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Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry

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CIVIL ENGINEERING
(TWO MARKS)

R.VIJAYAKUMAR, B.Tech (CIVIL)

Christ College of engineering and technology,


Pitchaveeranpet, Moolakulam, Puducherry 10.

Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry

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CONTENTS
S. NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

TITLE
Surveying 2
Design of RCC structures
Environmental engineering 2
Geotechnical engineering 1
Geotechnical engineering 2
Structural analysis 1
Structural analysis 2
Transportation engineering 1
Transportation engineering 2
Coastal engineering
Construction methods and equipments
Failure analysis and rehabilitation of structures

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92
120
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350
391
444

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SURVEYING II
UNIT 1
1. What is Satellite Station?
A Subsidiary Station is established as near the true or principal station
as possible, the station so established is called a satellite station or eccentric
station or false station.

2. What is working from whole to part?


This means, when an area is to be surveyed, first a system of control
points is to be established covering the whole area with very high precision.
Then minor details are located by less precise methods. The idea of working
this way is to prevent the accumulation of errors and to control and localize
minor errors which, otherwise, would expand to greater magnitudes if the
reverse process is followed, thus making the work uncontrolled at the end.

3. What are the applications of triangulation?


Optical 3d measuring systems use this principle as well in order to
determine the spatial dimensions and the geometry of an item.
(Basically, the configuration consists of two sensors observing the
item. One of the sensors is typically a digital camera device, and the
other one can also be a camera or a light projector. The projection
centers of the sensors and the considered point on the objects surface
define a (spatial triangle).
Within this triangle, the distance between the sensors is the base b and
must be known. By determining the angles between the projection

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rays of the sensors and the basis, the intersection point, and thus the
3d coordinate, is calculated from the triangular relations.

4. List the requirements in selecting a site as a baseline.


The site should be fairly level. If, however, the ground is sloping, the
slope should be uniform and gentle. Undulating ground should, if
possible be avoided.
The site should be free from obstructions throughout the whole of the
length. The line clearing should be cheap in both labour and
compensation.
The extremities of the base should be intervisible at ground level.
The ground should be reasonably firm and smooth. Water gaps
should be few, and if possible not wider than the length of the long
wire or tape.
The site should suit extension to primary triangulation. This is an
important factor since the error in extension is likely to exceed the
error in measurement.

5. What is meant by the strength of figure of a triangulation system?


The strength of figure is a factor to be considered in establishing a
triangulation system to maintain the computations within a desired degree of
precision. It plays also an important role in deciding the layout of a
triangulation system. It is based on the fact that computations in
triangulation involve use of angles of triangle and length of one known side.
The other two sides are computed by sine law.

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6. State the objectives of Triangulation survey?


To establish accurate control for plane and geodetic surveys of large
areas, by terrestrial methods.
To establish accurate control for photogrammetric surveys of large
areas,
To assist in the determination of the size and shape of the earth by
making observations for latitude, longitude and gravity, and
To determine accurate locations of points in engineering works such
as piers and abutments of long span bridges, fixing centre line,
terminal points and shafts for long tunnels, measurement of the
deformation of dams, etc.

7. Write some of the modern surveying equipments.


Total station is a theodolite with an Electronic Distance Measurement
Device. Total station has also been one of the reasons behind the drastic
change of technology in the surveying field. EDMD shifted the surveying
technology from optical mechanical devices to digital electronic devices. In
spite of just being distance measuring equipment, total station can also be
used for leveling when adjusted in a horizontal plane. Most of the ultramodern surveying devices are a combination of one or more of these
devices.

8. Define Signals.
A signal is a device erected to define the exact position of an observed
station. It may be classified as,
Daylight or Non luminous (opaque) signal
Sun or luminous signal
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Night signal

9. Define bench marking.


Bench mark is a relatively permanent point of reference whose
elevation with respect to some assumed datum is known. It is used either as
a starting point for leveling or as a point upon which to close as a check.

10.What is meant by Trignometrical leveling?


Trignometrical leveling is the process of determining the differences
of elevation of the given station from observed vertical angles and known
distance.

UNIT 2
1. What are the functions of reverse curve?
Reverse curves are useful when laying out such things as pipelines,
flumes, and levees. The surveyor may also use them on low-speed roads and
railroads. They cannot be used on high-speed roads or railroads since they
cannot be properly super elevated at the PRC. They are sometimes used on
canals, but only with extreme caution, since they make the canal difficult to
navigate and contribute to erosion.

2. How curves are designated?


A curve may be designated either by the radius or by the angle
subtended at the centre by a chord of particular length. In India, a curve is
designated by the angle (in degrees) subtended at the centre by a chord of 30
metres (100 ft.) length. This angle is called the degree of curve (D). The
degree of the curve indicates the sharpness of the curve.
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3. Define vertical curve.


Vertical curves are equal-tangent curves, which mean that the
horizontal distance from the center of the curve to the end of the curve is
identical in both directions. Unequal-tangent vertical curves, which are
simply equal-tangent curves that have been attached to one another, are used
only infrequently.

4. Write the methods of setting out a circular curve.


Linear methods
By ordinates or offsets from long chord
By successive bisection of arcs
By offsets from the tangents
By deflection distances
Angular method
Rankines method of tangential angle
Two theodolite method
Tacheometric method

5. What is transition curve?


A curve of constantly changing radius, used to connect a circular arc
to a straight line or to an arc of different curvature.

6. What is sag or valley curves?


Valley curve or sag curves are vertical curves with convexity
downwards. They are formed when two gradients meet in any of the
following four ways:

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When a descending gradient meets another descending gradient


When a descending gradient meets a flat gradient
When a descending gradient meets an ascending gradient
When an ascending gradient meets another ascending gradient

7. Why the reverse curve is not provided in high speed ways?


According to the laws of mechanics, when a vehicle travels on a curve
it is forced outward by centrifugal force. It is impractical to balance
centrifugal force by super elevation alone, because for any given curve
radius a certain super elevation rate is exactly correct for only one driving
speed. Hence we cannot provide reverse curve in high speed ways.

8. List the various types of curve.


Simple curve
Compound curve
Reverse curve
Transition curve
Vertical curve

9. What are the functions of a transition curve?


Primary functions of a transition curves (or easement curves) are:
To accomplish gradual transition from the straight to circular curve,
so that curvature changes from zero to a finite value
To provide a medium for gradual introduction or change of required
super elevation
To changing curvature in compound and reverse curve cases, so that
gradual change of curvature introduced from curve to curve
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10.What are the uses of vertical Curves?


Allow smooth transition from one grade to another (driver comfort)
Provide adequate sight distance at junction of grades and for
overtaking (safety)
Provide satisfactory appearance (aesthetics)

UNIT 3
1. What are accidental errors?
Accidental errors are those which remain after mistakes and
systematic errors have been eliminated and are caused by a combination of
reasons beyond the ability of the observer to control. They tend sometimes
in one direction and some times in the other, (i.e.) they are equally likely to
make the apparent result too large or too small.

2. What is well conditioned triangle?


The triangles having internal angles between 30o & 130o are known as
well conditioned triangle. In other words, the shape of the triangle should be
such that any error in the measurement of angle shall have a minimum effect
upon the lengths of the calculated side. Such a triangle is then called well conditioned triangle.

3. Define photogram metric.


Photogram metric surveying or Photogrammetry is the science and art
of obtaining accurate measurements by use of photographs, for various
purposes such as the construction of planimetric and topographic maps,
classification of soils, interpretation of geology, acquisition of military

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intelligence and the preparation of composite pictures of the ground. The


photographs are taken either from the air or from station on the ground.

4. What is meant by method of equal shifts?


The method of equal shifts indicates that any shift which is necessary
to satisfy the local equation should be the same for each triangle of the
polygon. Similarly, any shift necessary to satisfy the side equation should
be the same for each triangle.

5. What is the use of correlates?


Correlation is a statistic that measures the linear relationship between
two variables. This explanation is intended to help the layperson understand
the basic concept of correlation without requiring a lot of technical
knowledge. We use correlation to help understand what drives employee
satisfaction or employee engagement within organizations. The same
technique can also be used for customer satisfaction or other types of
surveys as well.

6. Define normal equations.


A normal equation is the one which is formed by multiplying each
equation by the coefficient of the unknown whose normal equation is to be
found and by adding the equation thus formed. As the number of normal
equations is the same as the number of unknowns, the most probable values
of the unknown can be found from these equations.

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7. What are the triangulation adjustments?


Single angle adjustment
Station adjustment
Figure adjustment

8. Define Residual error.


A residual error is the difference between the most probable value of a
quantity and its observed value.
Residual error = Most probable value Observed value

9. Write the types of error measurements.


Mistakes or Gross error
Systematic or Cumulative error
Accidental or Random error

10.What are systematic errors?


A systematic error is an error that under the same conditions will
always be of the same size and sign. A systematic error always follows
some definite mathematical or physical law, and a correction can be
determined and applied. Such errors are of constant character and are
regarded as positive or negative according as they make the result too great
or too small. Their effect is therefore, cumulative.

11.What is the principle of least square?


According to the principle of least square, the most probable value of
an observed quantity available from a given set of observations is the one for
which the sum of the squares of errors is a minimum.
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12.Define most probable value.


The most probable value of a quantity is the one which has more
chances of being true than has any other. It is deduced from the several
measurements on which it is based.

13.What are Mistakes or Gross errors?


Depends upon the observer, a mistake cannot be corrected unless the
observer get training. The mistakes are errors that arise from inattention,
inexperience, carelessness and poor judgment of confusion in the mind of
the observer.

14.Distinguish between true value and most probable value.


TRUE VALUE

MOST PROBABLE VALUE

The true value of a quantity is The most probable value of a quantity


the value which is absolutely

is the one which has more chances of

free from all the errors.

being true than has any other.

The true value of a quantity is It is deduced from the several


indeterminate since the true

measurements on which it is based.

error is never known.

UNIT 4
1. What are the uses of Tellurometer?
The instrument is highly portable.
Observations can be taken both during day as well as night, while in
the geodimeter; observations are normally restricted in the night.

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2. List out apparatus for making sounding.


Sounding boat
Sounding rods or poles
Lead lines
Sounding machine
Fathometer

3. What is the use of Electromagnetic Distance Measurement?


The term EDM is used to describe a category of instruments that
measure distance using an electronic signal. The instrument broadcasts a
focused signal that is returned by a prism or reflection from the object.

4. What do you meant by carrier wave?


A carrier signal, carrier wave or just carrier is the electromagnetic
wave that can be modulated, as in frequency, amplitude or phase, to transmit
speech, music, images or other signals. A wave form (usually sinusoidal)
that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of
conveying information. This carrier wave is usually a much higher
frequency than the input signal. The purpose of the carrier wave is usually
either to transmit the information through space as an electromagnetic wave
(as in radio communication), or to allow several carriers at different
frequencies to share a common physical transmission medium by frequency
division multiplexing.

5. Write the uses of electro optical instruments.


Electro-optical EDMs use the velocity of light waves to determine
the distance between two points. Electro-optical systems are available for a
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wide range of applications including night vision systems, medical & laser
surgical instruments, industrial lasers for marking, cutting & welding,
optical information storage systems, imaging systems for satellites, camera,
telescopes & microscopes, laser imaging systems & laser range-finding &
target designator systems for the military.

6. Define electromagnetic waves.


Electromagnetic waves are waves that contain an electric field and a
magnetic field and carry energy. They travel at the speed of light.
Electromagnetic waves, though extremely complex in nature, can be
represented in the form of periodic sinusoidal waves.

7. What are the sources of error?


The errors may be classified as,
Instrumental errors
Personal errors
Errors due to natural causes

8. Define control segments.


Control segment is the vital link in GPS technology. The Control
Segment consists of facilities required for satellite health monitoring,
telemetry, tracking, command and control, ephemeris computations and up
linking. Control segment functions, providing command and control of the
GPS constellation.

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UNIT 5
1. What are the advantages of fathometer?
It is more sensitive than the lead line
The speed of sounding and plotting is increased
It can be used when a strong current is running and when the weather
is unsuitable for the soundings to be taken with the lead line
A record of the depth is plotted immediately and provides a
continuous record of the bottom as the vessel moves forward
The error due to estimation of water level in a choppy sea is reduced
owing to the instability of the boat

2. Define the term remote sensing.


Remote sensing is broadly defined as science and art of collecting
information about objects, area or phenomena from distance without being
in physical contact with them.

3. What are the basic principles of remote sensing?


Every object on the earth emits its own internal energy according to
its molecular and atomic structure, in addition to reflecting sun light during
the day time. The radiations can be registered by sensors in several
wavelengths, including those in the infrared and microwave regions of the
spectrum. When such sensors are installed on aircrafts or on satellites they
can record the earths objects from for off distances. Such distant
acquisition of information about the objects on the earths surface is known
as remote sensing.

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4. List the types of EDM instruments.


Microwave instruments
Visible light instruments
Infrared instruments

5. What are the applications of fathometer?


It is used for ocean sounding where the depth of water is too much,
and to make a continuous and accurate record of the depth of water
below the boat or ship at which it is installed.
It is adjusted to read depth in accordance with the velocity of sound in
the type of water in which it is being used.

6. Define GPS?
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite
navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather
conditions, anywhere on or near the earth where there is an unobstructed line
of sight to four or more GPS satellites.

7. Define GIS?
The modern computers can process maps and data with suitable
computer programmer. The process of integrating and analyzing various
types of data with the help of computer is known as Geographic Information
System.
8. Define spatial data and non spatial data.
SPATIAL DATA: Any data which are directly or indirectly referenced to a
location on the surface of the earth are spatial data. Also known as
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geospatial data or geographic information it is the data or information that


identifies the geographic location of features and boundaries on Earth, such
as natural or constructed features, oceans, and more. Spatial data is usually
stored as coordinates and topology, and is data that can be mapped.

NON-SPATIAL DATA: Data that relate to specific precisely defined


location. The data are often statistical but may be text, images or
multimedia. These are linked in the GIS to spatial data that defines the
location.

9. What are the uses of Total station?


Angle measurement
Distance measurement
Coordinate measurement
Data processing
Mechanical and Electrical Construction
Mining

10.What are the characteristics of different platforms?


Platforms refer to the structures or vehicles on which remote sensing
instruments are mounted. The platform on which a particular sensor is
housed determines a number of attributes, which may dictate the use of
particular sensors. These attributes include: distance the sensor is from the
object of interest, periodicity of image acquisition, timing of image
acquisition, and location and extent of coverage. There are three broad
categories of remote sensing platforms: ground based, airborne, and satellite.

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11.What are the basic principles of data processing?


It is the activity to convert data in to information. The three activities
in data processing are capturing data (Input), manipulating data (Process)
and outputting the result (Output). It is classified in to two, Manual Data
Processing (MDP) and Electronic Data Processing (EDP).

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DESIGN OF RCC STRUCTURES


UNIT 1
1. Define reinforced concrete.
Reinforced cement concrete is a composite material is made of
concrete and steel reinforcement. The concrete may be assumed to work
purely in compression whereas the reinforcement is predominately subjected
to tension. For a large range of applications it is sufficient to consider the
uni-axial response of either material.

2. What is the purpose of using reinforced cement concrete?


Plain cement concrete has very low tensile strength. The tensile
strength of concrete is about one-tenth of its compressive strength. As
a result, a plain concrete beam fails suddenly as soon as the tension
cracks start to develop.
To improve the tensile strength of concrete, some sort of
reinforcement is needed which can take up the tensile stress developed
in the structure.
Its not only increases the strength but also in preventing the
temperature and shrinkage.
Therefore, reinforcing steel is added in the tension zone to carry all
the developed tensile stresses.

3. What are the advantages of RCC when compared with other building
materials?
Concrete is workable when fresh and strong when hardens.
It can be molded into any required shape and size.
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The raw materials required are easily available.


Skill is not required for casting concrete elements.
Concrete is durable, fire resisting and rigid.
Concrete requires less maintenance.

4. What are the disadvantages of RCC when compared with other


building materials?
The self-weight of the structural elements will be more while concrete
is used.
Concrete has a very low tensile strength. Hence cracks will form in
the tension zone if reinforcement is not provided properly.
Cracks develop in concrete, also due to shrinkage, creep, temperature,
etc. which permit seepage of water into the concrete. This causes
corrosion of steel reinforcement and thereby peeling of concrete.
Concrete has poor insulating property.
Dismantling and reusing of concrete elements are mostly not possible.
Concrete is brittle in nature and hence has low impact resisting
capacity.

5. What are the uses of reinforced concrete?


It is used for the construction of,
Buildings
Bunkers and silos
Chimneys and towers
Flyovers
Retaining walls
Roads and railway bridges
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Water tanks

6. What are the types of load on R.C.C structures?


Dead load
Live load or Imposed load
Wind load
Snow load
Earthquake load
Seismic load

7. What are the elements of structures?


Beam
Column
Floor
Foundation
Slab
Staircase

8. What are the methods of design?


Modular Ratio Method (or) Working Stress Method(WSM) (or)
Elastic Method of Design
Load Factor Method (or) Ultimate Load Method(ULM) (or) Ultimate
Strength Method
Limit State Method(LSM)

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9. Define elastic method of design.


The elastic method of design of reinforced concrete member is also
known as Working Stress Method (or) Modular Ratio Method. Elastic
behaviors of materials are used in Elastic Method of Design. The method of
elastic design of a structure is defined as a method which limits the structural
usefulness of the material of the structure upto a certain load at which the
maximum stress in extreme fibre reaches the characteristic strength of
material in bending.

10.Define ultimate load design method.


This method is otherwise known as Load Factor Method or Ultimate
Strength Method. This method is based on the ultimate strength, when the
design member would fail. In this method factors are taken into account
only on loads are load factors. The method of ultimate design of a structure
is defined as a method which limits the structural usefulness of the material
of the structure upto ultimate load.

11.Define limit state method.


The Limit State Method is defined as a method which limits the
structural usefulness of the material of the structure upto a certain load at
which acceptable limit of safety and serviceability are applied so that the
failure of structure does not occur. It is the combination of Working Stress
Method and Ultimate Load Method. In this method partial factor of safety is
considered on both loads and stresses. This method is advance over other
methods. Since, safety and serviceability are considered.

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12.Define characteristic load.


A characteristic load is defined as that value of load which has a 95%
probability of not being exceeded during the life of the structure.
= +
Where,
Fk = characteristic load
Fm = mean load
K = constant = 2.645 2.65
Sd = standard deviation for the load

13.Define permissible stress.


It is defined as the ratio of yield stress to the factor of safety.
=

14.Define factor of safety.


Factor of safety is a number used to determine the working stress. It is
fixed based on the experimental works on the material. It accounts all
uncertainties such as, material defects, unforeseen loads, manufacturing
defects, unskilled workmanship, temperature effects etc. Factor of safety is a
dimensionless number. It is defined as the ratio of ultimate stress to working
stress for brittle materials or yield stress to working stress for ductile
material.
=

( )

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15.Define modular ratio.


It is defined as the ratio of elastic modulus of steel to that of concrete.
It is used to transform the composite section into an equivalent concrete
section.
=

280
3

16.What is the expression recommended by the IS 456-2000 for modulus of


elasticity?
= = 5000

17.State the assumption made for design of RC members in working stress


method.
(Refer IS 456:2000 Page no: 80)

18.What are the advantages in limit state method?


Ultimate load method only deals with on safety such as strength,
overturning, and sliding, buckling, fatigue.
Working stress method only deals with serviceability such as crack,
vibration, deflection etc.
But, Limit state method advances than other two methods. Hence by
considering safety at ultimate load and serviceability at working load.
The process of stress redistribution and moment redistribution are
considered in the analysis and more realistic factor of safety values are
used in the design. Hence, the design by limit state method is found
to be more economical.

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The overall sizes of flexural members arrived by limit state method


are less and hence they provide better appearance to the structure.

19.What are the advantages of working stress method?


The design usually results in relatively large sections of structural
members, compared to ultimate load. Due to this structures designed
by working stress method gives better serviceability performance
under working loads.
This method is only the method available when one has to investigate
the reinforced concrete section for service stresses and for the
serviceability state of deflection and cracking.

20.What are the disadvantages of working stress method?


The WSM does not show the real strength nor gives the true factor of
safety of the structure under failure.
The modular ratio design results in larger percentage of compression
steel than that given by the limit state design, thus leading to uneconomic design.
Because of creep and non-linear stress-strain relationship, concrete
does not have definite modulus of elasticity.
The WSM fails to discriminate between different types of loads that
act simultaneously but have different uncertainties.

21.What are the advantages of ultimate load method?


While the WSM uses only the nearly linear part of stress-strain curve,
the ULM uses fully the actual stress-strain curve.
The load factor gives the exact margin of safety against collapse.
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The method allows using different load factors for different types of
loads and the combination thereof.
The failure load computed by ULM matches with the experimental
results.
The method is based on the ultimate strain as the failure criteria.
The method utilizes the reserve of strength in the plastic region.

22.What are the disadvantages of ultimate load method?


The method does not take into consideration the serviceability criteria
of deflection and cracking.
The use of high strength reinforcing steel and concrete results in
increase of deflection and crack width.
The method does not take into consideration the effects of creep and
shrinkage.
In the ULM, the distribution of stress resultants at ultimate load is
taken as the distribution at service loads magnified by the load factor.
This is erroneous since significant redistribution of stress resultants
takes place as the loading is increased from service loads to ultimate
loads.

23.What are the factors considered in limit state of collapse?


Flexure
Compression
Shear
Torsion

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24.What are the factors considered in limit state of serviceability?


Cracking
Deflection
Durability
Fire resistance
Vibration

25.What are the factors of safety in limit state?


Partial factor of safety for concrete = 1.5
Partial factor of safety for steel = 1.15
Partial factor of safety for load

26.Write down the value of partial safety factor for concrete and steel.
Partial factor of safety for concrete = 1.5
Partial factor of safety for steel = 1.15
27.What is under reinforced section?
Steel reaches maximum permissible stress earlier than concrete due to
external loads is called under reinforced section.

28.What is over reinforced section?


Concrete reaches maximum permissible stress earlier than steel due to
external load is called over reinforced section.

29.What is balanced section?


Concrete and steel reaches maximum permissible stress
simultaneously due to external load is called balanced section.
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30.Define singly reinforced section.


Steel reinforcements are provided only on tension zone of RC flexural
member is known as singly reinforced section.

31.Define doubly reinforced section.


Steel reinforcements are provided on both tension and compression
zone of RC flexural member is known as doubly reinforced section.
In some situations it becomes essential for a beam to carry BM more
that it can resist as a balanced section. In this case additional reinforcement
is provided in compression zone such beams reinforced in both compression
and tension zones are known as doubly reinforced section.

32.Under what circumstances doubly reinforced beams resorted to?


When,
> . Then, doubly reinforcement is used.
33.Write down the basic values of span to effective depth ratio for the
different types of beam.
Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m
Cantilever

Simply supported

20

Continuous

26

34.Define collapse state.


The limit state of collapse of the structure or part of the structure
could be assessed from replace of one or more critical sections and from
bulking due to elastic or plastic instability or overturning.
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35.Define the terms Gross section, Transformed section, cracked section.


(Refer IS 456:2000 Page no: 35)

36.Draw the stress-strain curve for concrete, mild steel bars and HYSD
bars.

37.Define brittle and ductile failure.


Materials that fracture without any plastic deformation are called
brittle materials. Example: Glass and other ceramic materials.
Materials undergo plastic deformation before fracture is called ductile
material. Example: aluminum, copper, steel and many metals, as well as
polyethylene, nylon and many other polymers.

38.Define clear cover.


The distance between the bottom of the bars and bottom most edge of
the beam is called clear cover.

39.Define effective cover.


The distance between the centre of the reinforcement bar and the
bottom edge of the beam is called effective cover.
= +

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UNIT 2
1. What do you understand by development length of bar?
The reinforced bar must extend in the anchorage zone of concrete
sufficiently, to develop the required stress. The extended length of bar
inside the face of the support is known as development length. It is denoted
by the symbol, Ld.

2. Define anchorage length.


Anchorage length is defined as embedded portion of the bar in
concrete, but not subjected to any flexural bond.

3. Define anchorage bond.


All the types of reinforcement must be anchored within the concrete
section, in order that the anchorage bond should be sufficient to develop the
stress in the bar. The anchorage depends on the bond between the bar and
concrete and the area of contact.

