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International Standards

and Recommended Practices

Annex 1
to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation

Personnel Licensing

This edition incorporates all amendments


adopted by the Council prior to 20 February 2001
and supersedes, on 1 November 2001, all previous
editions of Annex 1.

For information regarding the applicability


of the Standards and Recommended Practices,
see Foreword.

Ninth Edition
July 2001

International Civil Aviation Organization


AMENDMENTS

The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the
monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual
Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below
is provided to keep a record of such amendments.

RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA

AMENDMENTS CORRIGENDA

Date Date Entered Date Date Entered


No. applicable entered by No. of issue entered by

1-163 Incorporated in this edition

164 27/11/03 ICAO

165 25/11/04 ICAO

166 24/11/05 ICAO

(ii)
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page Page

FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (v) 3.3 Flight engineer licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2


3.4 Flight radiotelephone operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

CHAPTER 1. Definitions and General Rules CHAPTER 4. Licences and Ratings for Personnel
Concerning Licences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 other than Flight Crew Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

1.1 Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 4.1 General rules concerning licences and ratings
1.2 General rules concerning licences . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 for personnel other than flight crew members . . 4-1
4.2 Aircraft maintenance (technician/engineer/
mechanic). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.3 Air traffic controller licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
CHAPTER 2. Licences and Ratings for Pilots . . . . . . 2-1 4.4 Air traffic controller ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.5 Flight operations officer/flight dispatcher
2.1 General rules concerning pilot licences licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
and ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 4.6 Aeronautical station operator licence . . . . . . . . 4-6
2.2 Student pilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 4.7 Aeronautical meteorological personnel . . . . . . 4-7
2.3 Private pilot licence Aeroplane. . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.4 Commercial pilot licence Aeroplane . . . . . 2-5
2.5 Airline transport pilot licence Aeroplane . . 2-7 CHAPTER 5. Specifications for Personnel
2.6 Instrument rating Aeroplane . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 Licences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
2.7 Private pilot licence Helicopter . . . . . . . . . 2-12
2.8 Commercial pilot licence Helicopter . . . . . 2-13
2.9 Airline transport pilot licence CHAPTER 6. Medical Provisions for Licensing . . . . . 6-1
Helicopter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
2.10 Instrument rating Helicopter . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18 6.1 Medical Assessments General . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
2.11 Flight instructor rating appropriate to 6.2 Requirements for Medical Assessments . . . . . . 6-1
aeroplanes and helicopters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19 6.3 Class 1 Medical Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
2.12 Glider pilot licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20 6.4 Class 2 Medical Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
2.13 Free balloon pilot licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 6.5 Class 3 Medical Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11

APPENDIX 1. Requirements for Proficiency in


Languages Used for Radiotelephony
CHAPTER 3. Licences for Flight Crew Members Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .APP-1-1
other than Licences for Pilots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
APPENDIX 2. Approved Training Organization . . APP-2-1
3.1 General rules concerning flight navigator
and flight engineer licences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 ATTACHMENT. ICAO Language Proficiency
3.2 Flight navigator licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Rating Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT-1

ANNEX 1 (iii) 27/11/03


24/11/05
No. 166
FOREWORD

Historical Background occur, or of the withdrawal of any difference previously


notified. A specific request for notification of differences will
Standards and Recommended Practices for Personnel be sent to Contracting States immediately after the adoption of
Licensing were first adopted by the Council on 14 April 1948 each amendment to this Annex.
pursuant to the provisions of Article 37 of the Convention on
International Civil Aviation (Chicago 1944) and designated Use of the Annex text in national regulations. The Council,
as Annex 1 to the Convention. They became effective on on 13 April 1948, adopted a resolution inviting the attention of
15 September 1948. Contracting States to the desirability of using in their own
national regulations, as far as practicable, the precise language
Table A shows the origin of subsequent amendments of those ICAO Standards that are of a regulatory character and
together with a list of the principal subjects involved and the also of indicating departures from the Standards, including
dates on which the Annex and the amendments were adopted any additional national regulations that were important for the
by the Council, when they became effective and when they safety or regularity of air navigation. Wherever possible, the
became applicable. provisions of this Annex have been written in such a way as
to facilitate incorporation, without major textual changes, into
national legislation.

Application of the PEL Standards

Annex 1 contains Standards and Recommended Practices General Information


adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization as
the minimum standards for personnel licensing. The expression licence used throughout this Annex has the
same meaning as the expressions certificate of competency
The Annex is applicable to all applicants for and, on and license, license or certificate and license used in
renewal, to all holders of the licences and ratings specified the Convention. Similarly the expression flight crew
herein. member has the same meaning as the expressions member
of the operating crew of an aircraft and operating person-
The Council has decided that, in principle, amendments nel used in the Convention while the expression personnel
affecting existing licensing specifications are applicable to all other than flight crew members includes the expression
applicants for, and holders of, licences but, in considering mechanical personnel used in the Convention.
their application to existing holders of licences, the assess-
ment, if necessary, by re-examination of the knowledge,
experience and proficiency of individual licence holders is left
to the discretion of Contracting States.
Status of Annex Components

An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not


all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex;
Action by Contracting States
they have the status indicated:
Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting
States is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the 1. Material comprising the Annex proper:
Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify
the Organization of any differences between their national a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by
regulations and practices and the International Standards the Council under the provisions of the Convention.
contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto. They are defined as follows:
Contracting States are invited to extend such notification to
any differences from the Recommended Practices contained in Standard: Any specification for physical character-
this Annex and any amendments, when the notification of istics, configuration, matriel, performance, personnel
such differences is important for the safety of air navigation. or procedure, the uniform application of which is
Further, Contracting States are invited to keep the Organization recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of
currently informed of any difference which may subsequently international air navigation and to which Contracting

ANNEX 1 (v) 1/11/01


Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Foreword

States will conform in accordance with the c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give
Convention; in the event of impossibility of factual information or references bearing on the
compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory Standards or Recommended Practices in question,
under Article 38. but not constituting part of the Standards or
Recommended Practices.
Recommended Practice: Any specification for
physical characteristics, configuration, matriel, d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to
performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform the Standards and Recommended Practices, or
application of which is recognized as desirable in the included as a guide to their application.
interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of
international air navigation, and to which Contracting
States will endeavour to conform in accordance with
the Convention. Selection of Language
b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately
This Annex has been adopted in six languages English,
for convenience but forming part of the Standards
Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish. Each
and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council.
Contracting State is requested to select one of those texts for
c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and the purpose of national implementation and for other effects
Recommended Practices which are not self- provided for in the Convention, either through direct use or
explanatory in that they do not have accepted through translation into its own language, and to notify the
dictionary meanings. A definition does not have Organization accordingly.
independent status but is an essential part of each
Standard and Recommended Practice in which the
term is used, since a change in the meaning of the
term would affect the specification. Editorial Practices

d) Tables and Figures which add to or illustrate a The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate
Standard or Recommended Practice and which are at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been
referred to therein, form part of the associated printed in light face roman; Recommended Practices have
Standard or Recommended Practice and have the been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by
same status. the prefix Recommendation; Notes have been printed in light
face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note.
It is to be noted that some Standards in this Annex
incorporate, by reference, other specifications having the status It is to be noted that in the English text the following practice
of Recommended Practices. In such cases the text of the has been adhered to when writing the specifications: Standards
Recommended Practice becomes part of the Standard. employ the operative verb shall while Recommended Practices
employ the operative verb should.
2. Material approved by the Council for publication in
association with the Standards and Recommended Practices
The units of measurement used in this document are in
(SARPs):
accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as
specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil
a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory
Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative
material based on the action of the Council and
units these are shown in parentheses following the basic units.
including an explanation of the obligations of States
Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that
with regard to the application of the Standards and
the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may,
Recommended Practices ensuing from the
however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is
Convention and the Resolution of Adoption.
achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.
b) Introductions comprising explanatory material
introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or Any reference to a portion of this document which is
sections of the Annex to assist in the understanding identified by a number includes all subdivisions of that
of the application of the text. portion.

1/11/01 (vi)
Foreword Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

Table A. Amendments to Annex 1

Adopted
Effective
Amendment Source(s) Subject(s) Applicable

1st Edition Second Session of the Licensing of flight crew members and of key personnel responsible for air 14 April 1948
PEL Division; navigation services. 15 September 1948
January 1947. 1 May 1949

1 to 123 Third Session of the PEL Modifications to existing Standards. 22 March 1950
(2nd Edition) Division; 1 September 1950
March 1948. 1 October 1951

124 to 129 Third Session of the PEL Modifications to existing Standards. 27 June 1950
Division; 1 November 1950
March 1948. 1 October 1951

130 to 151 Third and Fourth Modifications to existing Standards. 25 November 1952
(3rd Edition) Sessions of the PEL 1 April 1953
Division; 1 April 1955
March 1948,
February 1952.

152 Special Meeting Hearing and Visual Requirement for Personnel Licensing. 22 February 1956
on Hearing and 1 July 1956
Visual Requirement 1 December 1956
for Personnel
Licensing; 1955.

153 Air Navigation New requirement for electrocardiograms. 16 April 1957


Commission. 1 September 1957
1 December 1957

154 Third Air Navigation Amendment of SARPs. 13 June 1957


(4th Edition) Conference; 1956. 1 October 1957
1 December 1957

155 Recommendation Amendment of SARPs. 27 June 1962


(5th Edition) from PEL/MED 1 November 1962
Meeting; May 1961. 1 September 1963

156 Recommendations from Amendment of SARPs. 11 December 1972


(6th Edition) PEL/TRG/MED 11 April 1973
Divisional Meeting; 2 January 1975
OctoberNovember 1970. 26 January 1978

157 Council. Use of Russian language in personnel licences. 28 June 1976


28 October 1976
21 April 1977

158 Correspondence and Modifications to existing Standards for medical examiners. New SARPs 4 May 1982
(7th Edition) Secretariat, 21st for assessment of medical fitness. Replacement of Physical and Mental 4 September 1982
Assembly and Council. Requirements by Classes of Medical Assessment. 25 November 1982

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Foreword

Adopted
Effective
Amendment Source(s) Subject(s) Applicable

159 Second, Third and Amendment of SARPs dealing with the licensing of flight crew members. 28 March 1988
(8th Edition) Fourth Meetings of Deletion of the senior commercial pilot licence aeroplane, the controlled 31 July 1988
the Personnel Licensing VFR rating, the flight radio operator licence and the flight instructor rating for 16 November 1989
and Training (PELT) gliders and free balloons. The dividing line of 5 700 kg maximum take-off mass
Panel; November 1983, is replaced by a dividing line based on the crew complement required by
April 1985, May 1986. certification. All helicopter provisions have the status of Standards. The
Air Navigation requirements for the issue of a type rating for aircraft certificated for two-pilot
Commission. operation are strengthened. The provisions for the issue of each licence and
rating have been updated. Flight instruction requirements are established for the
private, commercial, glider and free balloon pilot licences and for the instrument
and flight instructor ratings.

160 Air Navigation Amendment of SARPs for air traffic controllers, aeronautical station operators 24 March 1993
Commission. and flight operations officers. 26 July 1993
10 November 1994
161 Air Navigation Amendment of SARPs for aircraft maintenance technicians/engineers/ 10 March 1997
Commission. mechanics and Specifications for Personnel Licences. 21 July 1997
5 November 1998
162 First, Second, Third Amendment of SARPs dealing with the use of psychoactive substances by 25 February 1998
and Fourth Meetings aviation personnel. 20 July 1998
of the Prevention of 5 November 1998
Substance Abuse in
the Workplace Study
Group (PSAWSG);
December 1993,
August 1994,
January 1995,
May 1995.
Air Navigation
Commission.
163 Flight Safety and Human Human Factors knowledge requirements; visual and colour perception 19 February 2001
(9th Edition) Factors Study Group requirements; the language used in personnel licences; deletion of the 16 July 2001
(FSHFSG); May 1995. Attachment. 1 November 2001
Vision and Colour
Perception Study Group
(VCPSG); June 1997 to
May 1998.
Air Navigation
Commission.
164 32nd Session of the Amendment of definitions; new provisions requiring language proficiency for 5 March 2003
Assembly, MET aeroplane and helicopter pilots, navigators using radiotelephony, air traffic 14 July 2003
Divisional Meeting controllers and aeronautical station operators; introduction of a Note on 27 November 2003
(2002), Air Navigation qualification and training for aeronautical meteorology personnel; amendment
Commission. to the Human Factors knowledge requirements for Aircraft Maintenance
Engineer.
165 Air Navigation Endorsement of type rating with a limitation of privileges to the cruise phase of 25 February 2004
Commission. the flight. 12 July 2004
25 November 2004
166 Air Navigation Amendment to the medical provisions; new provisions on approved training 21 Feburary 2005
Commission; Medical organizations. 11 July 2005
Provisions Study Group 24 November 2005
(MPSG); Flight Crew
Licensing and Training
Panel (FCLTP).

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES

CHAPTER 1. DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL RULES


CONCERNING LICENCES

1.1 Definitions Note. Nothing in this definition is intended to preclude


that the organization and its supervision be approved by more
When the following terms are used in the Standards and than one State.
Recommended Practices for Personnel Licensing, they have
the following meanings: Approved training. Training conducted under special curricula
and supervision approved by a Contracting State that, in the
Accredited medical conclusion. The conclusion reached by case of flight crew members, is conducted within an
one or more medical experts acceptable to the Licensing approved training organization.
Authority for the purposes of the case concerned, in
consultation with flight operations or other experts as Approved training organization. An organization approved by
necessary. a Contracting State in accordance with the requirements of
Annex 1, 1.2.8.2 and Appendix 2 to perform flight crew
Aeroplane. A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving training and operating under the supervision of that State.
its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on sur-
faces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. Balloon. A non-power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft.
Aircraft. Any machine that can derive support in the Note. For the purposes of this Annex, this definition
atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the applies to free balloons.
reactions of the air against the earths surface.
Certify as airworthy (to). To certify that an aircraft or parts
Aircraft avionics. A term designating any electronic device
thereof comply with current airworthiness requirements
including its electrical part for use in an aircraft,
after maintenance has been performed on the aircraft or parts
including radio, automatic flight control and instrument
thereof.
systems.

Aircraft category. Classification of aircraft according to Co-pilot. A licensed pilot serving in any piloting capacity
specified basic characteristics, e.g. aeroplane, helicopter, other than as pilot-in-command but excluding a pilot who
glider, free balloon. is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving
flight instruction.
Aircraft certificated for single-pilot operation. A type of
aircraft which the State of Registry has determined, during Dual instruction time. Flight time during which a person is
the certification process, can be operated safely with a receiving flight instruction from a properly authorized pilot
minimum crew of one pilot. on board the aircraft.

Aircraft type of. All aircraft of the same basic design Flight crew member. A licensed crew member charged with
including all modifications thereto except those modifi- duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight
cations which result in a change in handling or flight duty period.
characteristics.
Flight plan. Specified information provided to air traffic
Approved maintenance organization. An organization services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a
approved by a Contracting State, in accordance with the flight of an aircraft.
requirements of Annex 6, Part I, Chapter 8 Aeroplane
Maintenance, to perform maintenance of aircraft or parts Flight procedures trainer. See Synthetic flight trainer.
thereof and operating under supervision approved by that
State. Flight simulator. See Synthetic flight trainer.

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 1

Flight time aeroplanes. The total time from the moment an e) approval of the use of synthetic flight trainers and
aeroplane first moves for the purpose of taking off until the authorization for their use in gaining the experience or
moment it finally comes to rest at the end of the flight. in demonstrating the skill required for the issue of a
licence or rating; and
Note. Flight time as here defined is synonymous with the
term block to block time or chock to chock time in f) validation of licences issued by other Contracting
general usage which is measured from the time an aeroplane States.
first moves for the purpose of taking off until it finally stops at
the end of the flight. Likely. In the context of the medical provisions in Chapter 6,
likely means with a probability of occurring that is
Flight time helicopters. The total time from the moment a unacceptable to the Medical Assessor.
helicopters rotor blades start turning until the moment the
helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and Maintenance. The performance of tasks required to ensure the
the rotor blades are stopped. continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or
combination of overhaul, inspection, replacement, defect
Glider. A non-power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving rectification, and the embodiment of a modification or repair.
its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on
surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of
Medical Assessment. The evidence issued by a Contracting
flight.
State that the licence holder meets specific requirements of
medical fitness.
Glider flight time. The total time occupied in flight, whether
being towed or not, from the moment the glider first moves
for the purpose of taking off until the moment it comes to Medical assessor. A physician qualified and experienced in
rest at the end of the flight. the practice of aviation medicine who evaluates medical
reports submitted to the Licensing Authority by medical
Helicopter. A heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight examiners.
chiefly by the reactions of the air on one or more power-
driven rotors on substantially vertical axes. Medical examiner. A physician with training in aviation
medicine and practical knowledge and experience of the
Human performance. Human capabilities and limitations aviation environment, who is designated by the Licensing
which have an impact on the safety and efficiency of Authority to conduct medical examinations of fitness of
aeronautical operations. applicants for licences or ratings for which medical require-
ments are prescribed.
Instrument flight time. Time during which a pilot is piloting
an aircraft solely by reference to instruments and without Night. The hours between the end of evening civil twilight and
external reference points. the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period
between sunset and sunrise, as may be prescribed by the
Instrument ground time. Time during which a pilot is appropriate authority.
practising, on the ground, simulated instrument flight in a
synthetic flight trainer approved by the Licensing Authority. Note. Civil twilight ends in the evening when the centre
of the suns disc is 6 degrees below the horizon and begins in
Instrument time. Instrument flight time or instrument ground the morning when the centre of the suns disc is 6 degrees
time. below the horizon.
Licensing Authority. The Authority designated by a
Pilot (to). To manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft
Contracting State as responsible for the licensing of
during flight time.
personnel.

Note. In the provisions of this Annex, the Licensing Pilot-in-command. The pilot designated by the operator, or in
Authority is deemed to have been given the following the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in command
responsibilities by the Contracting State: and charged with the safe conduct of a flight.

a) assessment of an applicants qualifications to hold a li- Problematic use of substances. The use of one or more
cence or rating; psychoactive substances by aviation personnel in a way that:

b) issue and endorsement of licences and ratings; a) constitutes a direct hazard to the user or endangers the
lives, health or welfare of others; and/or
c) designation and authorization of approved persons;
b) causes or worsens an occupational, social, mental or
d) approval of training courses; physical problem or disorder.

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Chapter 1 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

Psychoactive substances. Alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids, discharge, as the case may be, the Assembly recognized, in
sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psychostimulants, Resolution A23-13, that the State of Registry may be unable
hallucinogens, and volatile solvents, whereas coffee and to fulfil its responsibilities adequately in instances where
tobacco are excluded. aircraft are leased, chartered or interchanged in particular
without crew by an operator of another State and that the
Rated air traffic controller. An air traffic controller holding a Convention may not adequately specify the rights and
licence and valid ratings appropriate to the privileges to be obligations of the State of an operator in such instances until
exercised. such time as Article 83 bis of the Convention enters into force.
Accordingly, the Council urged that if, in the above-
Rating. An authorization entered on or associated with a mentioned instances, the State of Registry finds itself unable
licence and forming part thereof, stating special conditions, to discharge adequately the functions allocated to it by the
privileges or limitations pertaining to such licence. Convention, it delegate to the State of the Operator, subject
to acceptance by the latter State, those functions of the State
Rendering (a licence) valid. The action taken by a Contracting of Registry that can more adequately be discharged by the
State, as an alternative to issuing its own licence, in State of the Operator. While Article 83 bis of the Convention
accepting a licence issued by any other Contracting State as entered into force on 20 June 1997 in respect of Contracting
the equivalent of its own licence. States which have ratified the related Protocol (Doc 9318),
the foregoing action will remain particularly relevant for
Sign a maintenance release (to). To certify that maintenance those Contracting States which do not have treaty relations
work has been completed satisfactorily in accordance with under Article 83 bis. It was understood that pending entry
the applicable Standards of airworthiness, by issuing the into force of Article 83 bis of the Convention, the foregoing
maintenance release referred to in Annex 6. action would only be a matter of practical convenience and
would not affect either the provisions of the Chicago
Significant. In the context of the medical provisions in
Convention prescribing the duties of the State of Registry or
Chapter 6, significant means to a degree or of a nature that
any third State. However, as Article 83 bis of the Convention
is likely to jeopardize flight safety.
entered into force on 20 June 1997, such transfer agreements
will have effect in respect of Contracting States which have
Solo flight time. Flight time during which a student pilot is the
ratified the related Protocol (Doc 9318) upon fulfilment of the
sole occupant of an aircraft.
conditions established in Article 83 bis.
Synthetic flight trainer. Any one of the following three types
of apparatus in which flight conditions are simulated on the Note 2. International Standards and Recommended
ground: Practices are established for licensing the following personnel:

A flight simulator, which provides an accurate represen- a) Flight crew


tation of the flight deck of a particular aircraft type to
the extent that the mechanical, electrical, electronic, etc. private pilot aeroplane;
aircraft systems control functions, the normal environment commercial pilot aeroplane;
of flight crew members, and the performance and flight airline transport pilot aeroplane;
characteristics of that type of aircraft are realistically private pilot helicopter;
simulated; commercial pilot helicopter;
airline transport pilot helicopter;
A flight procedures trainer, which provides a realistic flight glider pilot;
deck environment, and which simulates instrument free balloon pilot;
responses, simple control functions of mechanical, electri- flight navigator;
cal, electronic, etc. aircraft systems, and the performance flight engineer.
and flight characteristics of aircraft of a particular class;
b) Other personnel
A basic instrument flight trainer, which is equipped with
appropriate instruments, and which simulates the flight aircraft maintenance (technician/engineer/
deck environment of an aircraft in flight in instrument mechanic);
flight conditions. air traffic controller;
flight operations officer;
aeronautical station operator.

1.2 General rules concerning licences


1.2.1 Authority to act as a flight crew member
Note 1. Although the Convention on International Civil
Aviation allocates to the State of Registry certain functions A person shall not act as a flight crew member of an aircraft
which that State is entitled to discharge, or obligated to unless a valid licence is held showing compliance with the

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specifications of this Annex and appropriate to the duties to be certificate, a statement on the licence, a national regulation
performed by that person. The licence shall have been issued stipulating that the Medical Assessment is an integral part of
by the State of Registry of that aircraft or by any other the licence, etc.
Contracting State and rendered valid by the State of Registry
of that aircraft. 1.2.4.1 An applicant for a licence shall, when applicable,
hold a Medical Assessment issued in accordance with the
Note. Article 29 of the Convention on International Civil provisions of Chapter 6.
Aviation requires that the flight crew members carry their
appropriate licences on board every aircraft engaged in 1.2.4.2 The period of validity of a Medical Assessment
international air navigation. shall begin on the day the medical examination is performed.
The duration of the period of validity shall be in accordance
with the provisions of 1.2.5.2.
1.2.2 Method of rendering a licence valid
1.2.4.2.1 The period of validity of a Medical Assessment
1.2.2.1 When a Contracting State renders valid a licence may be extended, at the discretion of the Licensing Authority,
issued by another Contracting State, as an alternative to the up to 45 days.
issuance of its own licence, it shall establish validity by
suitable authorization to be carried with the former licence Note. It is advisable to let the calendar day on which the
accepting it as the equivalent of the latter. The validity of the Medical Assessment expires remain constant year after year
authorization shall not extend beyond the period of validity of by allowing the expiry date of the current Medical Assessment
the licence. to be the beginning of the new validity period under the
proviso that the medical examination takes place during the
Note. This provision is not intended to preclude the State period of validity of the current Medical Assessment but no
that issued the licence from extending, by a suitable notifi- more than 45 days before it expires.
cation, the period of validity of the licence without necessarily
requiring either the physical return of the licence or the 1.2.4.3 Except as provided in 1.2.5.2.3, flight crew
appearance of the licence holder before the authorities of that members or air traffic controllers shall not exercise the
State. privileges of their licence unless they hold a current Medical
Assessment appropriate to the licence.
1.2.2.2 Recommendation. A pilot licence issued by a
Contracting State should be rendered valid by other 1.2.4.4 Contracting States shall designate medical
Contracting States for use in private flights. examiners, qualified and licensed in the practice of medicine,
to conduct medical examinations of fitness of applicants for
Note. Contracting States which, without formality, render the issue or renewal of the licences or ratings specified in
valid a licence issued by another Contracting State for use in Chapters 2 and 3, and of the appropriate licences specified in
private flights are encouraged to notify this facility in their Chapter 4.
Aeronautical Information Publications.
1.2.4.4.1 Medical examiners shall have received training
in aviation medicine and shall receive refresher training at
1.2.3 Privileges of the holder of a licence regular intervals. Before designation, medical examiners shall
demonstrate adequate competency in aviation medicine.
A Contracting State shall not permit the holder of a licence to
exercise privileges other than those granted by that licence. 1.2.4.4.2 Medical examiners shall have practical knowl-
edge and experience of the conditions in which the holders of
licences and ratings carry out their duties.
1.2.4 Medical fitness
Note. Examples of practical knowledge and experience
Note 1. Guidance material is published in the Manual of are flight experience, simulator experience, on-site obser-
Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984). vation or any other hands-on experience deemed by the
Licensing Authority to meet this requirement.
Note 2. To satisfy the licensing requirements of medical
fitness for the issue of various types of licences, the applicant 1.2.4.5 Applicants for licences or ratings for which
must meet certain appropriate medical requirements which medical fitness is prescribed shall sign and furnish to the
are specified as three classes of Medical Assessment. Details medical examiner a declaration stating whether they have
are given in 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5. To provide the necessary previously undergone such an examination and, if so, the date,
evidence to satisfy the requirements of 1.2.4.1, the Licensing place and result of the last examination. They shall indicate to
Authority issues the licence holder with the appropriate the examiner whether a Medical Assessment has previously
Medical Assessment, Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3. This can be been refused, revoked or suspended and, if so, the reason for
done in several ways such as a suitably titled separate such refusal, revocation or suspension.

