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# f

COO-3077-145

Courant

Institute of

Mathematical Sciences
ERDA Mathematics and Computing Laboratory

A Survey of Numerical
for

Methods

Compressible Fluids

Gary A. Sod

ERDA

June 1977

New

York University

UNCLASSIFIED

## ERDA Mathematics and Computing Laboratory

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences
New York University

COO-3077-145

Gary A. Sod
June 1977

## Contract No. EY-76-C-02-3077

UNCLASSIFIED

Abstract
The finite difference methods of Godunov, Hyman, Lax-Wendroff

(two-step), MacCormack,

Rusanov,

and Book,

the hybrid

## compared with the random choice method known as Glimm's method.

The methods are used to integrate the one-dimensional equations
of gas dynamics for an inviscid fluid.

I.

Introduction

## been used for solving the one-dimensional equations of gas

dynamics for an inviscid fluid.

its

restricted.

is given,

compared,

and

## finally the equations used by Glimm's method are derived and a

flow chart for the programming of it is given.

Basic Equations

h^p +^^(pu) =

V+^x^^+P)
^m

V+^x^?P
where

= pe

1
2
+2 pu

and

where

(2)

^^+P)) =

(^^

is the density,

p is pressure,

(1)

e

is

We may write

'"^)

r^Aip

we have
P = A(S)p^

where

(4b)

m
2

u =

and

in

F(U) =

1%

(e+p)
.;

we

by-

## integrating equations (l)-(3) (or equation (5)) over any region

in the upper half of the

(x, t)

pdx + Cp mdt =

f^

mdx + (f

f
II.

edx

+^

(6)

( + p )dt

(- (e+p))dt =

(7)

(8)

[I6],

scheme [19

Glimm'

Method

increment.

i =

## 0,1,2, ... and at time (n + -p)At at (i+-p)Ax.

'

Let u^ approximate

## U(iAx,nAt) and ^l^+Y/l approximate U( ( i+1/2) Ax, (n+l/2)At)

To find the solution u'?^M2 and thus define the method, consider
.

data

-i+1

>

(i+l/2)Ax

U(x,nAt)

(9)
X

<

(i+l/2)Ax

If At<

Ax
2(
I

where

u] +c)

## ution vCx,t) to the Riemann problem can be combined into

a single exact

Let

solution.

g^ be an equidistributed

## random variable which is given by the Lebesgue measure on

the interval E-pjp"^-

Define

n+1/2
-i+1/2

## At each time step,

v((i+C^)Ax, (n+|)At)

(10)

inexpensively

Chorin

[3]

## Consider the system (5) with the initial data

s^ =

(pr'^rPp

'

X <

(11)

S^ = (Pj,,u^,p^)

>

The solution at later times looks like (see [1^]) Fig. 1, where
S-,

The lines

and

are slip

## lines separating the states.

the state S^ into two parts with possibly different values of p^,

state S^.

=
^

u^

u^

12)

we obtain
M_g

p/^^-U^)

= P*^^*-

(13)

U_g)

## where U^ is the velocity of the left shock and p^ is the density

in the portion of S^ adjoining the left shock.

Similarly,

define

the quantity

Mr

.^i-^.
u - u
r

(1*)

-U

M^ = -p fu
where U

-p,(u^-Uj

(15)

## in the portion of S^ adjoining the right shock.

In either of the two cases

we obtain

M^ = /pTpI
'r'^r

Mv^/vJ

M = /p.p.
^i

^{Vjv,)

(16a)

(16b)

where

y^ X

^^

>

= <

<l,(x)

(17)

1-x
^ /o
l-x-Y-l/^^
2/7
/-I
^^^

X < 1

>

- u
(u,
"
i

P* =

Equations

l6a),

l6b),

+I + _l)
M^

M^

(18)

TTx

and M
A/

equations

l6a),

(.l6b),

[3]

and (l8).

),

we iterate using

-L

After p^, M

and M

^*

(12

mttt^^
I

and (1^),

^^^^

I

is

is also a

^^^ replaced by

p'?^^'^^

\x^

(19) and

p^^

li._|_-,

^2

^"^

## from the Riemann

(l8)

problem at i+1/2.

Artificial Viscosity

## and Lax-Wendroff (two-step) an artificial viscosity term was

The artificial viscosity term used was introduced by

## Lapidus [13]. It has the advantage that it is very easy to add to

an existing scheme and it retains the high order accuracy of the
scheme.

Let

'^n+
u.