4. Define curtailment of bars.


In flexural members, design of reinforcement is done based on
bending moment along the span. As the magnitude of bending moment on a
beam decreases along its length, that case the area of bending reinforcement
may be reduced by curtailing bars as they are no longer required.

5. What do you mean by equilibrium torsion?


Torsion induced by eccentric loading and equilibrium condition alone
sufficient to determine twisting moments is known as equilibrium torsion.

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6. Define torsion.
Equal and opposite moments applied at both ends of structural
element or its part about its longitudinal axis is called torsion. It is also
called as torsional moment or twist or torque.

7. What is compatibility torsion?


Torsion induced by application of an angle of twist and the resulting
moment depends on the torsional stiffness of the member is known as
compatibility torsion.

8. How can torsional resistance of RC members be enhanced?


Increasing strength of concrete and the amount of longitudinal as well
as transverse reinforcements over and above those required for bending and
shear can enhance the torsional resistance of a member.

9. Name the locations in beam where the development lengths of torsion


bars should be checked.
At beams, development lengths should be checked at the sections
where,
Maximum bending moment occurs
Point of curtailment
Point of inflation

10.Write down the effect of torsion in RC beams.


RC members may be subjected to torsion in combination with bending
and shear. Longitudinal and transverse reinforcement shall be provided for
RC beams to resist torsion.
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Torsional reinforcement is not calculated separately from that required


for bending and shear. Instead, the total longitudinal reinforcement is
determined for a fictitious bending moment which is a function of actual
bending moment and torsion.

11.Write about local bond and anchorage length.


All types of reinforcement must be anchored within the concrete
section, in order that the anchorage bond should be sufficient to develop the
stress in the bar. Anchorage length is defined as embedded portion of the
bar in concrete, but not subjected to any flexural bond.

12.Distinguish between flexural bond and development bond.


FLEXURAL BOND

DEVELOPMENT BOND

It arises in flexural members on

It arises over the length of anchorage

account of shear or variations in

provide for a bar or near the end of a

bending moment, which in turn

reinforcing bar.

causes a variation in axial tension


along the length of a reinforcing.

13.Why is bond stress more in compression bars than in tension bars?


Deformed bars subjected to tension, values shall be increased by
60%.
Deformed bars subjected to compression, values shall be
increased by 25%.

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14.What are the types of reinforcement used to resist shear and write down
the expressions for to shear resistance offered by the type?
Shear reinforcement is necessary if the nominal shear stress ( )
exceeds the design shear stress( ). In general, shear reinforcement is
provided in any one of the following three forms. (Refer IS 456:2000 Page
no: 72)

15.Write down the value of design bond stress for M30 grade of concrete.
Design bond stress in limit state methods for plain bars (mild steel) in
tension is = 1.5

16.What is RC slab?
Reinforced concrete slabs are used in roofs of buildings. Slab is a
flexural member transmits imposed and dead load to the supports. Support
may be a wall, beam or column.

17.Reinforced concrete slabs are generally safe and do not require shear
reinforcement. Why?
Normally the thickness of slab is so chosen that the shear can be
resisted by concrete itself and the slab does not need extra shear
reinforcements.

18.What are the types of slab?


One way slab
Two way slab

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19.How can be classified the slab?

> 2 (One way slab)


< 2 (Two way slab)

20.Define one way slab.


When the slab is supported only on two opposite sides, the slab bends
in one direction only. Hence, it is called one way slab.

21.Define two way slabs.


When the slab is supported on all four sides, the slab bends in both
directions. Hence, it is called two way slabs.

22.Name the two types of two-way slabs. Explain their difference in the
design of slabs.
Slabs simply supported on the four edges, with corners not held down
and carrying UDL
Slabs simply supported on the four edges, with corners held down and
carrying UDL
Slabs with edges fixed or continuous and carrying UDL

23.Why is secondary reinforcement provided in one way RC slab?


Secondary reinforcement is provided running perpendicular to the
main reinforcement, in order to take the temperature and shrinkage stresses.
It is otherwise called as distribution or temperature reinforcement.

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24.What are the codal provisions for a minimum reinforcement to be


provided as main and secondary reinforcement in slab and their
maximum spacing?
Minimum reinforcement:
=

0.15
100

(For mild steel)

( ) =

0.15
100

(For HYSD bars)

Spacing = 3d or 300mm (horizontal distance between parallel main


reinforcement bars). Use whichever is smaller.
Spacing = 5d or 450mm (horizontal distance between parallel
reinforcement bar provided against shrinkage and temperature). Use
whichever is smaller.

25.Explain the purposes of lintel beams in buildings.


Lintels are provided over the openings of doors, windows, etc.
Generally, they support the load of the wall over it, and sometimes also the
live loads are transferred by the sub-roof of the room. Lintel takes the
masonry load over the openings and distributes to the masonry located sides
of opening.

26.What type of slab usually used in practice, under reinforced or over


reinforced section?
The depth of slab chosen from deflection requirements will be usually
greater than the depth required for balanced design. Hence the area of steel
required will be less than the balanced amount. So, the slab is designed as
under reinforced section.
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27.What do you understand by flanged beam?


The concrete in the slabs, which is on the compression side of the
beam, can be made to resist the compression forces, and the steel in the
tension side of the beam can carry the tension. These combined beam and
slab units are called flanged beam.

28.Define shear strength.


The resistance to sliding offered by the material of beam is called
shear strength.

29.What are the important factors affecting the shear resistance of a


reinforced concrete member without shear reinforcement?
Characteristic strength of concrete
Percentage of longitudinal steel
Shear span to depth ratio
Axial compressive/tensile force
Effect of cross section
Effect of two way action

UNIT 3
1. Define column.
A column, in general, may be defined as a member carrying direct
axial load which causes compressive stresses of such magnitude that these
stresses largely control its design.
It transmits load coming from beam or slab and distributes to the
foundation usually columns are square, rectangle, circular and I
shaped in cross section.
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It is reinforced with longitudinal and lateral ties.


Load carrying capacity of column is depending upon longitudinal
steel and cross sectional size of the column.
Lateral ties are giving lateral support to the longitudinal steel. The
columns are analyzed for axial force and moments.

2. Differentiate between long and short column.


Based on slenderness ratio () columns can be classified into long and
short.
Slenderness ratio () =

Short column < 12


Long column > 12

3. Differentiate between uni-axial and bi-axial bending.


Axial load and bending moment along one direction are applied
simultaneously on the column is called uni-axial bending.
Axial load and bending moment along two direction are applied
simultaneously on the column is called bi-axial bending.

4. According to IS code all columns should be designed for minimum


eccentricity. Justify the statement.
Lateral loads such as wind and seismic loads are not considered in
design.
Misalignment in construction
Slenderness effects not considered in design
Accidental lateral or eccentric loads
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5. Write down the formula for calculating minimum eccentricity.


=

500

30

, subject to a minimum of 20mm

Where,
l = unsupported length of the column
D = lateral dimension of the column

6. What is spiral column?


For a circular column, longitudinal tied with closely spaced helix are
called as spiral column.

7. What is the minimum and maximum percentage of reinforcement can


be provided for a column?
The cross sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement shall be not less
than 0.8% not more than 6% of the gross cross sectional area of the column.

8. What are the specifications for pitch of lateral ties in columns?


The pitch of the transverse reinforcement shall be not more than the least of
the following distances:
Least lateral dimension of the compression member
Sixteen times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement
bar to be tied.
300mm

9. What is pedestal?
Pedestal is a compression member, the effective length of which does
not exceed three times the least lateral dimension.
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10.Distinguish braced and un-braced column.


BRACED COLUMN
In most of the cases, columns are

UNBRACED COLUMN
Other columns, where the lateral

subjected to horizontal loads like wind, loads have to be resisted by


earthquake, etc. If lateral supports are

them, in addition to axial loads

provided at the ends of the column, the

and end moments, are considered

lateral loads are borne entirely by the

as un-braced columns.

lateral supports. Such columns are


known as braced columns.
It is not subject to side sway.

It is subject to side sway.

11.What is slender column?


If the slenderness ratio of the column about either axis is greater than
12, is classified as long column. Long column should be designed as slender
column.

12.Mention the functions of the traverse reinforcement in a RC column.


To prevent longitudinal buckling of longitudinal reinforcement.
To resist diagonal tension caused due to transverse shear due to
moment / transverse load.
To hold the longitudinal reinforcement in position at the time of
concreting.
To confine the concrete, thereby preventing its longitudinal splitting.
To impart ductility to the column.
To prevent sudden brittle failure of the column.

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13.Classify the column according to the material.


Pre-stressed concrete
Reinforced cement concrete
Stone
Timber

14.Classify the column according to transverse reinforcement.


Spiral or helical
Tied

UNIT 4
1. What are the types of foundations?
Deep foundation
Shallow foundation

2. What are the types of shallow foundations?


Combined footing
Isolated footing
Mat or raft footing
Spread or strip footing
Strap or cantilever footing

3. What are the types of deep foundations?


Pier foundation
Pile foundation
Well foundation

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4. What are the factors governing to decide the depth of footing?


The footing is generally to resist the bending moments and shear
forces developed due to soil reactions. The main purpose of the footing is to
effectively support the super structures.

5. Define safe bearing capacity of soil.


It is the maximum intensity of load or pressure developed under the
foundation without causing failure of soil. Unit for safe bearing capacity of
soil is

. Safe bearing capacity of soil is determined by the plate load test at

the site.

6. What is punching or two way shear in RCC footing?


Punching shear is a type of shear failure occurs in reinforced concrete
footings due to axial load from the column and upward soil thrust from the
ground.

7. What are the advantages of providing pedestals to columns?


Where pedestals are providing, and full force is transferred to the
footing without additional reinforcement.
Pedestal provides a plane surface for the convenience of column
construction.

8. What is the situation in which trapezoidal shape is preferred to a


rectangular shape for a two column combined footing?
If the one column is carrying load is much larger than the other one,
trapezoidal combined footing is preferred.
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9. When combined footings are adopted?


When two or more columns/walls are located close to each other
and/or if they are relatively heavily loaded and/or rest on soil with low
safe bearing capacity.
An exterior column located along the periphery of the building is so
close to the property line that an isolated footing cannot be
symmetrically placed without extending beyond the property line.

10.Under what circumstances rectangular shape preferred for a twocolumn combined footing.
When loads are equal and no restriction on sides, the footing will be
rectangular with equal overhang on both sides.

11.Under what circumstances combined footing is preferred.


When isolated footings for individual columns are touching or
overlapping each other.
When the columns are located near the boundary lines or expansion
joints.

12.What is meant by eccentric loading on a footing and under what


situation does this occur?
The load P acting on a footing may act eccentrically with respect to
the centroid of the footing base. This eccentricity may result from one or
more of the following effects.
The column transmitting a moment M in addition to the vertical load.
The column carrying a vertical load offset with respect to the centroid
of the footing.
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The column or pedestal transmitting a lateral force located above the


foundation level, in addition to the vertical load.

13.Write down the formula for calculating maximum and minimum soil
pressures for a rectangular footing carries eccentric point load.
The structural design of the footing, which includes the design of the
depth and reinforcement, is done for factored loads using the relevant safety
factors applications for the limit state of collapse.

14.Define stair case.


Staircase flights are generally designed as slabs spanning between
wall supports or landing beams or as cantilever from a longitudinal inclined
beam. The staircase fulfills the function of access between the various floors
in the building. Generally the flight steps consist of one or more landings
between the floor levels.

15.What are the components of stairs?


The components of stairs are,
Baluster
Flight
Going
Landing
Rise
Riser
Soffit
Step
Tread
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Winders

16.What are the normal range of tread and rise values of steps of a
staircase in residential building?
As per IS 456:2000 the normal range of tread and rise values of steps
of a staircase in residential building are,
Rise: 150mm to 180mm
Tread: 200mm to 250mm

17.List the various types of stair cases.


Bifurcated stairs
Dog-legged stairs
Geometrical stairs such as circular, spiral stair, etc
Multi-flight stairs
Open newel stair with quarter space landing
Quarter-turn stairs
Straight stairs
Three quarter-turn stairs

18.Define flat slab.


A flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab supported directly over
columns without beams generally used when headroom is limited such as in
cellars and warehouses.

19.Define Box Culvert.


These are provided for conveying water to serve the following requirements:
To serve as means for a cross drainage
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To provide a supporting slab for road way under which the cross
drainage flows

20.What are cases available in Box Culvert?


Case (I) when the top slab carries the dead and live load and culvert is
empty
Case (II) when the top slab carries the dead and live load and culvert
is full of water
Case (III) when the sides of culvert do not carry live load and culvert
is full of water.

21.How the effectively span of a stair is decided when the landing slab
spans in the same direction as the stair.
When the landing slab spans in the same direction as the stairs, they
should be considered as acting together to form a single slab and the span
determined at the distance centre to centre of the supporting beams or walls,
the going being measured horizontally.

22.Give the guidelines of the size of rise and tread as per IS code norms.
The following guidelines may be followed while deciding the size of
rise and tread of a stair.
400mm < (rise + tread) < 450mm
580mm < (rise + tread) < 630mm

23.Define depth of section.


The depth of section shall be taken as the minimum thickness
perpendicular to the soffit of the staircase.
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24.How the load is distributed in the case of an open well stairs?


In the case of stairs with open wells, where spans partly crossings at
right angles occur, the load on areas common to any two such spans may be
taken as one-half in each direction.

25.How the load is distributed when flights or landings are embedded into
walls?
Where flights or landings are embedded into walls for a length not
less than 110 mm and designed to span in the direction of the flight, a 150
mm strip may be deducted from the loaded area and effective breadth of the
section increased to 75 mm for the purpose of design.

26.What are the loads acting on staircases? Explain.


DEAD LOADS:
Self-weight of stair slab which includes the waist slab, tread-rise, etc.
Self-weight of finishes (0.5 to 1 kN/m2)

LIVE LOADS:
IS 875 parts II specifies the load to be considered as UDL of intensity
5kN/m2 for public buildings and 3kN/m2 for residential building where the
specified floor do not exceed 2kN/m2 and the staircases are should not liable
for overcrowding.

27.Explain structural behaviors of stair cases.


Staircases can be grouped depending upon the support conditions and
the direction of major bending of the slab component under the following
categories.
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Staircase slab spanning horizontally (along the slope line)


Staircase slab spanning transversely (slab width wise with central or
side supports)

UNIT 5
1. What is masonry?
Masonry is a structure built of in individual blocks of materials such
as stone, brick, concrete, hollow blocks, etc bonded together with some form
of mortar such as lime mortar, cement mortar.

2. What is the size of bricks?


Without mortar joints:
Size of standard brick = 190mm x 90mm x 90mm
Size of modular type brick = 190mm x 90mm x 40mm

With mortar joints:


Size of brick = 200mm x 100mm x 100mm
Size of modular type brick = 200mm x 100mm x 50mm

3. List the Types of bricks.


Common clay bricks
Class I bricks
Class II bricks
Class III bricks
Heavy duty bricks
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Class I bricks (or) A class bricks


Class II bricks (or) B class bricks

4. Define Mortar.
Mortar is a combined material formed with intimately mixing a
binding material like lime or cement, with a fine aggregate like sand in
certain proportion and with adequate quantity of water.

5. What is the classification of Walls?


Load bearing walls
Cavity wall
Faced wall
Solid wall
Solid wall with piers (pilaster)
Veneered wall
Non-load bearing walls
Curtain wall
Free-standing wall
Panel wall
Partition wall

6. What are the classifications of loads on walls?


Axial (or) Vertical
Lateral (or) transverse

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7. Define criteria.
Design criterion is that the actual stress produced due to loads in the
structure should be within permissible limits.

8. What are the factors of permissible stress (or) allowable compressive


stress?
Cross sectional area of the masonry
Eccentricity of loading
Shape and size of bricks
Slenderness ratio
Strength of mortar
Type and strength of bricks

9. What is the purpose of providing a lateral support into a masonry


structure?
Masonry structures gain stability from support offered by cross walls,
floors and roofs. Lateral supports for load bearing walls or columns limit
the slenderness of the structure. Further the lateral support reduces the
possibility of buckling of member due to vertical loads and to resist
horizontal forces.

10.What is a pilaster in bricks masonry wall?


Solid walls are thickened at intervals by increasing the cross section.
The thickened portions are called as piers or pilasters. They are used for one
of the following purposes.
To carry concentrated loads from roof or floor beams
To provide lateral support
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To reduce the slenderness ratio by stiffening the walls.

11.What is meant by slenderness ratio of a masonry wall?


=

12.What is an equivalent eccentricity?


In an eccentricity loaded wall, there is an axial load and a bending
moment these two may be combined into single resultant load acting at a
distance. This is known as equivalent eccentricity.

13.List the factors which contribute for eccentricity on bricks walls.


Geometry of the support
Long floor edges
Magnitude of loads
Relative stiffness of slab or beam and the wall
Unequal spans

14.How do you determine the average effective thickness of wall with


opening?
() = ( )
() = ( )
Where,
L = length between outer wall faces
a = width of spacing
t = thickness of wall

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15.Define Retaining walls.


Retaining walls are structures used to provide stability of earth masses
other loose materials. That is when field conditions do not allow the earth
pressure to assume its natural shape or when abrupt changes in the ground
surface elevation are needed retaining walls are used.

16.Where are used the retaining walls?


Basement wall
Box culvert
Depressed roads
Elevated protection
Erosion protection
Flood wall
For underground water tanks
Landscaping
Retaining a rail-road or highway in hilly area
Used at the ends of bridges in the form of abutments

17.Types of retaining walls.


Buttressed wall:
A buttressed wall is a modification of the counter fort retaining
wall in which the counterforts, called the buttresses, are provided to
the other side of the backfill. However the buttresses reduce the
clearance in front of the wall, and therefore these walls are not
commonly used.

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Cantilever retaining wall:


A taller wall with extended toe and heel to offset the large
lateral pressure tends to overturn the wall. A cantilever wall has part
of the base extending underneath the backfill, and the weight of the
soil above this part of the base helps prevent overturning.
T-shaped
L-shaped
Counter fort retaining wall:
The vertical stem and the heel slab are strengthened by
providing counterforts at some suitable intervals. Because of
provision of counterforts, the vertical stem as well as the heel slab acts
as continuous slab, in contrast to the cantilevers of cantilever retaining
wall. The toe slab however acts as cantilever bending upwards. This
type of retaining wall is used when backfill of greater height is to be
retained.
Gravity retaining wall:
A gravity retaining wall is the one which resists the lateral earth
pressure by its weight in contrast to the cantilever and counter fort
retaining walls in which the pressure is resisted by bending action. A
gravity retaining wall is therefore, thicker in section. They are
constructed of mass concrete, brick or stone masonry.
Massive Gravity Wall
Counter fort Wall
Cantilever Gravity Wall

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18.What are the assumptions for coulombs earth pressure theory?


The earth pressure theory proposed by coulomb is based on the following
assumptions:
The soil or the retained material is isotropic, homogeneous and
possesses both internal friction and cohesion.
The rupture surface is a plane surface.
The friction forces are uniformly distributed along the plane rupture
surface.
The failure used is a rigidly body.
There is a wall friction.
Failure is a Plane strain problem.

19.What is the structural action of the stem, heel and toe?


STEM:
The vertical arm or stem is subjected to lateral pressure and acts as a
cantilever. The lateral pressure causes maximum bending moment and shear
forces at junction of the stem.

HEEL:
The heel is subjected to soil pressure from the bottom acting towards
and the downward loads due to self-weight and the earth above the heel.
The downward load is more hence the heel acts like a cantilever is more
hence the heel acts like a cantilever bending downwards. Maximum
bending moment and shear force occur at the junction of the heel with stem.

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TOE:
The toe is subjected to upward pressure from the soil and the
downward pressure is due to self-weight. Hence the toe is designed as
cantilever. Maximum bending moment and shear force occur at the face of
the stem.

20.How the development of tension in a base slab is checked?


In order to avoid development of tension in the base slab, the resultant
of various forces acting on the wall should cut the base in the middle-third of
the width of the base. Further the maximum pressure on the base slab
should not exceed the allowable soil pressure.

21.Why counter forts are provided in a counter fort retaining wall?


In a cantilever retaining wall with more height, the bending moment
development in the stem, heel slab and toe slab become very large and
require thickness. The bending very large and require moments and so the
thickness. The bending moments and so the thickness of stem and slab can
be considerably reduced by introducing transverse supports called counter
forts. They are spaced at regular intervals of about 0.3 to 0.6hl where h is
the height of the retaining wall. The counter forts are concealed within the
backfill.

22.What are the factors governing the spacing of counter forts?


Spacing of counter forts depends on various factors such as height of
retaining wall, cost of steel and concrete, allowable soil pressure and cost of
form work. Keeping the spacing of counter forts closer reduces the
thickness of vertical slab and the heel slab and cost of formwork increases.
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Thus the spacing is the one which makes the design economical. Spacing
generally varies from n0.3 to 0.6h where h is the height of the wall.

23.Define the stability of retaining wall structure.


Retaining wall as a wholes stability the following external stability
requirements:
Safety against bearing capacity failure
Safety against overturning
Safety against sliding

24.Define factor of safety against overturning.


Factor of safety against sliding along the base is defined as the ratio of
resisting moment to disturbing moment about the toe. Factor of safety
against sliding should not be less than 2.0

25.What do you mean by the backfill of retaining wall?


Loose material like soil, coal or ore piles retained on the back of a
retaining wall is called a backfill. Backfill materials for retaining structure
should be designed to minimize the lateral pressure. A good backfill
material should satisfy two important requirements via, high long term
strength and free drainage. Granular materials make the best types of
backfill.

26.List out the various forces subjected to a cantilever retaining wall.


The forces are,
Wc = weight of the cantilever wall
Wa = weight of soil above the back fill
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Pa = lateral pressure from backfill


Pp = lateral pressure at the front of the wall
Pmax & Pmin = soil pressures beneath the retaining wall

27.What is the function of a shear key?


A retaining wall should be safe against overturning, sliding and
bearing capacity failure. The horizontal forces causing sliding forces are the
steering resistance offered at the base and the passive resistance before the
wall. A main FOS of 1.5 is generally provided. If adequate forces not
achieved, a shear key is incorporated in the base.

28.Define Active and Passive Earth Pressure.


Active Earth Pressure:
It is the pressure that at all times are tending to move or overturn the
retaining wall.

Passive Earth Pressure:


It is reactionary pressures that will react in the form of a resistance to
movement of the wall.

29.What are the Effects of Active and Passive Earth Pressure?


Active Earth Pressure:
It is composed of the earth wedge being retained together with any
hydrostatic pressure caused by the presence of groundwater. This pressure
can be reduced by:
The use of subsoil drainage behind the wall.

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Inserting drainage openings called weep holes through the thickness


of the stem to enable the water to drain away.

Passive Earth Pressure:


It builds up in front of the toe to resist the movement of the wall if it
tries to move forward. This pressure can be increased by enlarging the depth
of the toe or by forming a rib on the underside of the base.

30.What are the factors to be considered while designing the Retaining


Walls?
Overturning doesnt occur
Sliding doesnt occur
The soil on which the wall rests mustnt be overloaded
The materials used in construction are not overstressed.

31.What are the forces or pressure that has to be calculated while


designing the retaining walls?
Height of water table
Nature and type of soil
Subsoil water movements
Type of wall
Material used in the construction of wall

32.What are the various loads considered in heel slab of Retaining Walls?
Weight of the backing
Dead load on heel slab
Vertical component of lateral
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Upward soil reaction

33.What do you mean by surcharge angle?


The position of the backfill lying above the horizontal plane at the
elevation of the top of a wall is called the surcharge, and its inclination to the
horizontal is called the surcharge angle .
34.What is angle of internal friction ()?
The angle of internal friction which is equal to the ratio of the
maximum resistance to sliding on any internal plane to the normal pressure
acting on the plane

35.What are the points to be noted in the design of Cantilever Retaining


Wall?
The thickness of the stem may be kept the same throughout the height
to provide adequate
Dead load
The base slab may be made about 100mm thicker than stem
The width of the base slab may be kept about 0.7 to 0.8 times the total
height of the wall
It may most probably require a key to be provided to have a safe
factor of safety against sliding

36.What are the loads acting on the heel slab of the Counter fort Retaining
Wall?
Dead load of the strip
Weight of the earth above the strip
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Vertical components of the lateral pressure in the case of the earth


surcharged at an angle.