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Chapter 1 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

1.2.4.5.1 Any false declaration to a medical examiner 1.2.4.9.1 All medical reports and records shall be
made by an applicant for a licence or rating shall be reported securely held with accessibility restricted to authorized person-
to the Licensing Authority of the issuing State for such action nel.
as may be considered appropriate.
1.2.4.9.2 When justified by operational considerations,
1.2.4.6 Having completed the medical examination of the the medical assessor shall determine to what extent pertinent
applicant in accordance with Chapter 6, the medical examiner medical information is presented to relevant officials of the
shall coordinate the results of the examination and submit a Licensing Authority.
signed report, or equivalent, to the Licensing Authority, in
accordance with its requirements, detailing the results of the
examination and evaluating the findings with regard to 1.2.5 Validity of licences
medical fitness.
1.2.5.1 A Contracting State, having issued a licence, shall
ensure that the privileges granted by that licence, or by related
1.2.4.6.1 If the medical report is submitted to the Licens-
ratings, are not exercised unless the holder maintains com-
ing Authority in electronic format, adequate identification of
petency and meets the requirements for recent experience
the examiner shall be established.
established by that State.

1.2.4.6.2 If the medical examination is carried out by two 1.2.5.1.1 A Contracting State, having issued a licence,
or more medical examiners, Contracting States shall appoint shall ensure that other Contracting States are enabled to be
one of these to be responsible for coordinating the results of satisfied as to the validity of the licence.
the examination, evaluating the findings with regard to
medical fitness, and signing the report. Note 1. The maintenance of competency of flight crew
members, engaged in commercial air transport operations,
1.2.4.7 Contracting States shall use the services of medi- may be satisfactorily established by demonstration of skill
cal assessors to evaluate reports submitted to the Licensing during proficiency flight checks completed in accordance with
Authorities by medical examiners. Annex 6.

1.2.4.7.1 The medical examiner shall be required to Note 2. Maintenance of competency may be satisfactorily
submit sufficient medical information to the Licensing Author- recorded in the operators records, or in the flight crew
ity to enable the Authority to audit Medical Assessments. members personal log book or licence.

Note. The purpose of such auditing is to ensure that Note 3. Flight crew members may, to the extent deemed
medical examiners meet applicable standards for good feasible by the State of Registry, demonstrate their continuing
practice. competency in synthetic flight trainers approved by that State.

Note 4. See the Manual of Criteria for the Qualification


1.2.4.8 If the medical Standards prescribed in Chapter 6 of Flight Simulators (Doc 9625).
for a particular licence are not met, the appropriate Medical
Assessment shall not be issued or renewed unless the follow- 1.2.5.2 Except as provided in 1.2.5.2.1, 1.2.5.2.2,
ing conditions are fulfilled: 1.2.5.2.3, 1.2.5.2.4 and 1.2.5.2.5, a Medical Assessment issued
in accordance with 1.2.4.5 and 1.2.4.6 shall be valid from the
a) accredited medical conclusion indicates that in special date of the medical examination for a period not greater than:
circumstances the applicants failure to meet any
requirement, whether numerical or otherwise, is such 60 months for the private pilot licence aeroplane;
that exercise of the privileges of the licence applied for
is not likely to jeopardize flight safety; 12 months for the commercial pilot licence aeroplane;
b) relevant ability, skill and experience of the applicant and 12 months for the airline transport pilot licence
operational conditions have been given due consider- aeroplane;
ation; and
60 months for the private pilot licence helicopter;
c) the licence is endorsed with any special limitation or
limitations when the safe performance of the licence 12 months for the commercial pilot licence helicopter;
holders duties is dependent on compliance with such
limitation or limitations. 12 months for the airline transport pilot licence
helicopter;
1.2.4.9 Medical confidentiality shall be respected at all
times. 60 months for the glider pilot licence;

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 1

60 months for the free balloon pilot licence; favourable medical report is obtained after examination
by a designated medical examiner of the area concerned,
12 months for the flight navigator licence; or, in cases where such a designated medical examiner is
not available, by a physician legally qualified to practise
12 months for the flight engineer licence; medicine in that area. A report of the medical examin-
ation shall be sent to the Licensing Authority where the
48 months for the air traffic controller licence. licence was issued;

Note 1. The periods of validity listed above may be c) in the case of a private pilot, a single period not exceed-
extended by up to 45 days in accordance with 1.2.4.2.1. ing 24 months where the medical examination is carried
out by an examiner designated under 1.2.4.4 by the Con-
Note 2. When calculated in accordance with 1.2.5.2 and tracting State in which the applicant is temporarily
its sub-paragraphs, the period of validity will, for the last located. A report of the medical examination shall be
month counted, include the day that has the same calendar sent to the Licensing Authority where the licence was
number as the date of the medical examination or, if that issued.
month has no day with that number, the last day of that month.

1.2.6 Decrease in medical fitness


1.2.5.2.1 The period of validity of a Medical Assessment
may be reduced when clinically indicated.
1.2.6.1 Holders of licences provided for in this Annex
shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and related
1.2.5.2.2 When the holders of airline transport pilot ratings at any time when they are aware of any decrease in
licences and commercial pilot licences aeroplane and their medical fitness which might render them unable to safely
helicopter, who are engaged in single-crew commercial air and properly exercise these privileges.
transport operations carrying passengers, have passed their
40th birthday, the period of validity specified in 1.2.5.2 shall 1.2.6.1.1 Recommendation. Licence holders should
be reduced to six months. inform the Licensing Authority of confirmed pregnancy or any
decrease in medical fitness of a duration of more than 20 days
1.2.5.2.3 When the holders of private pilot licences or which requires continued treatment with prescribed medi-
aeroplane and helicopter, glider pilot licence, free balloon pilot cation or which has required hospital treatment.
licence, and air traffic controller licence have passed their 40th
birthday, the period of validity specified in 1.2.5.2 shall be 1.2.6.1.2 Recommendation. Each Contracting State
reduced to 24 months. should, as far as practicable, ensure that licence holders do
not exercise the privileges of their licences and related ratings
1.2.5.2.4 Recommendation. When the holders of pri- during any period in which their medical fitness has, from any
vate pilot licences aeroplane and helicopter, glider pilot cause, decreased to an extent that would have prevented the
licences, free balloon pilot licences, and air traffic controller issue or renewal of their Medical Assessment.
licences have passed their 50th birthday, the period of validity
specified in 1.2.5.2 should be further reduced to 12 months.
1.2.7 Use of psychoactive substances
Note. The periods of validity listed above are based on
1.2.7.1 Holders of licences provided for in this Annex
the age of the applicant at the time of undergoing the medical
shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and related
examination.
ratings while under the influence of any psychoactive sub-
stance which might render them unable to safely and properly
1.2.5.2.5 Circumstances in which a medical examination exercise these privileges.
may be deferred. The prescribed re-examination of a licence
holder operating in an area distant from designated medical 1.2.7.2 Holders of licences provided for in this Annex
examination facilities may be deferred at the discretion of the shall not engage in any problematic use of substances.
Licensing Authority, provided that such deferment shall only
be made as an exception and shall not exceed: 1.2.7.3 Recommendation. Contracting States should
ensure, as far as practicable, that all licence holders who
a) a single period of six months in the case of a flight crew engage in any kind of problematic use of substances are ident-
member of an aircraft engaged in non-commercial ified and removed from their safety-critical functions. Return
operations; to the safety-critical functions may be considered after success-
ful treatment or, in cases where no treatment is necessary,
b) two consecutive periods each of three months in the case after cessation of the problematic use of substances and upon
of a flight crew member of an aircraft engaged in determination that the persons continued performance of the
commercial operations provided that in each case a function is unlikely to jeopardize safety.

24/11/05 1-6
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Chapter 1 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

Note. Guidance on suitable methods of identification 1.2.9.3 Recommendation. Flight engineers, and glider
(which may include biochemical testing on such occasions as and free balloon pilots should have the ability to speak and
pre-employment, upon reasonable suspicion, after accidents/ understand the language used for radiotelephony communi-
incidents, at intervals, and at random) and on other prevention cations.
topics is contained in the Manual on Prevention of
Problematic Use of Substances in the Aviation Workplace 1.2.9.4 As of 5 March 2008, aeroplane and helicopter
(Doc 9654). pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators
shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the
language used for radiotelephony communications to the level
specified in the language proficiency requirements in the
1.2.8 Approved training and
Appendix.
approved training organization
1.2.9.5 Recommendation. Aeroplane and helicopter
Note. The qualifications required for the issue of
pilots, flight navigators required to use the radio telephone
personnel licences can be more readily and speedily acquired
aboard an aircraft, air traffic controllers and aeronautical
by applicants who undergo closely supervised, systematic and
station operators should demonstrate the ability to speak and
continuous courses of training, conforming to a planned
understand the language used for radiotelephony communi-
syllabus or curriculum. Provision has accordingly been made
cations to the level specified in the language proficiency
for some reduction in the experience requirements for the
requirements in the Appendix.
issue of certain licences and ratings prescribed in these
Standards and Recommended Practices, in respect of an
1.2.9.6 As of 5 March 2008, the language proficiency of
applicant who has satisfactorily completed a course of
aeroplane and helicopter pilots, air traffic controllers and
approved training.
aeronautical station operators who demonstrate proficiency
below the Expert Level (Level 6) shall be formally evaluated
1.2.8.1 Approved training shall provide a level of com-
at intervals in accordance with an individuals demonstrated
petency at least equal to that provided by the minimum
proficiency level.
experience requirements for personnel not receiving such
approved training.
1.2.9.7 Recommendation. The language proficiency of
aeroplane and helicopter pilots, flight navigators required to
1.2.8.2 The approval of an organization providing
use the radio telephone aboard an aircraft, air traffic
training for flight crew by a State shall be dependent upon the
controllers and aeronautical station operators who demon-
applicant demonstrating compliance with the requirements of
strate proficiency below the Expert Level (Level 6) should be
Appendix 2.
formally evaluated at intervals in accordance with an
individuals demonstrated proficiency level, as follows:
Note. Guidance on approval of a flight crew training
organization can be found in the Manual on the Approval of
a) those demonstrating language proficiency at the
Flight Crew Training Organizations (in preparation).
Operational Level (Level 4) should be evaluated at least
once every three years; and

1.2.9 Language proficiency b) those demonstrating language proficiency at the


Extended Level (Level 5) should be evaluated at least
1.2.9.1 Aeroplane and helicopter pilots and those flight once every six years.
navigators who are required to use the radio telephone aboard
an aircraft shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand Note 1. Formal evaluation is not required for applicants
the language used for radiotelephony communications. who demonstrate expert language proficiency, e.g. native and
very proficient non-native speakers with a dialect or accent
Note. Pursuant to Article 42 of the Convention on intelligible to the international aeronautical community.
International Civil Aviation, paragraph 1.2.9.1 does not apply
to personnel whose licences are originally issued prior to Note 2. The provisions of 1.2.9 refer to Annex 10,
5 March 2004 but, in any case, does apply to personnel whose Volume II, Chapter 5, whereby the language used for radio-
licences remain valid after 5 March 2008. telephony communications may be the language normally used
by the station on the ground or English. In practice, therefore,
1.2.9.2 Air traffic controllers and aeronautical station there will be situations whereby flight crew members will only
operators shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand need to speak the language normally used by the station on the
the language used for radiotelephony communications. ground.

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CHAPTER 2. LICENCES AND RATINGS FOR PILOTS

2.1 General rules concerning pilot 2.1.2.2 Category ratings shall not be endorsed on a licence
licences and ratings when the category is included in the title of the licence itself.

2.1.2.3 Any additional category rating endorsed on a pilot


2.1.1 General licensing specifications licence shall indicate the level of licensing privileges at which
the category rating is granted.
2.1.1.1 A person shall not act either as pilot-in-command
or as co-pilot of an aircraft in any of the following categories 2.1.2.4 The holder of a pilot licence seeking additional
unless that person is the holder of a pilot licence issued in category ratings shall meet the requirements of this Annex
accordance with the provisions of this Chapter: appropriate to the privileges for which the category rating is
sought.
aeroplane

helicopter 2.1.3 Class and type ratings


glider 2.1.3.1 Class ratings shall be established for aeroplanes
certificated for single-pilot operation and shall comprise:
free balloon.
a) single-engine, land;
2.1.1.2 The category of aircraft shall be included in the
title of the licence itself, or endorsed as a category rating on b) single-engine, sea;
the licence.
c) multi-engine, land;
2.1.1.2.1 When the holder of a pilot licence seeks a
licence for an additional category of aircraft, the Licensing d) multi-engine, sea.
Authority shall either:
Note. The provisions of this paragraph do not preclude
a) issue the licence holder with an additional pilot licence the establishment of other class ratings within this basic
for that category of aircraft; or structure.

b) endorse the original licence with the new category 2.1.3.1.1 Recommendation. Contracting States should
rating, subject to the conditions of 2.1.2. consider establishing a class rating for those helicopters
certificated for single-pilot operations and which have com-
Note. The requirements for category ratings are given in parable handling, performance and other characteristics.
terms of licensing specifications for pilots and at levels appro-
priate to the privileges to be granted to the licence holder. 2.1.3.2 Type ratings shall be established for:

2.1.1.3 An applicant shall, before being issued with any a) each type of aircraft certificated for operation with a
pilot licence or rating, meet such requirements in respect of minimum crew of at least two pilots;
age, knowledge, experience, flight instruction, skill and medi-
cal fitness, as are specified for that licence or rating. b) each type of helicopter certificated for single-pilot
operation except where a class rating has been issued
2.1.1.3.1 An applicant for any pilot licence or rating shall under 2.1.3.1.1; and
demonstrate, in a manner determined by the Licensing
Authority, such requirements for knowledge and skill as are c) any type of aircraft whenever considered necessary by
specified for that licence or rating. the Licensing Authority.

Note. Requirements for class and type ratings for gliders


2.1.2 Category ratings and free balloons have not been determined.

2.1.2.1 When established, category ratings shall be for 2.1.3.3 When an applicant demonstrates skill and knowl-
categories of aircraft listed in 2.1.1.1. edge for the initial issue of a pilot licence, the category and the

ANNEX 1 2-1 1/11/01


Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 2

ratings appropriate to the class or type of aircraft used in the procedures for crew incapacitation and crew coor-
demonstration shall be entered on the licence. dination including allocation of pilot tasks; crew
cooperation and use of checklists;
2.1.4 Circumstances in which class
Note. Attention is called to Recommendation 2.1.8.2
and type ratings are required
on the qualifications required for pilots giving flight
training.
2.1.4.1 A Contracting State having issued a pilot licence
shall not permit the holder of such licence to act either as pilot-
b) demonstrated the skill and knowledge required for the
in-command or as co-pilot of an aeroplane or helicopter unless
safe operation of the applicable type of aircraft, rel-
the holder has received authorization as follows:
evant to the duties of a pilot-in-command or a co-pilot
a) the appropriate class rating specified in 2.1.3.1; or as applicable; and

b) a type rating when required in accordance with the c) demonstrated, at the airline transport pilot licence level,
provisions of 2.1.3.2. an extent of knowledge determined by the Licensing
Authority on the basis of the requirements specified in
2.1.4.1.1 When a type rating is issued limiting the 2.5.1.2 or 2.9.1.2, as applicable.
privileges to act as co-pilot, or limiting the privileges to act as
pilot only during the cruise phase of the flight, such limitation
shall be endorsed on the rating. 2.1.5.3 Type rating as required by 2.1.3.2 b) and c)

2.1.4.2 For the purpose of training, testing, or specific The applicant shall have demonstrated the skill and knowledge
special purpose non-revenue, non-passenger carrying flights, required for the safe operation of the applicable type of
special authorization may be provided in writing to the licence aircraft, relevant to the licensing requirements and piloting
holder by the Licensing Authority in place of issuing the class functions of the applicant.
or type rating in accordance with 2.1.4.1. This authorization
shall be limited in validity to the time needed to complete the
specific flight. 2.1.6 Use of synthetic flight trainers for
demonstrations of skill
2.1.5 Requirements for the issue of
class and type ratings The use of a synthetic flight trainer for performing any
manoeuvre required during the demonstration of skill for the
issue of a licence or rating shall be approved by the Licensing
2.1.5.1 Class rating Authority which shall ensure that the synthetic flight trainer
used is appropriate to the task.
The applicant shall have demonstrated a degree of skill
appropriate to the licence in an aircraft of the class for which
the rating is sought. 2.1.7 Circumstances in which an
instrument rating is required
2.1.5.2 Type rating as required by 2.1.3.2 a)
A Contracting State, having issued a pilot licence, shall not
The applicant shall have: permit the holder thereof to act either as pilot-in-command or
as co-pilot of an aircraft under instrument flight rules (IFR)
a) gained, under appropriate supervision, experience in unless such holder has received proper authorization from such
the applicable type of aircraft and/or flight simulator in Contracting State. Proper authorization shall comprise an
the following: instrument rating appropriate to the aircraft category.

normal flight procedures and manoeuvres during Note. The instrument rating is included in the airline
all phases of flight; transport pilot licence aeroplane, and the provisions of
2.1.7 do not preclude the issue of a licence having the
abnormal and emergency procedures and ma- instrument rating as an integral part thereof.
noeuvres in the event of failures and malfunctions
of equipment, such as powerplant, systems and
airframe; 2.1.8 Circumstances in which authorization to
conduct flight instruction is required
where applicable, instrument procedures, including
instrument approach, missed approach and landing 2.1.8.1 A Contracting State having issued a pilot
procedures under normal, abnormal and emergency licence shall not permit the holder thereof to carry out
conditions, including simulated engine failure; flight instruction required for the issue of a private pilot

25/11/04
1/11/01 2-2
No. 165
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

licence aeroplane or helicopter, commercial pilot licence air services or non-scheduled international air transport oper-
aeroplane or helicopter, instrument rating aeroplane ations for remuneration or hire if the licence holders have
or helicopter, or a flight instructor rating appropriate to aero- attained their 60th birthday.
planes and helicopters, unless such holder has received proper
authorization from such Contracting State. Proper authorization
shall comprise:
2.2 Student pilot
a) a flight instructor rating on the holders licence; or
2.2.1 A student pilot shall meet requirements prescribed
b) the authority to act as an agent of an approved by the Contracting State concerned. In prescribing such require-
organization authorized by the Licensing Authority to ments, Contracting States shall ensure that the privileges
carry out flight instruction; or granted would not permit student pilots to constitute a hazard
to air navigation.
c) a specific authorization granted by the Contracting State
which issued the licence. 2.2.2 A student pilot shall not fly solo unless under the
supervision of, or with the authority of, an authorized flight
2.1.8.2 Recommendation. A Contracting State having instructor.
issued a pilot licence should not permit the holder thereof to
carry out flight instruction for the issue of any licence or 2.2.2.1 A student pilot shall not fly solo in an aircraft on
rating not specified in 2.1.8.1 above unless such holder has an international flight unless by special or general arrangement
received proper authorization from such Contracting State. between the Contracting States concerned.

2.1.9 Crediting of flight time 2.2.3 Medical Fitness

2.1.9.1 A student pilot or the holder of a pilot licence A Contracting State shall not permit a student pilot to fly solo
shall be entitled to be credited in full with all solo, dual unless that student pilot holds a current Class 2 Medical
instruction and pilot-in-command flight time towards the total Assessment.
flight time required for the initial issue of a pilot licence or the
issue of a higher grade of pilot licence.

2.1.9.2 The holder of a pilot licence, when acting as co- 2.3 Private pilot licence Aeroplane
pilot of an aircraft required to be operated with a co-pilot, shall
be entitled to be credited with not more than 50 per cent of the Note. The Training Manual (Doc 7192), Part B-5, contains
co-pilot flight time towards the total flight time required for a guidance material for a course of training for the private pilot
higher grade of pilot licence. licence aeroplane.

2.1.9.3 The holder of a pilot licence, when acting as


co-pilot performing under the supervision of the pilot-in-
2.3.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
command the functions and duties of a pilot-in-command,
shall be entitled to be credited in full with this flight time
towards the total flight time required for a higher grade of pilot
licence. 2.3.1.1 Age

The applicant shall be not less than 17 years of age.


2.1.10 Curtailment of privileges of pilots
who have attained their 60th birthday
2.3.1.2 Knowledge
2.1.10.1 A Contracting State, having issued pilot licences,
shall not permit the holders thereof to act as pilot-in-command The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
of an aircraft engaged in scheduled international air services appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a private
or non-scheduled international air transport operations for pilot licence aeroplane, in at least the following subjects:
remuneration or hire if the licence holders have attained their
60th birthday. Air law

2.1.10.2 Recommendation. A Contracting State, having a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a private
issued pilot licences, should not permit the holders thereof to pilot licence aeroplane; rules of the air; appropriate
act as co-pilot of an aircraft engaged in scheduled international air traffic services practices and procedures;

2-3 1/11/01
Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 2

Aircraft general knowledge Radiotelephony

b) principles of operation of aeroplane powerplants, m) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as applied


systems and instruments; to VFR operations; action to be taken in case of
communication failure.
c) operating limitations of aeroplanes and powerplants;
relevant operational information from the flight manual
or other appropriate document; 2.3.1.3 Experience

2.3.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed not less than


Flight performance and planning
40 hours of flight time as a pilot of aeroplanes. The Licensing
Authority shall determine whether experience as a pilot under
d) effects of loading and mass distribution on flight
instruction in a synthetic flight trainer, which it has approved,
characteristics; mass and balance calculations;
is acceptable as part of the total flight time of 40 hours. Credit
for such experience shall be limited to a maximum of 5 hours.
e) use and practical application of take-off, landing and
other performance data;
2.3.1.3.1.1 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot of
aircraft in other categories, the Licensing Authority shall
f) pre-flight and en-route flight planning appropriate to
determine whether such experience is acceptable and, if so, the
private operations under VFR; preparation and filing
extent to which the flight time requirements of 2.3.1.3.1 can be
of air traffic services flight plans; appropriate air
reduced accordingly.
traffic services procedures; position reporting pro-
cedures; altimeter setting procedures; operations in
2.3.1.3.2 The applicant shall have completed in aeroplanes
areas of high-density traffic;
not less than 10 hours of solo flight time under the supervision
of an authorized flight instructor, including 5 hours of solo
Human performance cross-country flight time with at least one cross-country flight
totalling not less than 270 km (150 NM) in the course of which
g) human performance relevant to the private pilot full-stop landings at two different aerodromes shall be made.
aeroplane;

Note. Guidance material to design training 2.3.1.4 Flight instruction


programmes on human performance can be found in
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683). 2.3.1.4.1 The applicant shall have received dual instruc-
tion in aeroplanes from an authorized flight instructor. The
instructor shall ensure that the applicant has operational
Meteorology
experience in at least the following areas to the level of
performance required for the private pilot:
h) application of elementary aeronautical meteorology;
use of, and procedures for obtaining, meteorological
a) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance
information; altimetry;
determination, aeroplane inspection and servicing;

Navigation b) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision


avoidance precautions and procedures;
i) practical aspects of air navigation and dead-reckoning
techniques; use of aeronautical charts; c) control of the aeroplane by external visual reference;

d) flight at critically slow airspeeds; recognition of, and


Operational procedures
recovery from, incipient and full stalls;
j) use of aeronautical documentation such as AIP,
e) flight at critically high airspeeds; recognition of, and
NOTAM, aeronautical codes and abbreviations;
recovery from, spiral dives;
k) appropriate precautionary and emergency procedures,
f) normal and cross-wind take-offs and landings;
including action to be taken to avoid hazardous weather,
wake turbulence and other operating hazards;
g) maximum performance (short field and obstacle
clearance) take-offs; short-field landings;
Principles of flight
h) flight by reference solely to instruments, including the
l) principles of flight relating to aeroplanes; completion of a level 180 turn;

1/11/01 2-4
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

i) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead 2.3.2.2 Before exercising the privileges at night, the
reckoning and, where available, radio navigation aids; licence holder shall have complied with the requirements
specified in 2.3.1.4.2.
j) emergency operations, including simulated aeroplane
equipment malfunctions; and

k) operations to, from and transitting controlled aero- 2.4 Commercial pilot licence Aeroplane
dromes, compliance with air traffic services procedures,
radiotelephony procedures and phraseology. Note. The Training Manual (Doc 7192), Part B-5, contains
guidance material for a course of training for the commercial
2.3.1.4.2 If the privileges of the licence are to be pilot licence aeroplane.
exercised at night, the applicant shall have received dual
instruction in aeroplanes in night flying, including take-offs,
landings and navigation. 2.4.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
Note. The instrument experience specified in 2.3.1.4.1 h)
and the night flying experience specified in 2.3.1.4.2 do not 2.4.1.1 Age
entitle the holder of a private pilot licence aeroplane to
pilot aeroplanes under IFR. The applicant shall be not less than 18 years of age.