## This value is replaced by the new

approximation

'^n
~n ~n
where A'u. = u. -u._-| and

## solution of the following diffusion equation

= vAt(Ax5)[|u (U ]
U
"
x'-x-'x
Ax
-t
'

the constant

The values of

This is

This artificial

In this

## section we discuss the Artificial Compression Method (ACM)

developed by Harten [8],

## conjunction with an already existing finite difference scheme.

The purpose of this method is to sharpen the regions which contain

## discontinuities whether shocks or contact discontinuities.

Only the basic idea of the ACM will be discussed for the
Let u(x, t) be a solution of

## case of a single conservation law.

the conservation law

^t "^^^^^x =

^^^

## which contains a discontinuity (u^(t), u(t), S(t)), where u. and

Ut-,

are the values on the left and right of the jump and S is the

or a contact.

given time

t the

g(u,t) =

## The discontinuity is either a shock

>

t)

with properties

for

u e (u^( t

) )

(22)

for

u ^ (u^(t),Uj^(t))

(23)

), Uj^(

## This function g will be called an artificial compression flux.

It can be seen that u is also a solution of the conservation

law
u^ + (f(u)+ g(u,t))^ =

(2^)

## Finally it is observed (from (22)) that if (u

or contact for equation (21

equation

S)

is a shock

24)

For a complete

Let u^

(5)

## obtained by using any one of the above finite difference methods.

In solving the modified system (analogous to (2^

splitting.

) )

we use operator

## the artificial compression flux g.

(25)

li = "i^i
where

and
m in (IS.+i/gUs^.i/g-Bgn (5^^,/g))a.

= max^ 0,min
k

1^1.1/2

^1^-1/2

## where k refers to the k-th component of the

u,

(26)

^J

~(k)

~(k)

^^^2_/2 ^ '^i+l~ ^i

10

Let

S.

## represent the vector whose k-th component is sgn

/p

-,

i^^^2_/2'^'

Then the difference scheme which applies the ACM to the given solu~n+l IS
tion u.
X
.

n+1
iii

~n+l

=H
+

At

2^
'\'n+l

= ^1

,n

where 9.1+1/2

"

/^

>,

-2A3E (gi+i-gi_i)

At

/n

n
-

2A7 (^i+1/2

nn%+l

(27a)

(ll+l-Iil^i+l/2- ISi-Si-ll^i.1/2)

"

"

in

"

'S-i+l

t7k ^
(27b)

-.

/'

^i-1/2)'

nio
^^

-1+1/2'

t-^ componentapplied
<-

wise.

schemes.

profile.

## other flux terms so that one obtains different (nonphysical)

speeds of propagation.

scheme

L-,

Consider

## and a k-th order (k

a
>_

2)

L,

k',

Vi

= -1

-^^<.l/2- ^-l/2\

(28)

Vi

-I7

(^1+1/2 - ^Ll/2).

(29)

-i

and

L,

through

11

L^

-It

(f-i-Hl/2

^-1/2^'

^1+1/2-*

^30)

where

## ^1 + 1/2 " ^1+1/2 ^1 + 1/2

6.,-, /p

is a scalar quantity

^ ^i+-|/p
such that

5.

-^^

1.

"^

^1

(called

^1+1/2

'

^31)

is

## Equation (30) can be written in the form

L^

Vi
-

so that if
p

>_

-^

17 ^^.1/2 (^1.1/2
-

^-1/2 (^1-1/2

is o(Ax^)

^1.1/2)
(32)

^1-1/2^^

k-1 we have

Lu.

= L u.

+ o(Ax^'^^)

## There are many choices for such schemes.

here is discussed in Harten [9]

Taking k

(33)

we choose

term

i ^^+1/2 (^1.1

- ^i^

^-1/2

(^1 - ^1-1))

(3M

'

12

uf'

(Uj^l _ u?)

(35)

-i^

^-i+1

Ax

1
-

_ pH)

.pn

n _ At

-1

At

(Itl.l - ^l)

} <l.l/2

-i-1^

2Ax ^-i
-

1-1/.

<"-!

(36)

"-?-l"

/3
^1

+c)
max(M|u 1^

'^t

scheme.

## So this is the stability condition for the hybrid

scheme
It remains to describe how the switch

is chosen.

There

Harten

1 9J

Let ^^ + 1/2

"

i+1/2

"^i+l

^i"

i-1/2
,

'

^+1/2!

for

^^^^"^

|A.^^/2 +

i-1/2

>

'i-1/2
(37)
,

In this case p =

and

e

otherwise.

>

p.

1+1/2

by

"iaxce.,e.^^).

## Since in areas which contain a discontinuity the hybrid

scheme is about first order we may apply the artificial

13

## compression method discussed above.

not be used in smooth regions.
is used again,

n+1

i.e.

