You are on page 1of 11

Numerical modelling of semi-rigid connection with high strength steel

S.Taufik
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia

Abstract: This paper investigates the behaviour of semi rigid connection with high strength steel by three-dimensional non-
linear numerical modelling. The flush end plate (FEP) connection model is such that end-plate, bolt, beam and column are
represented by solid elements using ANSYS 10.0 software aid. The full interaction between plate and column is simulated by
contact element. The analysis results of the moment- rotation relationship and behaviour characteristic of the connection with
high strength steel are compared and discussed. The moment capacity prediction of flush end plate connections based on EC3
has been shown to be reasonable compared with finite element (FE) modeling. The proposed FE connection model is capable
of predicting the ultimate load capacity and the plastic strain pattern with good accuracy. The model presented gives excellent
results for increasing the connection capacity significantly due to employed higher strength steel section. The four parameter
model is proposed to predict M model through curve fitting for FEP connection with high strength end-plate.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling; Semi-rigid, Flush End Plate; High Strength Steel; Moment Capacity
1. INTRODUCTION modelling. Moze et al. (2005) produced experimental
Numerical modelling by finite element analysis of testing data on high strength steel. Taufik et al. (2011)
beam-column connection has been done by many investigated behaviour of partially restrained
researchers. Three dimensional FE models have been connection with high strength steel with refined four
well verified with experimental results. More recent parameter power model to predict M model through
studies using FE modelling have focused mostly on curve fitting. Taufik et al. (2006) conducted simplified
top-and-seat angle and end plate connections. FE finite element modelling of beam-column bolted
model from Bose et al. (1996), Bursi et al. (1998), connection with shell element. The connection model
Maggie et al. (2005) have been considered by solid is such that end-plates are represented by shell
elements, whilst Bahaari et al. (1996) and elements, and bolts are simulated by link and solid
Shearbourne et al. (1996) have proposed model with elements. Various grades of high strength steel end-
shell elements. Danesh F, et al. (2007) consider a top plates are simulated to investigate the connection
and seat angle without web angle connection under behaviour.
effect of shear force on the initial stiffness. Taufik Taufik et al. (2006) investigated behaviour of
and Xiao (2005) have studied the behaviour of angle flush end plate connection with high strength steel
bolted connection by applying high strength steel with using three-dimensional finite element modelling.
shell element model. There is a very little information The connection model is such that end-plates, beam,
about the beam-column bolted connection with high column and bolts are simulated by solid and link
strength steel, which Puthli et al. (2001) and Moze et elements. Various grades of high strength steel end-
al. (2005) have been only pointed out experiment plates are simulated to investigate the connection
testing on simple bolted connection. behaviour.

In this study, a refined 3D modelling of bolted 2. CONNECTION CONFIGURATION


connection are performed recognizing contact effects Flush end plate (FEP) connections are designated
and bolt geometry. Since the pretension of the bolts in provision of semi-rigid connection. FEP connection
and slip are most important parameters of connection is able to transfer not only the vertical reaction but
behaviour by Citipitouglu et al. (2002), therefore the also some end moment of the beam to the column.
bolt model and contact element require considered The geometry of the FEP is based on two different
model as accurate as possible. The modelling sizes of beams and columns with all the connection
approach is still required simplifications in order to parts are kept in same size, whilst the end-plates are
reduce the computational effort. Shell elements are clamped on column flanges. The only higher strength
considered in order to eliminate generating various of the end-plate is applied to keep the original
types of detailed 3D geometries. The model of shank connection geometry for improving the moment and
and bolt hole is introduced for refining previous rotational capacity, whilst the other connection
model as conducted by previous finite element members are kept with carbon steel. The The FEP

1
Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

connection parameter is depicted in Table 1. The linier finite element modelling is illustrated in Figure
configuration detailing of FEP connection in the non- 1.