Note. Certain privileges of the licence are curtailed by


2.3.1.5 Skill 2.1.10 for licence holders who have attained their 60th
birthday.
The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as
pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, the procedures and
manoeuvres described in 2.3.1.4 with a degree of competency 2.4.1.2 Knowledge
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a private
pilot licence aeroplane, and to: The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a
a) operate the aeroplane within its limitations;
commercial pilot licence aeroplane, in at least the following
subjects:
b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;

c) exercise good judgement and airmanship; Air law

d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a
commercial pilot licence aeroplane; rules of the air;
e) maintain control of the aeroplane at all times in a appropriate air traffic services practices and procedures;
manner such that the successful outcome of a
procedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.
Aircraft general knowledge

2.3.1.6 Medical fitness b) principles of operation and functioning of aeroplane


powerplants, systems and instruments;
The applicant shall hold a current Class 2 Medical Assessment.
c) operating limitations of appropriate aeroplanes and
Note. Attention is called to 2.6.1.5 on the medical fitness powerplants; relevant operational information from the
requirements for private pilot licence holders seeking an flight manual or other appropriate document;
instrument rating.
d) use and serviceability checks of equipment and
systems of appropriate aeroplanes;
2.3.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence
and the conditions to be observed in e) maintenance procedures for airframes, systems and
exercising such privileges powerplants of appropriate aeroplanes;

2.3.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements Flight performance and planning
specified in 1.2.5, 1.2.6, 1.2.9 and 2.1, the privileges of the
holder of a private pilot licence aeroplane shall be to act, f) effects of loading and mass distribution on aeroplane
but not for remuneration, as pilot-in-command or co-pilot of handling, flight characteristics and performance; mass
any aeroplane engaged in non-revenue flights. and balance calculations;

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g) use and practical application of take-off, landing and Radiotelephony


other performance data;
r) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as applied
h) pre-flight and en-route flight planning appropriate to to VFR operations; action to be taken in case of
operations under VFR; preparation and filing of air communication failure.
traffic services flight plans; appropriate air traffic
services procedures; altimeter setting procedures;
2.4.1.3 Experience
Human performance
2.4.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed not less
than 200 hours of flight time, or 150 hours if completed
i) human performance relevant to the commercial pilot
during a course of approved training, as a pilot of aero-
aeroplane;
planes. The Licensing Authority shall determine whether
experience as a pilot under instruction in a synthetic flight
Note. Guidance material to design training
trainer, which it has approved, is acceptable as part of the
programmes on human performance can be found in
total flight time of 200 hours or 150 hours, as the case may
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
be. Credit for such experience shall be limited to a maximum
of 10 hours.
Meteorology
2.4.1.3.1.1 The applicant shall have completed in
j) interpretation and application of aeronautical meteoro- aeroplanes not less than:
logical reports, charts and forecasts; use of, and
procedures for obtaining, meteorological information, a) 100 hours as pilot-in-command or, in the case of a
pre-flight and in-flight; altimetry; course of approved training, 70 hours as pilot-in-
command;
k) aeronautical meteorology; climatology of relevant areas
in respect of the elements having an effect upon b) 20 hours of cross-country flight time as pilot-in-
aviation; the movement of pressure systems, the struc- command including a cross-country flight totalling not
ture of fronts, and the origin and characteristics of less than 540 km (300 NM) in the course of which
significant weather phenomena which affect take-off, full-stop landings at two different aerodromes shall be
en-route and landing conditions; hazardous weather made;
avoidance;
c) 10 hours of instrument instruction time of which not
more than 5 hours may be instrument ground time; and
Navigation
d) if the privileges of the licence are to be exercised at
l) air navigation, including the use of aeronautical charts, night, 5 hours of night flight time including 5 take-offs
instruments and navigation aids; an understanding of and 5 landings as pilot-in-command.
the principles and characteristics of appropriate navi-
gation systems; operation of airborne equipment; 2.4.1.3.2 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot of
aircraft in other categories, the Licensing Authority shall
Operational procedures determine whether such experience is acceptable and, if so, the
extent to which the flight time requirements of 2.4.1.3.1 can be
m) use of aeronautical documentation such as AIP, reduced accordingly.
NOTAM, aeronautical codes and abbreviations;

n) appropriate precautionary and emergency procedures; 2.4.1.4 Flight instruction

o) operational procedures for carriage of freight; potential 2.4.1.4.1 The applicant shall have received dual instruc-
hazards associated with dangerous goods; tion in aeroplanes from an authorized flight instructor. The
instructor shall ensure that the applicant has operational
experience in at least the following areas to the level of
p) requirements and practices for safety briefing to
performance required for the commercial pilot:
passengers, including precautions to be observed when
embarking and disembarking from aeroplanes;
a) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance
determination, aeroplane inspection and servicing;
Principles of flight
b) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision
q) principles of flight relating to aeroplanes; avoidance precautions and procedures;

1/11/01 2-6
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

c) control of the aeroplane by external visual reference; 2.4.1.6 Medical fitness

d) flight at critically slow airspeeds; spin avoidance; The applicant shall hold a current Class 1 Medical Assessment.
recognition of, and recovery from, incipient and full
stalls;
2.4.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and
e) flight at critically high airspeeds; recognition of, and the conditions to be observed in
recovery from, spiral dives; exercising such privileges

f) normal and cross-wind take-offs and landings; 2.4.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements
specified in 1.2.5, 1.2.6, 1.2.9 and 2.1, the privileges of the
g) maximum performance (short field and obstacle holder of a commercial pilot licence aeroplane shall be:
clearance) take-offs; short-field landings;
a) to exercise all the privileges of the holder of a private
h) basic flight manoeuvres and recovery from unusual pilot licence aeroplane;
attitudes by reference solely to basic flight instruments;
b) to act as pilot-in-command in any aeroplane engaged
i) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead in operations other than commercial air transportation;
reckoning and radio navigation aids; diversion
procedures; c) to act as pilot-in-command in commercial air transpor-
tation in any aeroplane certificated for single-pilot
j) abnormal and emergency procedures and manoeuvres; operation; and
and
d) to act as co-pilot in commercial air transportation in
k) operations to, from and transitting controlled aero- aeroplanes required to be operated with a co-pilot.
dromes, compliance with air traffic services procedures,
radiotelephony procedures and phraseology. 2.4.2.2 Before exercising the privileges at night, the
licence holder shall have complied with the requirements
2.4.1.4.2 If the privileges of the licence are to be specified in 2.4.1.3.1.1 d) and 2.4.1.4.2.
exercised at night, the applicant shall have received dual
instruction in aeroplanes in night flying, including take-offs,
landings and navigation.
2.5 Airline transport pilot licence Aeroplane
Note. The instrument experience specified in 2.4.1.3.1.1 c)
and 2.4.1.4.1 h) and the night flying experience specified in
2.4.1.3.1.1 d) and 2.4.1.4.2 do not entitle the holder of a 2.5.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
commercial pilot licence aeroplane to pilot aeroplanes
under IFR.
2.5.1.1 Age

2.4.1.5 Skill The applicant shall be not less than 21 years of age.

The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as Note. Certain privileges of the licence are curtailed by
pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, the procedures and 2.1.10 for licence holders who have attained their 60th birthday.
manoeuvres described in 2.4.1.4 with a degree of competency
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a
commercial pilot licence aeroplane, and to: 2.5.1.2 Knowledge

a) operate the aeroplane within its limitations; The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an airline
b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy; transport pilot licence aeroplane, in at least the following
subjects:
c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;
Air law
d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and
a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of an
e) maintain control of the aeroplane at all times in a airline transport pilot licence aeroplane; rules of the
manner such that the successful outcome of a procedure air; appropriate air traffic services practices and
or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt. procedures;

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Aircraft general knowledge m) aeronautical meteorology; climatology of relevant areas


in respect of the elements having an effect upon
b) general characteristics and limitations of electrical, aviation; the movement of pressure systems; the struc-
hydraulic, pressurization and other aeroplane systems; ture of fronts, and the origin and characteristics of
flight control systems, including autopilot and stability significant weather phenomena which affect take-off,
augmentation; en-route and landing conditions;

c) principles of operation, handling procedures and n) causes, recognition and effects of engine and airframe
operating limitations of aeroplane powerplants; effects icing; frontal zone penetration procedures; hazardous
of atmospheric conditions on engine performance; rel- weather avoidance;
evant operational information from the flight manual
or other appropriate document; o) practical high altitude meteorology, including in-
terpretation and use of weather reports, charts and
d) operating procedures and limitations of appropriate forecasts; jetstreams;
aeroplanes; effects of atmospheric conditions on aero-
plane performance; Navigation

e) use and serviceability checks of equipment and systems p) air navigation, including the use of aeronautical charts,
of appropriate aeroplanes; radio navigation aids and area navigation systems;
specific navigation requirements for long-range flights;
f) flight instruments; compasses, turning and acceleration
errors; gyroscopic instruments, operational limits and q) use, limitation and serviceability of avionics and
precession effects; practices and procedures in the instruments necessary for the control and navigation of
event of malfunctions of various flight instruments; aeroplanes;
g) maintenance procedures for airframes, systems and
r) use, accuracy and reliability of navigation systems used
powerplants of appropriate aeroplanes;
in departure, en-route, approach and landing phases of
flight; identification of radio navigation aids;
Flight performance and planning
s) principles and characteristics of self-contained and
h) effects of loading and mass distribution on aeroplane
external-referenced navigation systems; operation of
handling, flight characteristics and performance; mass
airborne equipment;
and balance calculations;

i) use and practical application of take-off, landing and Operational procedures


other performance data, including procedures for cruise
control; t) interpretation and use of aeronautical documentation
such as AIP, NOTAM, aeronautical codes and
j) pre-flight and en-route operational flight planning; abbreviations, and instrument procedure charts for
preparation and filing of air traffic services flight plans; departure, en-route, descent and approach;
appropriate air traffic services procedures; altimeter
setting procedures; u) precautionary and emergency procedures; safety prac-
tices associated with flight under IFR;
Human performance
v) operational procedures for carriage of freight and
k) human performance relevant to the airline transport dangerous goods;
pilot aeroplane;
w) requirements and practices for safety briefing to pass-
Note. Guidance material to design training engers, including precautions to be observed when
programmes on human performance can be found in embarking and disembarking from aeroplanes;
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
Principles of flight
Meteorology
x) principles of flight relating to aeroplanes; subsonic
l) interpretation and application of aeronautical meteoro- aerodynamics; compressibility effects, manoeuvre
logical reports, charts and forecasts; codes and boundary limits, wing design characteristics, effects of
abbreviations; use of, and procedures for obtaining, supplementary lift and drag devices; relationships
meteorological information, pre-flight and in-flight; between lift, drag and thrust at various airspeeds and in
altimetry; different flight configurations;

1/11/01 2-8
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

Radiotelephony aeroplane required to be operated with a co-pilot, the following


procedures and manoeuvres:
y) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology; action to
be taken in case of communication failure. a) pre-flight procedures, including the preparation of the
operational flight plan and filing of the air traffic
services flight plan;
2.5.1.3 Experience
b) normal flight procedures and manoeuvres during all
2.5.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed not less than phases of flight;
1 500 hours of flight time as a pilot of aeroplanes. The
Licensing Authority shall determine whether experience as c) procedures and manoeuvres for IFR operations under
a pilot under instruction in a synthetic flight trainer, which it normal, abnormal and emergency conditions, including
has approved, is acceptable as part of the total flight time of simulated engine failure, and covering at least the
1 500 hours. Credit for such experience shall be limited to a following:
maximum of 100 hours, of which not more than 25 hours shall
have been acquired in a flight procedure trainer or a basic transition to instrument flight on take-off;
instrument flight trainer.
standard instrument departures and arrivals;
2.5.1.3.1.1 The applicant shall have completed in aero-
planes not less than: en-route IFR procedures and navigation;
a) 250 hours, either as pilot-in-command, or made up by holding procedures;
not less than 100 hours as pilot-in-command and the
necessary additional flight time as co-pilot performing, instrument approaches to specified minima;
under the supervision of the pilot-in-command, the
duties and functions of a pilot-in-command, provided missed approach procedures;
that the method of supervision employed is acceptable
to the Licensing Authority; landings from instrument approaches;

b) 200 hours of cross-country flight time, of which not d) abnormal and emergency procedures and manoeuvres
less than 100 hours shall be as pilot-in-command or as related to failures and malfunctions of equipment, such
co-pilot performing, under the supervision of the pilot- as powerplant, systems and airframe; and
in-command, the duties and functions of a pilot-in-
command, provided that the method of supervision e) procedures for crew incapacitation and crew coor-
employed is acceptable to the Licensing Authority; dination, including allocation of pilot tasks, crew
cooperation and use of checklists.
c) 75 hours of instrument time, of which not more than
30 hours may be instrument ground time; and 2.5.1.5.1.1 The applicant shall have demonstrated the
ability to perform the procedures and manoeuvres described in
d) 100 hours of night flight as pilot-in-command or as co- 2.5.1.5.1 with a degree of competency appropriate to the
pilot. privileges granted to the holder of an airline transport pilot
licence aeroplane, and to:
2.5.1.3.2 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot of
aircraft in other categories, the Licensing Authority shall
a) operate the aeroplane within its limitations;
determine whether such experience is acceptable and, if so, the
extent to which the flight time requirements of 2.5.1.3.1 can be
b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;
reduced accordingly.
c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;
2.5.1.4 Flight instruction
d) apply aeronautical knowledge;
The applicant shall have received the dual flight instruction
required for the issue of the commercial pilot licence e) maintain control of the aeroplane at all times in a
aeroplane (2.4.1.4) and for the issue of the instrument rating manner such that the successful outcome of a
aeroplane (2.6.1.3). procedure or manoeuvre is never in doubt;

f) understand and apply crew coordination and incapaci-


2.5.1.5 Skill tation procedures; and

2.5.1.5.1 The applicant shall have demonstrated the g) communicate effectively with the other flight crew
ability to perform, as pilot-in-command of a multi-engined members.

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 2

2.5.1.6 Medical fitness e) operational flight planning; preparation and filing of


air traffic services flight plans under IFR; altimeter
The applicant shall hold a current Class 1 Medical Assessment. setting procedures;

Human performance
2.5.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and
the conditions to be observed in
f) human performance relevant to instrument flight in
exercising such privileges
aeroplanes;
Subject to compliance with the requirements specified in 1.2.5,
Note. Guidance material to design training
1.2.6, 1.2.9 and 2.1, the privileges of the holder of an airline
programmes on human performance can be found in
transport pilot licence aeroplane shall be:
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
a) to exercise all the privileges of the holder of a private
and commercial pilot licence aeroplane and of an Meteorology
instrument rating aeroplane; and
g) application of aeronautical meteorology; interpret-
b) to act as pilot-in-command and co-pilot in aeroplanes ation and use of reports, charts and forecasts; codes
in air transportation. and abbreviations; use of, and procedures for obtaining,
meteorological information; altimetry;

h) causes, recognition and effects of engine and airframe


2.6 Instrument rating Aeroplane icing; frontal zone penetration procedures; hazardous
weather avoidance;
Note. The Training Manual (Doc 7192), Part B-5, contains
guidance material for a course of training for the instrument
rating aeroplane. Navigation

i) practical air navigation using radio navigation aids;


2.6.1 Requirements for the issue of the rating
j) use, accuracy and reliability of navigation systems
used in departure, en-route, approach and landing
2.6.1.1 Knowledge phases of flight; identification of radio navigation aids;

The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge Operational procedures


appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an
instrument rating aeroplane, in at least the following subjects: k) interpretation and use of aeronautical documentation
such as AIP, NOTAM, aeronautical codes and
Air law abbreviations, and instrument procedure charts for
departure, en-route, descent and approach;
a) rules and regulations relevant to flight under IFR;
related air traffic services practices and procedures;
l) precautionary and emergency procedures; safety
practices associated with flight under IFR;
Aircraft general knowledge

b) use, limitation and serviceability of avionics and Radiotelephony


instruments necessary for the control and navigation of
aeroplanes under IFR and in instrument meteorological m) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as applied
conditions; use and limitations of autopilot; to aircraft operations under IFR; action to be taken in
case of communication failure.
c) compasses, turning and acceleration errors; gyroscopic
instruments, operational limits and precession effects;
practices and procedures in the event of malfunctions 2.6.1.2 Experience
of various flight instruments;
2.6.1.2.1 The applicant shall hold a private or commercial
Flight performance and planning pilot licence aeroplane.

d) pre-flight preparations and checks appropriate to flight 2.6.1.2.2 The applicant shall have completed not less
under IFR; than:

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Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

a) 50 hours of cross-country flight time as pilot-in- 2.6.1.4 Skill


command of aircraft in categories acceptable to the
Licensing Authority, of which not less than 10 hours 2.6.1.4.1 The applicant shall have demonstrated the
shall be in aeroplanes; and ability to perform the procedures and manoeuvres described in
2.6.1.3.1 with a degree of competency appropriate to the
b) 40 hours of instrument time in aeroplanes or helicop- privileges granted to the holder of an instrument rating
ters of which not more than 20 hours, or 30 hours aeroplane, and to:
where a flight simulator is used, may be instrument
ground time. The ground time shall be under the a) operate the aeroplane within its limitations;
supervision of an authorized instructor.
b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;

2.6.1.3 Flight instruction c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;

2.6.1.3.1 The applicant shall have gained not less d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and
than 10 hours of the instrument flight time required in
2.6.1.2.2 b) while receiving dual instrument flight instruc- e) maintain control of the aeroplane at all times in a
tion in aeroplanes from an authorized flight instructor. The manner such that the successful outcome of a pro-
instructor shall ensure that the applicant has operational cedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.
experience in at least the following areas to the level of
performance required for the holder of an instrument rating: 2.6.1.4.1.1 The applicant shall have demonstrated the
ability to operate multi-engined aeroplanes solely by reference
a) pre-flight procedures, including the use of the flight to instruments with one engine inoperative, or simulated inoper-
manual or equivalent document, and appropriate air ative, if the privileges of the instrument rating are to be
traffic services documents in the preparation of an exercised on such aeroplanes.
IFR flight plan;
Note. Attention is called to 2.1.6 on the use of synthetic
b) pre-flight inspection, use of checklists, taxiing and pre- flight trainers for demonstrations of skill.
take-off checks;

c) procedures and manoeuvres for IFR operation under 2.6.1.5 Medical fitness
normal, abnormal and emergency conditions covering
at least: 2.6.1.5.1 Applicants who hold a private pilot licence shall
have established their hearing acuity on the basis of com-
pliance with the hearing requirements for the issue of a Class 1
transition to instrument flight on take-off;
Medical Assessment.
standard instrument departures and arrivals;
2.6.1.5.2 Recommendation. Contracting States should
consider requiring the holder of a private pilot licence to
en-route IFR procedures; comply with the physical and mental, and visual requirements
for the issue of a Class 1 Medical Assessment.
holding procedures;

instrument approaches to specified minima; 2.6.2 Privileges of the holder of the rating
and the conditions to be observed
missed approach procedures; in exercising such privileges

landings from instrument approaches; 2.6.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements
specified in 1.2.5, 1.2.6 and 2.1, the privileges of the holder of
d) in-flight manoeuvres and particular flight character- an instrument rating aeroplane shall be to pilot aeroplanes
istics. under IFR.

2.6.1.3.2 If the privileges of the instrument rating are to 2.6.2.2 Before exercising the privileges on multi-engined
be exercised on multi-engined aeroplanes, the applicant shall aeroplanes, the holder of the rating shall have complied with
have received dual instrument flight instruction in such an the requirements of 2.6.1.4.1.1.
aeroplane from an authorized flight instructor. The instructor
shall ensure that the applicant has operational experience in Note. Attention is called to 2.10.3 on the exercise of joint
the operation of the aeroplane solely by reference to instru- privileges of the instrument rating aeroplane and of the
ments with one engine inoperative or simulated inoperative. instrument rating helicopter.

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 2

2.7 Private pilot licence Helicopter Navigation

i) practical aspects of air navigation and dead-reckoning


2.7.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence techniques; use of aeronautical charts;

2.7.1.1 Age Operational procedures

The applicant shall be not less than 17 years of age. j) use of aeronautical documentation such as AIP,
NOTAM, aeronautical codes and abbreviations;

2.7.1.2 Knowledge k) appropriate precautionary and emergency procedures,


including action to be taken to avoid hazardous weather
The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge and wake turbulence; settling with power, ground
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a private resonance, roll-over and other operating hazards;
pilot licence helicopter, in at least the following subjects:
Principles of flight
Air law
l) principles of flight relating to helicopters;
a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a private
pilot licence helicopter; rules of the air; appropriate
air traffic services practices and procedures; Radiotelephony

Aircraft general knowledge m) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as applied


to VFR operations; action to be taken in case of
b) principles of operation of helicopter powerplants, communication failure.
transmission (power-trains), systems and instruments;

c) operating limitations of helicopters and powerplants; 2.7.1.3 Experience


relevant operational information from the flight manual;
2.7.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed not less than
Flight performance and planning 40 hours of flight time as a pilot of helicopters. The Licensing
Authority shall determine whether experience as a pilot under
d) effects of loading and mass distribution on flight instruction in a synthetic flight trainer, which it has approved,
characteristics; mass and balance calculations; is acceptable as part of the total flight time of 40 hours. Credit
for such experience shall be limited to a maximum of 5 hours.
e) use and practical application of take-off, landing and
other performance data; 2.7.1.3.1.1 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot of
aircraft in other categories, the Licensing Authority shall
f) pre-flight and en-route flight planning appropriate to
determine whether such experience is acceptable and, if so, the
private operations under VFR; preparation and filing
extent to which the flight time requirements of 2.7.1.3.1 can be
of air traffic services flight plans; appropriate air
reduced accordingly.
traffic services procedures; position reporting pro-
cedures; altimeter setting procedures; operations in
areas of high-density traffic; 2.7.1.3.2 The applicant shall have completed in
helicopters not less than 10 hours of solo flight time under the
Human performance supervision of an authorized flight instructor, including
5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least one
g) human performance relevant to the private pilot cross-country flight totalling not less than 180 km (100 NM)
helicopter; in the course of which landings at two different points shall be
made.
Note. Guidance material to design training pro-
grammes on human performance can be found in the
Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683). 2.7.1.4 Flight instruction

Meteorology 2.7.1.4.1 The applicant shall have received not less than
20 hours of dual instruction time in helicopters from an
h) application of elementary aeronautical meteorology; authorized flight instructor. The instructor shall ensure that the
use of, and procedures for obtaining, meteorological applicant has operational experience in at least the following
information; altimetry; areas to the level of performance required for the private pilot:

1/11/01 2-12
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

a) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance a) operate the helicopter within its limitations;
determination, helicopter inspection and servicing;
b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;
b) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision
avoidance precautions and procedures; c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;

c) control of the helicopter by external visual reference; d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and

d) recovery at the incipient stage from settling with e) maintain control of the helicopter at all times in a
power; recovery techniques from low-rotor rpm within manner such that the successful outcome of a
the normal range of engine rpm; procedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.

e) ground manoeuvring and run-ups; hovering; take-offs


and landings normal, out of wind and sloping 2.7.1.6 Medical fitness
ground;
The applicant shall hold a current Class 2 Medical Assessment.
f) take-offs and landings with minimum necessary power;
maximum performance take-off and landing techniques; Note. Attention is called to 2.10.1.5 on the medical fitness
restricted site operations; quick stops; requirements for private pilot licence holders seeking an
instrument rating.
g) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead
reckoning and, where available, radio navigation aids,
2.7.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and
including a flight of at least one hour;
the conditions to be observed in exercising
such privileges
h) emergency operations, including simulated helicopter
equipment malfunctions; autorotative approach and 2.7.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements
landing; and specified in 1.2.5, 1.2.6, 1.2.9 and 2.1, the privileges of the
holder of a private pilot licence helicopter shall be to act,
i) operations to, from and transitting controlled aero- but not for remuneration, as pilot-in-command or co-pilot of
dromes, compliance with air traffic services procedures, any helicopter engaged in non-revenue flights.
radiotelephony procedures and phraseology.
2.7.2.2 Before exercising the privileges at night, the
2.7.1.4.1.1 Recommendation. The applicant should licence holder shall have complied with the requirements
have received dual instrument flight instruction from an auth- specified in 2.7.1.4.2.
orized flight instructor. The instructor should ensure that the
applicant has operational experience in flight solely by
reference to instruments, including the completion of a level
180 turn, in a suitably instrumented helicopter. 2.8 Commercial pilot licence Helicopter

2.7.1.4.2 If the privileges of the licence are to be exercised


at night, the applicant shall have received dual instruction in 2.8.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
helicopters in night flying, including take-offs, landings and
navigation.
2.8.1.1 Age
Note. The instrument experience specified in 2.7.1.4.1.1
and the night flying experience specified in 2.7.1.4.2 do not The applicant shall be not less than l8 years of age.
entitle the holder of a private pilot licence helicopter to
pilot helicopters under IFR. Note. Certain privileges of the licence are curtailed by
2.1.10 for licence holders who have attained their 60th birthday.