37.What are the structural components of Retaining Walls?


Base, heel, toe, stem and backfill are the structural components of a
retaining wall.

38.What are the components of counter fort retaining wall?


Upright slab:
Its design as a continuous slab spanning horizontally on the Counter
fort subjected to lateral earth pressure

Base slab:
The width of the base slab may be taken as 0.6H to0.7H
Where,
H= overall height of the retaining wall.

Heel slab:
The Heel slab should be designed as a continuous horizontal slab with
counter fort as the supports.

39.State the advantages of pre-stressed concrete over reinforced concrete.


Since the technique of pre-stressing eliminates cracking of concrete
under all stage of loading, the entire section of the structures takes part
in resisting the external load. In contrast to this, in the reinforced
concrete, only portion of concrete above the neutral axis is effective.

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Since concrete does not cracks, the possibility of steel to rust and
concrete to deteriorate is minimized.
Absence of cracks results in higher capacity of the structure to bear
reversal of stresses, impact, vibration and shock.
In pre-stressed concrete beams, dead loads are practically neutralized.
The reactions required are therefore, much smaller than required in
reinforced concrete. The reduced dead weight of structure results in
saving in the cost of foundations. The neutralization of dead weight is
of importance in large bridges.
The use of curved tendons and the pre-composition of concrete help to
resist shear.
The quantity of steel required for pre-stressing about 1/3 of that
required for reinforced concrete, though the steel for the former
should have high tensile strength.
Pre-stressed concrete beams have usually low deflection.
In pre-stressed concrete, precast blocks and elements can be assumed
and used as one unit. This saves in the cost of shuttering and centring
for large structures.

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 2
UNIT 1
1. What are the two types of sewage system?
Combined system
Separate system

2. List the components of sewerage system.


Drains
Flushing tanks
Manholes
Pumping stations
Screening chambers
Storm overflows

3. Why separate system is advantages than combined system?


Separate system is advantages than combined system because,
In separate system, surface water may be taken in open or closed
conduits or drains at or near the surface and discharged at suitable outlets
thus greatly simplifying the design of sewers of storm water drains.
But, in combined system, the large size of the sewer may cause silting
up due to low velocity.

4. Define storm water flow.


As the rain falls over the surface of ground, a part of it is lost through
evaporation in the air or percolation into the ground while the remaining,
overflows the surface as storm water flow.
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Storm water flow is the additional flow that would occur during the
rainy season. It consists of runoff available from roofs, streets, yards, open
spaces etc. during rainfall.

5. Distinguish between raw sewage and combined sewage.


RAW SEWAGE

COMBINED SEWAGE

Raw sewage is waste water that has

It is the combination of sanitary

not to be treated. It comes from

sewage and storm sewage with or

residential and commercial buildings.

without industrial wastes.

6. What are the different types of sewerage systems?


Combined system
Partially separate system
Separate system

7. Write the condition under which separate system is recommended.


Where rainfall is uneven
Sanitary sewage is to have one outlet and other outlets for storm or
surface water are available
Sanitary sewage is to be pumped
Separate sewers must be placed deeper and the storm water drains
nearer the surface to economize excavation
The drainage area is steep, allowing water to run off quickly
Sewers are to be constructed in rocky strata. The larger combined
sewers would then be more expensive
Finances available are small but sanitary drainage is imperative
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Combined sewers may back up due to excessive flows, poor grades or


lack of proper cleaning and may flood basements

8. What is meant by relative stability?


It is defined as the ratio of oxygen available in the effluent to the total
oxygen required to satisfy its first stage BOD demand. It is expressed as
percentage of the total oxygen required and can be expressed by the
equation,
= 100 [ 1 ( 0.794 )20 ]
9. Define strokes law.
Law states that the force retards a sphere moving through a viscous
fluid is directly proportional to the velocity of the sphere, the radius of the
sphere and the viscosity of the fluid.
Strokes developed an expression known as Strokes law. It is
applicable to the discrete particles. The particles which do not change in
size, shape or mass during settling are known as discrete particles.

2
(1)
=
18

Where,
V = settling velocity in

g = acceleration due to gravity


S = specific gravity of the particle
d = diameter of the settling particles in cm

= Kinematic viscosity in centistokes.

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10.How will you determine the quantity of the sewage that is likely to pass
through a sewer at the end of the design period?
Design period of 30 years is normally employed for all types of
sewers.
Design flow:
=
Where,
Q = design flow, liters per day
A = tributary area, hectares
= population density
= maximum daily sewage flow
11.What are the fundamental principles of sanitation?
Sanitation is the prevention of the sporadic outbreak of diseases
dangerous for the general health of the public. This can be achieved by
either controlling or eliminating environmental factors as contribute in some
form or the other to the transmission of the diseases. These factors include
the following:
Water supply
Carriage or disposal of human excreta and other wastes from
communities, industries and trades
The menace of insects-mosquitoes, flies and rodents with regards to
food and other services
Ventilation and air-conditioning
Atmospheric pollution and methods of purification
Plumbing in the case of buildings
Other hygienic factors
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12.Differentiate between combined system of sewage and separate system


of sewage.
COMBINED SYSTEM

SEPARATE SYSTEM

In a combined system, the same

In a separate system, the domestic

sewer is intended to carry the

sewage and industrial wastes are

domestic sewage, industrial wastes

carried in one set of sewers whereas

as well as the surface and the storm

the storm and surface waters are

water flow.

carried in another set of sewers.

Rainfall is even throughout the year. Rainfall is uneven.


Both sanitary sewage and storm

Sanitary sewage is pumped.

water have to be pumped.


Effective or quicker flows have to

Combined sewers may back up due

be provided.

to excessive flows, poor grades and


lack of proper cleaning.

13.Define sewer.
It is the underground conduit or drain through which sewage is
conveyed.

14.What is meant by D.W.F and W.W.F?


D.W.F: The dry weather flow is the total average discharge of sanitary
sewage and is the normal flow in a sewer during the dry season of the year.

W.W.F: It is the normal flow of sewage during the rainy season of the year.

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15.What is meant by refuse?


In sanitary engineering, it is the waste matter which is rejected or left
as worthless. It includes garbage, sewage, sullage, storm water and subsoil
water.

16.What is partially separate system?


It is a modification of the separate system in which the separate sewer
discharging domestic sewage and industrial wastes also contains a portion of
the surface water drained from back-paved yards and roofs of houses.

17.Differentiate between sullage and sewage.


SULLAGE
It is the liquid discharge from

SEWAGE
It is a liquid waste from a community.

bathrooms, kitchen, washing


places, wash basins etc.
It is merely the waste water and

It includes sullage, discharge from

does not create bad smell.

kitchens, bathrooms, industrial waste


and storm water etc.

Semi solid part of sewage is

It is defined as the used water or liquid

called sullage.

waste of a community, which includes


human and household wastes together.

It is used for commercial

Constituents of sewages are domestic

purposes as a fertilizer filter.

sewage, industrial sewage, storm water.

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18.Differentiate between conservancy system and water carriage system.


CONSERVANCY SYSTEM

WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM

Initial cost is less.

Initial cost is more.

Maintenance cost is more.

Maintenance cost is less.

Consumption of water is less.

Consumption of water is more.

Employment of labor is more.

Employment of labor is less.

Transportation through trenches

Transportation through closed

and trollies.

conduits.

Does not require technical person.

Requires technical person.

Neatness of city is poor.

Neatness of city is high.

Latrines should be located outside

Can be located within the building

of the buildings.

itself.

Foul smell will always be there

There is no foul smell from water

from such latrines.

closets.

Revenue from manure is more.

Revenue from manure is less.

Pollution of underground water is

Pollution of underground water is

possible.

impossible.

Outbreak of epidemic is possible.

Outbreak of epidemic is impossible.

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19.Define sewage.
It is the liquid waste from the community. It includes sullage,
discharge from kitchen, bathroom, industrial wastes and storm water etc.

20.Define sewerage.
It is the process of collecting and carrying sewage by water carriage
system through sewers.

21.Define sullage.
It is the liquid discharge from bathrooms, kitchen, washing places,
wash basins, etc. It is merely the waste water and does not create bad smell.

22.Define sewerage system.


The entire system of conduits and appurtenances involved in sewerage
is called sewerage system or sewer system.
23.Define bacterias.
These are the microscopic unicellular plants or organisms. In sanitary
engineering, bacterias may be divided into the following three groups.

24.What do you mean by facultative bacteria?


They exist in presence or absence of oxygen. They grow more in the
absence of air.

25.Define invert.
It is the lowermost level or surface of a sewer.

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26.Define garbage.
It is the dry refuse and includes decayed fruits, grass, leaves, paper
pieces, ashes, street cleanings, dust, mud, sweepings, vegetables, etc.

27.Define subsoil water.


It is the ground water which finds its entry into sewers through leaks.

28.Define sludge.
It is the organic matter deposited at the bottom of the sedimentation
tank during the treatment of the sewage.

29.What is peak drainage disturbance?


The method estimating the maximum rate of storm runoff is called as
peak drainage disturbance.

UNIT 2
1. What are the physical and chemical characteristics of sewage?
Physical characteristics are,
Colour
Odour
Solids
Temperature
Turbidity

Chemical characteristics are,


Organic
Carbohydrates
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Fats, oils and greases


Nitrogen contents
Pesticides
Phenols
Proteins
Surfactant
Inorganic
Alkalinity
Chloride
Heavy metal
Oxygen
pH
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Toxic compounds

2. Define BOD.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand is oxygen required by aerobic
decomposers for the biochemical degradation of bio-degradable organic
matters in water.

3. What do you mean by COD?


Chemical Oxygen Demand is oxygen required for the oxidation of
both biodegradable and non-biodegradable organic matters in water.

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4. Define the aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria.


AEROBIC BACTERIA: They require light and free oxygen for their
existence and development.

ANAEROBIC BACTERIA: They do not require light and free oxygen for
their existence and development.

5. Give the chemical characteristics of sewage.


Chemical characteristics indicate the state of sewage decomposition,
its strength and type of treatment required. Fresh sewage is alkaline and
good for bacterial action. Stale or septic sewage is acidic and difficult to be
efficiently treated. The chemical characteristics are dependent upon the
substances contained in sewage.

6. What is the significance of COD and BOD ratio?


The COD and BOD ratio must be = 2 5
The BOD/COD ratio can be categorized into toxic, biodegradable and
acceptable or stable zones.

7. Define suspended solids.


Suspended solids (Ss) are those which can be filtered out on an
asbestos mat or filter paper (i.e.) suspended solids are non-filterable solids.

8. Differentiate between colloidal solid and settleable solids.


Colloidal solids are finely divided solids either in solution or in
suspension.

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Settleable solids are portions of solid matter which settle out if sewage
is allowed to remain undisturbed for a period of 2 hours.

9. Express the difference between raw sludge and digest sludge.


RAW SLUDGE

DIGEST SLUDGE

The sludge, which is deposited in a

The process of decomposing

primary sedimentation tank, is called

organic matter of sewage sludge

raw sludge. Raw sludge is colourless, anaerobically under conditions of


contains highly perceptible organic

adequate operational control and

matter, and is thus very objectionable. solid matter with reduced moisture
It contains from 3 to 8% solids.

content.

10.What is the importance of determination of dissolved oxygen present in


sewage?
The concentration of oxygen dissolved in a running stream into which
sewage effluents discharge must be such as not to deplete the level of DO
concentration to a level as to endanger the life of aquatic animals.
The important point that DO concentration should be maintained to a
level of 4 8 mg/l at all times. This is the amount of oxygen dissolved in
sewage. The presence of dissolved oxygen in sewage indicates that it is
fresh or weak. Its presence in the effluent of a treatment works indicates
good treatment.

11.Define total solids.


Sewage normally contains 99.9% of water and 0.1% of solids.
Analytically, the total solids content (ST) of a wastewater is defined as all the
matter that remains as residue upon evaporation to 103 to 1050C. Total
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solids in wastewater exist in three different forms such as suspended solids,


colloidal solids and dissolved solids.

12.What is meant by biodegradable organic matter?


The organic matters is decomposed by bacteria under biological action
is called biodegradable organic matter.

13.Define DO.
This is the amount of oxygen dissolved in sewage. The presence of
dissolved oxygen in sewage indicates that it is fresh or weak. Its presence in
the effluent of a treatment works indicates good treatment.

14.Define toxic compounds.


Copper, lead, silver, chromium, arsenic and boron are some of the
cations which are toxic to micro-organisms resulting in the manufacturing of
the biological treatment plants. These are results from industrial
wastewaters. Some toxic anions, including cyanides and chromates, present
in some industrial wastes also hinder the wastewater treatment facilities.
Hence their presence should be taken into consideration in the design of
biological treatment plants.

UNIT 3
1. What are the materials used for constructing sewer pipes?
Asbestos cement
Cast iron
Concrete
Steel
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Vitrified clay

2. List out the types of pumps that are commonly employed for pumping
sewage.
Air-lift pump
Centrifugal pump
Pneumatic pump or ejector
Propeller pump
Reciprocating pump

3. List four important factors in the selection of sewer pumps.


To assist treatment processes
To lift the sewage from low-lying areas to main sewers
To lift the sewage from interceptors to treatment plants
To lift the sewage from low-lying outfall sewer to treatment works
To cross the obstacles such as stream etc., instead of inverted siphons
To transfer the sludge from settling tanks to disposal processes
To re-circulate the contents of the sludge digestion tanks
To return the activated sludge to aeration process
To drain off low-lying and sub-basements

4. Mention some shapes of sewer pipe.


Circular section
Non-circular section
Basket-handle sewer section
Box rectangular sewer section
Egg-shaped or O void sewer
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Horse-shoe sewer section


Parabolic sewer section
Semi-circular sewer section
Semi-elliptical sewer section
U-shaped sewer section

5. What is meant by surface loading rate?


The surface loading rate is a hydraulic loading factor expressed in
terms of flow per surface area. SLR is used to determine if the
sedimentation tanks and clarifiers are under or over loaded.
=

6. List the demerits of septic tanks.


The cost of having a septic tank can be very expensive to install and
maintain.
The maintenance of the septic tank must be checked frequently, if it is
not there is a bigger change that things could go wrong.
Roots from trees in immediate area of absorption line may clog
system.
Keep swimming pools away from absorption lines.

7. Enumerate the factors on which the cross section of sewers would


expand.
Cross section of sewer depends on,
Cost
Ease of maintenance and operation
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Efficiency of flow
Resistance to corrosion
Resistance to internal and external pressures
Structural stability

8. What are the severe problems associated with using u-lined cement
concrete pipes as sewers?
Clogged may happened due to algae growth
Difficult to make connection in them
Porosity may cause leakage
Repairing is very difficult

9. What are the requirements of good sewer joints?


It should be,
Durable and non-absorbent
Easy to construct
Economical
Flexible
Resistant to acidic, alkaline or gaseous action of the sewage
Resistant to penetration of tree roots
Watertight

10. What is self-cleaning velocity?


It is the velocity of flow in the sewers, at which the solid matter in the
sewage does not settle down on the bottom or sides of the sewer.

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11.Define non-scouring velocity.


The permissible maximum velocity to prevent eroding is termed as
non-scouring velocity and it should be limited to 3.0 m/s. This limiting or
non-scouring velocity will mainly depend upon the material of the sewer.

12.What are the problems to be faced during the pumping of sewerage?


Nuisance due to bad smell resulting decomposition of the sewage
Splashing May causes while pumping of sewage
Unhygienic to humans

13.What are the different types of traps?


Based on shape,
P trap
Q trap
S trap

Based on use,
Floor trap
Gully trap
Intercepting trap

14.What are the advantages of asbestos pipe?


These pipes possesses considerable strength against internal pressure
They are light in weight, due to which these can be easily handled
They can be easily cut and easily jointed
These pipes offer good resistance to salts and other corrosive
materials normally present in the sewers
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The inside surface is relatively smooth. Hence they are hydraulically


more efficient

15.Define open joints.


If there is no objection to infiltration, open joints are adopted. The
bell and spigot ends are simply placed together, without inserting filling
material in the annular space. Gasket may however be inserted, to maintain
alignment. The joint is merely covered with tar paper, to prevent entry of
subsoil into the sewer.

16.Define simplex joints.


It is also known as ring tie coupling, is similar to collar joints, and are
used for asbestos cement pipes. The joint, consists of a pipe sleeve or
coupling of asbestos cement and two rubber rings which are compressed
between the exterior of the pipes and the interior of the sleeve. Such a joint
is quite flexible.

17.Define mechanical joints.


Such joints use mechanical devices like flanged rings, bolts, screwed
ends etc. to keep the two ends together. They are used for metallic sewers
made of cast iron, steel etc.

18.Define imperviousness.
The sewer material should be impervious and should not allow
seepage of the sewage from the sewer.

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19.Define outfall sewer.


It is a sewer that receives the sewage from the collecting systems and
conduits it to a point of final discharge or to a disposal plant.

20.Disadvantages of plain concrete sewer.


These pipes can get corroded and pitted by the action of H2SO4.
The carrying capacity of the pipe reduces with time because of
corrosion.
The pipes are susceptible to erosion by sewage containing silt and grit.
The concrete sewers can be protected internally by vitrified clay
linings. With protection lining they are used for almost all the branch
and main sewers.
Only high alumina cement concrete should be used when pipes are
exposed to corrosive liquid like sewage.

21.What are the forces acting on sewer pipes?


Internal pressure of sewage
Pressure due to external loads
Temperature stress
Flexural stress

UNIT 4
1. What are the operational troubles in trickling filter?
High head loss through the filter, making automatic dosing of filters
as necessary.

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Odour and fly nuisance due to Psychoda which may be carried away
into human habitation and may prove a serious nuisance to man. The
latter may be overcome by flooding the filter or by the use of D.D.T
or other insecticides.
Large land area is required. Cost of construction is relatively higher.
They require preliminary treatment and, therefore, cannot treat raw
sewage.

2. What are the factors affecting sludge digestion?


Acid fermentation
Acid regression
Alkaline fermentation
Mixing and stirring of raw sludge with digested sludge
pH value
Temperature

3. What are the types of trickling filters?


High rate or high capacity trickling filter
Low rate or standard rate trickling filter

4. What are the advantages of primary treatment?


In the primary treatment, physical operations like screening and
sedimentation are used to remove the floating and settleable solids from
waste water.
Reduction in suspension solids
Removal of floating matter (oil and grease)
Partial equalization of flow rates and organic load
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Reduction in the amount of waste activated sludge in the activated


sludge plant

5. What are the stages in sludge digestion?


Acidification
Gasification
Liquefaction

6. What are the gases emanating from anaerobic digestion?


Carbon-dioxide (CO2)
Hydrogen (H2)
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
Nitrogen (N2)
Oxygen (O2)
Water vapor (H2O)

7. What is meant by sewage sickness?


The phenomenon of soil getting clogged when the sewage is applied
continuously on a piece of land is called sewage sickness.

8. Mention the composition and uses of sludge gas.


The amount of sludge gas produced varies from 0.014 to 0.028 m3 per
capita. The sludge gas is normally composed of 65% methane and 30%
carbon-dioxide and remaining 5% of nitrogen and other inert gases, with a
calorific value between 5400 to 5850kcal/m3.

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9. What is recirculation ratio? Show the relationship between


recirculation ratio and recirculation factor.
The ratio of the volume of sewage re-circulated (R) to the volume of
raw sewage (I) is called re-circulation ratio.
The recirculation ratio is connected to another term, recirculation
factor (F). The recirculation factor F also indicates the number of effective
passages through the filters.

=
0.1 2
(1+
)
1+

Where,
=
=
=

10.What is skimming tank?


A skimming tank is a chamber so arranged that floating matter rises
and remains on the surface of the waste water until removed, while the
liquid flows out continuously through deep outlets or under baffles. This
may be accomplished in a separate tank or combined with primary
sedimentation, depending on the process and nature of the waste water.
Skimming tank is to separate the lighter floating substances from the waste
water. The floating substances include oil, grease, soap, pieces of cork and
wood, vegetable debris and fruit skins originating from households and
industry.

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11.Write the classification of treatment process.


Preliminary treatment
Primary treatment
Secondary or biological treatment
Complete final treatment

12.Define unit process.


Methods of treatment in which the application of physical forces
predominate are known as unit operations while methods of treatment in
which chemical or biological activities are involved are known as unit
process.

13.Give any two advantages of unit process.


It gives better understanding of the process as inherent in the
treatment and of the capabilities of these processes in attaining the
objectives.
It helps in the development of mathematical and physical models of
treatment mechanisms and the consequent design of treatment plants.

14.What are the merits and demerits of trickling filter?


MERITS:
The effluent is highly nitrified and stabilized. Hence, it can be easily
disposed of in smaller quantity of dilution water.
Flexible in operation and therefore, can withstand the application of
variety sewage.
Moisture content of sludge obtained is as high as 92% or so.
Self-cleansing
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Cheap and simple in operation


Mechanical wear and tear is very small.
DEMERITS:
High loss of head warrants automatic dosing of the filters.
Nuisance due to odour and Psychoda fly.
Require large area of land
Require preliminary treatment. Therefore cannot treat raw sewage.
Costly

15.Define grit chamber.


Grit chambers, also called grit channels or grit basins, are intended to
remove the inorganic particles (specific graving about 2.65) such as sand,
gravel, grit, egg shells, bone chips etc. of size 2 mm or larger to prevent
damage to the pumps and to prevent their accumulation in sludge digesters.

16.What are the advantages of chemical coagulation process?


Sedimentation aided with coagulation produces better efficient with
lesser BOD and suspended solids, as compared to plain sedimentation.
Coagulated settling tank requires less space than that required by an
ordinary plain settling tank.

17.What are the disadvantages of chemical coagulation process?


Cost of chemicals is added to the cost of sedimentation, without much
use, and thereby making the treatment costlier.
The process of coagulation requires skilled supervision and handling
of chemicals.
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UNIT 5
1. What are the methods of disposing the sewage effluence?
Dilution or the disposal of sewage in water
Irrigation or the disposal of sewage on land
2. What is meant by self-purification phenomenon?
When sewage is discharged into a natural body of water, the receiving
water gets polluted due to waste products, present in sewage effluent. The
natural forces of purification such as dilution, sedimentation, oxidation,
reduction and sunlight go on acting upon the pollution elements and bring
back the water into its original condition. This automatic purification of
polluted water, in due course is called the self-purification phenomenon.

3. Define population equivalent.


The population equivalent of sewage is the expression of some
characteristics. E.g.: BOD, total solids etc., of the per capita flow of the
sewage in terms of same characteristic of the capita flow of some standard
sewage. A standard sewage may be taken as a normal domestic sewage of a
separate system.
E.g.: Population equivalent =

450
0.08

= 5625

4. What are the zones of population in a river system?


Clear water zone
Zone of active decomposition
Zone of degradation
Zone of recovery
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5. Mention how industrial waste water differs from domestic waste water.
Domestic waste water, which includes human excreta as well as
discharges from kitchens, baths and lavatories etc. from public and private
buildings.
But, the Industrial wastes are the solid wastes resulting from many
manufacturing processes and often result in causing health hazard, if left
indisposed.

6. Give an example of by-products recovery.


Dust and fine particles,
Tailings,
Slag waste,
Gas cleaning sludge,
Liquor residues,
Dewatering and conserving water

7. What is meant by oxygen sag curve?


Both de-oxygenation and re-aeration are occurring simultaneously in
any polluted stream exposed to air and producing in the dissolved oxygen
concentration of stream water a pattern called the oxygen sag curve.

8. Enumerate the factors on which rate of de-oxygenation depend?


Temperature of the diluting water
Time available for decomposition and
Volume of sewage and BOD

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9. The 5-day BOD of sewage coming out from an industry is worked out to
be 300 kg/day. The average standard 5-day BOD of domestic sewage is
worked out to be about 0.08 kg/day per person. Determine the
population equivalent.
=

300
= 3750
0.08

10.Why is clearing of sewage required?


The sewage after treatment may be disposed either into a water body
such as lake, stream, river, Estuary, ocean or land. It may also be utilized
for several purposes such as Industrial reuse or reclaimed sewage effluent
cooling system, boiler feed, process water, etc. Reuse in agriculture and
horticulture, watering of lawns, golf courses and similar purpose, and
Ground water recharge for augmenting ground water resources for
downstream users or for preventing saline water intrusion in coastal areas.