Table 1. FEP connection parameter


Connection Beam End-plate Bolt - grade g (mm) p (mm) r (mm)
FEP-1a IPE240 268x160xtep M20 10.9 98 158 55
FEP-2a 406x178x60UB 460x200xtep M24 8.8 90 286 110
FEP-3a HE320A 360x300xtep M24 8.8 150 160 100

Steel material properties for FE analysis is based on is shown in Figure 2, and the connection parameter is
experimental data. All steel materials for connection detailed in Table 2. Beam and column for FEP-1a are
used are S275, M24 bolts grade 8.8 and M20 bolts designated as IPE240 and HEA240, respectively,
grade 10.1, except for FEP-3a using S355 column whilst 406x178x60UB and 254x254x 73UC are used
and beam, and S690 endplate as shown in Table 2. for FEP-2a, and HE320A and HE300M are used for
The FE analysis results of the FEP connection are FEP-3. Bolt gauge on column flange (g) and bolt
presented in comparison with the test results. spacing (p) are 50.0mm and 89.0mm for FEP-1,
Comparisons are made with experimental results whilst 63mm and 140mm for FEP-2, 150mm and
obtained from Broderick et al. (2000), Bose (1998), 140mm for FEP-3 respectively.
and Coelho et al. (2001). The connection geometry

Bolt
Stiffener
r
Bolt Endplate
Endplate

Column p
Beam
Beam

r Column
Stiffener flange
g

Figure 1. FE modelling configuration of the FEP connection

Table 2. Material properties for FE model


Specimen Steel grade fy (MPa) fu (MPa) fy / fu
column (1-2) S275 340 520 0.654
beam (1-2) S275 360 530 0.679
column (3) S355 450 580 0.776
beam (3) S355 450 580 0.776
bolt (1) Grade10.9 1010 1108 0.912
bolt (2) Grade 8.8 810 900 0.900
bolt (3) Grade 8.8 840 940 0.894
end plate (1-2) S275 380 540 0.704
end plate (3) S690 698 749 0.950

Different thickness of higher strength end-plate (tep) and column are kept to mild carbon steel. Table 3
are applied. The end-plates are determined with shows the configuration of finite element model for
different high strength steel grade, whilst the beam the FEP connections.
Table 3. FEP configuration parameter for FEA

2
Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

Connection Beam Beam size Stiffener End-plate tep (mm) g (mm) p (mm) r (mm)
destination grade (mm) grade
FEP-1a S275 IPE240 N/A S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0
FEP-1b S275 IPE240 10.0 S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0
FEP-1c S275 IPE240 N/A S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0
FEP-1d S275 IPE240 10.0 S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0
FEP-1d* S355 IPE240 10.0 S690 12.0 98.0 158.0 55.0
FEP-1e* S355 IPE240 10.0 S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0
FEP-1f* S355 IPE240 10.0 S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0
EP-1g* S355 IPE240 10.0 S550 18.0 98.0 158.0 55.0
FEP-2a S355 406x178x60UB N/A S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 110.0
FEP-2b S355 406x178x60UB 10.0 S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 110.0
FEP-2c S355 406x178x60UB N/A S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 110.0
FEP-2d S355 406x178x60UB 10.0 S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 110.0
FEP-3a S355 HE320A N/A S690 10.0 150.0 160.0 100.0
FEP-3b S355 HE320A N/A S690 15.0 150.0 160.0 100.0
FEP-3a* S355 HE320A N/A S690 10.0 150.0 160.0 100.0
FEP-3b* S355 HE320A N/A S690 15.0 150.0 160.0 100.0