2.7.1.5 Skill
2.8.1.2 Knowledge
The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as
pilot-in-command of a helicopter, the procedures and ma- The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
noeuvres described in 2.7.1.4 with a degree of competency appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a com-
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a private mercial pilot licence helicopter, in at least the following
pilot licence helicopter, and to: subjects:

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Air law Navigation

a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a l) air navigation, including the use of aeronautical charts,
commercial pilot licence helicopter; rules of the air; instruments and navigation aids; an understanding of
appropriate air traffic services practices and the principles and characteristics of appropriate navi-
procedures; gation systems; operation of airborne equipment;

Aircraft general knowledge Operational procedures


b) principles of operation and functioning of helicopter
m) use of aeronautical documentation such as AIP,
powerplants, transmission (power-trains), systems and
NOTAM, aeronautical codes and abbreviations;
instruments;
n) appropriate precautionary and emergency procedures;
c) operating limitations of appropriate helicopters and
settling with power, ground resonance, roll-over and
powerplants; relevant operational information from the
other operating hazards;
flight manual;

d) use and serviceability checks of equipment and systems o) operational procedures for carriage of freight, including
of appropriate helicopters; external loads; potential hazards associated with
dangerous goods;
e) maintenance procedures for airframes, systems and
powerplants of appropriate helicopters; p) requirements and practices for safety briefing to pass-
engers, including precautions to be observed when
Flight performance and planning embarking and disembarking from helicopters;

f) effects of loading and mass distribution, including Principles of flight


external loads, on helicopter handling, flight character-
istics and performance; mass and balance calculations; q) principles of flight relating to helicopters;

g) use and practical application of take-off, landing and


Radiotelephony
other performance data;

h) pre-flight and en-route flight planning appropriate to r) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as applied
operations under VFR; preparation and filing of air to VFR operations; action to be taken in case of
traffic services flight plans; appropriate air traffic communication failure.
services procedures; altimeter setting procedures;

Human performance 2.8.1.3 Experience

i) human performance relevant to the commercial pilot 2.8.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed not less than
helicopter; 150 hours of flight time, or 100 hours if completed during a
course of approved training, as a pilot of helicopters. The
Note. Guidance material to design training Licensing Authority shall determine whether experience as a
programmes on human performance can be found in pilot under instruction in a synthetic flight trainer, which it has
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683). approved, is acceptable as part of the total flight time of
150 hours or 100 hours, as the case may be. Credit for such
Meteorology experience shall be limited to a maximum of 10 hours.

j) interpretation and application of aeronautical meteoro- 2.8.1.3.1.1 The applicant shall have completed in helicop-
logical reports, charts and forecasts; use of, and ters not less than:
procedures for obtaining, meteorological information,
pre-flight and in-flight; altimetry; a) 35 hours as pilot-in-command;

k) aeronautical meteorology; climatology of relevant areas b) 10 hours of cross-country flight time as pilot-in-
in respect of the elements having an effect upon command including a cross-country flight in the course
aviation; the movement of pressure systems, the struc- of which landings at two different points shall be
ture of fronts, and the origin and characteristics of made;
significant weather phenomena which affect take-off,
en-route and landing conditions; hazardous weather c) 10 hours of instrument instruction time of which not
avoidance; more than 5 hours may be instrument ground time; and

1/11/01 2-14
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

d) if the privileges of the licence are to be exercised at Note. The instrument experience specified in 2.8.1.3.1.1 c)
night, 5 hours of night flight time including 5 take-offs and 2.8.1.4.1 h) and the night flying experience specified in
and 5 landing patterns as pilot-in-command. 2.8.1.3.1.1 d) and 2.8.1.4.2 do not entitle the holder of a
commercial pilot licence helicopter to pilot helicopters
2.8.1.3.2 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot of under IFR.
aircraft in other categories, the Licensing Authority shall
determine whether such experience is acceptable and, if so, the
extent to which the flight time requirements of 2.8.1.3.1 can be 2.8.1.5 Skill
reduced accordingly.
The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as
pilot-in-command of a helicopter, the procedures and
2.8.1.4 Flight instruction manoeuvres described in 2.8.1.4 with a degree of competency
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a
2.8.1.4.1 The applicant shall have received dual instruction commercial pilot licence helicopter, and to:
in helicopters from an authorized flight instructor. The instruc-
tor shall ensure that the applicant has operational experience in a) operate the helicopter within its limitations;
at least the following areas to the level of performance
required for the commercial pilot: b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;
a) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance
determination, helicopter inspection and servicing; c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;

b) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and
avoidance precautions and procedures;
e) maintain control of the helicopter at all times in a
c) control of the helicopter by external visual reference; manner such that the successful outcome of a
procedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.
d) recovery at the incipient stage from settling with
power; recovery techniques from low-rotor rpm within
the normal range of engine rpm; 2.8.1.6 Medical fitness
e) ground manoeuvring and run-ups; hovering; take-offs
The applicant shall hold a current Class 1 Medical Assessment.
and landings normal, out of wind and sloping
ground; steep approaches;

f) take-offs and landings with minimum necessary power; 2.8.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and
maximum performance take-off and landing tech- the conditions to be observed in exercising
niques; restricted site operations; quick stops; such privileges

g) hovering out of ground effect; operations with external 2.8.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements
load, if applicable; flight at high altitude; specified in 1.2.5, 1.2.6, 1.2.9 and 2.1, the privileges of the
holder of a commercial pilot licence helicopter shall be:
h) basic flight manoeuvres and recovery from unusual
attitudes by reference solely to basic flight instruments; a) to exercise all the privileges of the holder of a private
pilot licence helicopter;
i) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead reck-
oning and radio navigation aids; diversion procedures; b) to act as pilot-in-command in any helicopter engaged
in operations other than commercial air transportation;
j) abnormal and emergency procedures, including simu-
lated helicopter equipment malfunctions, autorotative
c) to act as pilot-in-command in commercial air transpor-
approach and landing; and
tation in any helicopter certificated for single-pilot
k) operations to, from and transitting controlled aero- operation; and
dromes, compliance with air traffic services procedures,
radiotelephony procedures and phraseology. d) to act as co-pilot in commercial air transportation in
helicopters required to be operated with a co-pilot.
2.8.1.4.2 If the privileges of the licence are to be exercised
at night, the applicant shall have received dual instruction in 2.8.2.2 Before exercising the privileges at night, the
helicopters in night flying, including take-offs, landings and licence holder shall have complied with the requirements
navigation. specified in 2.8.1.3.1.1 d) and 2.8.1.4.2.

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 2

2.9 Airline transport pilot licence Helicopter i) use and practical application of take-off, landing and
other performance data, including procedures for cruise
control;
2.9.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
j) pre-flight and en-route operational flight planning;
preparation and filing of air traffic services flight plans;
2.9.1.1 Age appropriate air traffic services procedures; altimeter
setting procedures;
The applicant shall be not less than 21 years of age.
Human performance
Note. Certain privileges of the licence are curtailed by
2.1.10 for licence holders who have attained their 60th birthday.
k) human performance relevant to the airline transport
pilot helicopter;
2.9.1.2 Knowledge
Note. Guidance material to design training
The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge programmes on human performance can be found in
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an airline the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
transport pilot licence helicopter, in at least the following
subjects: Meteorology

Air law l) interpretation and application of aeronautical meteoro-


logical reports, charts and forecasts; codes and
a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of an abbreviations; use of, and procedures for obtaining,
airline transport pilot licence helicopter; rules of meteorological information, pre-flight and in-flight;
the air; appropriate air traffic services practices and altimetry;
procedures;
m) aeronautical meteorology; climatology of relevant areas
Aircraft general knowledge in respect of the elements having an effect upon
aviation; the movement of pressure systems, the struc-
b) general characteristics and limitations of electrical, ture of fronts, and the origin and characteristics of
hydraulic, and other helicopter systems; flight control significant weather phenomena which affect take-off,
systems, including autopilot and stability augmentation; en-route and landing conditions;
c) principles of operation, handling procedures and oper-
n) causes, recognition and effects of engine, airframe and
ating limitations of helicopter powerplants; transmission
rotor icing; hazardous weather avoidance;
(power-trains); effects of atmospheric conditions on
engine performance; relevant operational information
from the flight manual; Navigation

d) operating procedures and limitations of appropriate o) air navigation, including the use of aeronautical charts,
helicopters; effects of atmospheric conditions on heli- radio navigation aids and area navigation systems;
copter performance; relevant operational information specific navigation requirements for long-range flights;
from the flight manual;
p) use, limitation and serviceability of avionics and
e) use and serviceability checks of equipment and instruments necessary for the control and navigation of
systems of appropriate helicopters; helicopters;

f) flight instruments; compasses, turning and acceleration q) use, accuracy and reliability of navigation systems;
errors; gyroscopic instruments, operational limits and identification of radio navigation aids;
precession effects; practices and procedures in the
event of malfunctions of various flight instruments;
r) principles and characteristics of self-contained and
g) maintenance procedures for airframes, systems and external-referenced navigation systems; operation of
powerplants of appropriate helicopters; airborne equipment;

Flight performance and planning Operational procedures

h) effects of loading and mass distribution, including s) interpretation and use of aeronautical documentation
external loads, on helicopter handling, flight character- such as AIP, NOTAM, aeronautical codes and
istics and performance; mass and balance calculations; abbreviations;

1/11/01 2-16
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

t) precautionary and emergency procedures; settling with 2.9.1.3.2 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot of
power, ground resonance, retreating blade stall, aircraft in other categories, the Licensing Authority shall
dynamic roll-over and other operating hazards; safety determine whether such experience is acceptable and, if so, the
practices associated with flight under VFR; extent to which the flight time requirements of 2.9.1.3.1 can be
reduced accordingly.
u) operational procedures for carriage of freight, including
external loads, and dangerous goods;
2.9.1.4 Flight instruction
v) requirements and practices for safety briefing to
passengers, including precautions to be observed when The applicant shall have received the flight instruction
embarking and disembarking from helicopters; required for the issue of the commercial pilot licence
helicopter (2.8.1.4).
Principles of flight
Note. The instrument time specified in 2.9.1.3.1.1 c) and
the night flying time specified in 2.9.1.3.1.1 d) do not entitle
w) principles of flight relating to helicopters;
the holder of the airline transport pilot licence helicopter to
pilot helicopters under IFR.
Radiotelephony

x) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as applied 2.9.1.5 Skill


to VFR operations; action to be taken in case of
communication failure. 2.9.1.5.1 The applicant shall have demonstrated the
ability to perform, as pilot-in-command of a helicopter required
to be operated with a co-pilot, the following procedures and
2.9.1.3 Experience manoeuvres:

2.9.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed not less a) pre-flight procedures, including the preparation of the
than 1 000 hours of flight time as a pilot of helicopters. The operational flight plan and filing of the air traffic
Licensing Authority shall determine whether experience as a services flight plan;
pilot under instruction in a synthetic flight trainer, which it has
approved, is acceptable as part of the total flight time of b) normal flight procedures and manoeuvres during all
1 000 hours. Credit for such experience shall be limited to a phases of flight;
maximum of 100 hours, of which not more than 25 hours shall
have been acquired in a flight procedure trainer or a basic
c) abnormal and emergency procedures and manoeuvres
instrument flight trainer.
related to failures and malfunctions of equipment, such
as powerplant, systems and airframe; and
2.9.1.3.1.1 The applicant shall have completed in helicop-
ters not less than:
d) procedures for crew incapacitation and crew coor-
dination including allocation of pilot tasks, crew
a) 250 hours, either as pilot-in-command, or made up by
cooperation and use of checklists.
not less than 100 hours as pilot-in-command and the
necessary additional flight time as co-pilot performing,
under the supervision of the pilot-in-command, the 2.9.1.5.1.1 The applicant shall have demonstrated the
duties and functions of a pilot-in-command, provided ability to perform the procedures and manoeuvres described in
that the method of supervision employed is acceptable 2.9.1.5.1 with a degree of competency appropriate to the
to the Licensing Authority; privileges granted to the holder of an airline transport pilot
licence helicopter, and to:
b) 200 hours of cross-country flight time, of which not
less than 100 hours shall be as pilot-in-command or as a) operate the helicopter within its limitations;
co-pilot performing, under the supervision of the pilot-
in-command, the duties and functions of a pilot-in- b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;
command, provided that the method of supervision
employed is acceptable to the Licensing Authority; c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;

c) 30 hours of instrument time, of which not more than d) apply aeronautical knowledge;
10 hours may be instrument ground time; and
e) maintain control of the helicopter at all times in a
d) 50 hours of night flight as pilot-in-command or as manner such that the successful outcome of a procedure
co-pilot. or manoeuvre is never in doubt;

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 2

f) understand and apply crew coordination and incapaci- e) operational flight planning; preparation and filing of air
tation procedures; and traffic services flight plans under IFR; altimeter setting
procedures;
g) communicate effectively with the other flight crew
members. Human performance

f) human performance relevant to instrument flight in


2.9.1.6 Medical fitness helicopters;
The applicant shall hold a current Class 1 Medical Assessment. Note. Guidance material to design training
programmes on human performance can be found in
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
2.9.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and
the conditions to be observed in exercising
Meteorology
such privileges
g) application of aeronautical meteorology; interpretation
Subject to compliance with the requirements specified in 1.2.5,
and use of reports, charts and forecasts; codes and
1.2.6, 1.2.9 and 2.1, the privileges of the holder of an airline
abbreviations; use of, and procedures for obtaining,
transport pilot licence helicopter shall be:
meteorological information; altimetry;
a) to exercise all the privileges of the holder of a private
and commercial pilot licence helicopter; and h) causes, recognition and effects of engine, airframe and
rotor icing; frontal zone penetration procedures;
b) to act as pilot-in-command and co-pilot in helicopters hazardous weather avoidance;
in air transportation.
Navigation

2.10 Instrument rating Helicopter i) practical air navigation using radio navigation aids;

j) use, accuracy and reliability of navigation systems used


2.10.1 Requirements for the issue of the rating in departure, en-route, approach and landing phases of
flight; identification of radio navigation aids;

2.10.1.1 Knowledge Operational procedures

The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowl- k) interpretation and use of aeronautical documentation
edge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an such as AIP, NOTAM, aeronautical codes and
instrument rating helicopter, in at least the following abbreviations, and instrument procedure charts for
subjects: departure, en route, descent and approach;

Air law l) precautionary and emergency procedures; safety


practices associated with flight under IFR;
a) rules and regulations relevant to flight under IFR;
related air traffic services practices and procedures;
Radiotelephony
Aircraft general knowledge
m) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as applied
b) use, limitation and serviceability of avionics and to aircraft operations under IFR; action to be taken in
instruments necessary for the control and navigation of case of communication failure.
helicopters under IFR and in instrument meteoro-
logical conditions; use and limitations of autopilot;
2.10.1.2 Experience
c) compasses, turning and acceleration errors; gyroscopic
instruments, operational limits and precession effects; 2.10.1.2.1 The applicant shall hold a private, commercial
practices and procedures in the event of malfunctions or airline transport pilot licence helicopter.
of various flight instruments;
2.10.1.2.2 The applicant shall have completed not less
Flight performance and planning than:

d) pre-flight preparations and checks appropriate to flight a) 50 hours of cross-country flight time as pilot-in-
under IFR; command of aircraft in categories acceptable to the

27/11/03
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Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

Licensing Authority, of which not less than 10 hours a) operate the helicopter within its limitations;
shall be in helicopters; and
b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;
b) 40 hours of instrument time in helicopters or aero-
planes of which not more than 20 hours, or 30 hours c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;
where a flight simulator is used, may be instrument
d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and
ground time. The ground time shall be under the
supervision of an authorized instructor. e) maintain control of the helicopter at all times in a
manner such that the successful outcome of a procedure
or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.
2.10.1.3 Flight instruction
Note. Attention is called to 2.1.6 on the use of synthetic
The applicant shall have gained not less than 10 hours of the flight trainers for demonstrations of skill.
instrument flight time required in 2.10.1.2.2 b) while receiving
dual instrument flight instruction in helicopters from an
authorized flight instructor. The instructor shall ensure that the 2.10.1.5 Medical fitness
applicant has operational experience in at least the following
areas and to the level of performance required for the holder 2.10.1.5.1 Applicants who hold a private pilot licence
of an instrument rating: shall have established their hearing acuity on the basis of
compliance with the hearing requirements for the issue of a
a) pre-flight procedures, including the use of the flight Class 1 Medical Assessment.
manual or equivalent document, and appropriate air
traffic services documents in the preparation of an IFR 2.10.1.5.2 Recommendation. Contracting States should
flight plan; consider requiring the holder of a private pilot licence to
comply with the physical and mental, and visual requirements
b) pre-flight inspection, use of checklists, taxiing and pre- for the issue of a Class 1 Medical Assessment.
take-off checks;

c) procedures and manoeuvres for IFR operation under 2.10.2 Privileges of the holder of the rating and
normal, abnormal and emergency conditions covering the conditions to be observed in exercising
at least: such privileges

transition to instrument flight on take-off; Subject to compliance with the requirements specified in 1.2.5,
1.2.6 and 2.1, the privileges of the holder of an instrument
standard instrument departures and arrivals; rating helicopter shall be to pilot helicopters under IFR.
en-route IFR procedures;
2.10.3 Exercise of joint privileges of the
holding procedures; instrument rating aeroplane and the
instrument rating helicopter
instrument approaches to specified minima;
The privileges given in 2.6.2 and 2.10.2 may be conferred by
missed approach procedures;
a single instrument rating in lieu of issuing separate instrument
ratings for aeroplanes and helicopters provided that the
landings from instrument approaches;
requirements for the issue of both ratings, as specified in 2.6
and 2.10, have been met.
d) in-flight manoeuvres and particular flight character-
istics; and

e) if appropriate, operation of a multi-engined helicopter 2.11 Flight instructor rating appropriate to


solely by reference to instruments with one engine aeroplanes and helicopters
inoperative or simulated inoperative.

2.11.1 Requirements for the issue of the rating


2.10.1.4 Skill

The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform 2.11.1.1 Knowledge
the procedures and manoeuvres specified in 2.10.1.3 with a
degree of competency appropriate to the privileges granted to The applicant shall have met the knowledge requirements for
the holder of an instrument rating helicopter, and to: the issue of a commercial pilot licence as specified in 2.4.1.2

2-19 1/11/01
Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 2

or 2.8.1.2 as appropriate. In addition, the applicant shall have ability to instruct in those areas in which flight instruction is
demonstrated a level of knowledge appropriate to the privi- to be given, including pre-flight, post-flight and ground
leges granted to the holder of a flight instructor rating, in at instruction as appropriate.
least the following areas:

a) techniques of applied instruction; 2.11.2 Privileges of the holder of the rating and
the conditions to be observed in exercising
b) assessment of student performance in those subjects in such privileges
which ground instruction is given;
Subject to compliance with the requirements specified in 1.2.5
c) the learning process; and 2.1, the privileges of the holder of a flight instructor rating
shall be:
d) elements of effective teaching;
a) to supervise solo flights by student pilots; and
e) student evaluation and testing, training philosophies;
b) to carry out flight instruction for the issue of a private
f) training programme development; pilot licence, a commercial pilot licence, an instrument
rating, and a flight instructor rating
g) lesson planning;
provided that the flight instructor:
h) classroom instructional techniques;
1) holds at least the licence and rating for which
i) use of training aids;
instruction is being given, in the appropriate
j) analysis and correction of student errors; aircraft category;

k) human performance relevant to flight instruction; and 2) holds the licence and rating necessary to act as the
pilot-in-command of the aircraft on which the
Note. Guidance material to design training instruction is given; and
programmes on human performance can be found in
3) has the flight instructor privileges granted entered
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
on the licence.
l) hazards involved in simulating system failures and
malfunctions in the aircraft.
2.12 Glider pilot licence
2.11.1.2 Experience

The applicant shall have met the experience requirements for 2.12.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
the issue of a commercial pilot licence as specified in 2.4.1.3
or 2.8.1.3, as appropriate.
2.12.1.1 Age

2.11.1.3 Flight instruction The applicant shall be not less than 16 years of age.

The applicant shall, under the supervision of a flight instructor


2.12.1.2 Knowledge
accepted by the Licensing Authority for that purpose:

a) have received instruction in flight instructional tech- The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
niques including demonstration, student practices, appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a glider
recognition and correction of common student errors; pilot licence, in at least the following subjects:
and
Air law
b) have practised instructional techniques in those flight
manoeuvres and procedures in which it is intended to a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a glider
provide flight instruction. pilot licence; rules of the air; appropriate air traffic
services practices and procedures;

2.11.1.4 Skill Aircraft general knowledge

The applicant shall have demonstrated, in the category of b) principles of operation of glider systems and
aircraft for which flight instructor privileges are sought, the instruments;

1/11/01 2-20
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

c) operating limitations of gliders; relevant operational 2.12.1.3 Experience


information from the flight manual or other appropriate
document; 2.12.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed not less
than six hours of flight time as a pilot of gliders including two
Flight performance and planning hours solo flight time during which not less than 20 launches
and landings have been performed.
d) effects of loading and mass distribution on flight
characteristics; mass and balance considerations; 2.12.1.3.1.1 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot
of aeroplanes, the Licensing Authority shall determine whether
e) use and practical application of launching, landing and such experience is acceptable and, if so, the extent to which
other performance data; the flight time requirements of 2.12.1.3.1 can be reduced
accordingly.
f) pre-flight and en-route flight planning appropriate to
operations under VFR; appropriate air traffic services 2.12.1.3.2 The applicant shall have gained, under
procedures; altimeter setting procedures; operations in appropriate supervision, operational experience in gliders in at
areas of high-density traffic; least the following areas:

Human performance a) pre-flight operations, including glider assembly and


inspection;
g) human performance relevant to the glider pilot;
b) techniques and procedures for the launching method
Note. Guidance material to design training used, including appropriate airspeed limitations,
programmes on human performance can be found in emergency procedures and signals used;
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
c) traffic pattern operations, collision avoidance pre-
Meteorology cautions and procedures;

h) application of elementary aeronautical meteorology; d) control of the glider by external visual reference;
use of, and procedures for obtaining, meteorological
information; altimetry; e) flight throughout the flight envelope;

Navigation f) recognition of, and recovery from, incipient and full


stalls and spiral dives;
i) practical aspects of air navigation and dead-reckoning
techniques; use of aeronautical charts; g) normal and cross-wind launches, approaches and
landings;
Operational procedures
h) cross-country flying using visual reference and dead
j) use of aeronautical documentation such as AIP, reckoning;
NOTAM, aeronautical codes and abbreviations;
i) emergency procedures.
k) different launch methods and associated procedures;
2.12.1.4 Skill
l) appropriate precautionary and emergency procedures,
including action to be taken to avoid hazardous weather
The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as
and wake turbulence and other operating hazards;
pilot-in-command of a glider, the procedures and manoeuvres
described in 2.12.1.3.2 with a degree of competency appropriate
Principles of flight to the privileges granted to the holder of a glider pilot licence,
and to:
m) principles of flight relating to gliders.
a) operate the glider within its limitations;
2.12.1.2.1 Recommendation. The applicant should
have demonstrated a level of knowledge appropriate to the b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;
privileges to be granted to the holder of a glider pilot licence,
in radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as appropriate c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;
to VFR operations and on action to be taken in case of
communication failure. d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and

2-21 1/11/01
Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 2

e) maintain control of the glider at all times in a manner c) operating limitations of free balloons; relevant oper-
such that the successful outcome of a procedure or ational information from the flight manual or other
manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt. appropriate document;

d) physical properties and practical application of gases


2.12.1.5 Medical fitness used in free balloons;

The applicant shall hold a current Class 2 Medical Assessment. Flight performance and planning

e) effects of loading on flight characteristics; mass


2.12.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and calculations;
the conditions to be observed in exercising
such privileges f) use and practical application of launching, landing and
other performance data, including the effect of
2.12.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements temperature;
specified in 1.2.5, 1.2.6 and 2.1, the privileges of the holder of
a glider pilot licence shall be to act as pilot-in-command of g) pre-flight and en-route flight planning appropriate to
any glider provided the licence holder has operational experi- operations under VFR; appropriate air traffic services
ence in the launching method used. procedures; altimeter setting procedures; operations in
areas of high-density traffic;
2.12.2.2 Recommendation. If passengers are to be
carried, the licence holder should have completed not less Human performance
than 10 hours of flight time as a pilot of gliders.
h) human performance relevant to the free balloon pilot;

Note. Guidance material to design training


2.13 Free balloon pilot licence programmes on human performance can be found in
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
Note. The provisions of the free balloon pilot licence
apply to free balloons using hot air or gas.
Meteorology

i) application of elementary aeronautical meteorology;


2.13.1 Requirements for the issue
use of, and procedures for obtaining, meteorological
of the licence
information; altimetry;

2.13.1.1 Age Navigation

The applicant shall be not less than 16 years of age. j) practical aspects of air navigation and dead-reckoning
techniques; use of aeronautical charts;

2.13.1.2 Knowledge Operational procedures

The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge k) use of aeronautical documentation such as AIP,
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a free NOTAM, aeronautical codes and abbreviations;
balloon pilot licence, in at least the following subjects:
l) appropriate precautionary and emergency procedures,
Air law including action to be taken to avoid hazardous
weather, wake turbulence and other operating hazards;
a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a free
balloon pilot licence; rules of the air; appropriate air Principles of flight
traffic services practices and procedures;
m) principles of flight relating to free balloons.
Aircraft general knowledge
2.13.1.2.1 Recommendation. The applicant should
b) principles of operation of free balloon systems and have demonstrated a level of knowledge appropriate to the
instruments; privileges to be granted to the holder of a free balloon pilot

1/11/01 2-22
Chapter 2 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

licence, in radiotelephony procedures and phraseology as 2.13.1.4 Skill


appropriate to VFR operations and on action to be taken in
case of communication failure. The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as
pilot-in-command of a free balloon, the procedures and
manoeuvres described in 2.13.1.3.2 with a degree of com-
2.13.1.3 Experience petency appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of
a free balloon pilot licence, and to:
2.13.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed not less
than 16 hours of flight time as a pilot of free balloons a) operate the free balloon within its limitations;
including at least eight launches and ascents of which one
must be solo. b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;

2.13.1.3.2 The applicant shall have gained, under appro- c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;
priate supervision, operational experience in free balloons in at
least the following areas: d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and

a) pre-flight operations, including balloon assembly, e) maintain control of the free balloon at all times in a
rigging, inflation, mooring and inspection; manner such that the successful outcome of a pro-
cedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.
b) techniques and procedures for the launching and
ascent, including appropriate limitations, emergency
procedures and signals used; 2.13.1.5 Medical fitness

c) collision avoidance precautions; The applicant shall hold a current Class 2 Medical Assessment.

d) control of a free balloon by external visual reference;


2.13.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and
e) recognition of, and recovery from, rapid descents; the conditions to be observed in exercising
such privileges
f) cross-country flying using visual reference and dead
reckoning; 2.13.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements
specified in 1.2.5, 1.2.6 and 2.1, the privileges of the holder
g) approaches and landings, including ground handling; of a free balloon pilot licence shall be to act as pilot-in-
command of any free balloon provided that the licence
h) emergency procedures. holder has operational experience in hot air or gas balloons
as appropriate.
2.13.1.3.3 If the privileges of the licence are to be
exercised at night, the applicant shall have gained, under 2.13.2.2 Before exercising the privileges at night, the
appropriate supervision, operational experience in free licence holder shall have complied with the requirements
balloons in night flying. specified in 2.13.1.3.3.