11.What is meant by non-scoring velocity?


The velocity of water which is necessary to dislodge stranded solids
from the stream bed

12.Define dilution factor.


The ratio of the quantity of the diluting water to that of the sewage is
known as the Dilution Factor.

13.What are the conditions adopted for disposal by dilution?


When sewage is comparatively fresh and free from floating and
settleable solids.
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When the dilution water has high dissolved oxygen content.


When the out fall sewer of the city or the treatment plant is situated
near some natural waters having large volumes.

14.What are the factors affecting self-purification of polluted stream?


Temperature
Turbulence
Hydrography such as the velocity and surface expanse of the river
stream.
Dissolved oxygen and the amount and type of organic matter.
Rate of re aeration.

15.What do you know about oxidation?


The oxidation of the organic matter present in sewage effluents will
start as soon as the sewage outfalls into the river water containing dissolved
oxygen. The deficiency of oxygen so created will be filled up by the
atmospheric oxygen. The process of oxidation will continue till the organic
matter has been completely oxidized. This is the most important action
responsible for affecting self-purification of rivers.

16.What is reduction?
Reduction occurs due to hydrolysis of organic matter settled at the
bottom either chemically or biologically. Anaerobic bacteria will help in
splitting the complex organic constituents of sewage into liquids and gases
and thus paving the way for their ultimate stabilization by oxidation.

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17.Define the re-oxygenation curve.


In order to counter balance the consumption of D.O. due to deoxygenation, atmosphere supplies oxygen to the water and the process is
called re-oxygenation.

18.What are the merits and demerits of land filling method of disposal?
MERITS:
It is simple and economical
No plant / equipment is required
There are no by products and hence there is no problem of the
disposal of the by-products.
Separation of various materials of the refuge is not required.

DEMERITS:
Proper site may not be available near by
Wind direction map not be favorable.
Large band areas are required.
It may be difficult to get large quantities of covering material.

19.What are the merits and demerits of incineration method of disposal?


MERITS:
This is most hygienic method, since it ensures complete destruction of
pathogens
There is no odour trouble or dust nuisance
The heat generated can be used for saving steam power
Clinker produced can be used for road purposes.

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DEMERITS:
Large initial expenditure.
Improper operation results in air pollution problems and incomplete
reduction of the waste materials.
Disposal of the remaining residue is required.
High slacks needed for natural draft chimneys present safety
problems.

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GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 1
UNIT 1
1. Define porosity.
Soils usually consist of particles, water and air. The porosity n of a
given soil sample is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of
the given soil mass.
=

2. Define density index.


It is defined as the ratio of the difference between the void ratio of the
soil in its loosest state and its natural void ratio to the difference between the
void ratios in the loosest and densest state. It is also called relative density
or degree of density.

=

Where,
e = Natural void ratio of the deposit
emax = Void ratio in the loosest state
emin = Void ratio in the densest state

3. What are the various types of transported soil?


Aeolian deposit
Alluvial deposit
Glacial deposit
Lacustrine deposit
Marine deposit
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4. What is absolute specific gravity?


All the internal voids of soil particles (permeable and impermeable)
are excluded for determining the true volume of voids, the specific gravity
obtained is called absolute or true specific gravity.

5. What is dry mass density?


The dry mass density is the mass of solids per unit of total volume
(prior to drying) of the soil mass.
=

6. What is specific gravity?


The specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given
volume of soil solids at a given temperature to the weight of an equal
volume of distilled water at that same temperature.

7. How do you classify the soil?


Residual soil
Transported soil

8. What is saturated density of soil?


When soil mass is saturated its bulk density is called saturated density.
It is defined as the ratio of soil mass of saturated sample to its total volume.
It is denoted by the symbol sat.
=

( + )
1 +

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9. Distinguish between porosity and void ratio.


POROSITY

VOID RATIO

Soils usually consist of particles,

It is defined as the ratio of volume

water and air. The porosity n of a

of voids to the volume of soil

given soil sample is the ratio of the

solids in the given soil mass.

volume of voids to the total volume


of the given soil mass.
=

10.Sketch the phase diagram for a soil and indicate the volume and weights
of the phase on it.

11.Define soil mechanics.


Soil mechanics is defined as the application of the laws and principles
of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with soil as an
engineering material.

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12.Define the term residual soil.


Residual soils are those which have remained over the parent rock
from which they have been formed. They are relatively shallow in depth.
They are characterized by a gradual transition from soil through partially
weathered rocks, fractured and fissured rock to bedrock.

13.How do you distinguish between clay and silt?


CLAY

SILT

It is an aggregate of mineral particles Particles become dusty when dry


of microscopic and sub-microscopic

and are easily brushed off hands.

range.
The soil may be organic or

The soil may be inorganic.

inorganic.
Organic clays are more compressible Potentially large expansion upon
because of the presence of finely

wetting.

divided organic matter.


Inorganic clays are generally more

Difficult to compaction.

plastic than the organic clays.

14.What are the different types of soil structures?


Following are the types of soil structures which have been recognized
in various soil deposits.
Coarse grained skeleton structure
Cohesive matrix structure
Dispersed structure
Flocculent structure
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Honeycomb structure
Single grained structure

15.What are the minerals present in clay soil?


Attapulgite
Calcium smectite
Chlorite
Illite
Kaolinite
Smectite
Sodium smectite
Vermiculite

16.Define submerged unit weight.


Where the in-situ soil is saturated with water, the particles are
subjected to an all-round thrust. The submerged unit weight is given by
difference in the unit weight of a saturated soil and the unit weight of water.
The submerged unit weight is the submerged weight of soil solids
( ) per unit of total volume (V) of the soil mass. It is also called
buoyant unit weight.
=

( )
=

17.Define state of consistency.


The term consistency refers to the relative ease with which a soil mass
can be deformed and is used to describe the degree of firmness of finegrained soils for which consistency relates to a large extent to water content.
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The four states of consistency suggested by Atterberg are indicated in this


figure.

18.What is degree of saturation?


In a given volume of voids of a sample, some space is occupied by
water and the rest by air. In a fully saturated sample, the voids get
completely filled with water. The degree of saturation S is defined as the
ratio of the volume of water present in a given soil mass to the total volume
of voids in it.
=

The degree of saturation is usually expressed as a percentage and is

also known as percent saturation.


S = 1 (for fully saturated sample)
S = 0 (for perfectly dry sample)

19.Define water content.


The water content w, also called the moisture content, is defined as
the ratio of weight of water to the weight of solids ( ) in a
given mass of soil.
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100

20.Define plastic limit.


It is defined as the minimum water content at which a soil will just
begin to crumble when rolled into a thread approximately 3 mm in diameter.
Plastic limit is the water content corresponding to an arbitrary limit between
the plastic and the semi-solid states of consistency of a soil. It is denoted by
the symbol .
21.Define liquid limit.
It is defined as the minimum water content at which the soil starts to
flow. Liquid limit is the water content corresponding to the arbitrary limit
between liquid and plastic state of consistency of a soil. It is denoted by the
symbol .
22.Define shrinkage limit.
It is defined as the maximum water content at which a reduction in
water content will not cause a decrease in the volume of a soil mass. It is
lowest water content at which a soil can still be completely saturated. It is
denoted by the symbol .
23.Define toughness index, consistency index, liquidity index, flow index
and plasticity index.
Toughness index is defined as the ratio of the plasticity index to the
flow index. It is denoted by the symbol .

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Consistency index or the relative consistency is defined as the ratio of


the difference between liquid limit and natural water content to the plasticity
index. It is denoted by the symbol .

=

Liquidity index or the water-plasticity ratio is the ratio expressed as a


percentage, of the difference between the natural water content of a soil and
its plastic limit, to its plasticity index. It is denoted by the symbol .

=

Flow index is the slope of flow curve obtained by plotting water


content as ordinate or natural scale against number of blows as abscissa on
logarithmic scale.
1 2
=

log10 2
1
Plasticity index is defined as the numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit of a soil.
=

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24.What is the use of consistency limits?


The consistency limits and related indices are very useful for soil
identification and classification. The limits are often in specification for soil
compaction and in semi empirical methods of design. The liquid limit and
plastic limit depend on both the type and amount of clay.

25.Define co-efficient of uniformity.


It gives the range of grain sizes in a given sample. CU must be greater
than 4 for gravels and 6 for sands. It is denoted by the symbol CU.
=

60
10

26.Define co-efficient of curvature.


Coefficient of Curvature is a measure of the smoothness of the
gradation curve. It is denoted by the symbol CC. For well graded soil, CC
must be between 1 and 3.
( 30 )2
=
10 60

UNIT 2
1. What is quick sand condition?
Sand is said to be quick sand condition when the flow is upward under
a hydraulic gradient, which reduces the effective stress to zero.

2. State the properties of flow nets.


The flow lines and equipotential potential lines meet at right angles to
one another.
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Moving parallel is not possible.


The quantity of water flowing through each flow channel is the same.
Similarly, the same potential drop occurs between two successive
equipotential lines.
Smaller the dimensions of the field, greater will be hydraulic gradient
and velocity of flow through it.
In a homogeneous soil, every transition in the shape of the curves is
smooth, being either elliptical or parabolic in shape.
3. State Darcys law.
The law of flow of water through soil was first studied by Darcy
(1856) who demonstrated experimentally that for laminar flow conditions in
a saturated soil, the rate of flow or the discharge per unit time is proportional
to the hydraulic gradient.

= =

Where,
q = discharge per unit time
A = total cross-sectional area of soil mass, perpendicular to the
direction of flow
i = hydraulic gradient
k = Darcys co-efficient of permeability
v = velocity of flow or average discharge velocity

4. What are the various uses of flow nets?


A flow net can be utilized for the following purposes:
Determination of seepage
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Determination of hydrostatic pressure


Determination of seepage pressure
Determination of exit gradient

5. Define the term Geostatic stresses.


The vertical stress in a soil to its self-weight is termed as Geostatic
stress.

6. Define effective stress.


Effective stress equals the total stress minus the pore water pressure,
or the total force in the soil grains divided by the gross cross-sectional area
over which the force acts.

7. What is permeability?
It is defined as the property of a porous material which permits the
passage or seepage of water (or other fluids) through its interconnecting
voids. A material having continuous voids is called permeable.

8. What are the methods for measurement of permeability?


The co-efficient of permeability can be determined by the following
methods:
Laboratory methods
Constant head permeability test
Falling head permeability test
Field methods
Pumping out tests
Pumping in tests
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Indirect methods
Computation from grain size or specific surface
Consolidation test data
Horizontal capillarity test

9. Define seepage velocity.


The actual or true velocity of water flowing through the voids is
termed as seepage velocity.

10.Define discharge velocity.


Quantity of water flowing in unit time through a unit gross cross
sectional area of soil at right angles to the direction of flow. It does not
account for flow through soil voids.

11.What is ground water table?


Ground water is that water which fills the voids in the soil up to the
ground water table and Translocate through them. It tries to fill completely
all the voids.

12.Define the term capillary tension.


The tensile stress caused in water is called the capillary tension or the
capillary potential. It is the pressure deficiency, pressure reduction or
negative pressure in the pore water (or the pressure below atmospheric) by
which water is retained in a soil mass.

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13.Define the term coefficient of permeability.


The co-efficient of permeability or simply permeability, is defined as
the average velocity of flow that will occur through the total cross-sectional
area of soil under unit hydraulic gradient. The dimensions of the co-efficient
of permeability k are the same as those of velocity. It is usually expressed
as cm/sec.
Water can flow through the pore spaces in the soil and the soil is
considered to be a permeable. Thus the property of porous medium such as
soil, water or other fluids can flow through it. It is named as permeability or
co-efficient of permeability. The percolating power of the soil mass is
named as permeability.

14.What are the factors affecting permeability of soil?


Some of the factors, which affect permeability, are,
Adsorbed water
Degree of saturation
Grain / particle size
Impurities in water
Properties of water
Shape of particles
Structure of soil mass
Temperature
Viscosity
Void ratio

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15.List the assumptions made in the Laplaces equation.


The following assumptions are made in the derivation of the Laplace
equation.
The flow is laminar
Water and soil are incompressible
Soil is isotropic and homogeneous
The soil is fully saturated
The flow is steady (i.e.) flow condition does not change with time
Darcys law is valid

16.What is laminar flow?


Flow of fluids is described as laminar, if a fluid particles flow follows
a definite path and does not cross the path of other particles.

UNIT 3
1. What is meant by contact pressure?
Contact pressure is defined as the vertical pressure acting at the
surface of contact between the base of a footing and the underlying soil
mass. The actual contact pressure distribution, however, depends upon the
flexural rigidity of the footing and the elastic properties of the sub-grade.

2. What are the approximate methods of determination of vertical stress


under loaded areas?
Equivalent point load method
Sixty degree distribution
Two to one load distribution method

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3. State any two assumptions made in Westergaards analysis.


Westergaards (1938) analysis is used to solve the problems on the
pressure distribution in soil under point load, assuming the soil to be an
elastic medium of semi-infinite extent but containing numerous, closely
spaced, horizontal sheets of negligible thickness of an infinite rigid material
which permits only downward deformation on the mass as a whole without
allowing it to undergo any lateral strain.
4. Write down Boussinesqs equation for stresses due to a point load.

3
1
[
]
2 2 1 + ( ) 2

5
2

5. Define the term pressure bulb or pressure bulb concept in soils.


The zone in a loaded soil mass bounded by an isobar of given vertical
pressure intensity is called a pressure bulb.

6. Define Influence diagram.


The vertical stress distribution diagram, due to a concentrated load, at
a depth z if such a diagram is plotted for unit load (Q = 1), it is called the
influence diagram.

7. What is an Isobar or stress isobar or isobar diagram?


An isobar is a curve or contour connecting all points below the ground
surface of equal vertical pressure. An isobar is a spatial, curved surface of
the shape of a bulb, because the vertical pressure on a given horizontal plane

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is the same in all directions at points located at equal radial distances around
the axis of loading.
8. Write the assumptions involved in Boussinesqs equation.
The following assumptions are made in the solutions by the theory of
elasticity.
The soil mass is an elastic medium, for which the modulus of
elasticity E is constant.
The soil mass is homogeneous (i.e.) all its constituent parts or
elements are similar and it has identical properties at every point in it
in identical directions.
The soil mass is isotropic (i.e.) it has identical elastic properties in all
directions through any point of it.
The soil mass is semi-infinite (i.e.) it extends infinitely in all
directions below a level surface.

9. What is the use of Newmarks Influence chart?


A more accurate method of determining the vertical stress at any point
under a uniform loaded area of any shape is with the help of influence chart
or influence diagram originally suggested by Newmarks (1942).

10.What are the factors affecting the contact pressure distribution?


Elastic properties of the sub-grade
Flexural rigidity of the footing
Type of soil

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11.What are the pressure distribution diagrams?


The following pressure distribution diagrams can be adopted.
Stress isobar or isobar diagram
Vertical pressure distribution on a horizontal plane
Vertical pressure distribution on a vertical plane

UNIT 4
1. State the assumptions in the derivation of Terzaghis consolidation
equation.
The soil mass is homogeneous.
The void spaces are completely filled with water.
The soil solids and water are incompressible.
Darcys law is valid.
The seepage flow and deformation are in one-dimensional direction.
Strains are small.
The permeability is constant over the range of effective stresses.
There is a unique pressure void ratio relationship (i.e.) the co-efficient
of compressibility is constant.
The time lap in consolidation is entirely due to low permeability of
soil.

2. Define compressibility.
When a compressive load is applied to soil mass, a decrease in its
volume takes place. The decrease in the volume of soil mass under stress is
known as compression and the property of soil mass pertaining to its

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susceptibility to decrease in volume under pressure is known as


compressibility.

3. Define coefficient of compressibility.


The co-efficient of compressibility is defined as the decrease in void
ratio per unit increase of pressure.

4. What do you mean by optimum moisture content?


The dry density goes on increasing as the water content is increased,
till maximum density is reached. The water content corresponding to the
maximum density is called the optimum moisture content w0.

5. Define hydrodynamic lag.


The delay caused in consolidation by the slow drainage of water out
of a saturated soil mass is called hydrodynamic lag.

6. What is Frost heave?


Water migrates upward from the water table to the capillary fringe.
When the atmospheric temperature falls to the freezing point and the ice is
formed. This results in an increase in the volume of the soil. This is known
as frost heave.

7. List the various factors influencing compaction of soil.


The various factors which affect the compacted density are as follows:
Addition of admixtures
Amount and type of compaction
Method of compaction
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Type of soil
Water content

8. What is consolidation?
In a saturated soil mass having its voids filled with incompressible
water, decrease in volume or compression can take place when water is
expelled out from the voids. Such a compression resulting from a long term
static load and the consequent escape of pore water is termed as
consolidation.

9. Define the term relative compaction.


Degree of compaction is also sometimes expressed in terms of an
index called relative compaction (Rc) defined as the ratio of dry density to
the maximum dry density from compaction test.

10.State any two assumptions made in Terzaghis theory of one


dimensional consolidation.
Compression and flow are one-dimensional
Darcys law is valid
The soil grains and water are both incompressible
The soil is completely saturated
The soil is homogeneous

11.What is the use of consolidation data?


The consolidation test data are then used to determine the following:
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Co-efficient of consolidation
Co-efficient of permeability
Void ratio and co-efficient of volume change

12.Differentiate compaction and consolidation.


COMPACTION

CONSOLIDATION

Compaction is the process by

Consolidation is the process by

which soil particles are packed

which soil particles are packed more

more closely together by

closely together under the

mechanical means.

application of static loading.

It is achieved through reduction of

It is achieved through gradual

air voids.

drainage of water from soil pores.

It is a rapid process.

It is a gradual process. In some soils


it takes many years.

It is an artificial process.

It is a natural process.

Proper compaction of soil is

Consolidation is strictly applicable

achieved at optimum moisture

for saturated or nearly saturated

content.

clays or soils with low permeability.

13.What do you mean by Initial consolidation?


When a load is applied to a partially saturated soil, a decrease in
volume occurs due to expulsion and compression of air in the voids. A
small decrease in volume occurs due to compression of solid particles. The
reduction in volume of the soil just after the application of the load is known

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as initial consolidation or initial compression. For saturated soils, the initial


consolidation is mainly due to compression of solid particles.

14.What are the factors influenced by the compressibility of the clay?


The compressibility of clays may also be caused by three factors are,
The expulsion of double layer water from between the grains
Slipping of the particles to new positions of greater density
Bending of the particles as elastic sheets

15.Define hydrodynamic pressure.


The pressure that builds up in pore water due to load increment on the
soil is termed as excess pore pressure or excess hydrostatic pressure or
hydrodynamic pressure.

16.Define primary consolidation.


The reduction in volume of soil which is due principally to a
squeezing out of water from the voids is termed as primary consolidation or
primary compression or primary time effect.

17.Define secondary consolidation.


Even after the reduction of all excess hydrostatic pressure to zero,
some compression of soil takes place at a very slow rate. This is known as
secondary consolidation or secondary compression or secondary time effect.

18.What is immediate settlement?


The settlement which is caused by the elastic deformation of dry,
moist and saturated soils without any change in moisture content.
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UNIT 5
1. Define the term stress path.
A stress path is a curve or a straight line which is the locus of a series
of stress points depicting the changes in stress in a test specimen or in a soil
element in-situ, during loading or unloading.

2. What are the shear parameters of a soil?


c and are the shear parameters of a soil
Where,
c is known as apparent cohesion
is known as angle of internal friction.
3. Write down the Skemptons equation for increase in pore pressure due
to increase in principal stresses.
= [ 3 + ( 1 3 ) ]
4. Under what circumstances is vane shear test used?
Vane shear test is a quick test, used either in the laboratory or in the
field, to determine the undrained shear strength of cohesive soil. The vane
shear test consists of four thin steel plates, called vanes, welded orthogonally
to a steel rod.

5. Mention the advantages of Tri-axial shear test as compared to direct


shear test.
The shear tests under all the three drainage conditions can be
performed with complete control.

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Precise measurements of the pore pressure and volume change during


the test are possible.
The stress distribution on the failure plane is uniform.
The state of stress within the specimen during any stage of the test, as
well as at failure is completely determinate.

6. What are the advantages of direct shear test?


It is easy and quick test for sands and gravels.
Large deformations can be achieved by reversing shear direction. This
is useful for determining the residual strength of a soil.
Large samples may be tested in large shear boxes. Small samples
may give misleading results due to imperfections (fractures and
fissures) or the lack of them.
Samples may be sheared along predetermined planes. This is useful
when the shear strengths along fissures or other selected planes are
required.

7. What are the disadvantages of direct shear test?


Uniform deformations and stresses in the specimen.
The stress-strain behavior cannot be determined.
The estimated stresses may not be those acting on the shear plane.
There is no means of estimating pore pressures so effective stresses
cannot be determined from undrained tests.
Undrained strengths are unreliable because it is impossible to prevent
localized drainage without high shearing rates.
In practice shear box tests are used to get quick and crude estimates of
failure parameters.
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8. Name the test used to determine shear strength of soil in the field.
Cone Penetration test
Dynamic cone penetration test
Static cone penetration test
Vane shear test

9. What is shear strength equation?


The shear strength of a soil is a basic geotechnical engineering
parameter and is required for the analysis of foundations, earthwork, and
slope stability problems. This is because of the nature of soil, which is
composed of individual soil particles that slide (i.e., shear past each other)
when the soil is loaded. The Coulombs shear strength equation is given by,
= +

10.Define the term principle planes.


A principal plane is defined as the plane on which the stress is wholly
normal on one. This does not carry shearing stress.
From mechanics it is known that there exist three principal planes at
any point in a stressed material. The normal stress acting on the principal
plane is known as principal stresses.
11.State Mohrs coulomb theory.
The Mohrs coulomb theory of securing strength of a soil, first
propounded by coulomb (1976) and later generalized by Mohrs, is the most
commonly used concept. The functional relationship between the normal
stress on any plane and the shearing strength available on that plane was

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assumed to be linear by coulomb. Thus the following is usually known as


coulombs law.
= +
=
=

12.Write the four laboratory methods of determining the shearing


resistance.
The shear resistance can be determined in the laboratory by the following
four methods:
Direct shear test
Tri-axial shear test
Unconfined compression test
Vane shear test

13.What are the methods to determine shear strength?


Direct shear test
Tri-axial shear test
Unconfined compression test
Vane shear test
Consolidated undrained test
Drained test
Undrained test or quick test

14.What are the factors affecting shear strength?


Resistance due to interlocking of particle.

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Frictional resistance between the individual soil grains which may be


sliding friction, rolling friction.
Adhesion between soil particle and cohesion.

15.Classify soils based on shear strength.


On the basis of shear strength, soil can be classified as:
Cohesion less soils
Purely cohesive soils
Cohesive-frictional soils
Cohesion less soils:
These soils derive the shear strength from inter granular
friction. It has no cohesion i.e. c = 0. These soils are also called
frictional soil. Example: sand and gravels.
Purely cohesive soils:
These are the soils which exhibit cohesion but the angle of
shearing resistance = 0. These soils are also called u = 0 soil.
Example: saturated clays and silts under undrained conditions.
Cohesive frictional soils:
These are composite soils having both c and . These are also
called C soil. Example: clayey sand, silty sand, sandy clay etc.
16.What do you mean by C soil?
These are composite soils having both c and . These are also called
cohesive - frictional soil. Example: clayey sand, silty sand, sandy clay etc.
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17.What are the factors that affect shear strength of cohesion less soils?
Shape of particles, gradation, confining pressure, deviator stress,
vibration, repeated loading and type of minerals are the factors that affect
shear strength of cohesion less soils.

18.What are the factors that affect shear strength of cohesive soils?
Structure of clay, clay content, drainage condition, rate of strain,
repeated loading, confining pressure, plasticity index, disturbance are the
factors that affect shear strength of cohesive soils.