3. NUMERICAL MODELLING curves as designated by Citipitiouglu et al. (2002).


Since the bolt is tightened, the head and/or nut stay in
The ANSYS version 10.0 which is a general purpose close contact with their connecting angles and
finite element package is selected to carry out flanges, therefore the bolt share their nodes with the
numerical modelling analysis (ANSYS, 2004). Non plate ones.
linear flush end plate connection model is symmetric
about the centre of the beam web and no lateral Interface element is considered to accommodate the
displacement is assumed, so only one side of the effect of friction and slip. Friction coefficient value is
plane of symmetry is modelled. The geometry of the used to capture experimental response and previous
model now represents one half of the full scale FE modelling. The model of interface element is
connection in the terms of area and moment of designated as a line of 3D node to node contact
inertia, so the capacity of the connection model is element with coincident nodes. The interface
only a half of the actual load capacity. The following elements connect the nodes at the back of the angles
ANSYS element types are used for only one half of to corresponding nodes at the column flange and
an entire flush end plate connection. Plastic shell beam web.
elements, SOLID45, are used to model beam,
column and end-plate. Bolt head and nut are The external monotonic static point load is applied in
idealized using eight-node isoparametric solid increments to obtain a converged solution to a
elements, i.e. SOLID45. Bolt shank is modelled nonlinear analysis. The automatic time stepping is on
using twelve 3D spar element of LINK8 elements. with the minimum time step increment is set for
The interactions between angle and column or beam gaining load sub step result at the last step. The
are simulated by CONTACT178 elements. The bolt convergence criteria is based on the force and
head and nut are modelled as hexagons. The bolt displacement for tracking the maximum plastic strain
shank is modelled using spar element connecting the step. The deformation measurement is based on the
farthest corner nodes of head and nut to each other. deformation of the angle. The relative displacements
The effective area of the bolt is split one twelfth at the locations of the beam tension and compression
equally among the spar elements. The bolt holes are flanges were used to find the rotation of a connection.
modelled as circular in M22 diameter holes. Bolt The rotation of connection is defined as relative
pretension caused by bolt tightening is simulated by horizontal displacement over the depth of the beam
applying equivalent initial strains for bolt shank measured from the centre of top flange to the centre
elements. Initial strain value of bolt pretension is of bottom flange. The most important aspect of semi-
used according to the bolt pretension calibration rigid connection behaviour is the moment-rotation
(M-relationship. Flush end plate connections

4
Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

represents flexible connection due to the geometry 100

displacement of end-plate. The moment rotation 90

curve of the connection is based on the simple 80

relations: M = Fd, arctanhwhere M is the 70


moment, is the rotation of the connection, F is

Moment (KN.m)
twice as much as the applied point load, d is the
60

length of the beam, is relative displacement of the 50

beam and h is the depth of the beam measured from 40

the centre of top flange to the centre of bottom 30

flange. The finite element models were validated 20 FE FEP-1a (tep=15mm)

against the recorded load-displacement curves from Experimental F1 (da Silva 2001)
10
the tests.
0

As the initial stiffness of the endplate connection is


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Rotation (mRad)
governed by the geometry of the endplate, the non-
linear behaviour is related to material properties. To Figure 2. Validation of FE modelling against test result;
establish the effects of end-plate configurations, plate FEP-1a connection
thickness and strength are selected as two main 200
parameters. Multi-linear elastic-plastic approach is
used to determine the material properties of high
180

strength steel for the FE model, whilst the yield stress 160

is defined as 0.2% proof stress. By these parameters Mom ent (KN.m )


140

combination, various moment-rotation curves can be 120

obtained from 3D nonlinear finite elements analyses. 100

In order to increase the connection capacity, the 80

higher strength end-plates are applied with different 60 FE FEP-2a (tep=12mm)

thickness. Bolt gauge, bolt spacing and bolt diameter 40


Experimental Test-3 (Bose 1998)

are kept in the same value. Plots of the Von Mises


20
equivalent stress and plastic strain were used to
assess the predicted yield line patterns. 0
0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Rotation (mRad)

Mild carbon steel S275 was used for beams and Figure 3. Validation of FE modelling against test result
column with yield stress of 300 MPa and Young FEP-2a
modulus of 210 GPa. High strength bolt M20 grade
8.8 with yield stress of 800 MPa is applied for all 250

types of connections. Multi-linear elastic-plastic


approach is used to determine the material properties 200

of beam, column and angle for the FE model.