2-23 1/11/01
CHAPTER 3. LICENCES FOR FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS OTHER
THAN LICENCES FOR PILOTS

3.1 General rules concerning flight navigator and Human performance


flight engineer licences
e) human performance relevant to the flight navigator;
3.1.1 An applicant shall, before being issued with a flight
navigator licence or a flight engineer licence, meet such Note. Guidance material to design training
requirements in respect of age, knowledge, experience, skill programmes on human performance can be found in
and medical fitness as are specified for those licences. the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).

3.1.1.1 An applicant for a flight navigator licence or a Meteorology


flight engineer licence shall demonstrate such requirements for
knowledge and skill as are specified for those licences, in a f) interpretation and practical application of aeronautical
manner determined by the Licensing Authority. meteorological reports, charts and forecasts; codes and
abbreviations; use of, and procedures for obtaining,
meteorological information, pre-flight and in-flight;
altimetry;
3.2 Flight navigator licence
g) aeronautical meteorology; climatology of relevant areas
in respect of the elements having an effect upon
3.2.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
aviation; the movement of pressure systems; the struc-
ture of fronts, and the origin and characteristics of
significant weather phenomena which affect take-off,
3.2.1.1 Age
en-route and landing conditions;
The applicant shall be not less than 18 years of age.
Navigation

3.2.1.2 Knowledge h) dead-reckoning, pressure-pattern and celestial navi-


gation procedures; the use of aeronautical charts, radio
The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowl- navigation aids and area navigation systems; specific
edge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a navigation requirements for long-range flights;
flight navigator licence, in at least the following subjects:
i) use, limitation and serviceability of avionics and
Air law instruments necessary for the navigation of the
aircraft;
a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a flight
navigator licence; appropriate air traffic services j) use, accuracy and reliability of navigation systems
practices and procedures; used in departure, en-route and approach phases of
flight; identification of radio navigation aids;
Flight performance and planning
k) principles, characteristics and use of self-contained
b) effects of loading and mass distribution on aircraft and external-referenced navigation systems; operation
performance; of airborne equipment;

c) use of take-off, landing and other performance data l) the celestial sphere including the movement of heavenly
including procedures for cruise control; bodies and their selection and identification for the
purpose of observation and reduction of sights;
d) pre-flight and en-route operational flight planning; calibration of sextants; the completion of navigation
preparation and filing of air traffic services flight documentation;
plans; appropriate air traffic services procedures;
altimeter setting procedures; m) definitions, units and formulae used in air navigation;

ANNEX 1 3-1 1/11/01


Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 3

Operational procedures 3.2.2 Privileges of the holder of the


licence and the conditions to be observed
n) interpretation and use of aeronautical documentation in exercising such privileges
such as AIP, NOTAM, aeronautical codes, abbrevi-
ations, and instrument procedure charts for departure, Subject to compliance with the requirements specified in 1.2.5
en-route, descent and approach; and 1.2.6, the privileges of the holder of a flight navigator
licence shall be to act as flight navigator of any aircraft. If the
Principles of flight privileges include radiotelephony communication, the licence
holder shall comply with the requirements specified in 1.2.9.2.
o) principles of flight;

Radiotelephony
3.3 Flight engineer licence
p) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology.

3.3.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence


3.2.1.3 Experience

3.2.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed in the 3.3.1.1 Age


performance of the duties of a flight navigator, not less than
200 hours of flight time acceptable to the Licensing Authority, The applicant shall be not less than 18 years of age.
in aircraft engaged in cross-country flights, including not less
than 30 hours by night.
3.3.1.2 Knowledge
3.2.1.3.1.1 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot,
the Licensing Authority shall determine whether such experi- The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
ence is acceptable and, if so, the extent to which the flight time appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a flight
requirements of 3.2.1.3.1 can be reduced accordingly. engineer licence, in at least the following subjects:

3.2.1.3.2 The applicant shall produce evidence of having Air law


satisfactorily determined the aircrafts position in flight, and
used that information to navigate the aircraft, as follows: a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a flight
engineer licence; rules and regulations governing the
a) by night not less than 25 times by celestial operation of civil aircraft pertinent to the duties of a
observations; and flight engineer;

b) by day not less than 25 times by celestial Aircraft general knowledge


observations in conjunction with self-contained or
external-referenced navigation systems. b) basic principles of powerplants, gas turbines and/or
piston engines; characteristics of fuels, fuel systems
including fuel control; lubricants and lubrication sys-
3.2.1.4 Skill tems; afterburners and injection systems, function and
operation of engine ignition and starter systems;
The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as
flight navigator of an aircraft with a degree of competency c) principles of operation, handling procedures and oper-
appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a flight ating limitations of aircraft powerplants; effects of
navigator licence, and to: atmospheric conditions on engine performance;

a) exercise good judgement and airmanship; d) airframes, flight controls, structures, wheel assemblies,
brakes and anti-skid units, corrosion and fatigue life;
b) apply aeronautical knowledge; identification of structural damage and defects;
c) perform all duties as part of an integrated crew; and e) ice and rain protection systems;
d) communicate effectively with the other flight crew f) pressurization and air-conditioning systems, oxygen
members. systems;

g) hydraulic and pneumatic systems;


3.2.1.5 Medical fitness
h) basic electrical theory, electric systems (AC and DC),
The applicant shall hold a current Class 1 Medical Assessment. aircraft wiring systems, bonding and screening;

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Chapter 3 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

i) principles of operation of instruments, compasses, 3.3.1.3 Experience


autopilots, radio communication equipment, radio and
radar navigation aids, flight management systems, 3.3.1.3.1 The applicant shall have completed, under the
displays and avionics; supervision of a person accepted by the Licensing Authority
for that purpose, not less than 100 hours of flight time in the
j) limitations of appropriate aircraft; performance of the duties of a flight engineer. The Licensing
Authority shall determine whether experience as a flight
k) fire protection, detection, suppression and extinguishing engineer in a flight simulator, which it has approved, is
systems; acceptable as part of the total flight time of 100 hours. Credit
for such experience shall be limited to a maximum of
l) use and serviceability checks of equipment and systems 50 hours.
of appropriate aircraft;
3.3.1.3.1.1 When the applicant has flight time as a pilot,
Flight performance and planning the Licensing Authority shall determine whether such experi-
ence is acceptable and, if so, the extent to which the flight time
m) effects of loading and mass distribution on aircraft requirements of 3.3.1.3.1 can be reduced accordingly.
handling, flight characteristics and performance; mass
and balance calculations; 3.3.1.3.2 The applicant shall have operational experience
in the performance of the duties of a flight engineer, under the
n) use and practical application of performance data
supervision of a flight engineer accepted by the Licensing
including procedures for cruise control;
Authority for that purpose, in at least the following areas:
Human performance
a) Normal procedures
o) human performance relevant to the flight engineer;
pre-flight inspections
Note. Guidance material to design training fuelling procedures, fuel management
programmes on human performance can be found in inspection of maintenance documents
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683). normal flight deck procedures during all phases of
flight
Operational procedures crew coordination and procedures in case of crew
incapacitation
p) principles of maintenance, procedures for the main- defect reporting
tenance of airworthiness, defect reporting, pre-flight
inspections, precautionary procedures for fuelling and b) Abnormal and alternate (standby) procedures
use of external power; installed equipment and cabin
systems; recognition of abnormal functioning of aircraft
systems
q) normal, abnormal and emergency procedures; use of abnormal and alternate (standby) procedures

r) operational procedures for carriage of freight and c) Emergency procedures


dangerous goods;
recognition of emergency conditions
Principles of flight use of appropriate emergency procedures

s) fundamentals of aerodynamics;
3.3.1.4 Skill
Radiotelephony
The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as
t) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology. flight engineer of an aircraft, the duties and procedures
described in 3.3.1.3.2 with a degree of competency appropriate
3.3.1.2.1 Recommendation. The applicant should have to the privileges granted to the holder of a flight engineer
demonstrated a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges licence, and to:
granted to the holder of a flight engineer licence in at least the
following subjects: a) use aircraft systems within the aircrafts capabilities
and limitations;
a) fundamentals of navigation; principles and operation
of self-contained systems; and b) exercise good judgement and airmanship;

b) operational aspects of meteorology. c) apply aeronautical knowledge;

3-3 1/11/01
Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 3

d) perform all the duties as part of an integrated crew Authority on the basis of those requirements specified in
with the successful outcome never in doubt; and 3.3.1.2 and 3.3.1.4 which are applicable to the safe operation
of that type of aircraft.
e) communicate effectively with the other flight crew
members. 3.3.2.2 The types of aircraft on which the holder of a
flight engineer licence is authorized to exercise the privileges
3.3.1.4.1 The use of a synthetic flight trainer for of that licence, shall be either entered on the licence or
performing any of the procedures required during the demon- recorded elsewhere in a manner acceptable to the Licensing
stration of skill described in 3.3.1.4 shall be approved by the Authority.
Licensing Authority, which shall ensure that the synthetic
flight trainer is appropriate to the task.
3.4 Flight radiotelephone operator

3.3.1.5 Medical fitness Note 1. Where the knowledge and skill of an applicant
have been established as satisfactory in respect of the certifi-
The applicant shall hold a current Class 1 Medical Assessment. cation requirements for the radiotelephone operators restricted
certificat e specified in the general radio regulations annexed
to the International Telecommunication Convention and the
3.3.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and applicant has met the requirements that are pertinent to the
the conditions to be observed in exercising operation of the radiotelephone on board an aircraft, a
such privileges Contracting State may endorse a licence already held by the
applicant (as provided for in 5.1.1 XIII) or issue a separate
3.3.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements licence as appropriate.
specified in 1.2.5 and 1.2.6, the privileges of the holder of a
flight engineer licence shall be to act as flight engineer of any Note 2. Skill and knowledge requirements on radiotel-
type of aircraft on which the holder has demonstrated a level ephony procedures and phraseology have been developed as
of knowledge and skill, as determined by the Licensing an integral part of all pilot aeroplane and helicopter licences.

1/11/01 3-4
CHAPTER 4. LICENCES AND RATINGS FOR PERSONNEL
OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS

4.1 General rules concerning licences and Natural science and aircraft general knowledge
ratings for personnel other than flight
crew members b) basic mathematics; units of measurement; fundamental
principles and theory of physics and chemistry
4.1.1 An applicant shall, before being issued with any applicable to aircraft maintenance;
licence or rating for personnel other than flight crew mem-
bers, meet such requirements in respect of age, knowledge, Aircraft engineering
experience and where appropriate, medical fitness and skill, as
are specified for that licence or rating. c) characteristics and applications of the materials of
aircraft construction including principles of construc-
4.1.2 An applicant, for any licence or rating for personnel tion and functioning of aircraft structures, fastening
other than flight crew members, shall demonstrate, in a techniques; powerplants and their associated systems;
manner determined by the Licensing Authority, such require- mechanical, fluid, electrical and electronic power
ments in respect of knowledge and skill as are specified for sources; aircraft instrument and display systems; air-
that licence or rating. craft control systems; and airborne navigation and
communication systems;

Aircraft maintenance
4.2 Aircraft maintenance
(technician/engineer/mechanic) d) tasks required to ensure the continuing airworthiness
of an aircraft including methods and procedures for the
Note. The terms in brackets are given as acceptable overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modifi-
additions to the title of the licence. Each Contracting State is cation or defect rectification of aircraft structures,
expected to use in its own regulations the one it prefers. components and systems in accordance with the
methods prescribed in the relevant Maintenance
Manuals and the applicable Standards of airworthi-
4.2.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence ness; and

Human performance
4.2.1.1 Age
e) human performance relevant to aircraft maintenance.
The applicant shall be not less than 18 years of age. Note. Guidance material to design training
programmes on human performance can be found in the
Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
4.2.1.2 Knowledge

The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge 4.2.1.3 Experience


relevant to the privileges to be granted and appropriate to the
responsibilities of an aircraft maintenance licence holder, in at The applicant shall have had the following experience in the
least the following subjects: inspection, servicing and maintenance of aircraft or its
components:
Air law and airworthiness requirements
a) for the issue of a licence with privileges for the aircraft
in its entirety, at least:
a) rules and regulations relevant to an aircraft mainten-
ance licence holder including applicable airworthiness 1) four years; or
requirements governing certification and continuing
airworthiness of aircraft and approved aircraft main- 2) two years if the applicant has satisfactorily
tenance organization and procedures; completed an approved training course; and

ANNEX 1 4-1 27/11/03


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No. 164
Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 4

b) for the issue of a licence with privileges restricted in 3) aircraft avionic systems or components as are
accordance with 4.2.2.2 a) 2) or 3), a period of time entered on the licence either specifically or under
that will enable a level of competency equivalent to broad categories;
that required in a) to be attained, provided that this is
not less than: b) provided that the licence holder is familiar with all the
relevant information relating to the maintenance and
1) two years; or airworthiness of the particular aircraft for which the
licence holder is signing a Maintenance Release, or
2) such a period as the State considers necessary to such airframe, powerplant, aircraft system or compon-
provide an equivalent level of practical experience ent and aircraft avionic system or component which
to applicants who have satisfactorily completed an the licence holder is certifying as being airworthy; and
approved training course.
c) on condition that, within the preceding 24 months, the
licence holder has either had experience in the
inspection, servicing or maintenance of an aircraft or
4.2.1.4 Training
components in accordance with the privileges granted
by the licence held for not less than six months, or has
Recommendation. The applicant should have completed
met the provision for the issue of a licence with the
a course of training appropriate to the privileges to be granted.
appropriate privileges, to the satisfaction of the
Licensing Authority.
Note. The Training Manual (Doc 7192), Part D-1,
contains guidance material on a training course for applicants
4.2.2.3 A Contracting State shall prescribe the scope of
for an aircraft maintenance licence.
the privileges of the licence holder in terms of the complexity
of the tasks to which the certification relates.

4.2.1.5 Skill 4.2.2.3.1 Recommendation. Details of the certification


privileges should be endorsed on or attached to the licence,
The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform either directly or by reference to another document issued by
those functions applicable to the privileges to be granted. the Contracting State.

4.2.2.4 When a Contracting State authorizes an approved


maintenance organization to appoint non-licensed personnel to
4.2.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and exercise the privileges of 4.2.2, the person appointed shall
the conditions to be observed in exercising meet the requirements specified in 4.2.1.
such privileges

4.2.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements


specified in 4.2.2.2 and 4.2.2.3, the privileges of the holder of 4.3 Air traffic controller licence
an aircraft maintenance licence shall be to certify the aircraft
or parts of the aircraft as airworthy after an authorized repair,
modification or installation of a powerplant, accessory, 4.3.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
instrument, and/or item of equipment, and to sign a mainten-
ance release following inspection, maintenance operations Before issuing an air traffic controller licence, a Contracting
and/or routine servicing. State shall require the applicant to meet the requirements of
4.3.1 and the requirements of at least one of the ratings set out
4.2.2.2 The privileges of the holder of an aircraft in 4.4. Unlicensed State employees may operate as air traffic
maintenance licence specified in 4.2.2.1 shall be exercised controllers on condition that they meet the same requirements.
only:

4.3.1.1 Age
a) in respect of such:
The applicant shall be not less than 21 years of age.
1) aircraft as are entered on the licence in their
entirety either specifically or under broad
categories; or 4.3.1.2 Knowledge

2) airframes and powerplants and aircraft systems or The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
components as are entered on the licence either appropriate to the holder of an air traffic controller licence, in
specifically or under broad categories; and/or at least the following subjects:

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Chapter 4 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

Air law 4.4 Air traffic controller ratings

a) rules and regulations relevant to the air traffic


controller; 4.4.1 Categories of air traffic controller ratings

Air traffic control equipment


4.4.1.1 Air traffic controller ratings shall comprise the
b) principles, use and limitations of equipment used in air following categories:
traffic control;
a) aerodrome control rating;
General knowledge
b) approach control rating;
c) principles of flight; principles of operation and
functioning of aircraft, powerplants and systems; c) approach radar control rating;
aircraft performances relevant to air traffic control
operations; d) approach precision radar control rating;

Human performance e) area control rating; and

d) human performance relevant to air traffic control; f) area radar control rating.

Note. Guidance material to design training Note. The World Meteorological Organization has
programmes on human performance can be found in specified requirements for personnel making meteorological
the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683). observations which apply to air traffic controllers providing
such a service.
Meteorology

e) aeronautical meteorology; use and appreciation of 4.4.2 Requirements for air traffic
meteorological documentation and information; origin controller ratings
and characteristics of weather phenomena affecting
flight operations and safety; altimetry;
4.4.2.1 Knowledge
Navigation
The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
f) principles of air navigation; principle, limitation and appropriate to the privileges granted, in at least the
accuracy of navigation systems and visual aids; and following subjects in so far as they affect the area of
responsibility:
Operational procedures
a) aerodrome control rating:
g) air traffic control, communication, radiotelephony and
phraseology procedures (routine, non-routine and 1) aerodrome layout; physical characteristics and
emergency); use of the relevant aeronautical documen- visual aids;
tation; safety practices associated with flight.
2) airspace structure;

4.3.1.3 Experience 3) applicable rules, procedures and source of infor-


mation;
The applicant shall have completed an approved training
course and not less than three months satisfactory service 4) air navigation facilities;
engaged in the actual control of air traffic under the super-
vision of an appropriately rated air traffic controller. The 5) air traffic control equipment and its use;
experience requirements specified for air traffic controller
ratings in 4.4 may be credited as part of the experience 6) terrain and prominent landmarks;
specified in this paragraph.
7) characteristics of air traffic;

4.3.1.4 Medical fitness 8) weather phenomena; and

The applicant shall hold a current Class 3 Medical Assessment. 9) emergency and search and rescue plans;

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 4

b) approach control and area control ratings: simulator approved for that purpose by the
Licensing Authority. Not less than 50 of those
1) airspace structure; precision approaches shall have been carried out at
the unit and on the equipment for which the rating
2) applicable rules, procedures and source of infor- is sought; and
mation;
c) if the privileges of the approach radar control rating
3) air navigation facilities; include surveillance radar approach duties, the
experience shall include not less than 25 plan position
4) air traffic control equipment and its use; indicator (PPI) approaches on the surveillance equip-
ment of the type in use at the unit for which the rating
5) terrain and prominent landmarks; is sought and under the supervision of an appropriately
rated approach radar controller.
6) characteristics of air traffic and traffic flow;
4.4.2.2.2 The experience specified in 4.4.2.2.1 b) shall
7) weather phenomena; and have been completed within the 6-month period immediately
preceding application.
8) emergency and search and rescue plans; and
4.4.2.2.3 When the applicant already holds an air traffic
c) approach radar, approach precision radar and area controller rating in another category, or the same rating for
radar control ratings: The applicant shall meet the another unit, the Licensing Authority shall determine whether
requirements specified in b) in so far as they affect the the experience requirement of 4.4.2.2 can be reduced, and if
area of responsibility, and shall have demonstrated a so, to what extent.
level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges
granted, in at least the following additional subjects:
4.4.2.3 Skill
1) principles, use and limitations of radar, other
surveillance systems and associated equipment; The applicant shall have demonstrated, at a level appropriate
and to the privileges being granted, the skill, judgement and per-
formance required to provide a safe, orderly and expeditious
2) procedures for the provision of approach, precision control service.
approach or area radar control services, as appro-
priate, including procedures to ensure appropriate
terrain clearance. 4.4.2.4 Concurrent issuance of two air traffic
4.4.2.4 controller ratings

4.4.2.2 Experience When two air traffic controller ratings are sought concurrently,
the Licensing Authority shall determine the applicable
4.4.2.2.1 The applicant shall have: requirements on the basis of the requirements for each rating.
These requirements shall not be less than those of the more
a) satisfactorily completed an approved training course; demanding rating.

b) provided, satisfactorily, under the supervision of an


appropriately rated air traffic controller: 4.4.3 Privileges of the holder of the air traffic
controller rating(s) and the conditions to be
1) aerodrome control rating: an aerodrome control observed in exercising such privileges
service, for a period of not less than 90 hours or
one month, whichever is greater, at the unit for 4.4.3.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements
which the rating is sought; specified in 1.2.5, 1.2.6 and 1.2.9, the privileges of the holder
of an air traffic controller licence endorsed with one or more
2) approach, approach radar, area or area radar of the undermentioned ratings shall be:
control rating: the control service for which the
rating is sought, for a period of not less than a) aerodrome control rating: to provide or to supervise
180 hours or three months, whichever is greater, at the provision of aerodrome control service for the
the unit for which the rating is sought; and aerodrome for which the licence holder is rated;

3) approach precision radar control rating: not less b) approach control rating: to provide or to supervise the
than 200 precision approaches of which not more provision of approach control service for the aero-
than 100 shall have been carried out on a radar drome or aerodromes for which the licence holder is

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Chapter 4 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

rated, within the airspace or portion thereof, under the 4.5.1.2 Knowledge
jurisdiction of the unit providing approach control
service; The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowl-
edge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of
c) approach radar control rating: to provide and/or a flight operations officer licence, in at least the following
supervise the provision of approach control service subjects:
with the use of radar or other surveillance systems for
the aerodrome or aerodromes for which the licence Air law
holder is rated, within the airspace or portion thereof,
under the jurisdiction of the unit providing approach a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of a flight
control service; operations officer licence; appropriate air traffic
services practices and procedures;
1) subject to compliance with the provisions of
4.4.2.2.1 c), the privileges shall include the
provision of surveillance radar approaches; Aircraft general knowledge

d) approach precision radar control rating: to provide b) principles of operation of aeroplane powerplants,
and/or supervise the provision of precision approach systems and instruments;
radar service at the aerodrome for which the licence
holder is rated; c) operating limitations of aeroplanes and powerplants;

e) area control rating: to provide and/or supervise the d) minimum equipment list;
provision of area control service within the control
area or portion thereof, for which the licence holder is Flight performance calculation and
rated; and planning procedures
f) area radar control rating: to provide and/or supervise
e) effects of loading and mass distribution on aircraft
the provision of area control service with the use of
performance and flight characteristics; mass and
radar, within the control area or portion thereof, for
balance calculations;
which the licence holder is rated.
f) operational flight planning; fuel consumption and
4.4.3.2 Before exercising the privileges indicated in
endurance calculations; alternate airport selection
4.4.3.1, the licence holder shall be familiar with all pertinent
procedures; en-route cruise control; extended range
and current information.
operation;
4.4.3.3 A Contracting State having issued an air traffic
g) preparation and filing of air traffic services flight
controller licence shall not permit the holder thereof to carry
plans;
out instruction in an operational environment unless such
holder has received proper authorization from such
h) basic principles of computer-assisted planning systems;
Contracting State.
Human performance
4.4.3.4 Validity of ratings
i) human performance relevant to dispatch duties;
A rating shall become invalid when an air traffic controller has
ceased to exercise the privileges of the rating for a period Note. Guidance material to design training
determined by the Licensing Authority. That period shall not programmes on human performance can be found in
exceed six months. A rating shall remain invalid until the the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
controllers ability to exercise the privileges of the rating has
been re-established. Meteorology

j) aeronautical meteorology; the movement of pressure


4.5 Flight operations officer/flight dispatcher licence systems; the structure of fronts, and the origin and
characteristics of significant weather phenomena
which affect take-off, en-route and landing conditions;
4.5.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
k) interpretation and application of aeronautical meteoro-
4.5.1.1 Age logical reports, charts and forecasts; codes and ab-
breviations; use of, and procedures for obtaining,
The applicant shall be not less than 21 years of age. meteorological information;

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 4

Navigation 4.5.1.3.2 The applicant shall have served under the


supervision of a flight operations officer for at least 90 work-
l) principles of air navigation with particular reference to ing days within the six months immediately preceding the
instrument flight; application.

