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Frog Dissection Lab

By: Carlson Dultra, Steve Benitez Castillo,


Daniel Forletta, and Michael DiPetta
Presented To: Ms. Valinho
Due: Thursday, June 6th, 2015
Course: SNC 2D MST

1.Observations (pictures) and Procedure Questions.

Procedure 7:

Procedure 8:

Procedure 10:

The connections between the circulatory system blood vessels and the digestive
system is that there were many veins attached to the digestive system organs. The
blood was delivered to the organs. We also noticed that there is a capillary bed that
diffuses minerals and other essentials from the arteries (that got the blood from the
heart) to the organs in the digestive system (although the capillaries were not
visible). We assume that the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine and colon
is is passed on to the veins (by the deoxygenated blood) that attach to the small
intestine and colon.

Procedure 11:

A. The inner surface of a frogs stomach contains ridges that allow for the
churning of food that allows the breaking down of food.
B. The small intestine is much longer than the large intestine. The large
intestine is very short and stubby whereas the small intestine is very long and
narrow. The large intestine has a much larger diameter than the small
intestine.
C. The frogs heart differs from the human heart because the frogs heart
has 3 chambers while the human heart has 4 chambers. The frogs chambers

include the two atria and one ventricle whereas the human heart has two atria
and 2 ventricles. The frogs right atrium receives deoxygenated blood while
the left gets oxygenated blood. The blood is then sent to the ventricle which
has two chambers to keep the blood from mixing. The human heart pumps
deoxygenated blood to the lung through the right ventricle. The oxygenated
blood returns to the left atrium. It is then pumped to the organs.

2. What Did You Find Out?


1. Identify two of each of the following that you observed during the
dissection:
a. Tissues: We found epithelial tissue and muscular tissue.
b. Organs: We found the heart and the liver.
c. Organ Systems: We found the digestive system and the
circulatory system.
2.
a. Frogs eat insects. Create a flowchart that shows the path
of an insect as it moves through a frogs digestive system.

b. Write a brief paragraph explaining how the organs of the


digestive system work together to digest the insect.
The organs of the frogs digestive system work together to digest the insect.
This is how they work together: The frogs catches its prey with its tongue and
then swallows its prey whole (Note: A frogs teeth are only used to keep its
prey from escaping). Then, it passes through the esophagus to the stomach.
It is digested in the stomach and broken down by a combination of stomach
acid (hydrochloric acid) and pepsin and then passed to the small intestine.
When dissolved food passes the duodenum (in which the dissolving process

continues) it gets absorbed through the intestine walls (jejunum and ileum).
The waste then continues to the colon, where water and vitamins are
absorbed, and makes its way to the rectum where waste is stored until it is
full. The waste is then excreted by the anus in the form of poo. That is how the
frog's digestive system's organs work together to digest food.
3.
a. Based on your observations, how do the frogs circulatory
and digestive systems connect?
Based on our observations, we found that the digestive system and the
circulatory system are connected by veins that are on the organs in the digestive
system. We believe that the nutrients that are absorbed can pass through the cell
walls and then enter into the bloodstream.
We later decided to research this on the internet and found out that the
circulatory system and the digestive system are connected because the digestive
system include the liver which has a hepatic portal system which veins pass through
and come out of. We also found out that the two systems connect at alveoli.

b. Explain why the interaction of the digestive and


circulatory systems is necessary for the frogs survival.
The digestive system and the circulatory system interact because the
digestive system requires 30% of the bodys blood supply to perform its functions. As
the digestive system breaks down the food into nutrients, the nutrients are then
absorbed into the circulatory system. From there the nutrients that were once in the
digestive system, are transported throughout the body from the circulatory system.
The nutrients are vital and can only be transported through the circulatory system
and broken down by the digestive system.
4. Some people refuse to dissect a real animal. They believe that
students can use software to study animal organ systems without cutting up
the animals. Other people think that dissecting real animals is useful for
students to better understand how organ systems work in animals. What do
you think?
After dissecting the leopard frog, we think that dissecting an animal in the
science lab is the best way for students to learn about the organ systems in animals.
This is because when we dissected the frog we got a hands on experience with the
different organ systems. We got to see what the organ systems looked like, how they
felt, and how the different organ systems interacted with each other. A computer
cannot allow us this experience. Although the computer can go more in depth about

how the different systems interact, it is not a hands on experience where we can feel
and see how the organs interconnect. A picture of a dissected frog or 3-D model
cannot do the real dissection justice. This gave a greater understanding since now
we have an experience to remember when thinking about the organ systems of a
frog. We dont have to think about the pictures we see on the internet.