Multilinear elastic-plastic approach is used to
Moment (KN.m)

150
determine the material properties of high strength
steel for the FE model, whilst the yield stress is
defined as 0.2% proof stress. Material properties of
100

carbon steel grade S275 and high strength steel grade F2EP-15_2 (Test-Coelho,2007)

460, S550 and S690 are used for the FE model as 50 FE FEP-3a* (tep=14.7mm)
F2EP-10_2 (Test-Coelho,2007)
depicted in Table 2, whilst a Poissons ratio is 0.3. FE FEP-3a (tep=10.2mm)

The FEA results are shown in Figures 5 to 8. A 0 10 20 30 40 50

Rotation (mRad)
close correlation between the model and test was
observed, with a good comparison of the stiffness
Figure 4. Validation of FE modelling against test result
and moment-rotation capacity. The analysis result of FEP-3a
the FEP connections is presented in Figures 2, 3,
and 4. The FE models show ultimate moment of 87.2, Figure 4 shows different shape of M curve
166.5, 130.5 and 210.0 KN.m, respectively. compared with Figures 2 and 3, which it was
considered local softening effect after ultimate
moment reached.

4
Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

Comparison between the Finite Element Analysis the FEP connections is presented in Figures 2, 3, and
and test results for the FEP connection is presented in 4. The FE models show ultimate moment of 87.2
Table 4. The FEA results are shown in Figures 5 to KN.m, 166.5 KN.m, 130.5 KN.m and 210.0 KN.m,
8. A close correlation between the model and test was respectively. Comparison between the Finite Element
observed, with a good comparison of the stiffness Analysis and test results for the FEP connection is
and moment-rotation capacity. The analysis result of presented in Table 4.

Table 4. Comparison FEA against test result


Connection Finite Element Anlysis result Test result
destination Rki Mu Mu Rki Mu Mu
(KN.m/mRad) (KN.m) (mRad) (KN.m/mRad) (KN.m) (mRad)
FEP-1a 7.96 87.2 88.0 7.85 86.5 88.0
FEP-2a 46.38 166.5 49.5 40.0 165.0 50.0
FEP-3a 21.57 130.5 39.0 19.0 140.0 38.0
FEP-3a* 14.39 210.0 32.5 14.00 218.5 34.0

150 120

135
105
120
90
105
Moment (KN.m).

Moment (KN.m)

75
90

75 60

60
45 FEP-2d (S690-tep=15mm)
FEP-1b (S550-tep=12mm)
45 FEP-2c (S690-tep=15mm)
FEP-1c (S550-tep=15mm)
30 FEP-2b (S550-tep=15mm)
FEP-1d* (S690-tep=12mm)
30
FEP-1e* (S550-tep=15mm) FEP-2a (S550-tep=15mm)
FEP-1f* (S690-tep=15mm) 15
15
FEP-1g* (S550-tep=18mm)

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
Rotation (mRad) Rotation (mRad)

Figure 5. Moment-rotation relationship of the FEP-1 Figure 7. Moment-rotation relationship of the FEP-2
model; M22 bolts model; M20 bolts

100
240

90
210
80
180
70
Moment (KN.m)

Moment (KN.m)

60 150

50 120

40
90
FE FEP-1a (tep=15mm)
30 FEP-3b* (S690-tep=15mm, M27 bolts)
FE FEP-1b (tep=15mm)
60 FEP-3b (S690-tep=15mm, M24 bolts)
FE FEP-1c (tep=15mm)
20
FE FEP-1d (tep=15mm) FEP-3a* (S690-tep=10mm, M27 bolts)

10 30 FEP-3a (S690-tep=10mm, M24 bolts)

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Rotation (mRad) Rotation (mRad)

Figure 6. Moment-rotation relationship of the FEP-1 Figure 8. Moment-rotation relationship of the FEP-3
model; M20 bolts model; M24 bolts

5
Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

The FEP connections based on FEM with stiffened 4(0.25 eff t y f y / M 0 )


2

Ft . Rd (1)
and un-stiffened column are also analyzed using m
design equations to modern design codes EC3 (CEN, 2(0.25 eff t y f y / M 0 ) nBt . Rd
2

Ft . Rd (2)
1993). The design tension resistance of the column mn
flange and of the end-plate are given in terms of
Ft . Rd Bt . Rd (3)
equivalent T-stub. The effective length eff of plate
and column flange is based on the yield line patterns Determine the design value of the moment resistance
around bolt holes and should be taken as the height of of the connection MRd based on the bolt-rows in the
the end plate d as shown in Figure 9. The smallest reduced tension zone, from:
value for the three possible modes of the yielding is hi2
chosen from equation 1, 2 and 3 as follows: M Rd Fti. Rd ( ) (4)
h1
Mode (1)