Operational procedures
4.5.1.4 Skill
m) use of aeronautical documentation;
The applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to:
n) operational procedures for the carriage of freight and
dangerous goods; a) make an accurate and operationally acceptable weather
analysis from a series of daily weather maps and
o) procedures relating to aircraft accidents and incidents; weather reports; provide an operationally valid
emergency flight procedures; briefing on weather conditions prevailing in the
general neighbourhood of a specific air route; forecast
p) procedures relating to unlawful interference and weather trends pertinent to air transportation with
sabotage of aircraft; particular reference to destination and alternates;

b) determine the optimum flight path for a given


Principles of flight segment, and create accurate manual and/or computer
generated flight plans; and
q) principles of flight relating to the appropriate category
of aircraft; and c) provide operating supervision and all other assistance
to a flight in actual or simulated adverse weather
Radio communication conditions, as appropriate to the duties of the holder of
a flight operations officer licence.
r) procedures for communicating with aircraft and
relevant ground stations.

4.5.2 Privileges of the holder of the licence and


4.5.1.3 Experience the conditions to be observed in exercising
such privileges
4.5.1.3.1 The applicant shall have gained the following
experience: Subject to compliance with the requirements specified in 1.2.5,
the privileges of the holder of a flight operations officer licence
a) a total of two years service in any one or in any shall be to serve in that capacity with responsibility for each
combination of the capacities specified in 1) to 3) area for which the applicant meets the requirements specified
inclusive, provided that in any combination of experi- in Annex 6.
ence the period serviced in any capacity shall be at
least one year:

1) a flight crew member in air transportation; or 4.6 Aeronautical station


operator licence
2) a meteorologist in an organization dispatching
aircraft in air transportation; or Note. This licence is not intended for personnel providing
Aerodrome Flight Information Service (AFIS). Guidance on
3) an air traffic controller; or a technical supervisor of the qualifications to be met by these personnel can be found in
flight operations officers or air transportation flight Circular 211, Aerodrome Flight Information Service (AFIS).
operations systems;

or
4.6.1 Requirements for the issue of the licence
b) at least one year as an assistant in the dispatching of
air transport; 4.6.1.1 Before issuing an aeronautical station operator
licence, a Contracting State shall require the applicant to meet
or the requirements of 4.6.1. Unlicensed individuals may operate
as aeronautical station operators on the condition that the State
c) have satisfactorily completed a course of approved from which they operate ensures that they meet the same
training. requirements.

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Chapter 4 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

4.6.1.2 Age b) satisfactorily served under a qualified aeronautical


station operator for not less than six months during the
The applicant shall be not less than 18 years of age. 12-month period immediately preceding application.

4.6.1.5 Skill
4.6.1.3 Knowledge
The applicant shall demonstrate, or have demonstrated,
The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge
competency in:
appropriate to the holder of an aeronautical station operator, in
at least the following subjects:
a) operating the telecommunication equipment in use;
and
General knowledge
b) transmitting and receiving radiotelephony messages
a) air traffic services provided within the State; with efficiency and accuracy.

Operational procedures
4.6.2 Privileges of the aeronautical station
operator and the conditions to be observed in
b) radiotelephony procedures; phraseology; telecom-
exercising such privileges
munication network;
4.6.2.1 Subject to compliance with the requirements
Rules and regulations specified in 1.2.5 and 1.2.9, the privileges of the holder of an
aeronautical station operator licence shall be to act as an
c) rules and regulations applicable to the aeronautical operator in an aeronautical station. Before exercising the
station operator; and privileges of the licence, the holder shall be familiar with all
pertinent and current information regarding the types of
equipment and operating procedures used at that aeronautical
Telecommunication equipment
station.
d) principles, use and limitations of telecommunication
equipment in an aeronautical station.
4.7 Aeronautical meteorological personnel

Note. The requirements for training and qualifications


4.6.1.4 Experience for all aeronautical meteorological personnel are the
responsibility of the World Meteorological Organization
4.6.1.4.1 The applicant shall have: (WMO) in accordance with the Working Arrangements
between the International Civil Aviation Organization and the
a) satisfactorily completed an approved training course World Meteorological Organization (Doc 7475). The
within the 12-month period immediately preceding requirements can be found in WMO Document 258
application, and have served satisfactorily under a Guidelines for the education and training of personnel in
qualified aeronautical station operator for not less than meteorology and operational hydrology Volume I:
two months; or Meteorology.

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CHAPTER 5. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PERSONNEL LICENCES

5.1 Personnel licences issued by a Contracting State in 5.1.2 Material


accordance with the relevant provisions of this Annex shall
conform to the following specifications: First quality paper or other suitable material shall be used and
the items mentioned in 5.1.1 shown clearly thereon.

5.1.1 Detail
5.1.3 Colour
The following details shall appear on the licence:
5.1.3.1 Where the same coloured material is used for all
licences issued by a Contracting State, that colour shall be
I) Name of State (in bold type);
white.

II) Title of licence (in very bold type); 5.1.3.2 Where licences issued by a Contracting State
carry a distinguishing colour marking, the colours shall be as
III) Serial number of the licence, in arabic numerals, given follows:
by the authority issuing the licence;
a) private pilot aeroplane light brown
IV) Name of holder in full (in roman alphabet also if script b) commercial pilot aeroplane light blue
of national language is other than roman);
c) airline transport pilot
IVa) Date of birth; aeroplane dark green

V) Address of holder; d) private pilot helicopter light grey

e) commercial pilot helicopter dark grey


VI) Nationality of holder;
f) airline transport pilot
VII) Signature of holder; helicopter two or more
dark grey
VIII) Authority and, where necessary, conditions under stripes on
which the licence is issued; white
background
IX) Certification concerning validity and authorization for g) glider pilot pink
holder to exercise privileges appropriate to licence;
h) free balloon pilot violet
X) Signature of officer issuing the licence and the date of
i) flight navigator red
such issue;
j) flight engineer brown
XI) Seal or stamp of authority issuing the licence;
k) aircraft maintenance maroon
XII) Ratings, e.g. category, class, type of aircraft, airframe, (technician/engineer/mechanic)
aerodrome control, etc.;
l) air traffic controller yellow
XIII) Remarks, i.e. special endorsements relating to limi- m) flight operations officer light green
tations and endorsements for privileges, including from
5 March 2008 an endorsement of language proficiency; n) aeronautical station operator two or more
orange stripes
XIV) Any other details desired by the State issuing the on white
licence. background

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 5

5.1.4 Language 5.1.5 Arrangement of items

When licences are issued in a language other than English, the Item headings on the licence shall be uniformly numbered in
licence shall include an English translation of at least items I), roman numerals as indicated in 5.1.1, so that on any licence
II), VI), IX), XII), XIII) and XIV). When provided in a the number will, under any arrangement, refer to the same item
language other than English, authorizations issued in accord- heading.
ance with 1.2.2.1 shall include an English translation of the
name of the State issuing the authorization, the limit of Note. Item headings may be arranged in such order as
validity of the authorization and any restriction or limitation may best suit the convenience of the Contracting State issuing
that may be established. the licence.

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No. 164
CHAPTER 6. MEDICAL PROVISIONS FOR LICENSING

Note 1. The Standards and Recommended Practices airline transport pilot licences aeroplane and
established in this chapter cannot, on their own, be sufficiently helicopter
detailed to cover all possible individual situations. Of neces- flight navigator licences
sity, many decisions relating to the evaluation of medical fit- flight engineer licences
ness must be left to the judgement of the individual medical
examiner. The evaluation must, therefore, be based on a med- b) Class 2 Medical Assessment;
ical examination conducted throughout in accordance with the
highest standards of medical practice. applies to applicants for, and holders of:

Note 2. Predisposing factors for disease, such as obesity private pilot licences aeroplane and helicopter
and smoking, may be important for determining whether fur- glider pilot licences
ther evaluation or investigation is necessary in an individual free balloon pilot licences
case.
c) Class 3 Medical Assessment;
Note 3. In cases where the applicant does not fully meet
applies to applicants for, and holders of:
the medical requirements and in complicated and unusual
cases, the evaluation may have to be deferred and the case
air traffic controller licences.
submitted to the medical assessor of the Licensing Authority
for final evaluation. In such cases due regard must be given to
6.1.2 The applicant for a Medical Assessment shall
the privileges granted by the licence applied for or held by the
provide the medical examiner with a personally certified state-
applicant for the Medical Assessment, and the conditions
ment of medical facts concerning personal, familial and hered-
under which the licence holder is going to exercise those priv-
itary history. The applicant shall be made aware of the
ileges in carrying out assigned duties.
necessity for giving a statement that is as complete and accurate
as the applicants knowledge permits, and any false statement
Note 4. Attention is called to the administrative clause in shall be dealt with in accordance with 1.2.4.5.1.
1.2.4.8 dealing with accredited medical conclusion.
6.1.3 The medical examiner shall report to the Licensing
Note 5. Guidance material to assist Licensing Authori- Authority any individual case where, in the examiners judge-
ties and medical examiners is published separately in the ment, an applicants failure to meet any requirement, whether
Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984). This guidance numerical or otherwise, is such that exercise of the privileges
material also contains a discussion of the terms likely and of the licence being applied for, or held, is not likely to
significant as used in the context of the medical provisions in jeopardize flight safety (1.2.4.8).
Chapter 6.
6.1.4 The requirements to be met for the renewal of a
Medical Assessment are the same as those for the initial
assessment except where otherwise specifically stated.
6.1 Medical Assessments General
Note. The intervals between routine medical examinations
for the purpose of renewing Medical Assessments are specified
6.1.1 Classes of Medical Assessment in 1.2.5.2.

Three classes of Medical Assessment shall be established as


follows:
6.2 Requirements for Medical Assessments
a) Class 1 Medical Assessment;
6.2.1 General
applies to applicants for, and holders of:
An applicant for a Medical Assessment issued in accordance
commercial pilot licences aeroplane and with the terms of 1.2.4.1 shall undergo a medical examination
helicopter based on the following requirements:

ANNEX 1 6-1 24/11/05


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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 6

a) physical and mental; 6.2.4.2 The applicant shall be tested for the ability to
correctly identify a series of pseudoisochromatic plates in day-
b) visual and colour perception; and light or in artificial light of the same colour temperature such
as that provided by CIE standard illuminants C or D65 as
c) hearing. specified by the International Commission on Illumination
(CIE).

6.2.2 Physical and mental requirements 6.2.4.3 An applicant obtaining a satisfactory result as
prescribed by the Licensing Authority shall be assessed as fit.
An applicant for any class of Medical Assessment shall be An applicant failing to obtain a satisfactory result in such a test
required to be free from: shall be assessed as unfit unless able to readily distinguish the
colours used in air navigation and correctly identify aviation
a) any abnormality, congenital or acquired; or coloured lights. Applicants who fail to meet these criteria shall
be assessed as unfit except for Class 2 assessment with the
b) any active, latent, acute or chronic disability; or following restriction: valid daytime only.

c) any wound, injury or sequelae from operation; or Note. Guidance on suitable methods of assessing colour
vision is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
d) any effect or side-effect of any prescribed or non- (Doc 8984).
prescribed therapeutic, diagnostic or preventive medi-
cation taken; 6.2.4.3.1 Recommendation. Sunglasses worn during
the exercise of the privileges of the licence or rating held
such as would entail a degree of functional incapacity which should be non-polarizing and of a neutral grey tint.
is likely to interfere with the safe operation of an aircraft or
with the safe performance of duties.
6.2.5 Hearing test requirements
Note. Use of herbal medication and alternative treatment
modalities requires particular attention to possible side- Contracting States shall use such methods of examination as
effects. will guarantee reliable testing of hearing.

6.2.5.1 Applicants shall be required to demonstrate a


6.2.3 Visual acuity test requirements hearing performance sufficient for the safe exercise of their
licence and rating privileges.
The methods in use for the measurement of visual acuity are
likely to lead to differing evaluations. To achieve uniformity, 6.2.5.2 Applicants for Class 1 Medical Assessments shall
therefore, Contracting States shall ensure that equivalence in be tested by pure-tone audiometry at first issue of the
the methods of evaluation be obtained. Assessment, not less than once every five years up to the age
of 40 years, and thereafter not less than once every two years.
6.2.3.1 Recommendation. The following should be
adopted for tests of visual acuity: 6.2.5.2.1 Alternatively, other methods providing equiv-
alent results may be used.
a) Visual acuity tests should be conducted in an environ-
ment with a level of illumination that corresponds to 6.2.5.3 Applicants for Class 3 Medical Assessments shall
ordinary office illumination (30-60 cd/m2). be tested by pure-tone audiometry at first issue of the
Assessment, not less than once every four years up to the age
b) Visual acuity should be measured by means of a series of 40 years, and thereafter not less than once every two years.
of Landolt rings or similar optotypes, placed at a
distance from the applicant appropriate to the method of 6.2.5.3.1 Alternatively, other methods providing equiv-
testing adopted. alent results may be used.

6.2.5.4 Recommendation. Applicants for Class 2


6.2.4 Colour perception requirements Medical Assessment should be tested by pure-tone audiometry
at first issue of the Assessment and, after the age of 50 years,
Contracting States shall use such methods of examination as not less than once every two years.
will guarantee reliable testing of colour perception.
6.2.5.5 At medical examinations, other than those
6.2.4.1 The applicant shall be required to demonstrate the mentioned in 6.2.5.2, 6.2.5.3 and 6.2.5.4, where audiometry is
ability to perceive readily those colours the perception of not performed, applicants shall be tested in a quiet room by
which is necessary for the safe performance of duties. whispered and spoken voice tests.

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Chapter 6 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

Note 1. The reference zero for calibration of pure-tone a) an organic mental disorder;
audiometers is that of the pertinent Standards of the current
edition of the Audiometric Test Methods, published by the b) a mental or behavioural disorder due to use of psycho-
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). active substances; this includes dependence syndrome
induced by alcohol or other psychoactive substances;
Note 2. For the purpose of testing hearing in accordance
with the requirements, a quiet room is a room in which the c) schizophrenia or a schizotypal or delusional disorder;
intensity of the background noise is less than 35 dB(A).

Note 3. For the purpose of testing hearing in accordance d) a mood (affective) disorder;
with the requirements, the sound level of an average conver-
sational voice at 1 m from the point of output (lower lip of the e) a neurotic, stress-related or somatoform disorder;
speaker) is c. 60 dB(A) and that of a whispered voice
c. 45dB(A). At 2 m from the speaker, the sound level is 6 dB(A) f) a behavioural syndrome associated with physiological
lower. disturbances or physical factors;

Note 4 . Guidance on assessment of applicants who use


g) a disorder of adult personality or behaviour, particularly
hearing aids is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation
if manifested by repeated overt acts;
Medicine (Doc 8984).

Note 5. Attention is called to 2.6.1.5.1 and 2.10.1.5.1 on h) mental retardation;


requirements for the issue of instrument rating to applicants
who hold a private pilot licence. i) a disorder of psychological development;

j) a behavioural or emotional disorder, with onset in child-


hood or adolescence; or
6.3 Class 1 Medical Assessment
k) a mental disorder not otherwise specified;

6.3.1 Assessment issue and renewal


such as might render the applicant unable to safely exercise the
privileges of the licence applied for or held.
6.3.1.1 An applicant for a commercial pilot licence
aeroplane or helicopter, an airline transport pilot licence
aeroplane or helicopter, a flight engineer licence or a flight Note. Mental and behavioural disorders are defined in
navigator licence, shall undergo an initial medical examination accordance with the clinical descriptions and diagnostic
for the issue of a Class 1 Medical Assessment. guidelines of the World Health Organization as given in the
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related
6.3.1.2 Except where otherwise stated in this section, Health Problems, 10th Edition Classification of Mental and
holders of commercial pilot licences aeroplane or helicopter, Behavioural Disorders, WHO 1992. This document contains
airline transport pilot licences aeroplane or helicopter, detailed descriptions of the diagnostic requirements, which
flight engineer licences or flight navigator licences, shall have may be useful for their application to medical assessment.
their Class 1 Medical Assessments renewed at intervals not
exceeding those specified in 1.2.5.2. 6.3.2.3 The applicant shall have no established medical
history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following:
6.3.1.3 When the Licensing Authority is satisfied that the
requirements of this section and the general provisions of 6.1 a) a progressive or non-progressive disease of the nervous
and 6.2 have been met, a Class 1 Medical Assessment shall be system, the effects of which are likely to interfere with
issued to the applicant. the safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating
privileges;

6.3.2 Physical and mental requirements


b) epilepsy; or
6.3.2.1 The applicant shall not suffer from any disease or
disability which could render that applicant likely to become c) any disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory
suddenly unable either to operate an aircraft safely or to medical explanation of cause.
perform assigned duties safely.
6.3.2.4 The applicant shall not have suffered any head
6.3.2.2 The applicant shall have no established medical injury, the effects of which are likely to interfere with the safe
history or clinical diagnosis of: exercise of the applicants licence and rating privileges.

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 6

6.3.2.5 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality of 6.3.2.9 There shall be no acute disability of the lungs nor
the heart, congenital or acquired, which is likely to interfere any active disease of the structures of the lungs, mediastinum
with the safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating or pleurae likely to result in incapacitating symptoms during
privileges. normal or emergency operations.

6.3.2.5.1 An applicant who has undergone coronary 6.3.2.9.1 Recommendation. Chest radiography should
by-pass grafting or angioplasty (with or without stenting) or form part of the initial examination.
other cardiac intervention or who has a history of myocardial
infarction or who suffers from any other potentially incapaci-
Note. Periodic chest radiography is usually not necess-
tating cardiac condition shall be assessed as unfit unless the
ary but may be a necessity in situations where asymptomatic
applicants cardiac condition has been investigated and
pulmonary disease can be expected.
evaluated in accordance with best medical practice and is
assessed not likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the
applicants licence or rating privileges. 6.3.2.10 Applicants with chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease shall be assessed as unfit unless the applicants condi-
tion has been investigated and evaluated in accordance with
6.3.2.5.2 An applicant with an abnormal cardiac rhythm
best medical practice and is assessed not likely to interfere
shall be assessed as unfit unless the cardiac arrhythmia has
with the safe exercise of the applicants licence or rating
been investigated and evaluated in accordance with best medi-
privileges.
cal practice and is assessed not likely to interfere with the safe
exercise of the applicants licence or rating privileges.
6.3.2.11 Applicants with asthma causing significant
symptoms or likely to cause incapacitating symptoms during
Note. Guidance on cardiovascular evaluation is con-
normal or emergency operations shall be assessed as unfit.
tained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).
6.3.2.11.1 The use of drugs for control of asthma shall be
6.3.2.6 Electrocardiography shall form part of the heart
disqualifying except for those drugs, the use of which is
examination for the first issue of a Medical Assessment.
compatible with the safe exercise of the applicants licence
and rating privileges.
6.3.2.6.1 Electrocardiography shall be included in re-
examinations of applicants over the age of 50 no less
Note. Guidance on hazards of medication and drugs is
frequently than annually.
contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
(Doc 8984).
6.3.2.6.2 Recommendation. Electrocardiography
should be included in re-examinations of applicants between
6.3.2.12 Applicants with active pulmonary tuberculosis
the ages of 30 and 50 no less frequently than every two years.
shall be assessed as unfit.
Note 1. The purpose of routine electrocardiography is
6.3.2.12.1 Applicants with quiescent or healed lesions
case finding. It does not provide sufficient evidence to justify
which are known to be tuberculous, or are presumably tuber-
disqualification without further thorough cardiovascular
culous in origin, may be assessed as fit.
investigation.

Note 2. Guidance on resting and exercise electro- Note 1. Guidance on assessment of respiratory diseases
cardiography is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
Medicine (Doc 8984). (Doc 8984).

6.3.2.7 The systolic and diastolic blood pressures shall be Note 2. Guidance on hazards of medications and drugs is
within normal limits. contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
(Doc 8984).
6.3.2.7.1 The use of drugs for control of high blood
pressure shall be disqualifying except for those drugs, the use 6.3.2.13 Applicants with significant impairment of
of which is compatible with the safe exercise of the applicants function of the gastrointestinal tract or its adnexa shall be
licence and rating privileges. assessed as unfit.

Note. Guidance on the subject is contained in the Manual 6.3.2.13.1 Applicants shall be completely free from those
of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984). hernias that might give rise to incapacitating symptoms.

6.3.2.8 There shall be no significant functional nor 6.3.2.14 Applicants with sequelae of disease of, or
structural abnormality of the circulatory system. surgical intervention on, any part of the digestive tract or its

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Chapter 6 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

adnexa, likely to cause incapacitation in flight, in particular 6.3.2.19.1 Applicants who have undergone nephrectomy
any obstruction due to stricture or compression, shall be shall be assessed as unfit unless the condition is well
assessed as unfit. compensated.

6.3.2.14.1 Recommendation. An applicant who has 6.3.2.20 Applicants with acquired immunodeficiency
undergone a major surgical operation on the biliary passages syndrome (AIDS) shall be assessed as unfit.
or the digestive tract or its adnexa with a total or partial
excision or a diversion of any of these organs should be
6.3.2.20.1 Applicants who are seropositive for human
assessed as unfit until such time as the medical assessor,
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shall be assessed as unfit
having access to the details of the operation concerned,
unless full investigation provides no evidence of clinical
considers that the effects of the operation are not likely to
disease.
cause incapacitation in flight.