At
2Ax

'\^n+l

pn
n
^"i+1/2 -i+1/2

## Antidiffusion Method of Boris and Book

pH

,n

1-1/2 -i-1/2^

(38)

In this section we

## shall discuss briefly the antidiffusion method developed by

The purpose of this special technique

## known as "flux correction" is to achieve high resolution

without oscillations.
It

## can be represented by an equation of the form

fCu), = At [gCu,f^)uJ^

(39)

At.
is the coefficient of the diffusion term.
where gCu,^)

Let the

## original scheme be represented by (39), the modification is

represented by
u^ + fCu)^ = At

where r is

At
At
(g(u,v-) - r(u,T^))u,
'Ax'
/

positive function.

(^0)

of solving

'Ax'

## The first step consists

14

'vn+l

= Lu.. Then
with the original difference scheme, say u.
In the second step let A be a difference operator approximating

-t '

^4^^"'i^

"x]x

(^2)

0-

## The second step Is the antidlf fusion step, which is unstable

by Itself since It approximates the backward heat equation.

We define
n+1 = n'^n+l = -T n
Au.
ALu.

u.

## then the combined scheme AL is stable.

more of a restriction on 7

Ax

## Boris and Book

[ 2]

-^(F?,, -Fj),

(U? ^ U^.,)

- 2uJ
5i + n(uj+i

n+1 ^ ^n+1
^1
-1

where

Following

the procedure is

u;:};M

if ^

L.

^-1+1/2

uj_^),
s

-1-1/2^'

(..a)

(44c)
(i^i^^s
^

1
.

15

^i+l/2

i+l/2

^1+1/2

n+1
7?n+l.
-u--).
(u

sgn(A.^^/2) max

U Tt, - U..
1
1+1

0,

mm |sgn(A.^^/2)^-l/2' 1^1+1/2!
The parameter

'"Sn(A.^^/2)A.^3/2]|.

## is the diffuslon/antldlf fusion coefficient.

The

stability condition is
/

max( u +c
I

'

'

At
<
Ax

a

## are approximated by a second order difference operator while

the time derivative (or time integrator) uses the Improved

Euler scheme.

rule corrector.

n+1/2

u
1

n+1

u.

u^ - At (DF^ -

= u

n _ At

6(*^^,/2

4>"

))
"1-1/2^^'

(i<5a)

At P

(DFfl/2

pH)^

(^5b)

16

where

o^ = (u + c)^,
and

is

## applications of the corrector (45b) and on

We took as the

stability condition

"

Ax

<

1.

However, it

Replace f^^+1/2

(45a)

by

^"^

^"+1/2 ^^^^^
1

J^

>

Ax

P =
1

otherwise.

This switch

## contact discontinuity as well as the shock wave.

is a type of artificial compression.

tube.

## A diaphragm at x^ separates two regions (regions

have difference density and pressures.

constant state.

and 5

which

> p

p-^

>

and

17

= u

u-|

= 0,

>

At time

X-,

Points

## continuous in this region (region 2) some of the derivatives of

the fluid quantities may not be continuous.

time t.

x^

It is seen that

However,

## the tangential component of velocity are not continuous across a

contact discontinuity.

(p,

m,

e,

Pp-

= 0.1,

be 1.4.

and

= 0.

Uj-

= 1.,

p.,

p,

= 1.,

u-,

0.01.

= 0.,
-y

o-

In the

The constant

## was taken to be 1.0 In all

(see Table I) was taken to be 0.9-

was chosen to

was

The

## practical effect of such a choice with finite Ax is

dlsasterous; since our initial data is not close to constant
Cwhich was an assumption made by Glimm).

= 0.125,

For the

## Rusanov scheme the value of w was taken to be 1.0.

scheme of Boris and Book the parameter

In fact, if

is

## and n, it is possible that a state will

18

propagate to the left and to the right and thus create a spurious
state.

is to choose |

only once

and

Sod [21]

## Figure 4 indicates the results using the first order accurate

Godunov scheme.
wave are rounded.

## The corners at the endpoints of the rarefaction

The constant state between the contact dis-

The transi-

## tion of the contact discontinuity occupies 7-8 zones while the

transition of the shock occupies 5-6 zones.
Figure 5 indicates the results using the Godunov scheme with

artificial compression.

## constant in the artificial viscosity term was taken to be 2.0 to

insure that the solution before application of artificial compres-

## artificial compression method is not applied in smooth regions.

There is a slight undershoot at the right corner of the rarefaction.

The

## transition of the contact discontinuity occupies 3-4 zones while

the transition of the shock occupies only 1-2 zones.

