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Geometry

Subhashis Banerjee

Dept. Computer Science and Engineering

IIT Delhi

email: suban@cse.iitd.ac.in

May 29, 2001

Camera Models

(x, y)T .

1.1

x1

x2 = T21

x3

X1

X2

X3

X4

and X by

(x, y)

=

(x1 /x3 , x1 /x3 )

(X, Y, Z) = (X1 /X4 , X2 /X4 , X3 /X4 )

The transformation matrix T = [Tij ] has 11 degrees of freedom since only the ratios

of elements Tij are important.

(see Zisserman and Mundy).

1.2

A special case of the projective camera is the perspective (or central) projection,

reducing to the familiar pin-hole camera when the leftmost 3 3 sub-matrix of T

is a rotation matrix with its third row scaled by the inverse focal length 1/f . The

simplest form is:

1 0 0 0

0 0

Tp =

0 1

0 0 1/f 0

which gives the familiar equations

"

x

y

f

=

Z

"

X

Y

Each point is scaled by its individual depth, and all projection rays converge to the

optic center.

1.3

The affine camera is a special case of the projective camera and is obtained by constraining the matrix T such that T31 = T32 = T33 = 0, thereby reducing the degrees

of freedom from 11 to 8:

x1

0

0

0 T34

x2 = T21

x3

X1

X2

X3

X4

In terms of image and scene coordinates, the mapping takes the form

x = MX + t

where M is a general 2 3 matrix with elements Mij = Tij /T34 while t is a general

2-vector representing the image center.

The affine camera preserves parallelism.

1.4

The affine camera becomes a weak-perspective camera when the rows of M form a

uniformly scaled rotation matrix. The simplest form is

Twp

yielding,

Mwp

f

=

Zave

"

1 0 0

0

0

= 0 1 0

0 0 0 Zave /f

1 0 0

0 1 0

"

and

x

y

f

=

Zave

"

X

Y

This is simply the perspective equation with individual point depths Zi replaced by

an average constant depth Zave

The weak-perspective model is valid when the average variation of the depth of the

object (Z) along the line of sight is small compared to the Zave and the field of view

is small. We see this as follows.

Expanding the perspective projection equation using a Taylor series, we obtain

f

x=

Zave + Z

"

X

Y

Z

f

Z

1

+

=

Zave

Zave

Zave

!"

...

X

Y

When |Z| << Zave only the zero-order term remains giving the weak-perspective

projection. The error in image position is then xerr = xp xwp :

xerr

f

=

Zave

Z

Zave + Z

"

X

Y

showing that a small focal length (f ), small field of view (X/Zave and (Y /Zave ) and

small depth variation (Z) contribute to the validity of the model.

1.5

The affine camera reduces to the case of orthographic (parallel) projection when M

represents the first two rows of a rotation matrix. The simplest form is

Torth

yielding,

"

Morth =

1 0 0 0

= 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

1 0 0

0 1 0

"

and

x

y

"

X

Y

Epipolar Geometry

Structure determination

Affine structure

Euclidean structure

2.1

When the perspective effects are small, the problem of locating perspective epipolar

lines becomes ill-conditioned. In such cases it is convenient to assume the parallel

projection model of the affine camera which explicitly models the ambiguities.

The affine epipolar constraint can be described in terms of the affine fundamental

matrix F as p0T Qp = 0, i.e.,

x0i yi0

0 0 a

xi

1

0 0 b yi = 0

1

c d e

i

Z

Scene point

ave

Average depth

plane

Image plane

X

Optic Center

Xp

X

wp

X

orth

Figure 1: 1D image formation with image plane at Z = f . Xp , Xwp and Xorth are the

perspective, weak-perspective and orthographic projections respectively.

where p0 = (x0 , y 0 , 1)T and p = (x, y, 1) are homogeneous 3-vectors representing corresponding image points in two views.

(See Shapiro, Zisserman and Brady).

To derive the above, we write M as (B | b) where B is a general (non-singular)

2 2 matrix and b is a 2 vector. The projection equation then gives

"

xi = B

Xi

Yi

+ Zi b + t

"

x0i

=B

Xi

Yi

+ Zi b0 + M 0 D + t 0

x0i = xi + Zi d +

where = B0 B1 , d = b0 B0 B1 b and = t0 t + M0 D.

X1

X1

X2

X2

X3

X3

u3

x1

x2

u1

x1

x2

u3

x3

u2

u2

x3

xe

xe

u1

(a)

(b)

and d are functions only of camera parameters {M, M0 } and the motion transformation A, while explains the motion of the reference point (centroid) and depend

on the translation of the object D and the camera origins t and t0 .