6.3.2.15 Applicants with metabolic, nutritional or endo- Note 1. Evaluation of applicants who are seropositive for
crine disorders that are likely to interfere with the safe exercise human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires particular
of their licence and rating privileges shall be assessed as unfit. attention to their mental state, including the psychological
effects of the diagnosis.
6.3.2.16 Applicants with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus
shall be assessed as unfit. Note 2. Guidance on the assessment of applicants who
are seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is
6.3.2.16.1 Applicants with non-insulin-treated diabetes contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
mellitus shall be assessed as unfit unless the condition is (Doc 8984).
shown to be satisfactorily controlled by diet alone or by diet
combined with oral anti-diabetic medication, the use of which 6.3.2.21 Applicants with gynaecological disorders that
is compatible with the safe exercise of the applicants licence are likely to interfere with the safe exercise of their licence and
and rating privileges. rating privileges shall be assessed as unfit.
Note. Guidance on assessment of diabetic applicants is
contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine 6.3.2.22 Applicants who are pregnant shall be assessed as
(Doc 8984). unfit unless obstetrical evaluation and continued medical
supervision indicate a low-risk uncomplicated pregnancy.
6.3.2.17 Applicants with diseases of the blood and/or the
lymphatic system shall be assessed as unfit unless adequately 6.3.2.22.1 Recommendation. For applicants with a
investigated and their condition found unlikely to interfere low-risk uncomplicated pregnancy, evaluated and supervised
with the safe exercise of their licence and rating privileges. in accordance with 6.3.2.22, the fit assessment should be
limited to the period from the end of the 12th week until the
Note. Sickle cell trait or other haemoglobinopathic traits end of the 26th week of gestation.
are usually compatible with a fit assessment.
6.3.2.23 Following confinement or termination of
6.3.2.18 Applicants with renal or genito-urinary disease pregnancy, the applicant shall not be permitted to exercise the
shall be assessed as unfit, unless adequately investigated and privileges of her licence until she has undergone re-evaluation
their condition found unlikely to interfere with the safe in accordance with best medical practice and it has been deter-
exercise of their licence and rating privileges. mined that she is able to safely to exercise the privileges of her
licence and ratings.
6.3.2.18.1 Urine examination shall form part of the
medical examination and abnormalities shall be adequately
6.3.2.24 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality
investigated.
of the bones, joints, muscles, tendons or related structures
which is likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the appli-
Note. Guidance on urine examination and evaluation of
cants licence and rating privileges.
abnormalities is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation
Medicine (Doc 8984).
Note. Any sequelae after lesions affecting the bones,
6.3.2.19 Applicants with sequelae of disease of or surgi- joints, muscles or tendons, and certain anatomical defects will
cal procedures on the kidneys or the genito-urinary tract, in normally require functional assessment to determine fitness.
particular obstructions due to stricture or compression, shall be
assessed as unfit unless the applicants condition has been 6.3.2.25 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality
investigated and evaluated in accordance with best medical or disease of the ear or related structures which is likely to
practice and is assessed not likely to interfere with the safe interfere with the safe exercise of the applicants licence and
exercise of the applicants licence or rating privileges. rating privileges.

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 6

6.3.2.26 There shall be: Note 2. An applicant accepted as meeting these provisions
is deemed to continue to do so unless there is reason to suspect
a) no disturbance of vestibular function; otherwise, in which case an ophthalmic report is required at
the discretion of the Licensing Authority. Both uncorrected
b) no significant dysfunction of the Eustachian tubes; and and corrected visual acuity are normally measured and
recorded at each re-examination. Conditions which indicate a
c) no unhealed perforation of the tympanic membranes. need to obtain an ophthalmic report include: a substantial
decrease in the uncorrected visual acuity, any decrease in best
6.3.2.26.1 A single dry perforation of the tympanic mem- corrected visual acuity, and the occurrence of eye disease, eye
brane need not render the applicant unfit. injury or eye surgery.

Note. Guidance on testing of the vestibular function is 6.3.3.2.1 Applicants may use contact lenses to meet this
contained in Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984). requirement provided that:

6.3.2.27 There shall be: a) the lenses are monofocal and non-tinted;

b) the lenses are well tolerated; and


a) no nasal obstruction; and
c) a pair of suitable correcting spectacles is kept readily
b) no malformation nor any disease of the buccal cavity or available during the exercise of the licence privileges.
upper respiratory tract which is likely to interfere with
the safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating Note. Applicants who use contact lenses may not need to
privileges. have their uncorrected visual acuity measured at each re-
examination provided the history of their contact lens
6.3.2.28 Applicants with stuttering or other speech prescription is known.
defects sufficiently severe to cause impairment of speech
communication shall be assessed as unfit. 6.3.3.2.2 Applicants with a large refractive error shall use
contact lenses or high-index spectacle lenses.

6.3.3 Visual requirements Note. If spectacles are used, high-index lenses are needed
to minimize peripheral field distortion.
The medical examination shall be based on the following
requirements. 6.3.3.2.3 Applicants whose uncorrected distant visual
acuity in either eye is worse than 6/60 shall be required to
6.3.3.1 The function of the eyes and their adnexa shall be provide a full ophthalmic report prior to initial Medical
normal. There shall be no active pathological condition, acute Assessment and every five years thereafter.
or chronic, nor any sequelae of surgery or trauma of the eyes
or their adnexa likely to reduce proper visual function to an Note 1. The purpose of the required ophthalmic exam-
extent that would interfere with the safe exercise of the ination is (1) to ascertain normal visual performance, and (2)
applicants licence and rating privileges. to identify any significant pathology.

Note 2. Guidance on the assessment of monocular


6.3.3.2 Distant visual acuity with or without correction
applicants under the provisions of 1.2.4.8 is contained in the
shall be 6/9 or better in each eye separately, and binocular
Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).
visual acuity shall be 6/6 or better. No limits apply to
uncorrected visual acuity. Where this standard of visual acuity
6.3.3.3 Applicants who have undergone surgery affecting
can be obtained only with correcting lenses, the applicant may
the refractive status of the eye shall be assessed as unfit unless
be assessed as fit provided that:
they are free from those sequelae which are likely to interfere
with the safe exercise of their licence and rating privileges.
a) such correcting lenses are worn during the exercise of
the privileges of the licence or rating applied for or held; 6.3.3.4 The applicant shall have the ability to read, while
and wearing the correcting lenses, if any, required by 6.3.3.2, the
N5 chart or its equivalent at a distance selected by that
b) in addition, a pair of suitable correcting spectacles is applicant in the range of 30 to 50 cm and the ability to read
kept readily available during the exercise of the privi- the N14 chart or its equivalent at a distance of 100 cm. If this
leges of the applicants licence. requirement is met only by the use of near correction, the
applicant may be assessed as fit provided that this near
Note 1. 6.3.3.2 b) is the subject of Standards in Annex 6, correction is added to the spectacle correction already pre-
Part I. scribed in accordance with 6.3.3.2; if no such correction is

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prescribed, a pair of spectacles for near use shall be kept Note 2. In the speech material for discrimination testing,
readily available during the exercise of the privileges of the both aviation-relevant phrases and phonetically balanced
licence. When near correction is required, the applicant shall words are normally used.
demonstrate that one pair of spectacles is sufficient to meet
both distant and near visual requirements. 6.3.4.1.2 Alternatively, a practical hearing test conducted
in flight in the cockpit of an aircraft of the type for which the
Note 1. N5 and N14 refer to the size of typeface used. For applicants licence and ratings are valid may be used.
further details, see the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
(Doc 8984).

Note 2. An applicant who needs near correction to meet 6.4 Class 2 Medical Assessment
this requirement will require look-over, bifocal or perhaps
multifocal lenses in order to read the instruments and a chart
or manual held in the hand, and also to make use of distant 6.4.1 Assessment issue and renewal
vision, through the windscreen, without removing the lenses.
Single-vision near correction (full lenses of one power only, 6.4.1.1 An applicant for a private pilot licence
appropriate for reading) significantly reduces distant visual aeroplane or helicopter, a glider pilot licence or a free balloon
acuity and is therefore not acceptable. pilot licence shall undergo an initial medical examination for
the issue of a Class 2 Medical Assessment.
Note 3. Whenever there is a requirement to obtain or
6.4.1.2 Except where otherwise stated in this section,
renew correcting lenses, an applicant is expected to advise the
holders of private pilot licences aeroplane or helicopter,
refractionist of reading distances for the visual flight deck
glider pilot licences or free balloon pilot licences, shall have
tasks relevant to the types of aircraft in which the applicant is
their Class 2 Medical Assessments renewed at intervals not
likely to function.
exceeding those specified in 1.2.5.2.
6.3.3.4.1 When near correction is required in accordance 6.4.1.3 When the Licensing Authority is satisfied that
with this paragraph, a second pair of near-correction spectacles the requirements of this section and the general provisions
shall be kept available for immediate use. of 6.1 and 6.2 have been met, a Class 2 Medical Assessment
shall be issued to the applicant.
6.3.3.5 The applicant shall be required to have normal
fields of vision.
6.4.2 Physical and mental requirements
6.3.3.6 The applicant shall be required to have normal
binocular function. The medical examination shall be based on the following
requirements.
6.3.3.6.1 Reduced stereopsis, abnormal convergence not
interfering with near vision, and ocular misalignment where 6.4.2.1 The applicant shall not suffer from any disease or
the fusional reserves are sufficient to prevent asthenopia and disability which could render that applicant likely to become
diplopia need not be disqualifying. suddenly unable either to operate an aircraft safely or to
perform assigned duties safely.

6.4.2.2 The applicant shall have no established medical


6.3.4 Hearing requirements history or clinical diagnosis of:
6.3.4.1 The applicant, when tested on a pure-tone a) an organic mental disorder;
audiometer, shall not have a hearing loss, in either ear
separately, of more than 35 dB at any of the frequencies 500, b) a mental or behavioural disorder due to psychoactive
1 000 or 2 000 Hz, or more than 50 dB at 3 000 Hz. substance use; this includes dependence syndrome
induced by alcohol or other psychoactive substances;
6.3.4.1.1 An applicant with a hearing loss greater than the
above may be declared fit provided that the applicant has c) schizophrenia or a schizotypal or delusional disorder;
normal hearing performance against a background noise that
reproduces or simulates the masking properties of flight deck d) a mood (affective) disorder;
noise upon speech and beacon signals.
e) a neurotic, stress-related or somatoform disorder;
Note 1. It is important that the background noise be
representative of the noise in the cockpit of the type of aircraft f) a behavioural syndrome associated with physiological
for which the applicants licence and ratings are valid. disturbances or physical factors;

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 6

g) a disorder of adult personality or behaviour, particularly medical practice and is assessed not likely to interfere with the
if manifested by repeated overt acts; safe exercise of the applicants licence or rating privileges.

h) mental retardation; Note. Guidance on cardiovascular evaluation is


contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
i) a disorder of psychological development; (Doc 8984).

j) a behavioural or emotional disorder, with onset in child- 6.4.2.6 Electrocardiography shall form part of the heart
hood or adolescence; or examination for the first issue of a Medical Assessment after
the age of 40.
k) a mental disorder not otherwise specified;
6.4.2.6.1 Electrocardiography shall be included in re-
such as might render the applicant unable to safely exercise the examinations of applicants after the age of 50 no less than
privileges of the licence applied for or held. every two years.
Note. Mental and behavioural disorders are defined in
6.4.2.6.2 Recommendation. Electrocardiography should
accordance with the clinical descriptions and diagnostic
form part of the heart examination for the first issue of a Medical
guidelines of the World Health Organization as given in the
Assessment.
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related
Health Problems, 10th Edition Classification of Mental and
Behavioural Disorders, WHO 1992. This document contains Note 1. The purpose of routine electrocardiography is
detailed descriptions of the diagnostic requirements, which case finding. It does not provide sufficient evidence to justify
may be useful for their application to medical assessment. disqualification without further thorough cardiovascular
investigation.
6.4.2.3 The applicant shall have no established medical
history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following: Note 2. Guidance on resting and exercise electrocardio-
graphy is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
a) a progressive or non-progressive disease of the nervous (Doc 8984).
system, the effects of which are likely to interfere with
the safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating 6.4.2.7 The systolic and diastolic blood pressures shall be
privileges; within normal limits.

b) epilepsy; 6.4.2.7.1 The use of drugs for control of high blood


pressure shall be disqualifying except for those drugs, the use
c) any disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory of which is compatible with the safe exercise of the applicants
medical explanation of cause. licence and rating privileges.

6.4.2.4 The applicant shall not have suffered any head Note. Guidance on the subject is contained in the Manual
injury, the effects of which are likely to interfere with the safe of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).
exercise of the applicants licence and rating privileges.
6.4.2.8 There shall be no significant functional nor struc-
6.4.2.5 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality of
tural abnormality of the circulatory system.
the heart, congenital or acquired, which is likely to interfere
with the safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating
privileges. 6.4.2.9 There shall be no disability of the lungs nor any
active disease of the structures of the lungs, mediastinum or
6.4.2.5.1 An applicant who has undergone coronary pleura likely to result in incapacitating symptoms during
by-pass grafting or angioplasty (with or without stenting) or normal or emergency operations.
other cardiac intervention or who has a history of myocardial
infarction or who suffers from any other potentially incapaci- 6.4.2.9.1 Recommendation. Chest radiography should
tating cardiac condition shall be assessed as unfit unless the form part of the initial and periodic examinations in cases
applicants cardiac condition has been investigated and where asymptomatic pulmonary disease can be expected.
evaluated in accordance with best medical practice and is
assessed not likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the 6.4.2.10 Applicants with chronic obstructive pulmonary
applicants licence or rating privileges. disease shall be assessed as unfit unless the applicants condi-
tion has been investigated and evaluated in accordance with
6.4.2.5.2 An applicant with an abnormal cardiac rhythm best medical practice and is assessed not likely to interfere
shall be assessed as unfit unless the cardiac arrhythmia has with the safe exercise of the applicants licence or rating
been investigated and evaluated in accordance with best privileges.

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6.4.2.11 Applicants with asthma causing significant shown to be satisfactorily controlled by diet alone or by diet
symptoms or likely to cause incapacitating symptoms during combined with oral anti-diabetic medication, the use of which
normal or emergency operations shall be assessed as unfit. is compatible with the safe exercise of the applicants licence
and rating privileges.
6.4.2.11.1 The use of drugs for control of asthma shall be
disqualifying except for those drugs, the use of which is Note. Guidance on assessment of diabetic applicants is
compatible with the safe exercise of the applicants licence contained in Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).
and rating privileges.
6.4.2.17 Applicants with diseases of the blood and/or the
Note. Guidance on hazards of medication and drugs is lymphatic system shall be assessed as unfit unless adequately
contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine investigated and their condition found unlikely to interfere
(Doc 8984). with the safe exercise of their licence and rating privileges.

6.4.2.12 Applicants with active pulmonary tuberculosis Note. Sickle cell trait and other haemoglobinopathic
shall be assessed as unfit. traits are usually compatible with fit assessment.

6.4.2.12.1 Applicants with quiescent or healed lesions, 6.4.2.18 Applicants with renal or genito-urinary disease
known to be tuberculous or presumably tuberculous in origin, shall be assessed as unfit unless adequately investigated and
may be assessed as fit. their condition found unlikely to interfere with the safe
exercise of their licence and rating privileges.
Note 1. Guidance on assessment of respiratory diseases
is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine 6.4.2.18.1 Urine examination shall form part of the
(Doc 8984). medical examination and abnormalities shall be adequately
investigated.
Note 2. Guidance on hazards of medication and drugs is
contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
Note. Guidance on urine examination and evaluation of
(Doc 8984).
abnormalities is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation
Medicine (Doc 8984).
6.4.2.13 Applicants shall be completely free from those
hernias that might give rise to incapacitating symptoms.
6.4.2.19 Applicants with sequelae of disease of, or
surgical procedures on, the kidneys or the genito-urinary tract,
6.4.2.13.1 Applicants with significant impairment of the
in particular obstructions due to stricture or compression, shall
function of the gastrointestinal tract or its adnexa shall be
be assessed as unfit unless the applicants condition has been
assessed as unfit.
investigated and evaluated in accordance with best medical
practice and is assessed not likely to interfere with the safe
6.4.2.14 Applicants with sequelae of disease of or surgi-
exercise of the applicants licence or rating privileges.
cal intervention on any part of the digestive tract or its adnexa,
likely to cause incapacitation in flight, in particular any
obstruction due to stricture or compression, shall be assessed 6.4.2.19.1 Applicants who have undergone nephrectomy
as unfit. shall be assessed as unfit unless the condition is well
compensated.
6.4.2.14.1 Recommendation.An applicant who has
undergone a major surgical operation on the biliary passages 6.4.2.20 Applicants with acquired immunodeficiency
or the digestive tract or its adnexa with a total or partial syndrome (AIDS) shall be assessed as unfit.
excision or a diversion of any of these organs should be
assessed as unfit until such time as the medical assessor, 6.4.2.20.1 Applicants who are seropositive for human
having access to the details of the operation concerned, immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shall be assessed as unfit
considers that the effects of the operation are not likely to unless full investigation provides no evidence of clinical
cause incapacitation in flight. disease.

6.4.2.15 Applicants with metabolic, nutritional or endo- Note 1. Evaluation of applicants who are seropositive for
crine disorders that are likely to interfere with the safe exercise human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires particular
of their licence and rating privileges shall be assessed as unfit. attention to their mental state, including the psychological
effects of the diagnosis.
6.4.2.16 Applicants with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus
shall be assessed as unfit. Note 2. Guidance on the assessment of applicants who
are seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is
6.4.2.16.1 Applicants with non-insulin-treated diabetes contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
mellitus shall be assessed as unfit unless the condition is (Doc 8984).

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 6

6.4.2.21 Applicants with gynaecological disorders that 6.4.2.28 Applicants with stuttering and other speech
are likely to interfere with the safe exercise of their licence and defects sufficiently severe to cause impairment of speech
rating privileges shall be assessed as unfit. communication shall be assessed as unfit.

6.4.2.22 Applicants who are pregnant shall be assessed as


unfit unless obstetrical evaluation and continued medical 6.4.3 Visual requirements
supervision indicate a low-risk uncomplicated pregnancy.
The medical examination shall be based on the following
6.4.2.22.1 Recommendation. For applicants with a requirements.
low-risk uncomplicated pregnancy, evaluated and supervised
in accordance with 6.4.2.22, the fit assessment should be 6.4.3.1 The function of the eyes and their adnexa shall be
limited to the period from the end of the 12th week until the normal. There shall be no active pathological condition, acute
end of the 26th week of gestation. or chronic, nor any sequelae of surgery or trauma of the eyes
or their adnexa likely to reduce proper visual function to an
6.4.2.23 Following confinement or termination of extent that would interfere with the safe exercise of the
pregnancy, the applicant shall not be permitted to exercise the applicants licence and rating privileges.
privileges of her licence until she has undergone re-evaluation
in accordance with best medical practice and it has been deter- 6.4.3.2 Distant visual acuity with or without correction
mined that she is able to safely exercise the privileges of her shall be 6/12 or better in each eye separately, and binocular
licence and ratings. visual acuity shall be 6/9 or better. No limits apply to uncor-
rected visual acuity. Where this standard of visual acuity can
6.4.2.24 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality be obtained only with correcting lenses, the applicant may be
of the bones, joints, muscles, tendons or related structures assessed as fit provided that:
which is likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the appli-
cants licence and rating privileges. a) such correcting lenses are worn during the exercise of
the privileges of the licence or rating applied for or held;
Note. Any sequelae after lesions affecting the bones, and
joints, muscles or tendons, and certain anatomical defects will
normally require functional assessment to determine fitness.
b) in addition, a pair of suitable correcting spectacles is
kept readily available during the exercise of the
6.4.2.25 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality
privileges of the applicants licence.
or disease of the ear or related structures which is likely to
interfere with the safe exercise of the applicants licence and
rating privileges. Note. An applicant accepted as meeting these provisions
is deemed to continue to do so unless there is reason to suspect
otherwise, in which case an ophthalmic report is required at
6.4.2.26 There shall be:
the discretion of the Licensing Authority. Both uncorrected
and corrected visual acuity are normally measured and
a) no disturbance of the vestibular function;
recorded at each re-examination. Conditions which indicate a
need to obtain an ophthalmic report include: a substantial
b) no significant dysfunction of the Eustachian tubes; and decrease in the uncorrected visual acuity, any decrease in best
corrected visual acuity, and the occurrence of eye disease, eye
c) no unhealed perforation of the tympanic membranes. injury or eye surgery.

6.4.2.26.1 A single dry perforation of the tympanic 6.4.3.2.1 Applicants may use contact lenses to meet this
membrane need not render the applicant unfit. requirement provided that:
Note.Guidance on testing of the vestibular function is
a) the lenses are monofocal and non-tinted;
contained in Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).

6.4.2.27 There shall be: b) the lenses are well tolerated; and

a) no nasal obstruction; and c) a pair of suitable correcting spectacles is kept readily


available during the exercise of the licence privileges.
b) no malformation nor any disease of the buccal cavity or
upper respiratory tract; Note. Applicants who use contact lenses may not need to
have their uncorrected visual acuity measured at each re-
which is likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the appli- examination provided the history of their contact lens
cants licence and rating privileges. prescription is known.

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6.4.3.2.2 Applicants with a large refractive error shall use 6.4.3.5 The applicant shall be required to have normal
contact lenses or high-index spectacle lenses. fields of vision.

Note. If spectacles are used, high-index lenses are needed 6.4.3.6 The applicant shall be required to have normal
to minimize peripheral field distortion. binocular function.

6.4.3.2.3 Recommendation. Applicants whose uncor- 6.4.3.6.1 Reduced stereopsis, abnormal convergence not
rected distant visual acuity in either eye is worse than 6/60 interfering with near vision, and ocular misalignment where
should be required to provide a full ophthalmic report prior to the fusional reserves are sufficient to prevent asthenopia and
initial Medical Assessment and every five years thereafter. diplopia need not be disqualifying.

Note 1. The purpose of the required ophthalmic examin-


ation is (1) to ascertain normal visual performance, and (2) to 6.4.4 Hearing requirements
identify any significant pathology.
Note. Attention is called to 2.6.1.5.1 and 2.10.1.5.1 on
Note 2. Guidance on the assessment of monocular requirements for the issue of instrument rating to applicants
applicants under the provisions of 1.2.4.8 is contained in the who hold a private pilot licence.
Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).
6.4.4.1 Applicants who are unable to hear an average
6.4.3.3 Applicants who have undergone surgery affecting conversational voice in a quiet room, using both ears, at a
the refractive status of the eye shall be assessed as unfit unless distance of 2 m from the examiner and with the back turned to
they are free from those sequelae which are likely to interfere the examiner, shall be assessed as unfit.
with the safe exercise of their licence and rating privileges.
6.4.4.2 When tested by pure-tone audiometry, an appli-
6.4.3.4 The applicant shall have the ability to read, while cant with a hearing loss, in either ear separately, of more than
wearing the correcting lenses, if any, required by 6.4.3.2, the 35 dB at any of the frequencies 500, 1 000 or 2 000 Hz, or
N5 chart or its equivalent at a distance selected by that more than 50 dB at 3 000 Hz, shall be assessed as unfit.
applicant in the range of 30 to 50 cm. If this requirement is
met only by the use of near correction, the applicant may be 6.4.4.3 Recommendation. An applicant who does not
assessed as fit provided that this near correction is added to the meet the requirements in 6.4.4.1 or 6.4.4.2 should undergo
spectacle correction already prescribed in accordance with further testing in accordance with 6.3.4.1.1.
6.4.3.2; if no such correction is prescribed, a pair of spectacles
for near use shall be kept readily available during the exercise
of the privileges of the licence. When near correction is
required, the applicant shall demonstrate that one pair of 6.5 Class 3 Medical Assessment
spectacles is sufficient to meet both distant and near visual
requirements.
6.5.1 Assessment issue and renewal
Note 1. N5 refers to the size of typeface used. For further
details, see the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984). 6.5.1.1 An applicant for an air traffic controller licence
shall undergo an initial medical examination for the issue of a
Note 2. An applicant who needs near correction to meet Class 3 Medical Assessment.
the requirement will require look-over, bifocal or perhaps
multifocal lenses in order to read the instruments and a chart 6.5.1.2 Except where otherwise stated in this section,
or manual held in the hand, and also to make use of distant holders of air traffic controller licences shall have their Class 3
vision, through the windscreen, without removing the lenses. Medical Assessments renewed at intervals not exceeding those
Single-vision near correction (full lenses of one power only, specified in 1.2.5.2.
appropriate for reading) significantly reduces distant visual
acuity and is therefore not acceptable. 6.5.1.3 When the Licensing Authority is satisfied that the
requirements of this section and the general provisions of 6.1
Note 3. Whenever there is a requirement to obtain or and 6.2 have been met, a Class 3 Medical Assessment shall be
renew correcting lenses, an applicant is expected to advise the issued to the applicant.
refractionist of the reading distances for the visual flight deck
tasks relevant to the types of aircraft in which the applicant is
likely to function. 6.5.2 Physical and mental requirements

6.4.3.4.1 When near correction is required in accordance 6.5.2.1 The applicant shall not suffer from any disease or
with this paragraph, a second pair of near-correction spectacles disability which could render that applicant likely to become
shall be kept available for immediate use. suddenly unable to perform duties safely.