## Figure 6 shows the results of the two-step Lax Wendroff scheme.

There are very slight overshoots at the contact discontinuity and

quite accurate.

19

## The transition of the contact dis-

continuity occupies 6-8 zones while the shock wave occupies 4-6
zones.

scheme.

The rarefaction

## discontinuity occupies 7-8 zones while the transition of the shock

occupies 5-6 zones.

## Figure 8 represents the first order accurate Rusanov scheme.

The contact discontinuity is barely visible in the density profile.
The corners at the endpoints of the rarefaction wave are extremely

rounded.

## discontinuity occupies l4-l6 zones and the transition of the shock

occupies 6-8 zones.

This

improved.

in this area.

## discontinuity occupies 2-3 zones while that of the shock wave

occupies only 1-2 zones.

20

Is

It

## left endpoint of the rarefaction wave Is a shock (discontinuity)

This Is a result of

## differences for the pressure term In the momentum equation.

Figure 11 shows the results of the Gllmm scheme.

The shock

wave and the contact discontinuity have been computed with Infinite

occurs is zero.

## of the shock and the contact discontinuity are not exact.

on the average their positions are exact.

However,

It

is

## observed that the rarefaction is not smooth, yet it is extremely

close to the exact solution.

## The constant states are perfectly

realized.
The Gllmm scheme requires between

and

times as much

## time (see below) as the other finite difference schemes tested.

However, the Glimm scheme requires far less spatial grid points
for the same resolution.
9

One

## other check on the accuracy is to use the conservation laws

(mass, momentum, and energy).

## For example, the total mass is

21

evaluated by

Qp = 2^D(iAx) AX.
1

i.e.

## but they are contained within a small interval.

is seen to increase linearly on the average

fluctuations

The momentum

(allowing for

## Figure 12 shows the results of the antidif fusion method

of Boris and Book applied to the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme.

rarefaction

rounded.

The transition

## transition of the shock occupies 1-2 zones.

The resolution is

(see Fig

Harten and Zwas

The

## corners at the endpoints of the rarefaction wave are only

slightly rounded.

22

## transition of the shock occupies 5-6 zones.

Figure l4 represents the hybrid scheme
with the use of artifical compression.

## compression is not applied in smooth regions the rarefaction

is the same as in Fig.

discontinuity

13-

## shock wave occupies 2-3 zones.

Figure 15 represents the results of Hyman's predictor-

## corrector scheme, where the corrector has been applied once.

The solution is oscillation free.

The constant

## states between the rarefaction and the contact discontinuity

and between the contact discontinuity are extremely well
defined.

## The transition of the contact discontinuity occupies

6-8 zones while the transition of the shock occupies 3-^ zones.

The timing

Table IV.

The only

## substantial 'difference in timing is between Glimm's scheme

and the other finite difference schemes.

requires between

and

## times as much time.

However, Glimm's

scheme can give the same resolution with far less points
Cas seen in Table II).

## number of grid points per desired resolution, the Gllmm scheme

can be seen to be much faster.

IV.

Conclusions

23

It

## best resolution of the shocks and contact

discontinuities.
Glimm's scheme is at best first order accurate (see

handled.

## This is presently being considered.

The hybrid method of Harten and Zwas combines first and

## high order schemes in such a way as to extract the best

features of both.

## approximations to the smooth parts of the flow.

The corrective procedures of Boris and Book and Harten

## pression method being restricted to first order schemes except

when used in conjunction

Boris and Book.

## slightly more storage than the artificial compression method

since the former must retain two time levels of information
for the computation of Intermediate results (equation (44c)).
A

## major disadvantage of the antldlf fusion method of

Boris and Book, the hybrid scheme of Harten and Zwas, and
the artificial compression method of Harten is that there

## given problem. In the antldlf fusion method the coefficient

of diffusion/'antidiffuslon must be chosen.

In the hybrid

24

## scheme a tolerance must be chosen for the automatic switch which

is taken to be a measure of negligible variation in entropy or

## locate the rarefaction (and other smooth regions).

Many of the

standard tests fail to work well enough for the use of artificial
compression.

## With the method described for solving the Riemann problem

in the Glimm scheme,

## dynamics in rectangular coordinates.

Glimm'
tions.

It is possible to generalize

method to other coordinate systems and different equaSee Harten and Sod [10].

## cally symmetric flow.

See Sod

22]

Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank Professor
Mr.

Alexandre Chorin

The author

## would also like to thank Josette Bordiga for her encouragement

without which this would not be possible.
This work was also supported in part by the National Science

25

Appendix:

As in Fig.

1,

is separated

by a slip line

>

dx

= u^

-grp

There

I.