3. Inquire Further:
Describe the connection between the nervous, muscular, and respiratory
system of a frog. Make sure to include how the systems rely on each other to
keep the organism alive.
In the frog, the nervous, muscular, and respiratory system are all
interconnected. In fact, all the organ systems in animals are interconnected in one
way or another.
The nervous system needs the respiratory system just as the respiratory
system needs the nervous system. The nervous system regulates the speed of the
intake of air and the respiratory system lets the nervous system know about the gas
exchange going on throughout the body. The purpose of the respiratory system is to
achieve gas exchange (the intake of oxygen and the dispersing of carbon dioxide).
For gas exchange to be effective, the body must know how much oxygen is needed
to be taken in to perform this function. For example, when the frog is resting, it does
not need as much oxygen intake as when it is leaping around. To stop this problem
from occurring, the brain and spinal cord sense the level of activity occurring in the
frog and send a message through the nervous tissue to the lungs on how much
oxygen to intake. The nervous system also allows the respiratory system to work
autonomously. The respiratory system also allows for oxygen to travel to the cells,
tissues, and organs in the nervous system and all the other organ systems. The
ability to have gas exchange in the body is vital. Thanks to the nervous system and
the respiratory, the body can adjust to the amount of oxygen the frog needs to live
when it is on the move or if it is resting. The working together of these two systems
not only is in frogs, but is also present in other animals (including humans) and
keeps all of them breathing and living.
The nervous system and the muscular system also interact. In the frog, the muscular
system and the nervous system interact by helping each other with their sensory and
motor functions. Along with helping each other with their duties, the muscular system
offers protection to the delicate nervous tissues. Since the muscles cover the
nervous tissues, there are sensory receptors in the muscles. These sensory
receptors help the nervous system carry out its duties and get an understanding of
the environment through the senses. Along with these sensory receptors in the
muscle, there are also motor nerves in the muscles. These motor nerves are the
pathway for electrical impulses and chemical signals from the brain to tell the
muscles to contract. This contraction results in movement. This is all caused by the

brain sending the signal to move. This connection allows for the frog to know its
surroundings. It will allow for the frog to know if there's predators or prey around its
area. The nervous systems connection with the muscular system would allow for the
frog to move. If the frog cannot move, then it would be a sitting duck for predators.
The ability to move would allow for the frog to catch food, or escape predators.
The respiratory and muscular system, once again, also interacts with each other.
Both systems rely on each other to allow for the other system to work. When the
muscular system is under stress (more movement), the intake of oxygen increases in
the respiratory system. The respiratory also relies on the muscular system to aid in
gas exchange which provides nutrients to the muscular system. To perform
inhalation and exhalation in the lungs, the diaphragm muscle must contract and
expand to apply the needed pressure on the lungs. The faster this muscle expands
and contracts, the faster this process occurs. With the help of the circulatory system,
the respiratory system delivers the much needed nutrients and oxygen to the
muscle. The more activity the frog does, the more oxygen the muscles will need.
This then causes the diaphragm to relax and contract more quickly, resulting in a
greater rate of respiration, which then sends the oxygen to the muscles so they can
keep on moving. This function in the frog allows for the frog to breathe. This also
allows for the frog to keep on moving. The more the frog moves, the more oxygen
the frogs muscles get to allow it to keep on moving.

Citations:

wiseGEEK,. 'What Is The Connection Between The Muscular System And

Respiratory System?'. N. p., 2015. Web. 3 June 2015.


Ask.com,. 'What Is The Main Difference Between A Human Heart And Frog
Heart? | Ask.Com'. N. p., 2015. Web. 7 June 2015.
wiseGEEK,. 'What Is The Relationship Between The Muscular System And
Nervous System?'. N. p., 2015. Web. 3 June 2015.
wiseGEEK,. 'What Is The Connection Between The Nervous System And
Respiratory System?'. N. p., 2015. Web. 3 June 2015.
wiseGEEK,. 'What Is The Relationship Between The Digestive System And
Circulatory System?'. N. p., 2015. Web. 6 June 2015.
StudyMode,. 'Frogs - Research Papers - Samcheat'. N. p., 2015. Web. 7 June
2015.
Credit to Nicholas Guida for providing one picture for procedure 10 (the
organless frog) and the pictures for procedure 11.