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6.5.2.2 The applicant shall have no established medical 6.5.2.5 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality of
history or clinical diagnosis of: the heart, congenital or acquired, which is likely to interfere
with the safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating
a) an organic mental disorder; privileges.

b) a mental or behavioural disorder due to psychoactive 6.5.2.5.1 An applicant who has undergone coronary
substance use; this includes dependence syndrome by-pass grafting or angioplasty (with or without stenting) or
induced by alcohol or other psychoactive substances; other cardiac intervention or who has a history of myocardial
infarction or who suffers from any other potentially incapaci-
c) schizophrenia or a schizotypal or delusional disorder; tating cardiac condition shall be assessed as unfit unless the
applicants cardiac condition has been investigated and
d) a mood (affective) disorder; evaluated in accordance with best medical practice and is
assessed not likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the
e) a neurotic, stress-related or somatoform disorder; applicants licence and rating privileges.

f) a behavioural syndrome associated with physiological 6.5.2.5.2 An applicant with an abnormal cardiac rhythm
disturbances or physical factors; shall be assessed as unfit unless the cardiac arrhythmia has
been investigated and evaluated in accordance with best
g) a disorder of adult personality or behaviour, particularly medical practice and is assessed not likely to interfere with the
if manifested by repeated overt acts; safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating privileges.

h) mental retardation; Note. Guidance on cardiovascular evaluation is con-


tained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).
i) a disorder of psychological development;
6.5.2.6 Electrocardiography shall form part of the heart
j) a behavioural or emotional disorder, with onset in child- examination for the first issue of a Medical Assessment.
hood or adolescence; or
6.5.2.6.1 Electrocardiography shall be included in
k) a mental disorder not otherwise specified; re-examinations of applicants after the age of 50 no less
frequently than every two years.
such as might render the applicant unable to safely exercise the
privileges of the licence applied for or held. Note 1. The purpose of routine electrocardiography is
case finding. It does not provide sufficient evidence to justify
Note. Mental and behavioural disorders are defined in disqualification without further thorough cardiovascular
accordance with the clinical descriptions and diagnostic investigation.
guidelines of the World Health Organization as given in the
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Note 2. Guidance on resting and exercise electrocardio-
Health Problems, 10th Edition Classification of Mental and graphy is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
Behavioural Disorders, WHO 1992. This document contains (Doc 8984).
detailed descriptions of the diagnostic requirements which
may be useful for their application to medical assessment. 6.5.2.7 The systolic and diastolic blood pressures shall be
within normal limits.
6.5.2.3 The applicant shall have no established medical
history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following:
6.5.2.7.1 The use of drugs for control of high blood
pressure is disqualifying except for those drugs, the use of
a) a progressive or non-progressive disease of the nervous
which is compatible with the safe exercise of the applicants
system, the effects of which are likely to interfere with
licence privileges.
the safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating
privileges;
Note. Guidance on this subject is contained in the
b) epilepsy; or Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).

c) any disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory 6.5.2.8 There shall be no significant functional nor struc-
medical explanation of cause. tural abnormality of the circulatory system.

6.5.2.4 The applicant shall not have suffered any head 6.5.2.9 There shall be no disability of the lungs nor any
injury, the effects of which are likely to interfere with the safe active disease of the structures of the lungs, mediastinum or
exercise of the applicants licence and rating privileges. pleurae likely to result in incapacitating symptoms.

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Note. Chest radiography is usually not necessary but 6.5.2.16 Applicants with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus
may be indicated in cases where asymptomatic pulmonary shall be assessed as unfit.
disease can be expected.
6.5.2.16.1 Applicants with non-insulin-treated diabetes
6.5.2.10 Applicants with chronic obstructive pulmonary shall be assessed as unfit unless the condition is shown to be
disease shall be assessed as unfit unless the applicants condi- satisfactorily controlled by diet alone or by diet combined with
tion has been investigated and evaluated in accordance with oral anti-diabetic medication, the use of which is compatible
best medical practice and is assessed not likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the applicants licence and rating
with the safe exercise of the applicants licence or rating privileges.
privileges.
Note. Guidance on assessment of diabetic applicants is
6.5.2.11 Applicants with asthma causing significant contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
symptoms or likely to cause incapacitating symptoms shall be (Doc 8984).
assessed as unfit.
6.5.2.17 Applicants with diseases of the blood and/or the
6.5.2.11.1 The use of drugs for control of asthma shall be lymphatic system shall be assessed as unfit, unless adequately
disqualifying except for those drugs, the use of which is investigated and their condition found unlikely to interfere
compatible with the safe exercise of the applicants licence with the safe exercise of their licence and rating privileges.
and rating privileges.
6.5.2.18 Applicants with renal or genito-urinary disease
Note. Guidance on hazards of medications is contained shall be assessed as unfit unless adequately investigated and
in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984). their condition found unlikely to interfere with the safe
exercise of their licence and rating privileges.
6.5.2.12 Applicants with active pulmonary tuberculosis
shall be assessed as unfit. 6.5.2.18.1 Urine examination shall form part of the
medical examination and abnormalities shall be adequately
6.5.2.12.1 Applicants with quiescent or healed lesions, investigated.
known to be tuberculous or presumably tuberculous in origin,
may be assessed as fit. Note. Guidance on urine examination and evaluation of
abnormalities is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation
Note 1. Guidance on assessment of respiratory diseases Medicine (Doc 8984).
is contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine
(Doc 8984). 6.5.2.19 Applicants with sequelae of disease of, or surgi-
cal procedures on the kidneys or the genito-urinary tract, in
Note 2. Guidance on hazards of medication and drugs is particular obstructions due to stricture or compression, shall be
contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine assessed as unfit unless the applicants condition has been
(Doc 8984). investigated and evaluated in accordance with best medical
practice and is assessed not likely to interfere with the safe
6.5.2.13 Applicants with significant impairment of the exercise of the applicants licence or rating privileges.
function of the gastrointestinal tract or its adnexae shall be
assessed as unfit. 6.5.2.19.1 Applicants who have undergone nephrectomy
shall be assessed as unfit unless the condition is well compen-
6.5.2.14 Applicants with sequelae of disease of or surgi- sated.
cal intervention on any part of the digestive tract or its adnexa,
likely to cause incapacitation, in particular any obstructions 6.5.2.20 Applicants with acquired immunodeficiency
due to stricture or compression, shall be assessed as unfit. syndrome (AIDS) shall be assessed as unfit.

6.5.2.14.1 Recommendation. An applicant who has 6.5.2.20.1 Applicants who are seropositive for human
undergone a major surgical operation on the biliary passages immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shall be assessed as unfit
or the digestive tract or its adnexa, with a total or partial unless full investigation provides no evidence of clinical
excision or a diversion of any of these organs should be disease.
assessed as unfit until such time as the medical assessor,
having access to the details of the operation concerned, Note 1. Evaluation of applicants who are seropositive for
considers that the effects of the operation are not likely to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires particular
cause incapacitation. attention to their mental state, including the psychological
effects of the diagnosis.
6.5.2.15 Applicants with metabolic, nutritional or endo-
crine disorders that are likely to interfere with the safe exercise Note 2. Guidance on the assessment of applicants who
of their licence and rating privileges shall be assessed as unfit. are seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is

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Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Chapter 6

contained in the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine or chronic, nor any sequelae of surgery or trauma of the eyes
(Doc 8984). or their adnexa likely to reduce proper visual function to an
extent that would interfere with the safe exercise of the
6.5.2.21 Applicants with gynaecological disorders that applicants licence and rating privileges.
are likely to interfere with the safe exercise of their licence and
rating privileges shall be assessed as unfit. 6.5.3.2 Distant visual acuity with or without correction
shall be 6/9 or better in each eye separately, and binocular
6.5.2.22 Applicants who are pregnant shall be assessed as visual acuity shall be 6/6 or better. No limits apply to uncor-
unfit unless obstetrical evaluation and continued medical rected visual acuity. Where this standard of visual acuity can
supervision indicate a low-risk uncomplicated pregnancy. be obtained only with correcting lenses, the applicant may be
assessed as fit provided that:
6.5.2.22.1 Recommendation. During the gestational
period, precautions should be taken for the timely relief of an
a) such correcting lenses are worn during the exercise of
air traffic controller in the event of early onset of labour or
the privileges of the licence or rating applied for or held;
other complications.
and
6.5.2.22.2 Recommendation. For applicants with a
low-risk uncomplicated pregnancy, evaluated and supervised b) in addition, a pair of suitable correcting spectacles is
in accordance with 6.5.2.22, the fit assessment should be lim- kept readily available during the exercise of the
ited to the period until the end of the 34th week of gestation. privileges of the applicants licence.

6.5.2.23 Following confinement or termination of Note. An applicant accepted as meeting these provisions
pregnancy the applicant shall not be permitted to exercise the is deemed to continue to do so unless there is reason to suspect
privileges of her licence until she has undergone re-evaluation otherwise, in which case an ophthalmic report is required at
in accordance with best medical practice and it has been deter- the discretion of the Licensing Authority. Both uncorrected
mined that she is able to safely exercise the privileges of her and corrected visual acuity are normally measured and
licence and ratings. recorded at each re-examination. Conditions which indicate a
need to obtain an ophthalmic report include: a substantial
6.5.2.24 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality decrease in the uncorrected visual acuity, any decrease in best
of the bones, joints, muscles, tendons or related structures corrected visual acuity, and the occurrence of eye disease, eye
which is likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the appli- injury or eye surgery.
cants licence and rating privileges.
6.5.3.2.1 Applicants may use contact lenses to meet this
Note. Any sequelae after lesions affecting the bones, requirement provided that:
joints, muscles or tendons, and certain anatomical defects will
normally require functional assessment to determine fitness.
a) the lenses are monofocal and non-tinted;
6.5.2.25 The applicant shall not possess any abnormality
or disease of the ear or related structures which is likely to b) the lenses are well tolerated; and
interfere with the safe exercise of the applicants licence and
rating privileges. c) a pair of suitable correcting spectacles is kept readily
available during the exercise of the licence privileges.
6.5.2.26 There shall be no malformation nor any disease
of the nose, buccal cavity or upper respiratory tract which is Note. Applicants who use contact lenses may not need to
likely to interfere with the safe exercise of the applicants have their uncorrected visual acuity measured at each re-
licence and rating privileges. examination provided the history of their contact lens
prescription is known.
6.5.2.27 Applicants with stuttering or other speech
defects sufficiently severe to cause impairment of speech
6.5.3.2.2 Applicants with a large refractive error shall use
communication shall be assessed as unfit.
contact lenses or high-index spectacle lenses.

6.5.3 Visual requirements Note. If spectacles are used, high-index lenses are needed
to minimize peripheral field distortion.
The medical examination shall be based on the following
requirements. 6.5.3.2.3 Applicants whose uncorrected distant visual
acuity in either eye is worse than 6/60 shall be required to
6.5.3.1 The function of the eyes and their adnexa shall be provide a full ophthalmic report prior to initial Medical
normal. There shall be no active pathological condition, acute Assessment and every five years thereafter.

24/11/05 6-14
No. 166
Chapter 6 Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

Note 1. The purpose of the required ophthalmic examin- refractionist of reading distances for the air traffic control
ation is (1) to ascertain normal vision performance, and (2) to duties the applicant is likely to perform.
identify any significant pathology.
6.5.3.4.1 When near correction is required in accordance
Note 2. Guidance on the assessment of monocular with this paragraph, a second pair of near-correction spectacles
applicants under the provisions of 1.2.4.8 is contained in the shall be kept available for immediate use.
Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984).
6.5.3.5 The applicant shall be required to have normal
6.5.3.3 Applicants who have undergone surgery affecting fields of vision.
the refractive status of the eye shall be assessed as unfit unless
they are free from those sequelae which are likely to interfere 6.5.3.6 The applicant shall be required to have normal
with the safe exercise of their licence and rating privileges. binocular function.

6.5.3.4 The applicant shall have the ability to read, while 6.5.3.6.1 Reduced stereopsis, abnormal convergence not
wearing the correcting lenses, if any, required by 6.5.3.2, the interfering with near vision, and ocular misalignment where
N5 chart or its equivalent at a distance selected by that the fusional reserves are sufficient to prevent asthenopia and
applicant in the range of 30 to 50 cm and the ability to read diplopia need not be disqualifying.
the N14 chart or its equivalent at a distance of 100 cm. If this
requirement is met only by the use of near correction, the
applicant may be assessed as fit provided that this near correc- 6.5.4 Hearing requirements
tion is added to the spectacle correction already prescribed in
accordance with 6.5.3.2; if no such correction is prescribed, a 6.5.4.1 The applicant, when tested on a pure-tone
pair of spectacles for near use shall be kept readily available audiometer shall not have a hearing loss, in either ear
during the exercise of the privileges of the licence. When near separately, of more than 35 dB at any of the frequencies 500,
correction is required, the applicant shall demonstrate that one 1 000 or 2 000 Hz, or more than 50 dB at 3 000 Hz.
pair of spectacles is sufficient to meet both distant and near
visual requirements. 6.5.4.1.1 An applicant with a hearing loss greater than the
above may be declared fit provided that the applicant has
Note 1. N5 and N14 refer to the size of typeface used. For normal hearing performance against a background noise that
further details, see the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine reproduces or simulates that experienced in a typical air traffic
(Doc 8984). control working environment.

Note 2. An applicant who needs near correction to meet Note 1. The frequency composition of the background
the requirement will require look-over, bifocal or perhaps noise is defined only to the extent that the frequency range 600
multi-focal lenses in order to read radar screens, visual to 4 800 Hz (speech frequency range) is adequately
displays and written or printed material and also to make use represented.
of distant vision, through the windows, without removing the
lenses. Single-vision near correction (full lenses of one power Note 2. In the speech material for discrimination testing,
only, appropriate for reading) may be acceptable for certain both aviation-relevant phrases and phonetically balanced
air traffic control duties. However, it should be realized that words are normally used.
single-vision near correction significantly reduces distant
visual acuity. 6.5.4.1.2 Alternatively, a practical hearing test conducted
in an air traffic control environment representative of the one
Note 3. Whenever there is a requirement to obtain or for which the applicants licence and ratings are valid may be
renew correcting lenses, an applicant is expected to advise the used.

6-15 24/11/05
No. 166
APPENDIX 1
REQUIREMENTS FOR PROFICIENCY IN LANGUAGES USED FOR
RADIOTELEPHONY COMMUNICATIONS
(Chapter 1, Section 1.2.9, refers)

1. General

Note. The ICAO language proficiency requirements


include the holistic descriptors at Section 2 and the ICAO
Operational Level (Level 4) of the ICAO Language Pro-
ficiency Rating Scale in the Attachment. The language pro-
ficiency requirements are applicable to the use of both
phraseologies and plain language.

To meet the language proficiency requirements contained in


Chapter 1, Section 1.2.9, an applicant for a licence or a licence
holder shall demonstrate, in a manner acceptable to the licens-
ing authority, compliance with the holistic descriptors at Sec-
tion 2 and with the ICAO Operational Level (Level 4) of the
ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale in the Attachment.

2. Holistic descriptors

Proficient speakers shall:

a) communicate effectively in voice-only (telephone/


radiotelephone) and in face-to-face situations;

b) communicate on common, concrete and work-related


topics with accuracy and clarity;

c) use appropriate communicative strategies to exchange


messages and to recognize and resolve misunderstandings
(e.g. to check, confirm, or clarify information) in a
general or work-related context;

d) handle successfully and with relative ease the linguistic


challenges presented by a complication or unexpected
turn of events that occurs within the context of a routine
work situation or communicative task with which they
are otherwise familiar; and

e) use a dialect or accent which is intelligible to the


aeronautical community.

ANNEX 1 APP 1-1 24/11/05


1/11/01
No. 166
APPENDIX 2. APPROVED TRAINING ORGANIZATION
(Note. see Chapter 1, 1.2.8.2)

1. Issue of approval h) a description of the method used for the completion


and retention of the training records required by 6;
1.1 The issuance of an approval for a training organiz-
ation and the continued validity of the approval shall depend i) a description, when applicable, of additional training
upon the training organization being in compliance with the needed to comply with an operators procedures and
requirements of this Appendix. requirements; and

1.2 The approval document shall contain at least the j) when a State has authorized an approved training organ-
following: ization to conduct the testing required for the issuance of
a licence or rating in accordance with 8, a description of
a) organizations name and location; the selection, role and duties of the authorized person-
nel, as well as the applicable requirements established
b) date of issue and period of validity (where appropriate); by the Licensing Authority.

c) terms of approval. 2.2 The training organization shall ensure that the training
and procedures manual is amended as necessary to keep the
information contained therein up to date.

2. Training and procedures manual 2.3 Copies of all amendments to the training and proce-
dures manual shall be furnished promptly to all organizations
2.1 The training organization shall provide a training and or persons to whom the manual has been issued.
procedures manual for the use and guidance of personnel con-
cerned. This manual may be issued in separate parts and shall
contain at least the following information:
3. Quality assurance system
a) a general description of the scope of training authorized
under the organizations terms of approval; The training organization shall establish a quality assurance
system, acceptable to the Licensing Authority granting the
b) the content of the training programmes offered including approval, which ensures that training and instructional prac-
the courseware and equipment to be used; tices comply with all relevant requirements.

c) a description of the organizations quality assurance


system in accordance with 3;
4. Facilities
d) a description of the organizations facilities;
4.1 The facilities and working environment shall be
e) the name, duties and qualification of the person desig- appropriate for the task to be performed and be acceptable to
nated as responsible for compliance with the require- the Licensing Authority.
ments of the approval in 5.1;
4.2 The training organization shall have, or have access
f) a description of the duties and qualification of the per- to, the necessary information, equipment, training devices and
sonnel designated as responsible for planning, perform- material to conduct the courses for which it is approved.
ing and supervising the training in 5.2;
4.3 Synthetic training devices shall be qualified according
g) a description of the procedures used to establish and to requirements established by the State and their use shall be
maintain the competence of instructional personnel as approved by the Licensing Authority to ensure that they are
required by 5.3; appropriate to the task.

ANNEX 1 APP 2-1 24/11/05


No. 166
Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Appendix 2

Note. The ICAO Manual of Criteria for the Qualification 6. Records


of Flight Simulators (Doc 9625) provides guidance on the
approval of flight simulators. 6.1 The training organization shall retain detailed student
records to show that all requirements of the training course
have been met as agreed by the Licensing Authority.

6.2 The training organization shall maintain a system for


5. Personnel recording the qualifications and training of instructional and
examining staff, where appropriate.
5.1 The training organization shall nominate a person
responsible for ensuring that it is in compliance with the 6.3 The records required by 6.1 shall be kept for a
requirements for an approved organization. minimum period of two years after completion of the training.
The records required by 6.2 shall be retained for a minimum
5.2 The organization shall employ the necessary period of two years after the instructor or examiner ceases to
personnel to plan, perform and supervise the training to be perform a function for the training organization.
conducted.

7. Oversight
5.3 The competence of instructional personnel shall be in
accordance with procedures and to a level acceptable to the
Contracting States shall maintain an effective oversight pro-
Licensing Authority.
gramme of the approved training organization to ensure con-
tinuing compliance with the approval requirements.
5.4 The training organization shall ensure that all instruc-
tional personnel receive initial and continuation training
appropriate to their assigned tasks and responsibilities. The 8. Evaluation and checking
training programme established by the training organization
shall include training in knowledge and skills related to human When a State has authorized an approved training organization
performance. to conduct the testing required for the issuance of a licence or
rating, the testing shall be conducted by personnel authorized
Note. Guidance material to design training programmes by the Licensing Authority or designated by the training
to develop knowledge and skills in human performance can be organization in accordance with criteria approved by the
found in the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683). Licensing Authority.

24/11/05 APP 2-2


No. 166
ATTACHMENT
ICAO LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY RATING SCALE

ANNEX 1
1.1 Expert, Extended and Operational Levels

STRUCTURE
Relevant grammatical
PRONUNCIATION structures and sentence
Assumes a dialect and/or patterns are determined by
accent intelligible to the language functions
LEVEL aeronautical community. appropriate to the task. VOCABULARY FLUENCY COMPREHENSION INTERACTIONS

Expert Pronunciation, stress, Both basic and complex Vocabulary range and Able to speak at length Comprehension is Interacts with ease in
rhythm, and intonation, grammatical structures accuracy are sufficient to with a natural, effortless consistently accurate in nearly all situations. Is
6 though possibly and sentence patterns are communicate effectively flow. Varies speech flow nearly all contexts and sensitive to verbal and
influenced by the first consistently well on a wide variety of for stylistic effect, e.g. to includes comprehension non-verbal cues and
language or regional controlled. familiar and unfamiliar emphasize a point. Uses of linguistic and cultural responds to them
variation, almost never topics. Vocabulary is appropriate discourse subtleties. appropriately.
interfere with ease of idiomatic, nuanced, and markers and connectors
understanding. sensitive to register. spontaneously.

Extended Pronunciation, stress, Basic grammatical Vocabulary range and Able to speak at length Comprehension is Responses are
rhythm, and intonation, structures and sentence accuracy are sufficient to with relative ease on accurate on common, immediate, appropriate,
5 though influenced by the patterns are consistently communicate effectively familiar topics but may concrete, and work- and informative.
first language or regional well controlled. Complex on common, concrete, not vary speech flow as a related topics and mostly Manages the speaker/
variation, rarely interfere structures are attempted and work-related topics. stylistic device. Can accurate when the listener relationship
with ease of but with errors which Paraphrases consistently make use of appropriate speaker is confronted effectively.

ATT-1
understanding. sometimes interfere with and successfully. discourse markers or with a linguistic or
meaning. Vocabulary is sometimes connectors. situational complication
idiomatic. or an unexpected turn of
events. Is able to
comprehend a range of
speech varieties (dialect
and/or accent) or
registers.

Operational Pronunciation, stress, Basic grammatical Vocabulary range and Produces stretches of Comprehension is mostly Responses are usually
rhythm, and intonation structures and sentence accuracy are usually language at an accurate on common, immediate, appropriate,
4 are influenced by the patterns are used sufficient to appropriate tempo. There concrete, and work- and informative. Initiates
first language or regional creatively and are communicate effectively may be occasional loss related topics when the and maintains exchanges
variation but only usually well controlled. on common, concrete, of fluency on transition accent or variety used is even when dealing with
sometimes interfere with Errors may occur, and work-related topics. from rehearsed or sufficiently intelligible an unexpected turn of
ease of understanding. particularly in unusual or Can often paraphrase formulaic speech to for an international events. Deals adequately
unexpected successfully when spontaneous interaction, community of users. with apparent
circumstances, but rarely lacking vocabulary in but this does not prevent When the speaker is misunderstandings by
interfere with meaning. unusual or unexpected effective communication. confronted with a checking, confirming, or
circumstances. Can make limited use of linguistic or situational clarifying.
discourse markers or complication or an
connectors. Fillers are unexpected turn of
not distracting. events, comprehension
may be slower or require
clarification strategies.

Levels 1, 2 and 3 are on subsequent page.

1/11/01
No. 164
27/11/03
1.2 Pre-operational, Elementary and Pre-elementary Levels

No. 164
1/11/01
27/11/03
STRUCTURE
Relevant grammatical
PRONUNCIATION structures and sentence
Assumes a dialect and/or patterns are determined by
accent intelligible to the language functions
LEVEL aeronautical community. appropriate to the task. VOCABULARY FLUENCY COMPREHENSION INTERACTIONS

Levels 4, 5 and 6 are on preceding page.

Pre- Pronunciation, stress, Basic grammatical Vocabulary range and Produces stretches of Comprehension is often Responses are sometimes
Annex 1 Personnel Licensing

operational rhythm, and intonation structures and sentence accuracy are often language, but phrasing accurate on common, immediate, appropriate,
are influenced by the patterns associated with sufficient to and pausing are often concrete, and work- and informative. Can
3 first language or regional predictable situations are communicate on inappropriate. related topics when the initiate and maintain
variation and frequently not always well common, concrete, or Hesitations or slowness accent or variety used is exchanges with
interfere with ease of controlled. Errors work-related topics, but in language sufficiently intelligible reasonable ease on
understanding. frequently interfere with range is limited and the processing may prevent for an international familiar topics and in
meaning. word choice often effective communication. community of users. predictable situations.
inappropriate. Is often Fillers are sometimes May fail to understand a Generally inadequate
unable to paraphrase distracting. linguistic or situational when dealing with an
successfully when complication or an unexpected turn of
lacking vocabulary. unexpected turn of events.
events.

Elementary Pronunciation, stress, Shows only limited Limited vocabulary Can produce very short, Comprehension is Response time is slow
rhythm, and intonation control of a few simple range consisting only of isolated, memorized limited to isolated, and often inappropriate.
2 are heavily influenced by memorized grammatical isolated words and utterances with frequent memorized phrases when Interaction is limited to

ATT-2
the first language or structures and sentence memorized phrases. pausing and a distracting they are carefully and simple routine
regional variation and patterns. use of fillers to search slowly articulated. exchanges.
usually interfere with for expressions and to
ease of understanding. articulate less familiar
words.

Pre- Performs at a level below Performs at a level below Performs at a level below Performs at a level below Performs at a level below Performs at a level below
elementary the Elementary level. the Elementary level. the Elementary level. the Elementary level. the Elementary level. the Elementary level.

Note. The Operational Level (Level 4) is the minimum required proficiency level for radiotelephony communication. Levels 1 through 3 describe Pre-elementary,
Elementary, and Pre-operational levels of language proficiency, respectively, all of which describe a level of proficiency below the ICAO language proficiency
requirement. Levels 5 and 6 describe Extended and Expert levels, at levels of proficiency more advanced than the minimum required Standard. As a whole, the scale
will serve as benchmarks for training and testing, and in assisting candidates to attain the ICAO Operational Level (Level 4).

END
Attachment