19.What are the different types of failure of a tri-axial compression test


specimen?
Brittle failure
Plastic failure
Semi plastic failure
20.What is Mohrs circle? What are the characteristics of Mohrs circle?
The co-ordinates of points on the circle represent the normal and
shearing stress on inclined planes at a given point. This circle is known as
Mohrs circle of stress (Mohr, 1870). The graphical method for the
determination of stresses on a plane inclined to the principal stress is called
Mohrs wide.
The characteristics are,
The maximum angle of obliquity max is obtained by drawing a
tangent to the circle from the origin O.
Shear stresses plane at right angle to each other are numerically equal
but are of opposite signs.
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21.What do you know about undrained and drained test?


In the undrained test, no drainage of water is permitted. Hence there
is no dissipation of pore pressure during the entire test. In the drained test,
drainage is permitted throughout the test during the application of both
normal and shear stress.

22.Define shear strength of soil.


The shear strength of soil is the resistance to deformation by
continuous shear displacement of soil particles or on masses upon the action
of a shear stress. The failure conditions for a soil may be expressed in terms
of limiting shear stress, called shear strength or as a function of the principal
stresses.
23.What are the limitations of coulombs theory?
It neglects the effect of the intermediate principal stress.
It approximates the curved failure envelope by a straight line which
may not give correct results.

24.What is the main cause of slope failure?


Slope failures occur when the rupturing force exceeds resisting force.

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GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2
UNIT 1
1. What is soil exploration?
The field and laboratory studies carried out for obtaining the
necessary information about the surface and sub-surface features of the
proposed area including the position of the ground water table, are termed as
soil exploration or site investigation.

2. What is the object of soil exploration?


Determination of the nature of the deposits of soil,
Determination of the depth and thickness of the various soil strata and
their extent in the horizontal direction,
The location of groundwater and fluctuations in GWT,
Obtaining soil and rock samples from the various strata,
The determination of the engineering properties of the soil and rock
strata that affect the performance of the structure, and
Determination of the in-situ properties by performing field tests.

3. State the need of soil exploration.


To determine the basic properties of soil which affect the design and
safety of structure i.e., compressibility, strength and hydrological
conditions.
To determine the extent and properties of the material to be used for
construction.
To determine the condition of groundwater.
To analyze the causes of failure of existing works.
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4. What are the uses of soil exploration?


To select type and depth of foundation for a given structure
To determine the bearing capacity of the soil of the selected
foundation
To investigate the safety of the existing structure
To establish ground water level

5. What are the objectives of site exploration?


The object of site exploration is to provide reliable, specific and
detailed information about the soil and ground water conditions of the site
which may be required for a safe and economic design and execution of the
engineering work.
6. What is the equivalent penetration resistance given by Terzaghis and
pech?
= 15 +

1
( 15 )
2

Where,
Ne = corrected value for overburden effect
N = actual value of blows

7. Define inside, outside clearance in sampling tube.


The inside clearance allows the elastic expansion of the sample when
it enters the sampling tube. It helps in reducing the frictional drag on the
sample, and also helps to retain the core. For an undisturbed sample, the
inside clearance should be between 0.5 to 3%.

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3 1
100
1
Outside clearance facilitates the withdrawal of the sample from the

ground. For reducing the driving force, the outside clearance should be as
small as possible. Normally it lies between 0 to 2%. Co should not be more
than Ci.
=

2 4
100
4

8. Define chunk sample.


Hand carved samples can be obtained if the soil is exposed, as in a test
pit, shaft or tunnel. Hand carved samples is also known as chunk samples.

9. What are the guidelines in terms of inside clearance and outside


clearance for obtaining undisturbed sample?
For an undisturbed sample, the inside clearance should be 0.5 to 3%
The wall of the sample should be smooth and should be kept properly
oiled
The outside clearance should be between 0 to 2%

10.List the various parameters affecting the sampling disturbance.


Area ratio
Inside clearance
Outside clearance
Inside wall friction
Design of non-return valve
Method of applying force
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11.How will you reduce the area ratio of a sampler?


Generally samples will area ratio less than 15% are said to be
undisturbed. So area ratio is reduced by reducing the thickness of the cutting
shoe.

12.When thin walled sampler is used for sampling?


Thin walled sampler is used for those soils which are very sensitive to
disturbances such as soft clays and plastic silts.

13.Name the samplers used to collect undisturbed soil samples.


Open drive sampler
Piston sampler

14.List the different types of samplers.


Open drive sampler
Denison sampler
Shelby tube and Thin walled sampler
Split spoon sampler
Scraper bucket sampler
Piston sampler

15.What is significant depth?


Exploration in general should be carried out to a depth up to which the
increase in pressure due to structural loading is likely to cause perceptible
settlement or shear failure. Such a depth is known as significant depth.

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16.What is sub surface profile?


A Sub surface profile is a vertical section through the ground along
the line of exploration which indicates the boundaries of different strata,
along with their classification.

17.What are the methods available for site explorations?


Open excavations
Test pits
Trenches
Borings
Auger boring
Auger and shell boring
Wash boring
Percussion boring
Rotary boring
Sub-surface soundings
Geophysical methods
Seismic refraction method
Electrical resistivity method

18.What are the methods of boring available for site exploration?


Auger boring
Auger and shell boring
Wash boring
Percussion boring
Rotary boring
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19.List the various methods of soil exploration techniques.


Direct methods
Test pits, trial pits or trenches
Semi-direct methods
Borings
Indirect methods
Soundings or penetration tests and geophysical methods

20.Define CPT.
The cone Penetrometer is a device by which a 60o cone with a base
area of 10 cm2 is pushed into the soil, and the cone end resistance qc, to
penetration is measured. Most cone Penetrometers that are used commonly
have friction sleeves that follow the point. This allows independent
determination of the cone resistance (qc) and the frictional resistance (fc) of
the soil above it. The friction sleeves have an exposed surface area of about
150 cm2.

21.Write the advantages of SCPT over SPT.


There is no need of hammering action, just pushing into the ground
No need of bore holes, it is carried out on the ground
Engineering properties of the soil like permeability, shear strength,
compressibility can be evaluated.

22.What are the uses of standard penetration test?


The ultimate bearing capacity of cohesion less soil is determined from
the standard penetration number N. The standard penetration test is
conducted at a number of selected points in the vertical direction below the
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foundation level at intervals of 75cm or at a point where there is a change of


strata. An average value of N is obtained between the level of the base of
footing and the depth equal to 1.5 to 2 times the width of the foundation.

23.Write short notes on spacing of bore holes.


The spacing of bore holes depends upon the variation of subsurface
soil in the horizontal direction. The factors influencing the spacing of bore
holes are,
Type of soil
Fluctuation of water table
Load coming from structure
Importance of the structure
Economic feasibility

24.What are the limitations of hand augers in soil exploration?


Hand augers are not suitable for sands and gravels above the water
table
The sample is disturbed and suitable for identification purposes only

25.Write short notes on auger boring.


Augers are used in cohesive and other soft soils above water table.
Hand augers are used for depths upto about 6m. Mechanically operated
augers are used for greater depths and they can also be used in gravely soils.
Sample recovered from the soil brought up by augers are badly disturbed
and are useful for identification purposes only. Auger boring is fairly
satisfactory for highway explorations at shallow depths and for exploring
borrow pits.
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26.Define penetration resistance.


The total blows required for the second and third 15cm of penetration
is termed as the penetration resistance N.

27.Define standard penetration number.


The standard penetration number is equal to the number of blows
required for 300mm of penetration beyond a seating drive of 150mm.

28.List the various corrections to be carried out in SPT test.


Correction for overburden
Correction due to dilatancy/submergence

29.Write the expression for correction due to dilatancy / submergence.


The values N0 obtained after applying overburden correction is
corrected further for dilatancy if the stratum consists of fine sand and silt
below water table, for values of N greater than 15, using the following
expression.
= 15 + ( 0 15 )
Where,
N0 = corrected value for overburden effect

30.Write the uses of bore log report.


Used to record the change of layers depth
Used to record the water level
Used to record the water quality in deeper levels

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31.Define the term dewatering.


The removal of excess water from the saturated soil mass is termed as
drainage or dewatering. The term dewatering is also used for lowering the
water table to obtain a dry area in the vicinity of the excavation.

32.How depth of borehole decided in soil exploration?


The depth of boring depends upon the type of proposed structure, its
total weight and the type of sub-soil encountered. Though normally the
depth of boring may be taken as 1.5 times the width of largest footing, but at
least on boring should be made deep enough to ascertain the existence of any
exceptionally compressible stratum, preferably up to rock.

33.How is the depth of exploration decided?


The depth of exploration required, depends on the type of proposed
structure, its total weight, the size, shape and disposition of the loaded areas,
soil profile and the physical properties of the soil that constitutes each
individual stratum.

34.What is meant by a non-representative sample? Name the laboratory


tests that could be conducted on this sample.
These samples comprise mixtures of materials from various soil or
rock layers. Here, there are possibilities of removal or exchange of some
mineral constituents by washing and sedimentation. Such examples, also
called wash or wet samples, are not a true representation of the mineral
found at the bottom of the borehole. These samples are unsuitable for
identification and laboratory tests.

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35.Define detailed exploration.


Detailed exploration follows as a supplement to general exploration
when large engineering works, heavy loads, complex and costly foundations
are involved. A detailed exploration is meant to furnish information about
soil properties such as shear strength, compressibility, density index and
permeability.

36.What is site reconnaissance?


An inspection of the site and study of topographical features is often
helpful in getting useful information about the soil and ground water
conditions and in deciding the future programme of exploration.

UNIT 2
1. What are the causes of slope failure?
Gravitational force
Force due to seepage water
Erosion of the surface of slopes due to flowing water
The sudden lowering of water adjacent to a slope
Forces due to earthquakes
Rainfall
Construction activities at the toe of the slope
External loading

2. What is called slope?


An exposed ground surface that stands at an angle (i) with the
horizontal is called slope. Slopes are required in the construction of
highway and railway embankments, earth dams, levees and canals. These
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are constructed by sloping the lateral faces of the soil because slopes are
generally less expensive than constructing walls. Slopes can be natural or
manmade. When the ground surface is not horizontal a component of
gravity will try to move the sloping soil mass downwards.

3. What are the types of slopes?


Finite slopes
Infinite slopes

4. Draw the translational and compound failure.

5. Define factor of safety.


Factor of safety of a slope is defined as the ratio of average shear
strength ( ) of soil to the average shear stress ( ) developed along the
potential failure surface.

6. What are the factors of safety used in stability analysis of slopes?


Factor of safety with respect to cohesion assuming to be fully
mobilized
Factor of safety with respect to friction assuming to be fully mobilized
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Factor of safety with respect to shear strength


Factor of safety with respect to height

7. Draw the face, toe and base failure of finite slopes.

8. What is stability number?


In a slope, the component of the self-weight causes instability and the
cohesion contributes to stability. The maximum height ( ) of a slope is
directly proportional to unit cohesion (Cu) and inversely proportional to unit
weight (). In addition, Hc is also related to friction angle () and slope i.

9. Draw the total stress analysis for pure cohesive soil.


Analysis based on total stresses, also called = 0 analysis, gives the
stability of an embankment immediately after its construction. It is assumed
that the soil has had no time to drain and the shear strength parameters used
relate to the undrained strength with respect to total stresses. These may be
obtained from either unconfined compression test or an undrained tri-axial
test without pore pressure measurements.

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10.Draw the sketch for infinite slope in cohesive soil.

11.Draw the sketch for infinite slope in cohesion less soil.

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12.Draw the sketch for infinite slope in cohesive frictional soil.

13.What are the effects on tension crack?


It modifies the slip surface and reduces the length of the slip surface
It is usually filled with water and produces hydrostatic pressure along
the depth
It acts as channel for water to flow into underlying soil layers,
inducing seepage forces
It reduces the factor of safety
If a tension crack of depth 0 =

develops, water will enter in the

crack, exerting a hydrostatic pressure force Pw acting on the portion DE at a


height z0/3 from E. Hence the arc portion DE will be ineffective in resisting
the slide.

14.Draw the effect of tension cracks on stability.


In case of cohesive soil when the slope is on the verge slippage there
develops a tension crack at the top of the slope.

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15.Define slope angle.


It is the angle of inclination of a slope to the horizontal. The slope
angle is sometimes referred to as a ratio. For example, 2:1 (horizontal:
vertical).

16.What is meant by face, toe and base failure?


Face failure
This type of failure occurs when the slope angle is large and when the
soil at the toe portion is strong
Toe failure
In this case the failure surface passes through the toe. This occurs
when the slope is steep and homogeneous.
Base failure
In this case the failure surface passes below the toe. This generally
occurs when the soil below the toe is relatively weak and soft.

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17.List the different types of slope failure.


Rotational failure
Slope failure
o Face failure
o Toe failure
Base failure
Translational failure
Compound failure
Wedge failure
Miscellaneous failure

18.What is meant by rotational failure?


This type of failure occurs by rotation along a slip surface by
downward and outward movement of the soil mass. The slip surface is
generally circular for homogeneous soil conditions and non circular in case
of non homogeneous conditions.

19.What is meant by compound failure?


A compound failure is a combination of the rotational slips and
translational slip. A compound failure surface is curved at the two ends and
plane in the middle portion. A compound failure generally occurs when a
hard stratum exists at considerable depth below the toe.

20.Write down the assumption made in the analysis of slopes.


The stress is assumed to be two dimensional.
Coulomb equation for shear strength is applicable and parameters C
and are known.
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Seepage pressure was estimated from the assumed seepage conditions


and water levels.
The conditions of plastic failure are assumed to be satisfied along the
critical surface.

21.Define slope stability analysis.


Slope stability analysis consists of determining and comparing the
shear stress developed along the potential rupture surface with the shear
strength of the soil. Attention has to be paid to geology, surface drainage,
groundwater and the shear strength of soils in assessing slope stability.

22.What are the types of stability analysis?


Stability analysis of infinite slopes
Infinites slopes in dry sand
Infinite slopes in c soil
Stability analysis of finite slopes

23.Define slip or failure zone.


It is a thin zone of soil that reaches the critical state or residual state
and results in movement of the upper soil mass.

24.What is critical failure plane?


Critical failure plane is defined as the plane along which the failure
occurs in which the shear stress on the plane is less than the maximum shear
stress.

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25.What are the types of slip surface in a finite slope?


Planar failure surface
Circular failure surface
Non circular failure surface

26.What do you mean by planar failure surface?


Planar failure surface may commonly occur in a soil deposit or
embankment with a specific plane of weakness. It is common in stratified
deposit and the failure plane is parallel to the strata.
27.Where does a non circular (composite) slip surface occur in a
homogeneous dam?
Foundation of infinite depth
Rigid boundary planes of maximum or zero Shear
Presence of relatively stronger or weaker layers.

28.What is landslip?
A landslide, also known as a landslip, is a form of mass wasting that
includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rock falls, deep failure
of slopes, and shallow debris flows. Landslides can occur in underwater,
called a submarine landslide, coastal and onshore environments.

29.Write about the uses of friction circle method.


This method uses total stress based limit equilibrium approach. In this
method the equilibrium of the resultant weight (W), the reaction (p) due to
frictional resistance and the cohesive force (c) are considered. The
magnitude direction and line of action of resultant weight (W), the line of
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action of the reaction force (p) and the cohesive force (c) being known the
magnitude of p and c are determined by considering the triangle of forces.
The friction circle method is useful for the stability analysis of slopes
made of homogeneous soils. In this method, the slip surface is assumed to
be an arc of a circle.

30.Write about the critical slip circle by fellenius direction angles.


In case of slopes in homogeneous cohesive soil deposits, the centre of
a critical circle can be directly located by using Fellenius direction angles.
Fellenius (1936) has given direction angles and for various slopes as
shown below.

For any given slope the corresponding direction angles and are set
out from the base and the top as shown in Figure. The point of intersection
of these two lines is the centre of critical circle. After locating the centre of
critical circle the method of slices can be adopted to obtain minimum F.S.

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31.Sketch the critical slip circle in c soils.


In case of c- soils the procedure for locating critical slip surface is
slightly different.

32.What is the Taylors stability number?


The dimensionless quantity

is called Taylors stability number

Sn.

33.Define finite slopes.


If the slope is of limited extent, it is called a finite slope.

34.What is the wedge failure?


A failure along an inclined plane is known as plane failure or wedge
failure or block failure. It occurs when distinct blocks and wedges of the
soil mass become separated.

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35.What is translation failure?


A constant slope of unlimited extent and having uniform soil
properties at the same depth below the free surface is known as an infinite
slope. In practice, the slopes which are of considerable extent and in which
the conditions on all verticals are adequately represented by average
conditions are designated as infinite slopes. Translation failure occurs in an
infinite slope along a long failure surface parallel to the slope. The shape of
the failure surface is influenced by the presence of any hard stratum at a
shallow depth below the slope surface. Translational failures may also occur
along slopes of layered materials.

36.What are the cases of infinite slope in layered soils?


Three cases of stability analysis of infinite slopes are considered
Cohesion less soil
Cohesive soil
Cohesive frictional soil

37.Define infinite slopes.


If a slope represents the boundary surface of a semi-infinite soil mass,
and the soil properties for all identical depths below the surface are constant,
it is called an infinite slope.

38.What are the methods of finite slopes?


Culmanns method of planar failure surface
The Swedish circle method (slip circle method)
The friction circle method
Bishops method
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39.Where do we use the manmade slopes?


Manmade slopes were used in,
Highways
Railways
Earth dams
River training works

40.Define landslide.
It is a relatively rapid lateral and downhill movement of a welldefined earth mass (or land form). It occurs due to gravitational and seepage
forces.

41.What is meant by drawdown?


As soon as the pumping is done from a well, the water table is
lowered in its vicinity. This drop in water level in the well is called
drawdown.

42.Write about the failures on landslides.


Failure of natural slopes (landslides) and manmade slopes has resulted
in much death and destruction. Some failures are sudden and catastrophic;
others are widespread: some are localized. Civil engineers are expected to
check the safety of natural slopes and excavation.

43.Write about the condition of stability during steady seepage.


When seepage occurs at a steady rate through an earth dam or
embankment it represents critical condition for the stability of slope.

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When seepage occurs, Pore water pressure (u) develops and this will
reduce the effective stress which in turn decreases the shear strength along
the failure surface.
The following procedure is adopted to obtain stability,
Draw the cross section of the slope
Draw the potential failure surface
Divide the soil mass into slices
Calculate the weight (W) and the corresponding normal and tangential
components for all the slices in the usual way.

44.Define topple.
This is a forward rotation of soil and/or rock mass about an axis below
the center of gravity of mass being displaced.

45.Define sliding.
A retaining structure has a tendency to move away from the backfill
surface because of the horizontal driving forces resulting from the soil
backfill and other forces such as surcharge. Generally, the wall resists
sliding by the frictional resistance developed between the foundation of the
wall and foundation soil.

46.Define effective stress.


It is the nominal stress transmitted through the particle to particle
contact in soil. Effective stress equals the total stress minus the pore water
pressure, or the total force in the soil grains divided by the gross crosssectional area over which the force acts. The effective stress controls the
shear strength and compressibility of the soil.
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47.Write the types of retaining wall.


Gravity wall
Mass concrete or masonry wall
Wall on wells
Precast block wall
Two row sheet pile wall
Crib wall
Reinforced concrete wall
Cantilever type T wall or L wall
Counterfort or buttressed wall
Sheet pile wall
Cantilever sheet pile wall
Anchored sheet pile wall or anchored bulkhead

48.What are the three forces acting in circular failure while analyses
through friction circle method?
Weight (W) of the sliding wedge
Cohesive force (C) developed along the slip surface
Reaction (R) on the slip surface

49.Define effective stress analysis.


When the pore water pressure exist in the embankment due to
seepage, sudden drawdown or due to any other reason, then stability should
be computed based on effective stress analysis.
=

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50.Write the relation between strength envelope and angle of repose.


If the normal and shear stress corresponding to failure are plotted,
then a curve is obtained. The plot or the curve is called strength envelope.
Angle of repose is defined as the maximum inclination of a plane at
which a body remains in equilibrium over the inclined plane by the
assistance of friction only. The earth particles lack in cohesion and have a
definite angle of repose and angle of repose is equal to angle of friction ().

51.Mention the slope protection measures.


Covering the slope by a layer of broken stones or coarse gravel.
Using vegetation,
Covering the slope by pitching in mortar over a suitable filter.
Using reinforced concrete lining over a suitable filter.
52.Draw the Swedish method of slices for a cohesive frictional soil.
For a cohesive frictional soils the undrained strength envelope shows
both c and values. The total stress analysis can be adopted.

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53.Define depth factor.


The ratio of total depth (H + D) to depth H is called depth factor (Df).
For toe failure, Df = 1
For base failure, Df > 1

UNIT 3
1. What is known as coefficient of earth pressure?
When the retaining wall is moving away from the backfill then the
ratio between lateral earth pressure and vertical earth pressure is called
coefficient of active earth pressure.
=


1 sin
=

1 + sin
When the retaining wall is moving towards the backfill, then the ratio

between the lateral earth pressure and the vertical earth pressure is called the
coefficient of passive earth pressure.
=


1 + sin
=

1 sin

2. What is earth pressure at rest?


The earth pressure at rest, exerted on the back of a rigid, unyielding
retaining structure, can be calculated using theory of elasticity, assuming the
soil the semi-infinite, homogeneous, elastic and isotropic.

3. What are the methods for calculating lateral earth pressure


coefficients?
Rankines theory
Coulombs wedge theory
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Rebhanns method
Culmanns method

4. What is surcharge?
The position of backfill lying above a horizontal plane at the elevation
of the top of the wall is called the surcharge, and its inclination to the
horizontal is called surcharge angle .

5. What is the angle of wall friction?


The resultant pressure acts on the back of the wall at one third the
height of the wall from the base and is inclined at an angle is called the
angle of wall friction.

6. Define surcharge load.


A surcharge load results from forces that are applied along the surface
of the backfill behind the wall. These forces apply an additional lateral force
along the back of the wall. Surcharge pressures result from loads such as a
line load, strip load, embankment load, traffic (such as a parking lot), floor
loads and temporary loads such as construction traffic and stockpiles of
material.

7. What is meant by conjugate plane and conjugate stresses?


In finding out the active earth pressure for the backfill with sloping
surface by Rankines theory, an additional assumption that the vertical and
lateral stresses are conjugate is made. It can be shown that if the stress on a
given plane at a given point is parallel to another plane, the stress on the
latter plane at the same point must be parallel to the first plane. Such planes
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are called the conjugate planes and the stresses acting on them are called
conjugate stresses.

8. State the assumptions made in Rankines theory of earth pressure.


The soil mass is homogeneous and semi infinite
The soil is dry and cohesion less
The ground surface is plane, which may be horizontal or inclined
The back of the retaining wall is smooth and vertical
The soil element is in a state of plastic equilibrium
9. Write the assumption in Terzaghis bearing capacity theory.
The soil is homogeneous and isotropic and its shear strength is
represented by Coulombs equation.
The strip footing has a rough base, and the problem is essentially two
dimensional.
The elastic zone has straight boundaries inclined at = to the
horizontal and the plastic zones fully develop.
Pp consists of three components which can be calculated separately
and added, although the critical surfaces for these components are not
identical.
Failure zones do not extend above the horizontal plane through the
base of the footing.

10.State the assumptions made in coulombs theory.


The backfill is dry, cohesion less, homogeneous, isotropic and
elastically undeformable but breakable.
The slip surface is plane which passes through the heel of the wall.
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The sliding wedge itself acts as a rigid body and the value of earth
pressure is obtained by considering the limiting equilibrium of the
sliding wedge as a whole.
The position and direction of the resultant earth pressure are known.
11.Compare Rankines and Coulombs theory.
RANKINES THEORY

COULOMBS THEORY

The intensity of earth pressure

Only the total earth pressure value acting

at each depth is known. So

on the retaining structures can be

point of application of the earth calculated. The point of application of


pressure is known at any depth. earth pressure can be calculated from
Coulombs assumption that all points on
the back of the retaining wall are
essentially considered as feet of failure
surface.
Wall is smooth and vertical.

Wall is rough and sloped.

Wall moved sufficiently so soil Wall is rigid, straight failure plane and
is in plastic failure mass.

rigid failure wedge.

12.Define coulomb theory.


Coulomb, in 1776, developed an earth pressure theory which includes
the effect of friction between the backfill and the wall. The theory considers
a dry, non cohesive inclined backfill, and the lateral earth pressure
required to maintain the equilibrium of a sliding wedge with a plane slip
surface is calculated.