This equation shows that x0i associated with xi lies on a line (epipolar) on the

second image with offset xi + and direction d. The unknown depth Zi determines

how far along this line does x0i lie. Inverting the equation we obtain

xi = 1 x0i Zi 1 d 1

The translation invariant versions of these equations are

x0i =

xi + Zi d

1

xi = x0i Zi 1 d

We can eliminate Zi from the above equations and obtain a single equation in terms

of image measurables:

(x0i xi ).d = 0

where, d = (dx , dy ) and its perpendicular d = (dy , dx ). This equation can be

written as

ax0i + byi0 + cxi + dyi + e = 0

where (a, b)T = d, (c, d)T = T d and e = T d . This gives us

x0i yi0

0 0 a

xi

0

0

b

1

yi = 0

1

c d e

i

2.1.1

Given correspondences in two views the affine fundamental matrix can be computed

using orthogonal regression by minimizing

X

1 n1

(ri n + e)2

2

| n | i=0

Here ri = (x0i , yi0 , xi , yi )T and n = (a, b, c, d)T . The minimization finds a hyper-plane

that globally minimizes the sum of the squared perpendicular distances between ri

and the hyper-plane.

Defining

vi = ri

r

and

W=

n1

X

vi vi T

i=0

Wn = i n, | n |2 = 1

2.2

Affine Structure

motion described by

X0i = AXi + D

where X0i is the new 3D position of the ith point, A is an arbitrary 3 x 3 matrix

and D is a 3-vector representing translation.

Removing the effects of translation

by registering the points with respect to a reference point X0 to obtain

X = X X0

and

X0 = X0 X00 = AX

Affine projections

If the affine camera models for the two views are given by the parameters {M, t}

and {M0 , t0 } respectively, then

x = MX

and

x0 = M0 X0 = M0 AX

Now, consider four non-coplanar scene points X0 , . . . , X3 with X0 as the origin.

We define three axis vectors Ej = Xj X0 for j = 1, . . . , 3. {E1 , E2 , E3 } form

a basis for the 3D affine space and any of the n vectors can be represented in

this basis as

Xi X0 = i E1 + i E2 + i E3

for

i = 1, . . . , n

coordinates the affine structure of the point Xi . It can be shown that the affine

structure remains invariant to affine motion with respect to the transformed

basis, that is,

Xi = i E1 + i E2 + i E3

(1)

X0i = i E01 + i E02 + i E03

where E0j = AEj .

Computation of Affine structure

From the above we obtain

xi = xi x0 = i e1 + i e2 + i e3

x0i = x0i x00 = i e01 + i e02 + i e03

(2)

Thus, to compute the affine structure, we require two images with at least four

points in correspondence, i.e.,

{x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 }

and

These correspondences establish the bases {e1 , e2 , e3 } and {e01 , e02 , e03 } provided

no two axes, in either images, are collinear. Each additional point gives four

equations in 3 unknowns

"

xi

x0i

"

e1 e2 e3

e01 e02 e03

i

i

and the affine structure can be computed. The redundancy in the system enables

us to verify whether the affine projection model is valid.

2.2.1

the factorization procedure of Tomasi and Kanade to obtain the bases and structure.

Their formulation can be written as an extension of the above equation as

x1 x2 . . . xn1

x01 x02 . . . x0n1

x001 x002 . . . x00n1

..

.

e1 e2 e3

2 . . . n1

e01 e02 e03

1

1 2 . . . n1

.

.

.

..

1

2

n1

.

(2k x 3) and S

(3

views and has dimensions 2k x (n1). The matrices on the right, M

gives

x (n 1)), are called motion and structure matrices respectively. The matrix S

t

the invariant affine structure of the n points in motion, and the i h row of M, M(i),

along with the corresponding image center x0 (i), gives the projection parameters for

x0 (i)}.

Clearly, in the absence of noise, W must have a rank at-most 3. Tomasi and

Kanade perform a singular value decomposition of W and use the 3 largest eigenvalues

and S.

If the SVD returns a rank greater than 3, then the affine

to construct M

projection model is invalid and we use this as a check. The rank 2 case signifies either

a planar object (which is not possible for facial images!) or degenerate motion. In

such a case, the 3D affine structure cannot be determined and the views are related

by 2D affine transformations. The 2D affine structure can then be recovered in only

two axes using the same formalism.

2.2.2

Once the affine structure has been computed, it can be used to generate a new view

of the object (transfer) by simply selecting a new spanning set {e001 , e002 , e003 }. No

camera calibration is needed. Note that this is same as choosing a new projection

matrix M00 .

x00i = x000 + i e001 + i e002 + i e00k

If the affine structure is not of interest (graphics), it is possible to bypass the affine

coordinates and express the new image coordinates x00 directly in terms of the first

two sets of image coordinates x and x0 . One can write the projection equations

in the first two views as

x = GX

x0 = G0 X

where G and G0 are 2 3 matrices with rows {G1 , G2 } and {G01 , G02 } respectively.

