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University: University of the West Indies

Faculty: Engineering
Department: Chemical and Process
Course: CHNG 1007
Year: 2010
Name of experiment: Reaction Kinetics
Date conducted: 24.02.10
Date submitted: 03.03.10
Name of student: Steve Duncan
Student ID: 809000757
Lab Group: Group 8

Table of contents
Abstract........................................................................................................ 3
Theory........................................................................................................... 4
Experimental................................................................................................. 8
Treatment of Results................................................................................... 11
Results........................................................................................................ 15
Discussion................................................................................................... 22
Conclusion and Recommendations.............................................................27
References....................................................................................................................
.............28
Appendix......................................................................................................................
..............29

Abstract
The main objective of this experiment was to identify the factors which
affect the overall rate of a chemical reaction. In this experiment, factors such
as the concentration of the reactants, the nature of the reactants and the
temperature of the system were investigated.
Observations were recorded for a series of reactions which were
performed throughout the experiment. Factors such as the type and
concentration of acid being used as well as the size of magnesium ribbon
being added were varied and relevant observations were recorded and
tabulated. The type of metal being used was also varied while the acid was
kept constant. The temperature effect was analysed by carrying out the
reaction at various temperature ranges and all observations and results were
recorded. All results were analysed according their requirements as outlined
in the lab manual.
Through the use of thorough examination and experimentation, it was
found that varying conditions such as nature, concentration and temperature
of the reactants altered or had some effect on the overall rate of the
reaction.

An increase in temperature and/or concentration produced a

product in less time, hence indicating that the rate was increased. The
nature of the reactants showed that the rate depends not only on
temperature and concentration but also on the degree of reactivity of the
substance being used.

Theory
Reaction Kinetics is the study of chemical reactions with respect to
reaction rates and variables which affect these rates, whether they may be
controlled or manipulated. All chemical reactions may be affected by various
factors and conditions which may govern the overall reaction taking place.
Using this aspect of the reaction, various components in a reaction may be
altered and manipulated such as the reaction pathway, activation energy
and even the time a reaction takes to occur. In order to fully understand why
some factors may have such a profound effect on the reaction rate, we must
first have a basic understanding of the concept known as the collision theory.
The Collision theory, proposed by Max Trautz, qualitatively explains
how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different
reactions. This theory is based on the idea that reactant particles must
collide for a reaction to occur, but only a certain fraction of the total
collisions have the energy to connect effectively and cause the reactants to
transform into products. This is because only a portion of the molecules have
enough energy and the right orientation at the moment of impact to break
any existing bonds and form new ones. The minimal amount of energy
needed for this to occur is known as activation energy.
We may now consider some factors which affect the rate of a chemical
reaction:

Concentration of the reactants:


According to the collision theory, the concentration of reactants plays a
very important role. Molecules must collide in order to react together. As
the concentration of the reactants increases, the frequency of the
molecules colliding increases, striking each other more frequently by
being in closer contact at any given point in time. By increasing the
amount of one or more of the reactants it causes these collisions to
happen more often thereby increasing the reaction rate.
Temperature of System
The temperature of the system under consideration in a reaction has a
major effect on the rate of a chemical reaction. Molecules at a higher
temperature have more thermal energy. Although collision frequency is
greater at higher temperatures, this alone contributes only a very
small proportion to the increase in rate of reaction. Much more
important is the fact that the proportion of reactant molecules with
sufficient energy to react (energy greater than activation energy) is
significantly higher. Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of
a system, so higher temperature implies higher average kinetic energy
of molecules and more collisions per unit time.

Diagram 1.0-Graph of the Number of molecules vs Energy at


temperatures T1 and T2.
Presence of a Catalyst
A catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction
without being used up or permanently changed chemically. Catalysts
lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction and increase the
rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process.
Catalysts work by increasing the frequency of collisions between
reactants, altering the orientation of reactants so that more collisions
are

effective,

reducing

intramolecular

bonding

within

reactant

molecules, or donating electron density to the reactants. The presence


of a catalyst helps a reaction to proceed more quickly to equilibrium.

Diagram 2.0-Graph of the Energy vs. Time with and without a


catalyst present.