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13.What are the limitations of Terzaghis analysis?


The theory is applicable to shallow foundations
As the soil compresses, increases which is not considered. Hence fully
plastic zone may not develop at the assumed.
All points need not experience limit equilibrium condition at different
loads.
Method of superstition is not acceptable in plastic conditions as the
ground is near failure zone.
14.Write the coulombs equations to account for wall friction.
cos 2 ( )

sin( + ) sin( )
cos 2 cos( + ) ( 1 +
)
cos( + ) cos( )

cos 2 ( + )

sin( + ) sin( + )
cos 2 cos( ) ( 1
)
cos( ) cos( )

15.What are the points to consider coulomb case with no soil-wall friction?
For the coulomb case with no soil wall friction (i.e. = 0) and a
horizontal backfill surface, both the Coulomb and Rankine method
yield equal results.
As the soil friction angle increases (i.e. soil becomes stronger), the
active pressure coefficient decreases, resulting in a decrease in the
active force while the passive pressure coefficient increases, resulting
in an increase in the passive force.
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16.What is depth of tension crack?


The tensile stress decreases with an increase in depth, and it becomes
zero at a depth z, given by,
=

2
2
tan =


The depth z is known as the depth of tension crack.

17.What do you understand by the term coefficient of earth pressure at


rest?
When the retaining wall is at rest then the ratio between the lateral
earth pressure and the vertical pressure is called the co-efficient of the earth
pressure at rest,
0 =

18.What are the different types of earth pressure?


There are three types of earth pressures on the basis of the movement
of the wall.
Earth Pressure at rest
Active Earth Pressure
Passive Earth Pressure

19.Define lateral earth pressure.


Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal
direction. The lateral earth pressure is important because it affects the
consolidation behavior and strength of the soil and because it is considered

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in the design of geotechnical engineering structures such as retaining walls,


basements, tunnels, deep foundations and braced excavations.

20.Define passive earth pressure.


When the wall moves towards the backfill, there is an increase in the
pressure on the wall and this increase continues until a maximum value is
reaches after which there is no increase in the pressure and the value will
become constant. This kind of pressure is known as passive earth pressure.

21.Define active earth pressure.


When the wall moves away from the backfill, there is a decrease in
the pressure on the wall and this decrease continues until a minimum value
is reaches after which there is no reduction in the pressure and the value will
become constant. This kind of pressure is known as active earth pressure.

22.Define earth pressure.


It is the lateral pressure exerted by a soil mass against an earth
retaining structure (or on a fictitious vertical plane located within a soil
mass).

23.What is a sheet pile wall?


A sheet pile wall consists of a series of sheet piles driven side by side
into the ground, thus forming a continuous vertical wall for the purpose of
retaining an earth bank. They are commonly used for water front structures,
temporary construction and light weight construction where sub soil is
poor for supporting a retaining wall.

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24.What are the other forces acting on the wall?


Other forces acting on the wall aside from the earth pressure force
acting on the wall, other forces might also act on the wall and these are
superimposed onto the earth pressure force. For example, these forces might
include,
Surcharge load
Earthquake load
Water pressure

25.What do you understand by plastic equilibrium of soils?


A body of soil is said to be in plastic equilibrium, if every point of it is
on the verge of failure.

26.Why retaining walls are usually designed for active pressure?


From Rankines assumption, no existence of frictional forces at the
wall face. The resultant pressure must be parallel to the surface of the
backfill. The existence of the friction makes the resultant pressure inclined
to the normal to the wall at an angle that approaches the friction angle
between the soil and the wall.

UNIT 4
1. Define foundation.
A foundation is that part of the structure which is in direct contact
with and transmits loads to the ground.

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2. Define shallow foundation.


According to Terzaghi, a foundation is shallow if its depth is equal to
or less than its width. It can be adopted for the light structures and the soil
having high bearing capacity.

3. Define deep foundation.


According to Terzaghi, foundation is deep if its depth is equal to or
greater than its width. It can be adopted for the multi storey building.

4. Define floating foundation.


It is defined as a foundation in which the weight of the building is
approximately equal to the full weight of the soil including water excavated
from the site of the building.

5. In which situation is raft foundation is used?


Raft foundation is adopted for medium heavy structures where the soil
is having low bearing capacity. Raft foundation is used to reduce settlement
above highly compressible soils, by making the weight of structure and raft
approximately equal to the weight of the soil excavated.

6. Where do you use mat foundation?


It is used when the area of isolated footing is more than fifty
percentage of whole area or the soil bearing capacity is very poor. When the
allowable soil pressure is low, or the building loads are heavy, the use of
spread footings would cover more than one half of the area and it may prove
more economical to use mat or raft foundation.

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7. When trapezoidal combined footings are provided?


When the projection parallel to the length of the footing is restricted
on both the sides.
When the length of the footing is restricted.

8. Under what circumstances, a strap footing is adopted?


When the distance between the two columns is so great, so that
trapezoidal footing is very narrow and so it is uneconomical. It transfers the
heavy load of one column to other column.

9. What is the function of strap beam in a strap footing?


The strap connects the two isolated footing such that they behave as
one unit. The strap simply acts as a connecting beam.

10.What is meant by foundation soil?


It is the upper part of the earth mass carrying the load of the structure.

11.Sketch the contact pressure distribution diagram for a rigid footing on


sand and clay.

12.Write the equation for shear strength of soil.


= +
Where,
S = shear stress
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= normal stress
c = cohesion
= angle of internal friction

13.What are the three components of total settlement of footings?


Immediate elastic settlement
Consolidation settlement
Settlement due to secondary consolidation

14.Define immediate settlement.


Immediate or elastic settlement takes place during immediately after
the construction of the structure. It is also known as the distortion settlement,
as it is due to distortions within the foundation soil.

15.Define consolidation settlement.


This component of settlement occurs due to gradual expulsion of
water from the voids of soil. This component is determined using Terzaghis
theory of consolidation.

16.Define footing.
A footing is a portion of the foundation of a structure that transmits
loads directly to the soil.

17.Define spread footing.


A spread footing or simply footing is a type of shallow foundation
used to transmit the load of an isolated column, or that of a wall to the

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subsoil. This is most common type of foundation. The base of the column
or wall is enlarged or spread to provide individual support for the load.

18.What is a mat foundation?


It is a combined footing that covers the entire area beneath a structure
and supports all the walls and columns.

19.List the various factors affecting the bearing capacity of soil.


Nature of soil and its physical and engineering properties
Nature of the foundation and other details such as the size, shape,
depth below the ground surface and rigidity of the structure
Total and differential settlements that the structure can withstand
without functional failure
Location of the ground water table relative to the level of the
foundation
Initial stresses, if any

20.A footing was designed based on ultimate bearing capacity arrived for
the condition of water table at the ground surface. If there is a chance
for rise in water level much above the ground level do you expect any
change in the bearing capacity, why?
The raise in water level above the ground level would not change the
bearing capacity of the soil. Because the soil under submerged condition
when the water reaches the ground surface. Therefore the water above the
ground level does not affect the unit weight of soil.

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21.What is the effect of rise of water table on the bearing capacity and the
settlement of a footing on sand?
The pressure of water affects the unit weight of soil. Hence bearing
capacity is affected due to the effect of water table. For practical purpose it
is more sensitive when the water table rises above depth 13m from footing.

22.List the types of bearing capacity failure (or) modes of failure.


General shear failure
Local shear failure
Punching shear failure

23.Define general shear failure.


General shear failure results in a clearly defined plastic yield slip
surface beneath the footing and spreads out one or both sides, eventually to
the ground surface. Failure is sudden and will often be accompanied by
severe tilting generally associated with heaving. This type of failure occurs
in dense sand or stiff clay.

24.Define local shear failure.


Local shear failure results in considerable vertical displacement prior
to the development of noticeable shear planes. These shear planes do not
generally extend to the soil surface, but some adjacent bulging may be
observed, but little tilting of the structure results. This shear failure occurs
for loose sand and soft clay.

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25.Define punching shear failure.


Punching shear failure occurs where there is relatively high
compression of soil under the footing, accompanied by shearing in the
vertical direction around the edges of the footing. Punching shear may occur
in relatively loose sand with relative density less than 35%.

26.What is proportioning of footing?


Proportioning of footing is defined as the arrangement of footing in
the combined footing system, in which, it is arranged in such a way that, the
centroid of the area in contact with the soil lies on the line of action of
resultant of the loads.

27.List the various ground improvement techniques.


Compaction pile
Blasting
Pre compression
Stone column
Vibrofloatation
Terraprobe method
Lime piles
Geotextiles
Grouting
Electro osmosis
Thermal treatment

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28.Compare general and local shear failure.


GENERAL SHEAR FAILURE
Well defined failure pattern.

LOCAL SHEAR FAILURE


Well defined wedge and slip
surfaces only beneath the
foundation.

A sudden Catastrophic failure

There is no tilting of foundation.

accompanies by tilting of

Slip surface not visible beyond the

foundation.

edges of the foundation.

Bulging of ground surface

Slight bulging of ground surface

adjacent to the foundation.

adjacent to the foundation.

The load settlement curve

The load settlement curve does not

indicates the ultimate load clearly.

indicate the ultimate load clearly.

29.Define the term bearing capacity of soil.


The supporting power of a soil is referred to as its bearing capacity.

30.What is meant by stabilization?


Stabilization, in a broad sense, incorporates the various methods
employed for modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering
performance. Stabilization is being used for a variety of engineering works,
the most common application being in the construction of road and air
field pavements, where the main objective is to increase the strength or
stability of soil and to reduce the construction cost by making best use of the
locally available materials.

31.What are the factors affecting lime stabilization?


Type of soil
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Amount of lime
Ratio of fly ash to lime
Type of lime
Workability of soil
Compressive strength of soil

32.What are the advantages of lime stabilization?


Soil becomes more workable.
Strength is generally improved.
Lime stabilization increases the compressive strength sometimes as
high as 60 times.
It is effective for soils.

33.What are the disadvantages of lime stabilization?


Lime is produced by burning of lime stone in kilns, so that it is
harmful for environment.
It needs more cost to burnt lime stone.
It is not effective for sandy soils.
There is limited percentage of amount of lime required about 2 to 10%
of the soil.

34.What are the different types of shallow foundation?


Spread footing
Strap footing
Combined footing
Mat or raft footing
Strip footing
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Wall footing

35.List the different types of raft foundation.


Flat plate type
Flat plate thickened under columns
Beam and slab construction
Box structures
Mats placed on piles

36.Write down the formula used to find the minimum depth of foundation
by Rankines formula.
According to Rankines formula, depth of foundation is given by,
2

1 sin
= (
)
1 + sin
Where,

q = intensity of loading
= effective angle of shearing
= density of soil solids

37.Write about bearing capacity of square and circular footings.


If the soil support of a continuous footing yields due to the imposed
loads on the footings, all the soil particles move parallel to the plane which
is perpendicular to the centre line of the footing. Therefore the problem of
computing the bearing capacity of such footing is a plane strain deformation
problem. On the other hand if the soil support of the square and circular
footing yields, the soil particles move in the radial and not in parallel planes.

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Terzaghi has proposed certain shape factors to take care of the effect of the
shape on the bearing capacity.

38.What is stone column?


Stone columns refer to columns of compacted, gravel size stone
particles constructed vertically in the ground to improve the performance of
soft or loose soils. The stone can be compacted with impact methods, such
as with a falling weight or an impact compactor or with a vibroflot, the more
common method. The method is used to increase bearing capacity, reduce
foundation settlements, improve slope stability, reduce seismic subsidence,
reduce lateral spreading and liquefaction potential, permit construction on
loose/soft fills, and pre collapse sinkholes prior to construction in Karst
regions.

39.Define gross pressure intensity.


The gross pressure intensity q is the total pressure at the base of the
footing due to the weight of the superstructure, self weight of the footing
and the weight of the earth fill, if any.

40.What is net pressure intensity?


It is defined as the excess pressure, or the difference in intensities of
the gross pressure after the construction of the structure and the original
overburden pressure.
= =
Where,
is the average unit weight of soil above the foundation base.

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41.What is ultimate bearing capacity?


The ultimate bearing capacity is defined as the minimum gross
pressure intensity at the base of the foundation at which the soil fails in
shear. It is denoted by the symbol qf.

42.Define net ultimate bearing capacity.


It is the minimum net pressure intensity causing shear failure of soil.
The ultimate bearing capacity qf and the net ultimate capacity are evidently
connected by the following relation.
=
Where,
, is the effective surcharge at the base level of the foundation.

43.What is the effective surcharge at the base level of foundation?


It is the intensity of vertical pressure at the base level of foundation,
computed assuming total unit weight for the portion of the soil above the
water table and submerged unit weight for the portion below the water table.
It is denoted by the symbol .

44.Define net safe bearing capacity.


The net safe bearing capacity is the net ultimate bearing capacity
divided by a factor of safety F.

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45.Define safe bearing capacity.


The maximum pressure which the soil can carry safely without risk of
shear failure is called the safe bearing capacity. It is equal to the net safe
bearing capacity plus original overburden pressure.

= + =
+

Sometimes, the safe bearing capacity is also referred to as the ultimate


bearing capacity qf divided by a shape factor F.

46.What is safe bearing pressure?


It is the intensity of loading that will cause a permissible settlement or
specified settlement for the structure. It is also called as net soil pressure.

47.List out the methods of computing elastic settlements.


Based on the theory of elasticity
Pressure meter method
Janhu Bjerram method
Schmentmanns method

48.What is allowable bearing pressure or capacity?


It is the net load intensity at which neither the soil fails in shear nor
there is excessive settlement detrimental to the structure. It is denoted by the
symbol qa.

49.What is meant by swelling potential?


Swelling potential is defined as the percentage of swell of a laterally
confined sample in an odometer test which is soaked under a surcharge load
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of 7kpa after being compacted to maximum dry density at optimum moisture


content according to the AASHTO compaction test.

50.What is total settlement of a footing?


Total settlement is defined as the settlement due to immediate elastic
settlement, consolidation settlement and settlement due to secondary
consolidation.
= + +
51.What is meant by allowable settlement?
It is the maximum settlement beyond which the foundation fails due
to excessive settlement
Permits a maximum allowable settlement of 40 mm for isolated
foundation on sand and 65 mm for those on clay.
For raft foundations on sand 40 mm to 65 mm and that on clay 65 mm
to 100 mm.

52.Define differential settlement.


The differential settlement Sd is the difference in total settlement
between two foundations or between two points on a single foundation.
Differential settlements are generally more troublesome than total
settlements because they distort the structure. This causes cracking in walls
and other members.

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UNIT 5
1. What are under-reamed piles?
Under reamed pile is special type of bored pile having an increased
diameter or bulb at some point in its length, to anchor the foundation in
expansive soil subjected to alternate expansion and contraction.

2. Define friction pile.


Friction piles are used to transfer loads to a depth of a friction load
carrying material by means of skin friction along the length of the piles.

3. What are anchor piles?


Anchor piles provide anchorage against horizontal pull from sheet
piling or other pulling forces.

4. What are fender piles?


Fender piles and dolphins are used to protect water front structures
against the impact from ships or other floating objects.

5. Define negative skin friction.


When the soil layer surrounding the portion of the pile shaft settles
more than the pile, a downward drag occurs on the pile. The drag is known
as negative skin friction.

6. Define block skin resistance.


When piles are placed close to each other, then negative skin
resistance may act effectively on block perimeter of pile group.
= +
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Where,
S = shear resistance of soil
L = depth of fill
p = perimeter of pile group
= unit weight of soil
A = area of pile group enclosed in perimeter p

7. Define negative skin pressure.


Negative skin friction force for a single pile is equal to the sharing
resistance times the surface area of the pile. Therefore the negative skin
friction on a pile group is
=
=

(For group)

(For individual)

8. How are piles classified as per load transfer?


End bearing pile
Friction pile
Combined end bearing and friction pile

9. Define ultimate load carrying capacity of pile.


The ultimate load carrying capacity, or ultimate bearing capacity, or
the ultimate bearing resistance Qup of a pile is defined as the maximum load
which can be carried by a pile, and at which the pile continues to sink
without further increase of load.

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10.Write down Danish formula.


=


1
+
2

11.What are the factors governing the selection of piles?


Soil condition
Type of structure or building
Adjacent site condition
Construction techniques availability
Location of ground water table
Durability

12.What are the factors consider while selecting the type of pile?
The loads
Time available for completion of the job
The characteristics of the soil strata involved
The ground water conditions
The availability of equipment
The statutory requirements of building codes

13.What are the conditions where a pile foundation is more suitable than a
shallow foundation?
Huge vertical load with respect to capacity
Very weak soil
Huge lateral loads
For fills having very large depth
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Uplift situation
Urban areas for future and huge construction near the existing
building

14.How piles are classified based on method of installation?


Driven pile
Driven and cast in situ pile
Bored and cast in situ pile
Screw pile
Jacked pile

15.What is grouting?
It is a process in which the holes are drilled in soil (or rock) and a
grout (usually cement and water mixture) is injected into the holes. It
improves the bearing capacity and also reduces the permeability and
seepage.

16.What are the limitations of the dynamic pile load formula?


For clays, the dynamic formulae are valueless because the skin
friction developed in clay during driving is very much less than which
occurs after a period of time. Also, the point resistance is much more
at the time of driving because of pore pressure developed in clay,
which reduces later on when the pore pressure dissipate.
Dynamic formulae give no reduction about probable future settlement
or temporary changes in soil structure.
The formulae do no taken into account the reduced bearing capacity of
pile when in a group.
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Law of impact used for determining energy loss is not strictly valid
for piles subjected to restraining influence of the surrounding soil.
In Hileys formula, a number of constants are involved, which are
difficult to determine.

17.What are the limitations of the dynamic pile load test?


It is largely depends on the nature of the ground through which the
pile was driven to get down to finished level.
It takes very little account of the effect of friction on sides of pile, and
this friction tends only to develop later.

18.List the limitations of plate load test.


Size effect
Scale effect
Time effect
Interpretation of failure load
Reaction load
Water table

19.List out the type of pile based on material used.


Concrete pile
Pre cast
Cast in situ
o Driven piles: case or uncased
o Bored piles: pressure piles and under reamed piles
Timber pile
Steel pile
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H pile
Pipe pile
Sheet pile
Composite pile
Concrete and timber
Concrete and steel

20.How is the selection of pile carried out?


The selection of the type, length and capacity is usually made from
estimation based on the soil condition and magnitude of the load.

21.What is mean by group settlement ratio?


The settlement of pile group is found to be many times that of a single
pile. The ratio of the settlement of the pile group to that of a single pile is
known as the group settlement ratio.

22.Define group efficiency of pile.


The group efficiency of a pile is defined as the ratio of the ultimate
load of the group to the sum of individual ultimate loads.
=

Where,
Qug = load carried by group of friction piles
Qup = load carried by each friction pile
n = number of piles
g = efficiency of pile group

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23.What are the types of hammer?


Drop hammer
Single acting hammer
Double acting hammer
Diesel hammer
Vibratory hammer

24.What is pile driver?


Piles are commonly driven by means of a hammer supported by a
crane or by a special device known as a pile driver.

25.What are the methods to determine the load carrying capacity of a pile?
Dynamic formulae
Static formulae
Pile load test
Penetration test

26.What are the two types of dynamic formulae?


Engineering news formula
Hileys formula

27.What is meant by single-under reamed pile?


When the pile has only one bulb, it is known as single under reamed
pile.

28.Write down the static formulae.


= . + .
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Where,
As = surface area of pile
Ap = area of cross section of pile
rf = average skin friction
rp = unit point or toe resistance

29.Define modulus of sub-grade reaction.


The ratio of the soil reaction (p) to the deflection (y) at any point is
defined as the modulus of sub-grade reaction Es or soil modulus or the
coefficient of sub-grade reaction.

The minus sign indicates that as p increases, y decreases.

30.What are the points to be considered on installation of pile?


Rate of penetration
Continuity of penetration
Installation methods (i.e. driving, jacking or vibration)
Mode of penetration (i.e. weather it is plugged or not)

31.For identical soil conditions, the load permitted on bored pile is lesser
than driven pile of identical shape and dimensions, why?
The load carrying capacity of bored cast in situ pile will be much
smaller than that of a driven pile in sand. The angle of shearing resistance of
the soil is reduced by 30, to account for the loosening of the sand due to the
drilling of the hole.

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32.How will you determine the capacity of a pile?


The allowable load Qa is the safe load which the pile can carry safely
and is determined on the basis of,
Ultimate bearing resistance divided by suitable factor of safety
The permissible settlement
Overall stability of the pile foundation

33.What is the use of batter pile?


The batter piles are used to resist large horizontal forces or inclined
forces.

34.Write about the plate bearing test.


Plate bearing test is a field test to determine the ultimate bearing
capacity of soil, and the probable settlement under a given loading. The test
essentially consists in loading a rigid plate at the foundation level, and
determining the settlements corresponding to each load increment. The
ultimate bearing capacity is then taken as the load at which the plate starts
sinking at a rapid rate. The method assumes that down to the depth of
influence of stresses, the soil stratum is reasonably uniform.

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 1
UNIT 1
1. Name any two force methods to analyze the statically indeterminate
structures.
Column analogy method
Flexibility matrix method
Method of consistent deformation
Theorem of least work

2. Write the general steps of the consistent deformation method.


By removing the restraint in the direction of redundant forces,
released structure (which is a determinate structure) is obtained.
In this released structure, displacements are obtained in the direction
of the redundant forces.
Then the displacement due to each redundant force is obtained and the
conditions of displacement compatibility are imposed to get additional
equations.
Solution for these equations gives the values of redundant forces.
Then the released structure subjected to these known forces gives the
forces and moments in the structure.

3. Give example of beams of one degree static indeterminacy.

In general, =
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For this case, = 4 = 3


= 4 3 = 1

4. Define degree of kinematic indeterminacy (or) Degree Of Freedom.


It is defined as the least no of independent displacements required to
define the deformed shape of a structure. There are two types of DOF
Joint type DOF
Nodal type DOF

5. Differentiate external redundancy and internal redundancy.


In pin jointed frames, redundancy caused by too many members is
called internal redundancy. Then there is external redundancy caused by too
many supports. When we introduce additional supports/members, we
generally ensure more safety and more work (in analysis).

6. Why to provide redundant members?


To maintain alignment of two members during construction
To increase stability during construction
To maintain stability during loading (Ex: to prevent buckling of
compression members)
To provide support if the applied loading is changed
To act as backup members in case some members fail or require
strengthening
Analysis is difficult but possible

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7. What are the different methods used to analyze indeterminate


structures?
Finite element method
Flexibility matrix method
Stiffness matrix method

8. What are statically indeterminate structures? Give example.


If the conditions of statics i.e., H=0, V=0 and M=0 alone are not
sufficient to find either external reactions or internal forces in a structure, the
structure is called a statically indeterminate structure.

9. Define consistent deformation method.


This method is used for the analysis of indeterminate structure. This
method is suitable when the number of unknown is one or two. When the
number of unknown becomes more, it is a lengthy method.

10.Define primary structure.


A structure formed by the removing the excess or redundant restraints
from an Indeterminate structure making it statically determinate is called
primary structure. This is required for solving indeterminate structures by
flexibility matrix method.

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11.Write the formulae for degree of indeterminancy.


Two dimensional in jointed truss (2D truss)
= ( + ) 2
Two dimensional rigid frames/plane rigid frames (2D frame)
= (3 + ) 3
Three dimensional space truss (3D truss)
= ( + ) 3
Three dimensional space frame (3D frame)
= (6 + ) 6
Where,
m = number of members
r = number of reactions
j = number of joints

12.What is the effect of temperature on the members of a statically


determinate plane truss?
In determinate structures temperature changes do not create any
internal stresses. The changes in lengths of members may result in
displacement of joints. But these would not result in internal stresses or
changes in external reactions.

13.Define internal and external indeterminancy.


Internal indeterminacy (I.I) is the excess no of internal forces present
in a member that make a structure indeterminate.
External indeterminacy (E.I) is the excess no of external reactions in
the member that make a structure indeterminate.
Indeterminacy (i) = I.I + E.I
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E.I = r e; I.I = i EI
Where,
r = no of support reactions and
e = equilibrium conditions
e = 3 (plane frames) and e = 6 (space frames)

14.What are the requirements to be satisfied while analyzing a structure?