Mode (2)
eff
d d

Mode (3)

`
Figure 9. Effective length eff of equivalent T stub and three possible modes of yielding

Moment connection capacity of the FE result and the unstiffned column (n). Table 5 indicates the observed
EC design prediction for high strength FEP failure moments from the FE analyses, compared
connection has been compared. The comparisons of with the design predictions. Plots of von Mises
the ultimate moment from FEA with diffrenent steel stress contours of the FEP connection with S275 and
grade of end-plates are made within stiffened (s) and S355 column are shown in Figures 10 and 11.

Table 5. Ultimate moment and failure mode of FEP model


Connection Column End-plate Mult (FE) Mult (EC3) Location and failure
destination (stiffened) (mm), grade (KN.m) (KN.m) mode
FEP-1a S275 (n) 15.0, S550 96.0 80.2 column flange (2)
FEP-1b S275 (s) 15.0, S550 102.3 81.7 column flange (2)
FEP-1c S275 (n) 15.0, S690 103.8 80.2 column flange (2)
FEP-1d S275 (s) 15.0, S690 106.8 81.7 column flange (2)
FEP-1d* S275 (s) 12.0, S690 107.0 91.3 column flange (2)
FEP-1e* S355 (s) 15.0, S550 127.0 95.4 end-plate (2)
FEP-1f* S355 (s) 15.0, S690 130.0 102.7 column flange (2)
FEP-1g* S355 (s) 18.0, S550 131.5 102.7 column flange (2)
FEP-2a S355 (n) 15.0, S550 97.0 80.2 end-plate (1)
FEP-2b S355 (s) 15.0, S550 100.0 95.4 end-plate (2)
FEP-2c S355 (n) 15.0, S690 104.5 95.4 column flange (2)
FEP-2d S355 (s) 15.0, S690 106.8 102.7 column flange (2)
FEP-3a S355 (n) 10.0, S690 132.6 104.8 end-plate (1)
FEP-3b S355 (n) 15.0, S690 205.7 194.1 bolt failure (2)
FEP-3a* S355 (n) 10.0, S690 139.7 104.8 end-plate (1)
FEP-3b* S355 (n) 15.0, S690 227.7 194.1 column flange (2)

6
moment of S690 15.0mm thick end-plate without
column stiffener reached 96.0 KN.m, and it can be
increased by 102.3 KN.m if the column stiffeners
exist. However, a connection with column web
stiffeners is advisable because their presence
increases moment capacity up to 20%.

Plots of von Mises stress contour of the FEP


connection with the 15mm thick S690 end-plate and
S355 column are presented in Figures 12 and 13.
Plastic deformation of S690 end-plate is shown in
Figure 14. The maximum stress of end-plate and the
ultimate stress of closely reach the ultimate stress
.494816
106.507
212.519
318.531
424.543
530.555
636.567
742.579
848.591
954.603 and also for the column flange stress. The ratio
between maximum stress and the ultimate stress of
Figure 10. Stress contours of the FEP model with the end-plate is 99.0%, whilst the ratio between
S275 column; unit in MPa maximum stress and the ultimate stress of the column
flange is 86.0%.
ANSYS 8.1
.445135
57.913
115.382
172.85
230.318
287.786
345.254
402.723
460.191
517.659

.481777 217.724 434.966 652.208 869.45


109.103 326.345 543.587 760.829 978.071

Figure 11. Stress contour of the FEP model with


S355 column; unit in MPa
Figure 12. Stress contour of the S355 column flange;
From the results in Table 5, it can be seen that the unit in MPa
designs are somewhat conservative despite the
omission of factors of safety. The FE model of the
FEP connection with thin end-plate and low beam 75.709
depth shows significant results close to EC3 167.804
259.898
prediction, and also for connection with thicker end- 351.993
444.088
plate and higher beam depth. Modern design methods 536.183
628.278
such as EC3 use yield line analyses of the end plate 720.373
to predict the capacity of the tensile region. At the 812.468
904.563
ultimate load, the failure mode type (1) which is
complete yielding of the column flange occurred for
almost all of the FEP connection except for thinner
S550 and S690 end-plate of the FEP connection on
the end-plate. The finite element model was used to
confirm the predictions by studying the yielding of
the end-plate and column flange.