Nature of the Reactants

Depending upon what substances are reacting, the time varies. Acid
reactions, the formation of salts, and ion exchange are fast reactions.
When covalent bond formation takes place between the molecules and
when large molecules are formed, the reactions tend to be very slow.
Nature and strength of bonds in reactant molecules greatly influences the
rate of its transformation into products. The reactions which involve lesser
bond rearrangement proceed faster than the reactions which involve
larger bond rearrangement.
This

experiment

observes

only

the

changes

due

to

concentration,

temperature and nature of the reactants. Although other factors such as


Surface area, Pressure of the system and Physical State may also affect
reaction rates.
The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation which
links the reaction rate with concentrations or pressures of reactants and
constant parameters.
For a reaction mA + nB C with no intermediate steps in its reaction
mechanism the rate is given by

Where [A] and [B] express the concentration of the species A and B,
respectively. The letter m and n denotes the respective stoichiometric
coefficients of the balanced equation only for an elementary reaction
otherwise they must be determined experimentally and k is the rate
coefficient or rate constant of the reaction. The value of this coefficient k
depends on conditions such as temperature, surface area of the adsorbent or
light irradiation.

Experimental
Apparatus:

Glassware and Instruments:

Test-tubes
Beakers
Pipettes with pump
Thermometer
Electric Balance
Stopwatch
Water bath at 0.0C and another at 70
Scissors
30cm ruler

Chemicals:
8

0.1M Sodium Thiosulphate- Na2S2O3


0.1M, 1.0M, 3.0M and 6.0M Hydrochloric Acid- HCl
3.0M Sulphuric Acid- H2SO4
6.0M Phosphoric Acid- H3PO4
6.0M Nitric Acid- HNO3
Mg ribbon
Zn, Cu ,Fe and Pb filings

Procedure

Concentration Effects
1. Four 25mm strips of Mg ribbon were accurately measured and cut
using a pair of scissors. Each strip was weighted on the electric
balance and its weight was recorded.
2. 5ml of 0.1M HCl was pipetted into a test-tube and a ribbon strip of
known weight was added. The timer was started at the instant the
ribbon made contact with the acid and stopped when all traces of the
strip disappeared.
3. All observations were recorded and tabulated along with the total time
elapsed.
4. This experiment was repeated with 1M, 3M and 6M HCl solutions.

Nature of Reactants
Experiment A

1. Four 5mm strips of Mg ribbon were accurately measured and cut using
a pair of scissors. Each strip was weighted on the electric balance and
its weight was recorded.
2. 1ml of 3M H2SO4 was pipetted into a test-tube and a ribbon strip of
known weight was added. The timer was started at the instant the
ribbon made contact with the acid and stopped when all traces of the
strip disappeared.
3. All observations were recorded and tabulated along with the total time
elapsed.
4. This experiment was repeated with 6.0M HCl, 6.0M H 3PO4

and 6.0M

HNO3

Experiment B
1. 0.1g of Zn metal filings was weighed using the electric balance.
2. 1ml of 6M HCl was pipetted into a test-tube and the Zn metal filings
were added. The timer was started at the instant the filings made
contact with the acid and stopped when all traces disappeared.
3. All observations were recorded and tabulated along with the total time
elapsed.
4. This experiment was repeated with Pb, Cu and Fe filings.

Temperature Effects
The following guidelines were used when performing this portion of the
experiment.

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Tests were done at room temperature, 0C and 70C.


The Water bath was used for all tests except for the test at room

temperature.
All reagents were maintained at the selected temperatures for at least

5-6 minutes before mixing.


Total volume of the mixture in the test tube was kept below the water
level in the bath.

1. 5ml of 0.1M Na2S2O3 was pipette into a test tube labelled A, while 5ml
of 0.1 HCl was pipette into a test tube labelled B.
2. Both A and B were maintained at the required temperature for about 5
minutes.
3. The contents of B were then poured into A, the timer was started and
4.

the mixture was shaken.


The timer was stopped at the first sign of cloudiness and the time

elapsed was recorded.


5. The final temperature of the mixture was also measures using the
thermometer.

Treatment of Results
Analysis of Results:
Concentration Effects and Nature of reactants.
1. Graph 1.0 plotted using the following data:
Table 5.0-Graph of mol (HCl)/mol (Mg) vs. Time/s.
mol(HCL)/mol Time/s
(Mg)
22.56

19

11.28

75

3.85

351
11

2. From graph 1.0 and the table 1.0 above, it can be observed that as the
concentration of the reacting acid is increased, the time which the
reaction takes to go to completion decreases.
3. Using the specimen calculation listed for concentration effects, for the
values 1.2g Mg and 0.40MHCl the ratio mol (HCl)/mol(Mg) would be
equal to 0.0404. This value if too small to be obtained within the limits
of this experiment.
4. From the graph of rate vs concentration, graph 2.0, it may be observed
that the reaction is second order. The table below was used to draw the
graph.
Rate:1/T