The new view can be similarly written as

x00 = G00 X

where G00 has rows {G001 , G002 }.

Now, any three rows of {G1 , G2 , G01 , G02 } define a linearly independent spanning

set for A3 , say {G1 , G2 , G01 }. So, there exists scalars such that

"

00

G =

a1 a2

b1 b2

"

G+

a3 0

b3 0

G0

"

x00 =

a1 a2

b1 b2

"

x +

a3 0

b3 0

"

x0 =

a1 a2 a3

b1 b2 b3

y

x0

Thus, if images of an object are obtained using affine cameras, then a novel view can

be expressed as a linear combination of views (this is useful for object recognition).

2.2.3

Change of basis

Given the current spanning set {e1 , e2 , e3 } and {e01 , e02 , e03 } in the two images, we

have that

"

#

"

# i

xi

e1 e2 e3

=

i

0

0

0

0

xi

e1 e2 e3

i

Suppose that we now wish to express the same set of points using alternative spanning

sets {h1 , h2 , h3 } and {h01 , h02 , h03 }, the new affine coordinates must obey

"

2.2.4

xi

x0i

"

h1 h2 h3

h01 h02 h03

i

i

i

in the first frame). Since ek = MEk = 0, the projection of Ek in the first image is

degenerate reducing it to a single point. Thus, only two basis vectors are chosen in

the first image

xi = i e1 + i e2

~

Q

~

P

reference

plane

p

p

q

~

p

q

V

1

V

2

~

q

In the second image, the third axis vector is no longer degenerate, given by e0k =

ME0k = MAEk . e0k is actually an epipolar line. If we use e01 and e02 to predict the

position where each point would appear in image 2, as if they lay on plane {E1 , E2 },

we get

x

0i = x00 + i e01 + i e02

the disparity between the predicted position and the observed position

x0i = x00 + i e01 + i e02 + i e0k

is solely due to the i component

0i = i e0k

x0i x

2.3

2.3.1

Rigid reconstruction

Assumptions

Affine projection

Metric constructions

2.3.2

Procedure

Image Plane

Fronto-parallel

plane

can be factored out by putting two projections of O in to coincidence.

2. Rotation can be decomposed into i) a rotation in the image plane (cyclorotation) and rotation about an axis in the fronto-parallel plane. Projection

of the third affine frame vector is the projection of a plane perpendicular to the

axis of rotation in the fronto-parallel plane. One can reconstruct the projection

in the first view (only affine construction) and factor out the relative rotation

in the two images. This yields the cyclo-rotation.

3. Since the axis of rotation is known in both views, one can find the overall scale

difference due to translation in depth. Points on the axis of rotation do not

rotate. Consider the projection of all image points on to this axis. If they differ

in the two views, they must differ by only a constant scale factor. Otherwise,

the rigidity assumption is falsified.

4. Now the two views differ only by a rotation about an axis in the fronto-parallel

plane. Define a Euclidean frame (e1 , e2 , e3 ), such that e1,2,3 are unit vectors

with e1 along the axis of rotation and e3 along the line of sight.

Let G1 e1 + G2 e2 denote the depth gradient of a plane in the object. That is,

the depth of a point e1 + e2 in the image with respect to the fronto-parallel

plane is G1 + G2 . Note that

G1 = tan cos

G2 = tan sin

where is the slant and is the tilt of the plane.

Consider any triangle OXY in the plane. Let the coordinates of X and Y be

(X1 , X2 ) and (Y1 , Y2 ) respectively. Then the third coordinates must be

X3 = G1 X1 + G2 X2

Y3 = G1 Y1 + G2 Y2

For a given turn the rotation can be represented by

1

0

0

0 cos sin

0 sin cos

Of the three transformed coordinates, the first one is trivially unchanged and

the third one is not observable. The second coordinate is observable, and the

equations are:

X21 = X20 cos sin (X10 G1 + X20 G2 )

Y21 = Y20 cos sin (Y10 G1 + Y20 G2 )

here the upper indices label the views and the lower indices label the components.

Because the turn is unknown, we eliminate it from these equations to obtain a

single equation in (G1 , G2 ). This equation represents a one-parameter solution

for the two view case. The parameter is the unknown turn . The equation is

quadratic in (G1 , G2 ) with the linear term absent; and represents a hyperbola

in the (G1 , G2 ) space (please derive it).

5. Repeating the steps above between the second and a third view, we obtain a

pair of two view solutions. Each two view solution represents a one-parameter

family of solutions. The one-parameter families for the 0-1 transition and the

1-2 transition are represented by the hyperbolic loci in the gradient space. The

pair of hyperbola has either two or four intersections. The case of no intersection

occurs only in the non-rigid case. If the motion is rigid, then there has to be

one solution and hence a pair of them. The intersections represent either one or

two pairs of solutions that are related through a reflection in the fronto-parallel

plane.

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