Waving of column web stiffeners is not advisable


because their absence causes premature failure in the
column flange. This consequently leads to a drastic Figure 13. Stress contour of the S690 endplate; unit
drop in moment and rotation capacities. The ultimate in MPa

7
Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

.286E-03
.001644 where
.003002 Mu = ultimate moment capacity (kN.m)
.004361
.005719 n = rigidity parameter
.007077
.008436 q = rigidity parameter
.009794 Rki = initial connection stiffness (kN.m/rad)
.011152
.012511 0 = reference plastic rotation defined by:
0 = Mu / Rki (6)

In this study, several test cases selected using the


FEM connection model developed in previous
section. The M data points obtained from the
analysis were curve fitted to obtain model
parameters. Consequently, regression equations were
developed for the aforementioned parameters of each
equation in terms of geometric variables of the
connection region. In the development of the
prediction equations, the independent variables
(connection geometric variables) are defined as:
Figure 14. Plastic deformation of the S690 end-plate g = the gage distance
db = the nominal bolt diameter
4. ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR MOMENT- pf = the bolt pitch
ROTATION RELATIONSHIP hb = the beam depth
tep = the thickness of end-plate
The stiffness of any semi-rigid connection is tcf = the thickness of column flange
dependant upon the moment-rotation characteristic Fyp = material yield stress of end-plate
associated with the connection. Many attempts have Fyc = material yield stress of column
been made to establish curve-fitting techniques that Unit of independent variables: mm and N/mm2
can be used to provide suitable models for semi-rigid
connections. Abolmaali et.al (2005) have developed Using these results and the multiple regression
momentrotation model equations for flush end-plate technique, a prediction equation was developed for
connections. It was shown that both models predicted each independent parameter using the following
the M plots closely, with the more accurate model general form:
being the Three-Parameter Power model. The Three- m m

Parameter Power model was originally proposed by Rki Aa wj


j
; M u Ba xjj ;
j 1 j 1
Richard and Abbott (1975) and Chen and Kishi m m
(1989) to predict the momentrotation (M) n Ca ; yj
j q Da zjj (7)
characteristics of PR connections. j 1 j 1

where A, B, C and D are unknown coefficients, aj is


The M data points obtained from these analyses
the jth independent parameter, wj, xj, yj, and zj are the
were curve fitted to Equations 5 and 6 by minimizing
exponents to be determined through regression, and
their error-square to obtain model parameters Mu, n,
m is the number of independent parameters
q, and 0. Consequently, regression equations were
considered. Taking logarithms of both sides of the
developed for the aforementioned parameters of each
formulae in Equation (3), linear forms of these
equation in terms of geometric variables of the
formulae are obtained as:
connection region. The three parameter is expanded
into a proposed equation to accommodate change in m
ln R ki ln A w j ln a j (8)
the curve shape due to non-linear behaviour of j 1
different steel grade of each member of the m
connection as defined by Taufik et al. (2011). The ln M u ln B x j ln a j (9)
rigidity parameter n is be exploded into parameter q, j 1
m
with the dependent variables are considered, the
ln n ln C y j ln a j (10)
prediction equations is defined as: j 1

Rki m
M (5) ln q ln D z j ln a j (11)
1 /
1
n q j 1
0

8
Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

Multiple regression using spreadsheet software is The design equations for the four dependant
applied to each formula in Equations 8 to 11 to parameters of the flush end plate connection based on
determine the coefficients A, B, C, D, wj, xj, yj, and zj. Taufik et al. (2011) are obtained as:
From regression analyses, Equations 12 to 15
Rki = 162.02 g0.77 pf1.28 db0.34 tep1.71 (N.mm/rad) (12)
represent independent parameters of the design 0.76 0.82 0.37 1.25 0.85
equation for ultimate moment, reference plastic Mu = 3.57 db tep hb tep Fya (N.mm) (13)
rotation, and rigidity parameter. Sensitivity and error n = 21.22db0.25pf0.64 hb-0.82tep0.28 tcf-0.77Fyp0.25 Fyc-0.24 (14)
band analyses were conducted to validate the q = 23.01db0.25pf0.64 hb-0.82tep0.27tcf-0.078Fyp0.29 Fyc-0.28 (15)
behaviour of each equation to the variation of
independent variables and the error associated with Table 4 below presented the parameter values for
each equation, respectively. power model obtained through curve fitting for high
strength FEP connection.