Concentration

0.0028

of HCl/mol
1

0.0133

0.0526

5. In order of increasing reactivity, a table of relative reaction rates of the


four acids is given below.
Acid and

6.0M H3PO4

3.0M H2SO4

6.0M HCl

6.0M HNO3

Concentration
Time/s
1/T/s-1

127
0.0079

24
0.0417

14
0.0714

9
0.1111

12

6. The chemical reactivity of the acid is a major factor in the overall rate
of the reaction. If the acid is one which is highly reactive, the rate of
the reaction would be faster than that compared to an acid which is
fairly reactive.
7. Zinc had the highest reaction rate with 6.0M HCl due to its position in
the chemical reactivity series. The reaction is given by the following
equation:

2HCl (aq)+Zn(s)

H2+ZnCl2

Metals higher up in the series such as Zinc and Iron react more with
the acid compared to the relatively unreactive Lead and inert Copper.

Temperature Effects

1. Reaction occurring:
2HCl(aq)+Na2S2O3(s)

SO 2(g)+S(s)+H2O(l)+2NaCl(aq)

2. Graph 3.0 is given by the table below.


Temperature/C

Time/s

179

27

54

68

13

3. Based on experimental data it can be concluded that as the


temperature of the reactants increase the rate of the reaction also
increases.
4. At 40C the time of appearance of sulphur will be at 30seconds.
At 95C the time of appearance of sulphur will be at a value beyond
the scope of the graph.
5. Slope is given by the graph lnK vs 1/T.
lnK

1/T

-5.188

0.00361

-3.99

0.00333

-1.609

0.00293

Temperature Effects:
Using the Arrhenius equation given by:
Taking ln:
lnk= (-Ea/RT)(1/T) + lnA
Equation of a line = y=mx+c
Hence y=lnK
X=1/T
Using Graph 4.0, Gradient of the line = -5310.4
But -5310.4=(-Ea/R)
Hence Ea= 44150.66
Ea=44.2KJ

6. Catalysts lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction and


increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the
process. Catalysts work by increasing the frequency of collisions
between reactants, altering the orientation of reactants so that more
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collisions

are

effective,

reducing

intramolecular

bonding

within

reactant molecules, or donating electron density to the reactants.

7. Relative reaction rate= (1/T)/(1/Trtp)


Room temperature=27C
10C above room temperature : 37C
Relative reaction rate=(1/26)/(1/48)
=1.846
10C below room temperature : 17C
Relative reaction rate=(1/92)/(1/48)
=0.522

Results
Table 1.0- The table below presents the results and observations recorded for
different concentrations of HCl and a 25mm Magnesium ribbon strip.

Concentrati
on of
Acid/M

0.1M HCl

1.0M HCl

3.0M HCl

6.0M HCl

Mass of
magnesium
strip/g
Time
Elapsed/s

0.0324

0.0315

0.0324

0.0323

Reaction timed
for 2 minutes but
did not complete
within the time
limit of the lab

351

75

19

15

Observation
s recorded

Rapid
effervescence
No smell or
gas
Reaction
continuous to
end

Rapid
effervescence
Pungent odour
Test tube hot
Condensed
droplets form
on test tube

Rapid
effervescenc
e
Pungent
odour
Test tube hot

Vigorous
effervescence
Sharp odour
Colourless gas
Test tube very
hot

Table 2.0- The table below presents the results and observations recorded for
different acids such as HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4 and HNO3 with a 5mm Magnesium ribbon
strip.

Concentrati
on and
Type of
Acid/M

3.0M H2SO4

6.0M HCl

6.0M HNO3

6.0M H3PO4

Mass of
magnesium
strip/g
Time
Elapsed/s
Observation
s recorded

0.0072

0.0069

0.0070

0.0065

24

14

127

Gentle
effervescence
Colourless gas
Pungent odour
Test tube hot

Rapid
effervescence
Odourless gas
Test tube hot

Vigorous
effervescenc
e
Pungent
odour
Test tube hot
Yellow brown
gas

Gentle
effervescence
Test tube
warm

Table 3.0- The table below presents the results and observations recorded for HCl
and varying metal filings such as Zn, Pb, Cu and Fe.