Equilibrium condition
Compatibility condition
Force displacement condition

15.Define degree of indeterminacy.


The excess number of reactions take make a structure indeterminate is
called degree of indeterminancy. Indeterminancy is also called degree of
redundancy.

Indeterminancy consists of internal and external indeterminancies. It


is denoted by the symbol i.

Degree of redundancy (i) = I.I + E.I


Where,
I.I = Internal indeterminancy
E.I =External indeterminancy

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16.Differentiate the statically determinate structures and statically


indeterminate structures.
STATICALLY

STATICALLY DETERMINATE

INDETERMINATE

STRUCTURES

STRUCTURES

Conditions of equilibrium are

Conditions of equilibrium are

sufficient to analyze the structure

insufficient to analyze the structure

Bending moment and shear

Bending moment and shear force

force is independent of material and

is dependent of material and

cross sectional area

independent of cross sectional area

No stresses are caused due to

Stresses are caused due to

temperature change and lack of fit

temperature change and lack of fit

Extra conditions like compatibility

Extra conditions like compatibility

of displacements are not required to

of displacements are required to

analyze the structure.

analyze the structure along with the


equilibrium equations.

UNIT 2
1. Distinguish between plane truss and plane frame.
Plane frames are two-dimensional structures constructed with straight
elements connected together by rigid and/or hinged connections. Frames are
subjected to loads and reactions that lie in the plane of the structure.
If all the members of a truss and the applied loads lie in a single plane,
the truss is called a plane truss.

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2. What is meant by cambering technique in structures?


Cambering is a technique applied on site, in which a slight upward
curve is made in the structure/beam during construction, so that it will
straighten out and attain the straight shape during loading. This will
considerably reduce the downward deflection that may occur at later stages.

3. Give the procedure for unit load method.


Find the forces P1, P2, . in all the members due to external loads
Remove the external loads and apply the unit vertical point load at
the joint if the vertical deflection is required and find the stress
Apply the equation for vertical and horizontal deflection

4. What are the assumptions made in unit load method?


The external & internal forces are in equilibrium
Supports are rigid and no movement is possible
The materials are strained well within the elastic limit

5. Why is it necessary to compute deflections in structures?


Computation of deflection of structures is necessary for the following
reasons:
If the deflection of a structure is more than the permissible, the
structure will not look aesthetic and will cause psychological upsetting
of the occupants.
Excessive deflection may cause cracking in the materials attached to
the structure. For example, if the deflection of a floor beam is
excessive, the floor finishes and partition walls supported on the beam
may get cracked and unserviceable.
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6. Define unit load method.


The external load is removed and the unit load is applied at the point,
where the deflection or rotation is to found.

7. Distinguish between pin jointed and rigidly jointed structure.


RIGIDLY JOINTED

PIN JOINTED STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE

The joints permit change of angle

The members connected at a rigid

Between connected members.

joint will maintain the angle


between them even under
deformation due to loads.

The joints are incapable of

Members can transmit both forces

transferring Any moment to the

and Moments between themselves

connected members and vice-

through the joint.

versa.
The pins transmit forces between

Provision of rigid joints normally

Connected members by

increases the redundancy of the

developing shear.

structures.

8. What are the conditions of equilibrium?


The three conditions of equilibrium are the sum of horizontal forces,
vertical forces and moments at any joint should be equal to zero.
(i.e.) H = 0; V = 0; M = 0

9. Define trussed beam.


A beam strengthened by providing ties and struts is known as Trussed
Beams.
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10.Define deck and through type truss.


A deck type is truss is one in which the road is at the top chord
level of the trusses. We would not see the trusses when we ride on the
road way.
A through type truss is one in which the road is at the bottom chord
level of the trusses. When we travel on the road way, we would see the web
members of the trusses on our left and right. That gives us the impression
that we are going` through the bridge.

11.What is meant by lack of fit in a truss?


One or more members in a pin jointed statically indeterminate frame
may be a little shorter or longer than what is required. Such members will
have to be forced in place during the assembling. These are called members
having Lack of fit. Internal forces can develop in a redundant frame
(without external loads) due to lack of fit.

12.Give any two situations where sway will occur in portal frames.
Eccentric or Unsymmetrical loading
Non-uniform section of the members

13.What are the different types of forces acts on a frame?


Dynamic load
Static load

14.What is meant by settlement of supports?


Support sinks mostly due to soil settlement. Rotation of fixed ends
can happen either because of soil settlement or upheaval of horizontal or
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inclined fixed ends. Fixed end moments induced in beam ends because of
settlement or rotation of supports.

15.What is a rigid joint?


The members connected at a rigid joint will maintain the angle
between them even under deformation due to loads. Members can transmit
both forces and moments between themselves through the joint. Provision
of rigid joints normally increases the redundancy of the structures.

16.Write down the assumptions made in portal method.


The point of contra-flexure in all the members lies at their middle
points
Horizontal shear taken by each interior column is double the
horizontal shear taken by each of exterior column

17.Write down the assumptions made in cantilever method.


The point of contra-flexure in all the members lies at their middle
points
The direct stress or axial stress in the columns due to horizontal
forces, are directly proportional to their distance from the centroidal
vertical axis of the frame

18.What are the methods used to analyze the beam when it settle at
supports?
Kanis method
Moment distribution method
Slope deflection method
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19.Differentiate symmetry and anti-symmetry frames.


SYMMETRY FRAME

ANTI-SYMMETRY FRAME

For symmetric loading, Symmetric

For anti-symmetric loading,

quantities like bending moment,

Symmetric quantities like bending

displacements are symmetrical

moment, displacements are zero at

about the centroidal vertical axis.

the point of centroidal vertical axis.

Anti-symmetric quantities like slope Anti-symmetric quantities like slope


and shear force are zero at the point

and shear force are distributed about

of centroidal vertical axis.

the centroidal vertical axis.

20.What is meant by thermal stress?


Thermal stresses are stresses developed in a structure/member due to
change in temperature. Normally, determinate structures do not develop
thermal stresses. They can absorb changes in lengths and consequent
displacements without developing stresses.

21.Write any two important assumptions made in the analysis of trusses?


The frame is a perfect frame
The frame carries load at the joints
All the members are pin-joined

22.Differentiate perfect and imperfect trusses?


The frame which is composed of such members, which are just
sufficient to keep the frame in equilibrium, when the frame is supporting an
external load, is known as perfect frame. Hence for a perfect frame, the
number of joints and number of members are given by, = 2 3

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A frame in which number of members and number of joints are not


given by = 2 3 is known as imperfect frame. This means that number
of members in an imperfect frame will be either more or less than 2 3

23.Write the difference between deficient and redundant frames?


If the number of members in a frame are less than (2 3), then the
frame is known as deficient frame.
If the number of members in a frame are more than (2 3), then the
frame is known as redundant frame.

UNIT 3
1. What are the assumptions made in slope deflection method?
This method is based on the following simplified assumptions.
All the joints of the frame are rigid, (i.e.) the angle between the

members at the joints does not change, when the members of frame
are loaded.
Between each pair of the supports the beam section is constant.

2. Define fixed end moment.


The moments at the fixed joints of loaded member are called fixed
end moment.

3. Write down the slope deflection equation for a fixed end support.
= +

2
3
[ 2 + +
]

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4. What are the moments induced in a beam member, when one end is
given a unit rotation, the other end being fixed. What is the moment at
the near end called?
When = 1,
=

4
2
, =

Is the stiffness of AB at B
5. Define the term sway.
Sway is the lateral movement of joints in a portal frame due to the
unsymmetrical in dimensions, loads, moments of inertia, end conditions, etc.
Sway can be prevented by unyielding supports provided at the beam level as
well as geometric or load symmetry about vertical axis.

6. What are the situations where in sway will occur in portal frames?
Eccentric or unsymmetrical loading
Unsymmetrical geometry
Different end conditions of the column
Non-uniform section of the members
Unsymmetrical settlement of supports
A combination of the above

7. What are the symmetric and anti-symmetric quantities in structural


behavior?
When a symmetrical structure is loaded with symmetrical loading, the
bending moment and deflected shape will be symmetrical about the same
axis. Bending moment and deflection are symmetrical quantities.
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8. What is the ratio of sway moments at column heads when one end is
fixed and the other end hinged? Assume that the length and M.I of both
legs are equal.

Assuming the frame to sway to the right by

Ratio of sway moments =


6
)
2
3
( 2 )

=2

9. A beam is fixed at its left end and simply supported at right. The right
end sinks to a lower level by a distance with respect to the left end.
Find the magnitude and direction of the reaction at the right end if l is
the beam length and EI, the flexural rigidity.

( ) =

3
2

10.How many slope deflection equations are available for a two span
continuous beam?
There will be 4 nos. of slope-deflection equations are available for a
two span continuous beam.

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11.What are the quantities in terms of which the unknown moments are
expressed in slope-deflection method?
In slope-deflection method, unknown moments are expressed in terms
of
Slope ()
Deflection ()
12.The beam shown in figure is to be analyzed by slope-deflection method.
What are the unknowns and to determine them. What are the
conditions used?

Unknowns: , ,
Equilibrium equations used:
= 0
+ = 0
= 0
13.How do your account for sway in slope deflection method for portal
frames?
Because of sway, there will be rotations in the vertical members of a
frame. This causes moments in the vertical members. To account for this,
besides the equilibrium, one more equation namely shear equation
connecting the joint-moments is used.

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14.Write down the equation for sway correction for the portal frame
shown in figure.

+
+
+
= 0
1
2

15.Who introduced slope-deflection method of analysis?


Slope-deflection method was introduced by Prof. George A. Maney in
1915.

16.Write down the equilibrium equations for the frame shown in figure.
Unknowns: ,
Equilibrium equations used:
+ = 0
+ = 0

+
+
+
+ = 0

17.Write down the general slope-deflection equations and state what each
term represents.

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General slope deflection equations:


= +
= +

[ 2 + +
[ 2 + +

]
]

Where,
MFAB, MFBA = Fixed end moment at A and B respectively due to given
loading
, = Slopes at A and B respectively
= Sinking of support A with respect to B

18.How many slope-deflection equations are available for each span?


Two numbers of slope-deflection equations are available for each
span, describing the moment at each end of the span.

19.In a continuous beam, one of the support sinks. What will happen to
the span and support moments associated with the sinking of support.

Let support D sinks by . This will not affect span moments. Fixed
end moments (support moments) will get developed as under
= =
= =

6
12
6
22

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20.What is the basis on which the sway equation is formed for a structure?
Sway is dealt with in slope-deflection method by considering the
horizontal equilibrium of the whole frame taking into account the shears at
the base level of columns and external horizontal forces.

+ =0

21.State the limitations of slope-deflection method.


It is not easy to account for varying member sections
It becomes very inconvenience when the unknown displacements are
large in number
This method is advantageous only for the structures with small
Kinematic indeterminacy
The solution of simultaneous equation makes the method tedious for
annual computations
22.Why slope-deflection method is called a displacement method?
In slope-deflection method, displacements (like slopes and
displacements) are treated as unknowns and hence the method is a
displacement method.

23.Define Flexural rigidity of beams.


The product of youngs modulus (E) and moment of inertia (I) is
called Flexural Rigidity (EI) of Beams. The unit is Nmm2.

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24.Define constant strength beam.


If the flexural Rigidity (EI) is constant over the uniform section, it is
called Constant strength beam.

25.Define continuous beam.


A Continuous beam is one, which is supported on more than two
supports. For usual loading on the beam hogging (- ive) moments causing
convexity upwards at the supports and sagging (+ ive) moments causing
concavity upwards occur at mid span.

26.What are the advantages of continuous beam over simply supported


beam?
The maximum bending moment in case of continuous beam is much
less than in case of simply supported beam of same span carrying
same loads.
In case of continuous beam, the average bending moment is lesser and
hence lighter materials of construction can be used to resist the
bending moment.

UNIT 4
1. Explain moment distribution method (Hardy cross method).
This method is first introduced by Professor Hardy Cross in 1932. It is
widely used for the analysis of indeterminate structures. It uses an iterative
technique. The method employs a few basic concepts and a few specialized
terms such as fixed end moments, relative stiffness, carry over, distribution

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factor. In this method, all the members of the structure are first assumed to
be fixed in position and fixed end moments due to external loads are obtained.

2. Define distribution factor.


When several members meet at a joint and a moment is applied at the
joint to produce rotation without translation of the members, the moment is
distributed among all the members meeting at that joint proportionate to their
stiffness.
=

If there are three members,


=

1 + 2 + 3 1 + 2 + 3 1 + 2 + 3

3. Define carry over factor.


A moment applied at the hinged end B carries over to the fixed end
A, a moment equal to half the amount of applied moment and of the same
rotational sense. C.O =0.5

4. What is the difference between absolute and relative stiffness?


Absolute stiffness is represented in terms of E, I and l, such as 4EI / l.
Relative stiffness is represented in terms of I and l, omitting the constant
E. Relative stiffness is the ratio of stiffness to two or more members at a joint.

5. In a member AB, if a moment of -10kN.m is applied at A, what is the


moment carried over to B?
Carry over moment = Half of the applied moment
Carry over moment to B = -10/2 = -5 kN.m
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6. Define Stiffness factor.


It is the moment required to rotate the end while acting on it
through a unit rotation, without translation of the far end being
() =
() =

Where,
E = Youngs modulus of the beam material
I = Moment of inertia of the beam
L = Beams span length

7. Define carry over moment.


It is defined as the moment induced at the fixed end of the beam by the
action of a moment applied at the other end, which is hinged. Carry over
moment is the same nature of the applied moment.

8. What is the sum of distribution factors at a joint?


Sum of distribution factors at a joint = 1.

9. What is the moment at a hinged end of a simple beam?


Moment at the hinged end of a simple beam is zero.

10.A rigid frame is having totally 10 joints including support joints. Out of
slope-deflection and moment distribution methods, which method would
you prefer for analysis? Why?
Moment distribution method is preferable.

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If we use slope-deflection method, there would be 10 (or more)


unknown displacements and an equal number of equilibrium equations. In
addition, there would be 2 unknown support moments per span and the same
number of slope-deflection equations. Solving them is difficult.

11.What are the limitations of moment distribution method?


This method is eminently suited to analyze continuous beams including
non-prismatic members but it presents some difficulties when applied to
rigid frames, especially when frames are subjected to side sway
Unsymmetrical frames have to be analyzed more than once to obtain
FM (fixed moments) in the structures
This method cannot be applied to structures with intermediate hinges

UNIT 5
1. What is the value of rotation moment at a fixed end considered in
Kanis method?
= 2
= 2
2. What are the fundamental equations of Kanis method?
= + 2 + = 0
=

1
( + )
2

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3. What are the limitations of Kanis method?


Gasper Kani of Germany gave another distribution procedure in which
instead of distributing entire moment in successive steps, only the
rotation contributions are distributed
Basic unknown like displacements which are not found directly
4. What are the advantages of Kanis method?
Hardy Cross method distributed only the unbalanced moments at joints,
whereas Kanis method distributes the total joint moment at any stage of
iteration
The more significant feature of Kanis method is that the process is selfcorrective. Any error at any stage of iteration is corrected in subsequent
steps
Framed structures are rarely symmetric and subjected to side sway,
hence Kanis method is best and much simpler than other methods like
moment distribution method and slope displacement method

5. State Miller-Breslau principle.


Miller-Breslau principle states that, if we want to sketch the influence
line for any force quantity like thrust, shear, reaction, support moment or
bending moment in a structure,
We remove from the structure the resistant to that force quantity
We apply on the remaining structure a unit displacement
corresponding to that force quantity.
The resulting displacements in the structure are the influence line
ordinates sought.
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6. Define rotation factor.


Rotation factor in Kanis method is akin to distribution factor in
moment distribution method.
Actually, = 0.5

7. Define displacement factor.


Is the displacement factor for each column, similar to we
adopted earlier for rotation factor. Actually, = 1.5 and is
applicable to column only.
8. Brief about Kanis method of analysis.
Kanis method of analyzing indeterminate structures, particularly,
building frames was developed in Germany in the year 1947 by Dr. Gasper
Kani. Like moment distribution it is a method of solving slope deflection
equations by an iterative method. Hence, this will fall under the category of
stiffness method wherein the level of difficulty would be decided by the
degrees of freedom (and not the degree of redundancy).

9. What are the basic principles of compatibility?


Compatibility is defined as the continuity condition on the
displacements of the structure after external loads are applied to the
structure.
10.Define Kanis method and how it is better than MDM.
Kanis method is similar to the MDM in that both these methods use
Gauss Seidel iteration procedure to solve the slope deflection equations,
without explicitly writing them down. However the difference between
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Kanis method and the MDM is that Kanis method iterates the member end
moments themselves rather than iterating their increment Kanis method
essentially consists of a single simple numerical operation performed
repeatedly at the joints of a structure, in a chosen sequence.
11.Write the procedure for Kanis method.
While solving structures by this method the following steps may be
kept in mind.
Compute all fixed end moments
Compute and tabulate all rotation factors for all joints that would have
rotation.
Fixed ends will not have rotation factors. Nor rotation contributions
either to the same (fixed end) or to the opposite end.
Extreme simply supported ends will initially get a fixed end moment.
Iterative process can be formed.
(Or)
Fixed end moment
Rotation factor
Resultant restraint moment
Iteration cycle
Final moment

12.What are the methods of analyzing building frame?


Cantilever method
Factor method
Portal method

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2
UNIT 1
1. What is an arch? Explain.
An arch is defined as a curved girder, having convexity upwards and
supported at its ends. The supports must effectively arrest displacements in
the vertical and horizontal directions only then there will be arch action.

2. State the general cable theorem.


The general cable theorem helps us determine the shape of a cable
supported at two ends when it is acted upon by vertical forces. It can be
stated as: At any point on a cable acted upon by vertical loads, the product
of the horizontal component of cable tension and the vertical distance from
that point to the cable chord equals the moment this would occur at that
section if the loads carried by the cable were acting on an simply-supported
beam of the same span as that of the cable.

3. What are the various types of hinges in arch? (or) What are the types of
arches according to the support conditions?
Three hinged arch
Two hinged arch
Single hinged arch
Fixed or hinge less arch

4. What are the types of arches according to their shapes?


Curved arch
Parabolic arch
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Elliptical arch
Polygonal arch

5. Define horizontal thrust.


In a 3 hinged arch, the force H is calculated by equating the bending
moment at the central hinge to zero. The horizontal thrust H reduces the
beam bending moment called x. , =

6. What is a linear arch?


If an arch is to take loads, say W1, W2, and W3 and a vector diagram
and funicular polygon are plotted as shown in figure, the funicular polygon
is known as the linear arch or theoretical arch.

The polar distance o t represents the horizontal thrust. The links


AC, CD, DE and EB will be under compression and there will be no bending
moment. If an arch of this shape ACDEB is provided, there will be no
bending moment.
For a given set of vertical loads W1, W2etc. we can have any
number of linear arches depending on where we chose O or how much
horizontal thrust (o t) we choose to introduce.
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7. Draw the influence line for horizontal reaction, H in a three hinged


stiffening girder.

8. Why stiffening girders are necessary in the suspension bridges?


Stiffening girders enable the suspension bridge decks to remain fairly
level
Whatever be the live load on the deck slab, the stiffening girders will
convert and transmit the load on the deck slab as a uniformly
distributed load and thereby help the cable retain the parabolic shape
during the passage of loads
The dead load of the girders which is a UDL is directly transmitted to
the cables and is taken up entirely by the tension in the cables
Thus the uniformly distributed dead load will not cause any shear
force or bending moment in the stiffening girder

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The stiffening girders will have to resist the Shear force and bending
moment due to live loads

9. Write the expression for horizontal thrust in a three hinged parabolic


arch carrying UDL over entire span.
2
=
8
10.Write the expression for horizontal thrust of a semicircular arch.
cos 2
=

If the load is applied at the centre, we get


=

= 0.318

11.A flexible cable 20m long is supported at two ends at the same level.
The supports are 16m apart. Determine the dip of the cable.
GIVEN DATA:
S = 20m
l = 16m

TO FIND:
d =?

SOLUTION:
8 2
=+
3

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( ) 3
=
8
d = 4.89m
12.State the Eddys theorem for an arch.
Eddys theorem states that the bending moment at any section of an
arch is equal to the vertical intercept between the linear arch and the center
line of the actual arch.
= 2 3

13.Explain with the aid of a sketch the normal thrust and radial shear in
an arch rib.

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Let us take a section X of an arch. Let q be the inclination of the


tangent at X. If H is the horizontal thrust and V is the vertical shear at X,
from the free body of the RHS of the arch, it is clear that V and H will have
normal and radial components given by,
( ) = cos sin
( ) = sin + cos
14.What is the static indeterminacy of a three hinged parabolic arch?
For a three hinged parabolic arch, the degree of static indeterminacy is
zero. It is statically determinate.

15.Which of the two arches, viz. circular and parabolic is preferable to


carry a uniformly distributed load? Why?
Parabolic arches are preferably to carry distributed loads. Because,
both the shape of the arch and the shape of the bending moment diagram are
parabolic. Hence the vertical intercept between the theoretical arch and
actual arch is zero everywhere. Hence, the bending moment at every section
of the arch will be zero. The arch will be under pure compression which
will be economical.

16.What is the difference between the basic action of an arch and


suspension cable?
An arch is essentially a compression member which can also take
bending moments and shears. Bending moments and shears will be absent if
the arch is parabolic and the loading uniformly distributed.

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A cable can take only tension. A suspension bridge will therefore


have a cable and a stiffening girder. The girder will take the bending
moment and shears in the bridge and the cable, only tension.
Because of the thrusts in the cables and arches, the bending moments
are considerably reduced.
If the load on the girder is uniform, the bridge will have only cable
tension and no bending moment on the girder.

17.Under what conditions will the bending moment in an arch be zero


throughout?
The bending moment in an arch throughout the span will be zero, if
The arch is parabolic
The arch carries UDL throughout the span

18.Indicate the positions of a moving point load for maximum negative and
positive bending moments in a three hinged arch.
Considering a three hinged parabolic arch of span l and subjected to
a moving point load W, the position of the point load for
Maximum negative bending moment is 0.25l from end supports.
Maximum positive bending moment is 0.211l from end supports.

19.What are cable structures?


Long span structures subjected to tension and uses suspension cables
for supports. Examples of cable structures are suspension bridges, cable
stayed roof.

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20.Draw the ILD for bending moment at a section x at a distance x from


the left end of a three hinged parabolic arch of span l and rise h.

21.Distinguish between two hinged and three hinged arches.


TWO HINGED ARCHES
Statically indeterminate to first

THREE HINGED ARCHES


Statically determinate

degree
Might develop temperature stresses

Increase in temperature causes


increase in central rise. No stresses

Structurally more efficient

Easy to analysis. But in


construction, the central hinge may
involve additional expenditure.

Will develop stresses due to sinking

Since this is determinate, no stresses

of supports

due to support sinking.

22.Explain rib shortening in the case of arches.


In a two hinged arch, the normal thrust which is a compressive force
along the axis of the arch will shorten the rib of the arch. This in turn will
release part of the horizontal thrust. Normally, this effect is not considered in
the analysis (in the case of two hinged arches).

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Depending upon the importance of the work we can either take into
account or omit the effect of rib shortening. This will be done by considering
(or omitting) strain energy due to axial compression along with the strain
energy due to bending in evaluating H.

23.Explain the yielding of support in the case of an arch.


Yielding of supports has no effect in the case of a 3 hinged arch which
is determinate. These displacements must be taken into account when we
analyze 2 hinged or fixed arches under

Instead of zero

= Instead of zero
Here U is the strain energy of the arch and H and VA are the

displacements due to yielding of supports.

24.Write the formula to calculate the change in rise in three hinged arch.
2 + 42
= (
)
4
Where,
l = span length of the arch
yc = central rise of the arch
= coefficient of thermal expansion
T = change in temperature

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25.In a parabolic arch with two hinges how will you calculate the slope of
the arch at any point?
( ) = tan1 (

4
( 2 ))
2

Where,
= slope at any point x (or) inclination of tangent at x
l = span length of the arch
yc = central rise of the arch

26.How will you calculate the horizontal thrust in a two hinged parabolic
arch if there is a rise in temperature?
( ) =

0 2

Where,
l = span length of the arch
y = rise of the arch at any point x
= coefficient of thermal expansion
T = change in temperature
E = Youngs Modulus of the material of the arch
I = Moment of Inertia

27.What is the true shape of cable structures?


