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Lift Drag Theory

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Dr. M. Turner

Spring Semester

Drag on a wing (body)

L=

1

SCL V 2

2

D=

1

SCD V 2

2

Drag coefficient:

Lift coefficient:

CD = CD0 + CL2

CL = CL0 + CL

V

S

air density

(True) Airspeed

wing area

kg /m3

m/s

m2

Lift

Primarily generated by the wings

We consider a lumped lift model: L = Lwing + Lbody + Ltail + . . .

In principle can calculate lift using wing geometry etc....

...Often convenient to characterize lift in a simpler, experimental

way, using lift coefficient, CL

CL =

L

1

2

2 V S

V

S

L=

1 2

V SCL

2

Lift (Newtons)

air density (kg /m3 )

(true) velocity of aircraft (m/s)

total wing area (m2 )

Lift coefficient CL

the most important is the angle of attack,

is the angle of incidence to the on-coming airstream.

CL

CL

STALL

Increase in incidence

gives increase in lift

coefficient in

linear region

lift coefficient

decreases

after critical

angle reached

Increase in incidence

gives increase in lift

coefficient in

linear region

STALL

Stall point

higher than

on symmetric

wing

postive lift

zero lift

CL - graph: symmetric wing

At stall point, lift coefficient is maximum: CL = CL,max

For small (in linear region):

CL = CL0 +

CL

Lift coefficient CL

Comparison of CL,max at take off for different aircraft

CL,max typically corresponds to 16

Concorde

SAAB Viggen

F16

P51-Mustang

Boeing 747

Delta, no flaps

Delta-Canard

WW2 Fighter-Bomber

0.8

1.2

1.3

1.4

2.5

Drag

Contributed by wings, body, tailplane, engines...

We consider a lumped drag model:

D = Dwing + Dbody + Dtail + . . .

CD =

D=

1 2

V SCD

2

CD

D

1

2

2 V S

CL2

eA

= CD0 + CL2

= CD0 +

(e

CL2 responsible for lift induced (or simply induced) drag

Lumped model of drag is given by

D=

1 2

V SCD

2

Approximately:

CD = CD0 + CL2

CD0 , const

Thus

D

1 2

1

1

V S(CD0 + CL2 ) = V 2 SCD0 + V 2 SCL2

2

2

2

D

=

=

1

1 2

V CD0 S + V 2 S

2

2

1 2

V CD0 S

|2 {z }

no lift drag

L

1

2

2 V S

!2

L2

1

2

2 V S

| {z }

AIRCRAFT

DRAG

TOTAL DRAG

NOLIFT

DRAG

VS

VMD

AIRSPEED

Straight and level flight

L

V

mg

dV

dt

d 2z

m 2

dt

m

T D

L mg

V

T

D

m

L

horizontal velocity

thrust

drag

aircraft mass

lift

T

L

=

=

D

mg

(1)

(2)

Lift is given by

L=

1 2

V SCL

2

1

CL V 2 S

2

V2

V

= mg

2mg

CL S

s

2mg

=

CL S

=

1/2

V CL

Stall speed: the lowest speed at which the aircraft can maintain steady

flight

r

mg

Vs =

CL,max S

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