Concentrati
on of
Acid/M
Type of
Filings/0.1g

6.0M HCl

6.0M HCl

6.0M HCl

6.0M HCl

Zn

Pb

Cu

Fe

16

Time
Elapsed/s
Observation
s recorded

Reactions timed for 2 minutes but did not complete within the time limit of

Vigorous
effervescence
Colourless gas
Pungent odour
Test tube hot

the lab
No Reaction
No Reaction

Gentle
effervescence
Pungent odour
Colour
change:
colourless to
dirty green

Table 4.0- The table below displays the results obtained for the experiment which
observed Temperature effects.
Temperature/C
4
27
68

Time/s
179
54
5

Graph 1.0 -Graph plotting mol(HCL)/mol(Mg) vs Time for Concentration effect


experiment.

17

Mol(HCL)/Mol(Mg) vs. Time/s


25

20

15
Mol(HCl)/Mol(mg)
10

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Time/s

Graph 2.0 -Graph plotting Rate of reaction vs Concentration of HCl to obtain order of
the reaction.

18

Rate(1/T) vs Concentration of HCl/mols


0.06

0.05

0.04

1\T

0.03

0.02

0.01

0
0

Concentration of HCl/mol

Graph 3.0- Graph plotting Temperature/C vs Time/s for the experiment testing
Temperature effect.
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Temperature/C vs Time/s
80

70

60

50

Temperature/C

40

30

20

10

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Time/s

20

Graph 4.0-Graph plotting lnK vs 1/T in order to determine Activation energy of the
reaction.

Graph of lnK vs 1\T


0
0

-1

-2

ln K

f(x) = - 5310.45x + 13.88


R = 0.99

-3

-4

-5

-6
1\T

Specimen Calculations
Concentration Effects calculation: used to plot Graph 1.0
Molar mass(Mr) of Mg= 24.305g
Mass of Mg strip=0.0324g
Hence number of moles Mg= Mass/Mr
=0.0324/24.305
=0.00133
1000cm3 HCl contains 0.1 mols
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1cm3 HCl contains 0.1/1000 mols


Therefore 5ml HCl contains 5(0.1/1000)=0.0005 mols

Mol(HCl)/Mol(Mg)= 0.0005/0.00133
=0.376
Repeat for all concentrations of HCl and varying mass of Mg.

Concentration effects: Results used to plot Graph 2.0


Time/s

1/T

Concentration of HCl/M

19
75
351

0.0526
0.0133
0.0028

6.0
3.0
1.0

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Discussion
This experiment investigated the effects of temperature, concentration and
nature of reactants on the rate of reaction. Through analysis of the results,
observations and graphs relevant conclusions may be drawn.
The

first

experiment

concentrations

of

was

one

Hydrochloric

which
Acid

tested

the

effect

(0.1M,1.0M,3.0M

and

of

varying

6.0M)

on

approximately the same size and mass of magnesium strip. In this


experiment, the reaction which was taking place is given by the equation
below:

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq)

H2 (g) + MgCl2 (aq)

From the results it may be observed that as the concentration of acid


increased from 0.1M to 6.0M the time taken for the reaction to complete
decreased. This verifies the theory of the collision theory, which states that
as the concentration increases, so does the amount of collisions occurring,
thereby increasing the rate of the reaction.
The effect of the nature of the reactants was investigated in the second
experiment. In experiment A the type of acid being used was varied while
keeping the length and mass of the magnesium strip fairly constant.
Experiment B used the same acid (6.0M HCl) but varied the type of metal
being added (Pb,Cu,Fe and Zn) . In Experiment A the rate of the reaction was
determined by the strength of the acid, given by its pH value. Theoretically,
the stronger the acid, the fasted the reaction would occur, thereby increasing
the rate. In experiment B, the type of metal being used determined the rate
of the reaction. According to the reactivity series Zn would react with the
acid the fastest since it is the highest of the four given metals in the series,
followed by Fe. Pb would take the longest to react while Cu would have no

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reaction at all. From these results, we may conclude that the nature of the
reactants play an important part in the rate of a reaction.

Finally, in the last experiment, the temperature effect on the reactants was
tested to observe the effect on the reaction rate. The reaction which
occurred in this experiment is given by the equation below:

2HCl(aq)+Na2S2O3(aq)

SO2(g)+H2O(l)+2NaCl(aq)+S(s)

As observed from table 4.0, graph 3.0 as the temperature of the reactants
increased the rate of the reaction increased. At the higher temperature the
average kinetic energy of molecules is increased and more collisions per unit
time are created. This accounts for the increase in the rate of the reaction.