Table 4. Parameters values for power model obtained through curve fitting
Connection Rki Muc Rigidity parameter Rigidity parameter Correlation coefficient
destination (kNm/mrad) (kN.m) (n) (q) (r)
FEP-1c 12.10 103.80 1.56 1.59 0.9995
FEP-1g* 18.50 133.62 1.60 1.62 0.9994
FEP-1d* 12.73 118.80 1.74 1.76 0.9992
FEP-2a 11.50 97.00 1.38 1.41 0.9993
FEP-2b 12.60 100.00 1.38 1.41 0.9992
FEP-2c 14.30 104.50 1.38 1.41 0.9991
FEP-2d 16.20 106.80 1.38 1.41 0.9992
FEP-3a 14.30 132.60 1.12 1.25 0.9991
FEP-3b 21.00 205.70 1.24 1.42 0.9992
FEP-3a* 14.88 139.70 1.18 1.28 0.9941
FEP-3b* 22.80 227.50 1.20 1.32 0.9885

Figure 15 shows comparisons between typical FEM can be seen from these figures that the predicted
M results and the predicted proposed M model curves give very close correlation with FEA results.
values for each connection obtained from Table 4. It

150
Moment(kN.m)

140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
FEMResult(FEP1d*)
60
50 ProposedEquation(FEP1d*)
40
FEMResult(FEP1b)
30
20 Proposedequation(FEP1b)
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Rotation(mRad)

Figure 15. Comparison of FEM results with proposed equations; FEP-1 model

9
5. CONCLUSION REFERENCES

A three-dimensional finite element model of a flush Bose B, Sarkar S, and Bahrami M. (1996), Extended
end plate connection is presented. Four different steel endplate connections: comparison between three-
grades of end-plate properties are investigated. dimensional nonlinear finite-element analysis and
Conclusions are drawn based on the research. full-scale destructive tests. Structural Engineer
a) The effect of plate thicknesses gives significant Rev;8(4):31528.
change of the initial stiffness, whilst the thin
higher strength end-plate will be more Bursi O.S. and Jaspart J.P. (1998), Basic issues in the
pronounced on the moment capacity of finite element simulation of extended end plate
connection. The high strength endplate gives connections. Comp. Struct.; 69:36182.
significant proportion of maximum stress
distribution, whereas the beam and column are Citipitouglu A.M., Haj-Ali R.M. and White D.W.
kept to mild carbon steel. (2002), Refined 3D finite element modeling of
b) The results obtained from the FEA for the partially restrained connections including slip, J.
moment-rotation curves of different specimens of Construct Steel Res, 58:5-8, 995-1013.
end-plate connection are within the range of 3% Danesh F, et al. (2007), Effect of shear force on the
to 5% compared to the experimental results. initial stiffness of top and seat angle connections with
c) Waiving of column web stiffeners is not double web angles. J. Const. Steel Res. doi:
advisable because their absence causes premature 10.1016/j.jcsr.2006.11.011.
failure in the column web. This leads to
consequently a drastic drop in moment and Maggi Y.I, et.al. (2005), Parametric analysis of steel
rotation capacities. However, connection with bolted end plate connections using finite element
column web stiffeners is advisable because their modelling, J Construct Steel Res, 61, 689708.
presence increases moment capacity up to 15%.
d) It can be observed that, if thickness of end-plate Bahaari M.R. and Sherbourne A.N. (1996), 3D
is bigger than the thickness of column flange, the simulation of bolted connections to unstiffened
moment capacity of the connection will not be columns-II. extended endplate connections, J
increased in clearly due to excessive deformation Construct Steel Res, 40:3, 189223.
of column flange and web.
e) For the case of bare steel joint FEP, compressive Sherbourne A.N. and Bahaari M.R. (1996), 3D
and tensile stresses were almost similar. The simulation of bolted connections to unstiffened
joints moment rotational responses of FEM columns-I. T-stub connections, J Construct Steel
analysis follows the same trend of experimental Res, 40:3, 169187.
investigation which are almost identical in both
Taufik S. and Xiao R.Y. (2005), 3D finite element
the positive and negative moment regions
predictions of angle bolted connection with high
because of symmetry of the connection.
strength steel, Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Advance
f) Thick high strength endplate connections provide
in Steel Struct., Shanghai China, Vol. II, 1775-1782.
additional rotational stiffness and moment
capacity but the rotation capacity may be Puthli R. and Fleischer O. (2001), Investigations on
compromised by bolt failure. This type of failure bolted connections for high strength steel members, J
mode is not acceptable for semi-rigid frame Construct Steel Res, 57:1, 313-26.
design because a large rotation capacity is
required to allow moment redistribution. Moze P. et al. (2005), Bolted connections made of
g) The moment capacity prediction of EC3 has been high strength steel S690, ECCS_ TC10-05-587, Paris.
shown to be reasonable. The nature of the failure
mode was predicted reliably for the semi-rigid Taufik et al. (2011), Predicted behaviour of partially
connections studied. restrained connection with cold formed high strength
h) A power model expression was proposed to steel by 3D finite element modeling, Adv. Mat. Res.
predict the ultimate moment and initial stiffness Vol. 250 253, 1734 1743.
of the high strength FEP connection. The
expression is a function of the corresponding Taufik S. and Xiao R.Y. (2006), Simplified finite
strength of the end-plate and column flange. A element modelling of beam-column bolted
reasonably good prediction was obtained for connection with shell element, Proc. of the 8th Int.
high strength semi-rigid connection. Conf. on Comp. Struc. Tech., Civil-Comp Press,
Stirlingshire, UK, Paper 118, 2006