(^^Ax

<

## lies to the left of the slip line

i'nAx

u^At/2).
If the left wave is a shock wave

(a)

and p = p.,

u = u.,
O

dx
-ry

(2)

if

and (l) if

we have p = p.,

^
i i

lb

= U,,

dx =
U

-r-p

>

(p^

we have p = p^,

p = p^,

u = u^,

from (13)

M
I

(^6)

U^-u.

(b)

j^.

c. =

i7Pfl
-,

where c^ =
*

ty

dx
-^ = u

.

/
'

?)

Jl

- c

where

dx =
u^

-^-p

- c^,

so

P*

denoted by

A,

and we

isentropic law
P^P^"^ =

P*P*^ = A

(^7)

26

(1)
p = p^,

If

I'nAx

u = u^,

(2)

If

then

and p = p^.

dx

-^^

= u

2i ""Ax

- c

obtaining

- c

{^9)

At

## With the constancy of the Riemann invariant

2c(7-l)-^ + u = 2c^(7-l)'^+u^

and p.

c,

(50)

we can obtain

p,

u,

p =

Using equation

= Ap^

p,p7p^

^^')

('50)

= c^ +

^^

(u^- u)

(52)

## By substitution of (52) into {^9) and solving for u we obtain

o

By substitution of
of

52)

2P

Ax

7"

53)

into

## into the definition of

52)
c

is obtained; by substitution

we obtain

27

P =

(3)

we obtain

= p^,

u = u^,

II.

(I^Ax

>

and p = p^.

u^At/2).

(a)
i

(53)

(f^)'^"'"'

## If the right wave is a shock wave

(p^

> p

and (l) if

dy
Ax lies to the left of the shockline defined by -^ = U
we have
dt
r
= p#j u = u^, and p = p^, where p^ is obtained from (15)
,

-M
^

'*

(2)

^=

U^,
(b)

If

r_

u^
'* - U

(5M

we have

= p^,

u = u^,

and p = p^,

"^

(p^

The

) .

dx
-TT-

= u^ + c^,

i^P*

where c^ =

isentropic law
Pp"^ = P*p;^ = A

(55

tz>

= p^, u = u^,

dx =
u +

(56

/^Pr

"'dtrr'rVp

## and on the right by

the line defined by
J
If

(55

P* = (-^)

(1)

-rrr

and p = p^

28

(2)

If

## equate the slope of the characteristic

dx

= ^ + ^ to the slope of

-g^

),

obtaining

Ax

2i
u+c=-^.

(57)

## With the constancy of the Riemann invariant

2c(7-l)-l- u = 2c^(7-l)-^-u^
the isentropic law,

## the definition of c, we can obtain

cind

P = PpPj,"^p^ = Ap^

Using equation

(58

Substitution of

(60))

c^+

into

59)

into

(g-i

^^

u,

(u - u^)

Ax

(59

(60

## and solving for u we obtain

(.57)

2C

By substitution of

c =

p,

and p.

of

(58)

-,

60)
c

by substitution

is obtained;

we obtain

,c2lA-l
P =

(3)

If

Equations

Glimm's method.

(62)

p = p

we obtain

(75^

u = u
i^c)

and p = p
62)

## For a summary see the flow chart. Fig. 16

29

>H

30

v|

31

Table II

32

Table III

t/At
1

Qr

Q,

33

Table IV

SCHEMES

3^

Figure

35

Region

Region

Pi

1P5

yu

^1=0
I

'0

Figure

36

Region

Region

u.

Figure

37

1.00

Figure

.00

38

1.00

LamiiuiMHWWWft

LJ

o
o
Hd-oo

.50

.25

Figure

.75

continued

1.00

39

1.00

o
to'

BEEME

nillllllllB

O
CM
>-Cj'

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61

UFT

art

aa.f

".-"-

lEFT

SIDE

IS

S-T

v.

62

List of Captions

Tables.

Table

I.

Table II.

## Standard finite difference methods.

Profiles obtained by

Glliran's

method for

Interior

grid points.

Table III.

Table IV.

Figures

Figure 1.

## Solution of a Riemann problem.

Figure

2.

Shock tube at

Figure

3-

Shock tube at

>

0.

Figure

4.

Godunov's method.

Figure

5.

Figure

6.

## Two-step Lax-Wendroff method.

Figure

7.

MacCormack's method.

Figure

8.

Figure

9.

Figure 10.

Figure 11.

Gllmm's method.

Figure 12.

Figure 13-

Hybrid method.

Figure 14.

Figure 15.

Figure 16.

63

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[1]

J.

P.

_,and

[2]
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## UCID-17252, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, University of

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[22

to appear.

65

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