Solution to Questions:
1. If the temperature is increased over a 30C range, and the rate doubles
for every 10C increase, the overall reaction would increase by a factor of
6 for the 30C range.
2. Coal dust would burn more rapidly than larger pieces of coal. The reason
for this is because the more finely divided a solid is, the faster the
reaction happens. A powdered solid will normally produce a faster
reaction than if the same mass is present as a single lump. The powdered
solid has a greater surface area than the single lump. An increase in the
surface area of the reactants would result in a higher number of reaction
sites. This means that there would be an increase in contact with the coal
particles and heat, causing an increase in total combustion.

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3. Iron rusts but gold does not. Rust is the common name for iron oxide. Iron
oxide, the chemical Fe2O3, is common because iron combines very readily
with oxygen. Rusting is the common term for corrosion of a metal. Iron is
located above gold in the reactivity series and is thereby susceptible to
oxidation. Gold, however, is incredibly inert and has no reaction when
exposed to oxygen, hence no rust is produced.

4. Wood burns more rapidly in a fireplace that has a good draft of air. In
order to keep the wood burning, the fireplace needs oxygen for
combustion to occur. As oxygen is being used up in the combustion, the
draft of air replaces the used up oxygen thereby allowing the combustion
of the wood to continue at a fast rate.
5. The Haber process is the nitrogen fixation reaction of nitrogen gas and
hydrogen gas, over an enriched iron catalyst, to produce ammonia. The
Haber process can be given by the equation:

N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g)

2 NH3 (g)

This is done at 1525 MPa (150250 bar) and between 300 and 550 C,
passing the gases over four beds of catalyst, with cooling between
each pass to maintain a reasonable equilibrium constant.

The

conditions usually used to produce the best yield are high pressures
and low temperature.
High Pressure:
With respect to pressure, notice that there are 4 molecules on the lefthand side of the equation, but only 2 on the right. According to Le
Chatelier's Principle, if you increase the pressure the system will
respond by favoring the reaction which produces fewer molecules. That

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will cause the pressure to fall again. In order to get as much ammonia
as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need as high a pressure as
possible. Increasing the pressure brings the molecules closer together.
In this particular instance, it will increase their chances of hitting and
sticking to the surface of the catalyst where they can react. The higher
the pressure, the higher the rate of the reaction.

Low temperature:
With respect to temperature, the forward reaction (the production of
ammonia) is exothermic.

According to Le Chatelier's Principle, this will be favored if you lower


the temperature. The system will respond by moving the position of
equilibrium to counteract this - in other words by producing more heat.
In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium
mixture, you need as low a temperature as possible. The lower the
temperature you use, the slower the reaction becomes. You need the
gases to reach equilibrium within the very short time that they will be
in contact with the catalyst in the reactor.
Catalyst:
In the absence of a catalyst the reaction is so slow that virtually no
reaction happens in any sensible time. The catalyst ensures that the
reaction is fast enough for a dynamic equilibrium to be set up within
the very short time that the gases are actually in the reactor
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Sources of Error:
Some sources of errors which were encountered in the experiment were:

Parallax error when taking measurements from the pipette.


Errors due to lack of accuracy. When using the timer the reaction time
of the person operating the watch determines the margin of error

present.
Glassware must be cleaned properly before use to avoid contamination
of samples which may interfere with results.

Precautions:

Use goggles and avoid skin contact with the acidic solutions

which are high in molarity.


Proceed with caution when operating the water bath as it may be
operating at high temperatures.

Improvements:
To further investigate the effects of various factors on the rate of a chemical
reaction, other factors such as surface area of the reactant or presence of a
catalyst may have been included. By studying these additional factors, the
scope of the investigation may have been broadened.

27

Conclusion
Within the limits of experimental error, factors which affect the rate of a
chemical reaction were investigated. Through experimentation, it was
determined that an increase in the temperature and/or concentration of the
reactants in a reaction would cause an increase in the overall reaction rate.
Through further analysis, it was found that the more reactive the nature of
the reactant, the faster the reaction would be completed. An increase in the
reactivity of the reactant also relates to an increase in the rate of the
reaction.

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References

Antonio, Kenneth. Chemical kinetics: The Study of Reaction Rates in

Solution, John Wiley and Sons, 1990.


Upadhyay K. Santosh . Chemical kinetics and Reaction Dynamics, Springer,

2006
Lister, T and Renshaw, J. New Understanding Chemistry,3 rd edition, Thanely
Thomas Publishers Ltd. 2000

Website

Chemguide-http://www.chemguide.co.uk/

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Appendix

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