10
Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

Taufik S. and Xiao R.Y. (2006), Three-dimensional


finite element modelling of flush end plate
connection with high strength steel, Proc. of the 8th
Int. Conf. on Comp. Struc. Techn., Civil-Comp
Press, Stirlingshire, UK, Paper 119, 2006

Broderick BM, and Thomson A.W. (2000). Cyclic


testing of flush end-plate semi-rigid steel
connections. In: Proc. of the STESSA, 135140.

Bose B. (1998), Design resistance of unstiffened


column web subject to transverse compression in
beam-column joints, J Const. Steel Res.45(1):115.

Coelho J. et al. (2001), Experimental behaviour of


end-plate beam-to-column joints under bending and
axial force, Database reporting and discussion results
of ECCS Technical Committee 10 Connections
TWG 10.2 meeting in Ljubljana.

ANSYS documentation (2004), Manual Set and


Theory Reference Manual, Software Technology,
Ansys Inc.

ENV 1993-1-3. Eurocode 3 (1996): Design of steel


structures, Part 1.3: general rules, supplementary
rules for cold formed thin gauge members and
sheetings, CEN.

Chen WF, Goto Y, Liew JYR. (1996), Stability


design of semi-rigid frames. Wiley, New York.

Abdel-Rahman N. and Sivakumaran K.S. (1997),


Material properties models for analysis of cold-
formed steel members, Journal of Structural
Engineering ASCE, Vol.123 No.9, 11351143.

European Committee for Standardisation (1992),


Eurocode 3: design of steel structures, Part 1.1:
General rules for buildings. DD ENV 1993-1-1.

Abolmaali A., Matthysa J.H., Farooqib M., and


Choic Y. (2005), Development of momentrotation
model equations for flush end-plate connections, Jl
of Const Steel Res 61 15951612.

Richard RM, Abbott BJ. (1975), Versatile elastic


plastic stressstrain formula. J Eng. Mech. Division,
ASCE; 101 (EM4): 5115.

Chen WF, Kishi N. (1989), Momentrotation relation


of top and seat angle connections,. Proceedings of
the international colloquium on bolted and special
connections, CE-STR-87-4.

11