k wk, j .x j .(1 x j )

P

Error = Err(d p ,

op) (11)

p=1

Err is a metric that measures the distance between actual output and expected output. In Backpropagation

algorithm

x p = (x p , 0, ......x p , N) is a input feature vector, random weight is assigned to each features

w p = (w p , 0, ......w p , N) after the computation the actual output is assigned

o p = (o p , 0, ......o p , N) where

as the desire output expressed by d p = (d p , 0, ......d p , N). The Backpropagation [12] is a iterative process,

it continue updates the weight in each iteration in order to achieve the desired output. The cost function is

expressed by error, the loop terminates as it complete the number epoches or when it satisfied the cost

function i.e. minimum error. The whole process is expressed in algorithm below.

x p,i : value in i-th input node

Start with initial random

w;

repeat

For each input pattern x p do

{ Propagate x p (Forward pass) }

From first hidden layer to output layer do

(1)

Compute hidden node activations: net p, j

(1)

Compute hidden node Outputs: x p, j

(2)

Compute Output node activations: net p,k

Compute Network outputs: o p,k ;

Compute Network Error : e p,k = d p,k o p,k ;

{ Back Propagate

e p (Backward pass) }

From output layer to first hidden layer do

Update output layer weights

p,k = d p,k o p,k .o p,k .(1 o p,k )

(1)

w2,1

k, j = . p,k .x p,i

For a hidden layer do

Update hidden layer weights :

(1)

mu p, j = k . p,k .w2,1 1

k, j .x p, j .(1 x p, j );

w1,0

j,i = . p, j .x p, j ;

until MSE(

w ) is minimal

The proposed neural network classifier weas implemented in MATLAB (software MATLAB

version 2012a) and on a Pentium IV computer of 3.4 GHz with 4 GB of RAM. This algo-

rithm was applied in image data set. Table 3 parameter shows the network parameter structure

12

Image Classification using Backpropagation Algorithm

epochs, MSE and numbers of patterns used in the training and testing phases. The activation

function is sigmoidal with scalar output in the range (0,1) and it is the same for all the neu-

rons. All the machine learning classifier like Lazy.IB1, Rules.NNge, Tree.Randomtree, Lazy.IBK,

Rules.CART, Tree.BFTree, Tree.RandomForest,Meta.FilteredClassifier, Rules.Ridor,Tree.SimpleCart,

meta.ClassificationViaRegression, meta.LogitBoost, meta.Bagging, tree.REPTree, tree.LADTree,

rules.OneR, bayes.NaiveBayesMultinomial were experimented in machine learning software weka ??.

The experimental results shows that Random Forest algorithm perform good. The problem with machine

learning weka software that it is not able to classify for test data. In all the cases we used k crossfold

technique in order to accurate result. The results are shown in Figure 4. We implement Neural Network

backpropagation algorithm using MATLAB2012a. No other applications were running while running

this program. In BPA model we found that as the number of iteration increases the mean square error is

decreasing, but after a certain point it becomes constant. BPA model take more time than other machine

learning classifiers.

Parameters Value

Size of Training Set 1000

Size of Test Data 500

Number of Classes 5

Features Vectors 239

Number of Input Neron 239

Number of Hidden Layer 10

Learning parameter .05

Goal le-05

1 1000 .10651

2 2000 .10023

3 3000 .096386

4 4000 .08768

5 5000 ..0567

13

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION

Lazy.IB1 96 4

Rules.NNge 96 4

Tree.Randomtree 96 4

Lazy.IBK 96 4

Rules.PART 95.8 4.2

Tree.J48 94.6 5.4

Meta.END 97.2 2.8

Tree.BFTree 90 10

Tree.RandomForest 96.4 1.6

Meta.FilteredClassifier 88.2 11.8

Rules.Ridor 81 19

Tree.SimpleCart 83.6 16.4

meta.ClassificationViaRegression 90.2 9.8

meta.LogitBoost 83.4 16.6

meta.Bagging 86.4 13.6

tree.REPTree 72.4 27.6

tree.LADTree 72.6 27.4

rules.OneR 56.4 43.

bayes.NaiveBayesMultinomial 56.8 43.2

Backpropagation 97.2 2.8

5. CONCLUSION

In this paper Backpropagation Neural Network model is implemented for image dataset, this problem

is multiclass image classification problem. We found BPA is one of the best suitable technique for catego-

rization of images because all the feature vectors are available in the numerical form. In experimentation

we found that the classifier accuracy is also dependent in hidden layer and epoches. We also experimented

other machine learning weka for same dataset. The algorithm got failure if the image containing two class

value simultaneously in the same image like building with flowers. We will extend our algorithm for this

type of images.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are very thankful to the Indian institutions of Science, Banglore for providing the image data. We

are also thankful to weka for provide machine learning code for implementation.

References

[1] By Ery Arias-Castro and David L. Donoho. Does Median Filtering Truly Perserve Edges Better than

Linear Filtering.The Annals of Statistics 2009, Vol. 37, No. 3, 11721206 DOI: 10.1214/08-A.

[2] Bagdanov, A.D., Worring, M.: Fine-grained document genral classication using rst order random

graphs. In: Proceed-ings of the 6th International Conference on Document Anal-ysis and Recognition,

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Image Classification using Backpropagation Algorithm

[3] A. Vailaya, M. Figueiredo, A. Jain, and H. Zhang. Image classification for content-based indexing.

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 10(1):117130, 2001.

[4] O. Chapelle, P. Haffner, and V. Vapnik. Support vector machines for histogram-based image classifi-

cation. In IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, special issue on Support Vectors, 1999.

[5] Ciaran O Conaire, Noel E. O Connor, Alan F. Smeaton. An Improved Spatigram Similarity measure

for Robus Object Localisation. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal

Processing (ICASSP) 2007

[6] J. Huang, S. R. Kumar, and R. Zabih. An automatic hierarchical image classification scheme. In

MULTIMEDIA 98: Proceedings of the sixth ACM international conference on Multimedia, 1998.

[7] Hu, J., Kashi, R., Wilfong, G.: Document classication using layout analysis. In: Proceedings of the

1st International Work-shop on Document Analysis and Understanding for Docu-ment Databases,

Florence, Italy, September 1999, pp. 556560 (1999)

[8] Hroux, P., Diana, S., Ribert, A., Trupin, E.: Classication method study for automatic form class

identication. In: Pro-ceedings of the 14th International Conference on Pattern Rec-ognition, Brisbane,

Australia, 1620 August 1998, pp. 926929 (1998)

[9] Matthias Kirchner and Jessica Fridrich. On Detectonof Medican Fiitering in Digital Images. Proc.

SPIE 7541. Media Forensics and Security II, 754110 Doi 10.1117./12.839100.

[10] M. Szummer and R. W. Picard. Indoor-outdoor image classification. In IEEE International Workshop

on Content-based Access of Image and Video Databases, 1998.

[11] Robert M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam and Its Hak Dinstein(1979(. Texture features for Image Classifi-

cation . IEEE Transaction on System, Man and Cybernetics.

[12] Simon Haykin. Neural Networks A comprehensive Foundation Peason Education.

[13] Sangkyum Kim, Xin Jin, Jiawei Han. DisIClass: Discriminative Frequent Pattern-Based Image

Classification.MDMKDD10, July 25th, 2010, Washington, DC, USA.

[14] J. Z. Wang, J. Li, and G. Wiederhold. Simplicity: Semantics-sensitive integrated matching for picture

libraries. In VISUAL 00: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advances in Visual

Information Systems, 2000.

[15] Machine Learning Implementation using Weka. www.weka.org

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