Cable structures especially the cable of a suspension bridge is in the
form of a catenary. Catenary is the shape assumed by a string / cable freely
suspended between two points.

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28.What is the nature of force in the cables?


Cables of cable structures have only tension and no compression or
bending.

29.What is a catenary?
Catenary is the shape taken up by a cable or rope freely suspended
between two supports and under its own self weight.

30.Mention the different types of cable structures?


Cable over a guide pulley
Cable over a saddle

31.Briefly explain cable over a guide pulley.


Cable over a guide pulley has the following properties:
Tension in the suspension cable = tension in the anchor cable
The supporting tower will be subjected to vertical pressure and
bending due to net horizontal cable tension

32.Briefly explain cable over saddle.


Cable over saddle has the following properties:
Horizontal component of tension in the cable = horizontal component
of tension in the anchor cable
The supporting tower will be subjected to only vertical pressure due to
cable tension

33.What are the main functions of stiffening girder in suspension bridges?


They help in keeping the cables in shape
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They resist part of the Shear force and bending moment due to live
loads

34.What is the degree of indeterminacy of a suspension bridge with two


hinged stiffening girder?
The two hinged stiffening girder has one degree of indeterminacy.

35.Give some examples of beams curved in plan.


Curved beams are found in the following structures.
Beams in the bridge negotiating a curve
Ring beams supporting a water tank
Beams supporting corner lintels
Beams in ramps

36.Differentiate between plane truss and space truss.


PLANE TRUSS
All members lie in one plane

SPACE TRUSS
This is a three dimensional truss

All joints are assumed to be hinged All joints are assumed to be ball and
socketed

37.Give some examples of beams curved in plan.


Curved beams are found in the following structures.
Beams in the bridge negotiating a curve
Ring beams supporting a water tank
Beams supporting corner lintels
Beams in ramps

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38.What are the forces developed in beams curved in plan?


Beams curved in plan will have the following forces developed in
them.
Bending moments
Shear forces
Torsional moments

39.Define tension coefficient of a truss member.


The tension coefficient for a member of a truss is defined as the pull
or tension in the member divided by its length (i.e.) the force in the member
per unit length.

40.What are the significant features of circular beams on equally spaced


supports?
Slope on either side of any support will be zero
Torsional moment on every support will be zero

41.Give the expression for calculating equivalent UDL on a girder.


=

42.Give the expression for determining the tension T in the cable.


The tension developed in the cable is given by,
= 2 + 2
Where,
H = horizontal component
V = vertical component
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43.What are cables made of?


Cables can be of mild steel, high strength steel, stainless steel, or
polyester fibres. Structural cables are made of a series of small strands
twisted or bound together to form a much larger cable. Steel cables are either
spiral strand, where circular rods are twisted together or locked coil strand,
where individual interlocking steel strands form the cable (often with a spiral
strand core).
Spiral strand is slightly weaker than locked coil strand. Steel spiral
strand cables have a Young's modulus, E of 150 10 kN/mm and come in
sizes from 3 to 90 mm diameter. Spiral strand suffers from construction
stretch, where the strands compact when the cable is loaded.

44.Give the horizontal and vertical components of a cable structure


subjected to UDL.

The horizontal and vertical reactions are given by,


=

2
8

And =

45.What is meant by Reaction locus for a two hinged arch?


The Reaction locus is a line which gives the point of intersection of
the two reactions for any position of an isolated load.
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46.Give the range of central dip of a cable.


The central dip of a cable ranges from 1/10 to 1/12 of the span.

47.Give the types of significant cable structures.


Linear structure
Suspension bridges
Draped cables
Cable stayed beams or trusses
Cable trusses
Straight tensioned cables
Three dimensional structure
Bicycle wheel roof
3D cable trusses
Tensegrity structures
Tensairity structures

UNIT 2 & 3
1. Where do you get the rolling loads in practice?
Shifting of load positions is common enough in buildings. But they
are more pronounced in bridges and in gantry girders over which vehicles
keep rolling.

2. List the categories of rolling loads on beams.


Single concentrated load
UDL longer than the beam span
UDL shorter than the beam span
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Two wheel axles separated by a fixed distance


Multiple wheel axles (train of loads)

3. What are the objectives of study on rolling loads?


To find the load position and values of maximum shear force and
bending moment at a given section due to a given system of rolling
loads
To find the location and values of the absolute maximum shear force
and bending moment that may occur on the span due to the given
system of rolling loads
To find the equivalent UDL due to a given system of rolling loads to
make the designers work simple

4. Name the type of rolling loads for which the absolute bending moment
occurs at the mid span of a beam.
Single concentrated load, UDL longer than the span, UDL shorter
than the span Also when the resultant of several concentrated loads crossing
a span, coincides with a concentrated load then also the maximum bending
moment occurs at the centre of the span.

5. Where do you have the absolute maximum bending moment in a simply


supported beam when a series of wheel loads cross it?
When a series of wheel loads crosses a simply supported beam, the
absolute maximum bending moment will occur near mid span under the load
Wcr, nearest to mid span (or the heaviest load). If Wcr is placed to one side
of mid span C, the resultant of the load system R shall be on the other side of
C and Wcr and R shall be equidistant from C. Now the absolute maximum
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bending moment will occur under Wcr. If Wcr and R coincide, the absolute
maximum bending moment will occur at mid span.

6. What is the absolute maximum bending moment due to a UDL longer


than the span of a simply supported beam?
When a simply supported beam is subjected to a moving UDL longer
than the span, the absolute maximum bending moment occurs when the
whole span is loaded.
max

2
=
8

7. State the location of a maximum shear force in a simple beam with any
kind of loading.
In a simple beam with any kind of load, the maximum positive Shear
force occurs at the left hand support and maximum negative Shear force
occurs at right hand support.

8. What is meant by absolute maximum bending moment in a beam?


When a given load system moves from one end to the other end of a
girder, depending upon the position of the load, there will be a maximum
bending moment for every section. The maximum of these bending
moments will usually occur near or at the mid span. The maximum of
maximum bending moments is called the absolute maximum bending
moment.

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9. What is meant by influence lines?


An influence line is a graph showing, for any given frame or truss, the
variation of any force or displacement quantity (such as shear force, bending
moment, tension, deflection) for all positions of a moving unit load as it
crosses the structure from one end to the other.
An influence line for any given point or section of structure is a curve
whose ordinates represent to scale the variation of a function, such as shear
force, bending moment, deflection etc. at the point or section, as the unit
load moves across the structure. ILD for determinate beam is linear and for
indeterminate structure is curvilinear.

10.What are the uses of influence diagrams?


Influence lines are very useful in the quick determination of reactions,
shear force, bending moment or similar functions at a given section
under any given system of moving loads and
Influence lines are useful in determining the load position to cause
maximum value of a given function in a structure on which load
positions can vary.

11.State Muller Breslau principle.


Muller-Breslau principle states that, if we want to sketch the influence
line for any force quantity (like thrust, shear, and reaction, support moment
or bending moment) in a structure,
We remove from the structure the restraint to that force quantity and
We apply on the remaining structure a unit displacement
corresponding to that force quantity.

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The resulting displacements in the structure are the influence line


ordinates sought.

12.Write the uses of Muller Breslau principle.


It is the most important tool in obtaining influence lines for statically
determinate as well as statically indeterminate structures
It is used as the straight application of Maxwells reciprocal theorem
13.Define the term Equivalent uniformly distributed load.
A given system of loading crossing a girder or structure can always be
replaced by a uniformly distributed load longer than the span. Such that the
B.M or S.F due to the static load everywhere is at least equal to the caused
by the actual system of moving loads. Such a static load is known as
Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Load.

14.What is the necessity of model analysis?


When the mathematical analysis of problem is virtually impossible
Mathematical analysis though possible is so complicated and time
consuming that the model analysis offers a short cut
The importance of the problem is such that verification of
mathematical analysis by an actual test is essential.

15.What do you understand by the term reversal of stresses?


In certain long trusses the web members can develop either tension or
compression depending upon the position of live loads. This tendency to
change the nature of stresses is called reversal of stresses.

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16.A single load of W rolls along a girder of span l. Draw the diagrams of
maximum bending moment and shear force.

17.Draw the ILD for shear force shear force at a point x in a simply
supported beam AB of span l.

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18.State Maxwell Bettis theorem.

In a linearly elastic structure in static equilibrium acted upon by either


of two systems of external forces, the virtual work done by the first system
of forces in undergoing the displacements caused by the second system of
forces is equal to the virtual work done by the second system of forces in
undergoing the displacements caused by the first system of forces.
Maxwell Bettis theorem helps us to draw influence lines for structures.

19.Draw the influence line for radial shear at a section of a three hinged
arch.

( ) = cos sin
Where, is the inclination of tangent at x

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20.Draw the ILD for bending moment at any section x of a simply


supported beam and mark the ordinates.

21.Sketch the ILD for the normal thrust at a section X of a symmetric


three hinged parabolic arch.

( ) = sin + cos
Where, is the inclination of tangent at x

22.What is meant by maximum shear force diagram in influence line?


Due to a given system of rolling loads the maximum shear force for
every section of the girder can be worked out by placing the loads in
appropriate positions. When these are plotted for all the sections of the

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girder, the diagram that we obtain is the maximum shear force diagram. This
diagram yields the design shear for each cross section.
23.Define Maxwells reciprocal theorem or Bettes theorem.
The work done by the first system of loads due to displacements
caused by a second system of loads equals to the work done by the second
system of loads due to displacements caused by the first system of loads.

24.Define similitude.
Similitude means similarity between two objects namely the model
and the prototype with regard to their physical characteristics.
Geometric similitude is similarity of form
Kinematic similitude is similarity of motion
Dynamic and / or mechanical similitude is similarity of masses and /
or forces

25.State the principle on which indirect model analysis is based.


The indirect model analysis is based on the Muller Breslau principle.
Muller Breslau principle has led to a simple method of using models
of structures to get the influence lines for force quantities like bending
moments, support moments, reactions, internal shears, thrusts, etc.
To get the influence line for any force quantity,
Remove the restraint due to the force
Apply a unit displacement in the direction of the force
Plot the resulting displacement diagram
This diagram is the influence line for the force.

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26.What is the principle of dimensional similarity?


Dimensional similarity means geometric similarity of form. This
means that all homologous dimensions of prototype and model must be in
some constant ratio.
27.What is Beggs deformeter?
Beggs deformeter is a device to carry out indirect model analysis on
structures. It has the facility to apply displacement corresponding to
moment, shear or thrust at any desired points in the model. In addition, it
provides facility to measure accurately the consequent displacements all
over the model.

28.Name any four model making materials.


Perspex, Plexiglas, acrylic, plywood, sheet araldite and Bakelite are
some of the model making materials. Micro concrete, mortar and plaster
of Paris can also be used for models.
29.What is dummy length in models tested with Beggs deformeter?
Dummy length is the additional length (of about 10 to 12mm) left at
the extremities of the model to enable any desired connection to be made
with the gauges.

30.What are the three types of connections possible with the model used
with Beggs deformeter?
Hinged connection
Fixed connection
Floating connection
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31.What are the uses of a micrometer microscope in model analysis with


Beggs deformeter?
Micrometer microscope is an instrument used to measure the
displacement of any point in the x and y directions of a model during tests
with Beggs deformeter.

UNIT 4
1. What is meant by yield stress?
Most structural materials have under gradually increasing strain an
elastic and plastic stage.
Plastic stage mark the stage at which increased strain does not produce
in stress.
The stress consequent to stretching stabilize at a value is known as
yield stress.

2. What are the basic conditions to be satisfied for plastic analysis?


Mechanism condition
The ultimate load or collapse load is reached when a mechanism is
formed. There must, however, be just enough plastic hinges that a
mechanism is formed.
Equilibrium condition
The summation of the forces and moments acting on a structure must
be equal to zero.

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Plastic moment condition


The bending moment anywhere must not exceed the fully plastic
moment.

3. What are the basic conditions to be satisfied for elastic analysis?


Continuity equation
Equilibrium condition
Limiting stress condition

4. List out the shape factors for the rectangular, triangular, circular and
diamond section.
Rectangular section, S = 1.5
Triangular section, S = 2.346
Circular section, S = 1.697
Diamond section, S = 2

5. Mention the types of frames.


Symmetric frames
Un-symmetric frames

6. What are symmetric frames and how they analyzed?


Symmetric frames are frames having the same support conditions,
lengths and loading conditions on the columns and beams of the frame.
Symmetric frames can be analyzed by,
Beam mechanism
Column mechanism

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7. What are unsymmetrical frames and how they analyzed?


Unsymmetric frames have different support conditions, lengths and
loading conditions on its columns and beams. These frames can be analyzed
by,
Beam mechanism
Column mechanism
Panel or sway mechanism
Combined mechanism

8. What is the effect of axial force on plastic moment when a section is


subjected to axial force?
Thus far the cross sections considered are only carrying moment. In
the presence of axial force, clearly some material must be given over to
carry the axial force and so is not available to carry moment, reducing the
capacity of the section. Further, it should be apparent that the moment
capacity of the section therefore depends on the amount of axial load being
carried. Considering a compression load as positive, more of the section
will be in compression and so the neutral axis will drop.

9. Draw a stress strain curve for a perfectly plastic material.

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10.What is a mechanism?
When an n-degree indeterminate structure develops n plastic hinges, it
becomes determinate and the formation of an additional hinge will reduce
the structure to a mechanism. Once a structure becomes a mechanism, it will
collapse.

11.What are the different types of mechanism?


Beam mechanism
Column mechanism
Panel or sway mechanism
Gable mechanism
Combined or composite mechanism

12.What are the methods of plastic analysis?


Static method (Lower Bound Theorem)
Kinematic method (Upper Bound Theorem)

13.State the lower bound theorem or static theorem of plastic collapse.


Lower bound theory states that the collapse load is determined by
assuming suitable moment distribution diagram.
The moment distribution diagram is drawn in such a way that the
conditions of equilibrium are satisfied.

14.State upper bound theorem of plasticity.


Upper bound theory states that of all the assumed mechanisms the
exact collapse mechanism is that which requires a minimum load.

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15.Define shape factor.


The shape factor (S) is defined as the ration of the plastic moment of a
section to the yielded moment of the section. The shape factor is also the
ratio of plastic modulus of the section to the elastic modulus of the section.
=

16.Define the term load factor.


Plastic analysis can tell us at what load (or load combination) a
structure will collapse. This will help us design structures for a desired
safety factor on limiting loads. This safety factor is usually termed as load
factor. It is also defined as the ratio of collapse load to the working load.
=

17.Define collapse load.


The load that causes the (n + 1) the hinge to form a mechanism is
called collapse load where n is the degree of statically indeterminacy. Once
the structure becomes a mechanism it will collapse.

18.What are the limitations of load factor?


The analysis procedure does not give us any clue if at a load
, the structure behaves well, meaning, whether the
stresses are within limit. So we have to check the stresses at crucial
points by conventional elastic method
The assumption of monotonic increase in loading is a simplistic,
native assumption. But it is convenient and so we stick to it.

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19.Explain the term plastic hinge.


When a section attains full plastic moment Mp, it acts as hinge which
is called a plastic hinge.
It is defined as the yielded zone due to bending at which large
rotations can occur with a constant value of plastic moment Mp.

20.What is plastic moment?


When the moment is further increased, there will be a stage at which
all fibres from top to bottom of the section will completely yield and the
section would not be able to take any further moment. The resisting moment
corresponding to this fully plastic stage is called the plastic moment Mp.

21.Define plastic modulus of a section.


The plastic modulus of a section is the first moment of the area above
and below the equal area axis. It is the resisting modulus of a fully
plasticized section.
=

( 1 + 2 )
2

22.List the possible locations of plastic hinges in a structure.


Plastic hinges occurs under the loads
Plastic hinges occurs at joints

23.Define moment redistribution.


Moment redistribution refers to the behavior of statically
indeterminate structures that are not completely elastic, but have some
reserve plastic capacity.
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24.How is the shape factor for a hollow circular section related to the shape
factor of an ordinary circular section?
The shape factor of the hollow circular section = a factor K * shape
factor of ordinary circular section.

=

( 1 3 )
( 1 4 )

25.Give the governing equation for bending.


The governing equation for bending is given by,

Where,
M = bending moment
I = moment of inertia
= stress
y = CG distance

26.What is meant by plastic analysis of structure?


The analysis of beams and structures made of such flexural members
are called plastic analysis of structure.

27.What is the difference between plastic hinge and mechanical hinge?


Plastic hinges modify the behavior of structures in the same way as
mechanical hinges. The only difference is that plastic hinges permit rotation
with a constant resisting moment equal to the plastic moment Mp. At
mechanical hinges, the resisting moment is equal to zero.
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28.List out the assumptions made for plastic analysis.


Plane transverse sections remain plane and normal to the longitudinal
axis before and after bending
Effect of shear is neglected
The material is homogeneous and isotropic both in the elastic and
plastic state
Modulus of elasticity has the same value both in tension and
compression
There is no resultant axial force in the beam
The cross section of the beam is symmetrical about an axis through its
centroid and parallel to the plane of bending

UNIT 5
1. State the principle of super position of forces?
When a body is subjected to a number of external forces, the forces
are split up, and their effects are considered on individual sections. The
resulting deformation, of the body is equal to the algebraic sum of the
deformations of the individual sections. Such a principle of finding the
resultant deformation is called the principle of superposition.

2. Define statically determinate structure.


If the conditions of equilibrium (i.e.) H=0, V=0 and M=0 alone
are sufficient to find either external reactions or internal forces in a structure,
the structure is called a statically determinate structure.

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3. Define statically indeterminate structure.


If the conditions of equilibrium (i.e.) H=0, V=0 and M=0 alone
are not sufficient to find either external reactions or internal forces in a
structure, the structure is called a statically indeterminate structure.

4. Differentiate the statically determinate structures and statically


indeterminate structures.
STATICALLY

STATICALLY DETERMINATE

INDETERMINATE

STRUCTURES

STRUCTURES

Conditions of equilibrium are

Conditions of equilibrium are

sufficient to analyze the structure

insufficient to analyze the structure

Bending moment and shear

Bending moment and shear force

force is independent

is dependent of material and

of

material and cross sectional area

independent of cross sectional


area

No stresses are caused due to

Stresses are caused due to

temperature change and lack of fit

temperature change and lack of fit

Extra conditions like compatibility

Extra conditions like compatibility

of displacements are not required to of displacements are required to


analyze the structure.

analyze the structure along with


the equilibrium equations.

5. Write down the rotation matrix for 2D truss element.


In linear algebra, a rotation matrix is a matrix that is used to perform a
rotation in Euclidean space. For example the matrix

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6. Define compatibility in force method of analysis.


Compatibility is defined as the continuity condition on the
displacements of the structure after external loads are applied to the
structure.

7. Write down the compatibility equation used in flexibility matrix


method.
= {}

8. Define force transformation matrix.


The connectivity matrix which relates the internal forces Q and the
external forces R is known as the force transformation matrix. Writing it in a
matrix form,
{Q} = [b] {R}
Where,
Q = member force matrix / vector
b = force transformation matrix
R = external force / load matrix / vector

9. What is transformation matrix?


If, A and B are the matrices of two linear transformations, then the
effect of applying first A and then B to a vector x is given by: (This is called
the associative property.) In other words, the matrix of the combined

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transformation A followed by B is simply the product of the individual


matrices.

10.Write down the stiffness matrix for 2D beam element.


The stiffness matrix for a 2 D beam element is given by,

11.Describe the uses of force method. What are the basic steps in the force
method to find internal forces in statically indeterminate structure?
With the advent of computers, matrix methods of solving structures
have become very popular. The behavior of a structure can largely be
defined by defining the force displacement relationship in the form of a
matrix.

Steps:
Applying a force on the structure
Working out the internal forces and moments
Computing displacement (and rotations) at specific locations making
use of the values in the above step.

12.What are the basic unknowns in stiffness matrix method?


In the stiffness matrix method nodal displacements are treated as the
basic unknowns for the solution of indeterminate structures.

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13.Define stiffness coefficient kij.


Stiffness coefficient kij is defined as the force developed at joint i
due to unit displacement at joint j while all other joints are fixed.

14.What is the basic aim of the stiffness method?


The aim of the stiffness method is to evaluate the values of
generalized coordinates r knowing the structure stiffness matrix k and
nodal loads R through the structure equilibrium equation.
{R} = [K] {r}

15.What is the displacement transformation matrix?


The connectivity matrix which relates the internal displacement q
and the external displacement r is known as the displacement
transformation matrix a.
{q} = [a] {r}

16.How are the basic equations of stiffness matrix obtained?


The basic equations of stiffness matrix are obtained as:
Equilibrium forces
Compatibility of displacements
Force displacement relationships

17.What is the equilibrium conditions used in the stiffness method?


The external loads and the internal member forces must be in
equilibrium at the nodal points.

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18.What is meant by generalized coordinates?


For specifying a configuration of a system, a certain minimum no of
independent coordinates are necessary. The least no of independent
coordinates that are needed to specify the configuration is known as
generalized coordinates.

19.Write the element stiffness for a truss element.


The element stiffness matrix for a truss element is given by,

20.Write about the force displacement relationship.


The relationship of each element must satisfy the stress-strain
relationship of the element material.

21.What is the compatibility condition used in the flexibility method?


The deformed elements fit together at nodal points.

22.Write the element stiffness matrix for a beam element.


The element stiffness matrix for a beam element is given by,

23.Is it possible to develop the flexibility matrix for an unstable structure?


In order to develop the flexibility matrix for a structure, it has to be
stable and determinate.

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24.Compare flexibility method and stiffness method.


FLEXIBILITY MATRIX
METHOD

STIFFNESS MATRIX METHOD

The redundant forces are treated

The joint displacements are treated as

as basic unknowns.

basic unknowns

The number of equations involved The number of displacements


is equal to the degree of static

involved is equal to the no of degrees

indeterminacy of the structure.

of freedom of the structure

The method is the generalization

The method is the generalization of

of consistent deformation method.

the slope deflection method.

Different procedures are used for

The same procedure is used for both

determinate and indeterminate

determinate and indeterminate

structures

structures.

25.What is the relationship between flexibility and stiffness matrix?


The element stiffness matrix k is the inverse of the element
flexibility matrix f and is given by f = 1/k or k = 1/f.

26.What are the types of structures that can be solved using stiffness
matrix method?
Structures such as simply supported, fixed beams and portal frames
can be solved using stiffness matrix method.

27.Give the formula for the size of the global stiffness matrix.
The size of the Global Stiffness Matrix (GSM) = number of nodes *
degrees of freedom per node.

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28.List the properties of the stiffness matrix.


It is a square matrix and always it should be a square matrix.
It is a symmetric matrix
[] = []
The sum of elements in any column must be equal to zero.
It is an unstable element therefore the determinant is equal to zero.
The order of stiffness is equal to the number of co ordinates.

29.List the properties of flexibility matrix.


Flexibility matrix is a square matrix of order nd nd
Flexibility matrix is a symmetrical matrix
Elements of flexibility matrix may be positive or negative except
leading diagonal element which is always positive
Elements of flexibility matrix are displacements and they can be
computed only if the structure is stable. If structure is unstable
internally or externally, then displacements are indefinitely large and
flexibility matrix does not exist.

30.Why the stiffness matrix method is also called equilibrium method or


displacement method?
Stiffness method is based on the superposition of displacements and
hence is also known as the displacement method. And since it leads to the
equilibrium equations the method is also known as equilibrium method.

31.Define a primary structure.


A structure formed by the removing the excess or redundant restraints from
an indeterminate structure making it statically determinate is called primary
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structure. This is required for solving indeterminate structures by flexibility


matrix method.

32.If the flexibility matrix is given as[] = [


]. Write the

corresponding stiffness matrix.


=

(i.e.) [] = []1

33.Define degree of kinematic indeterminacy (or) Degree Of Freedom.


It is defined as the least no of independent displacements required to
define the deformed shape of a structure. There are two types of DOF
Joint type DOF
Nodal type DOF

34.Name any two force methods to analyze the statically indeterminate


structures.
Column analogy method
Flexibility matrix method
Method of consistent deformation
Theorem of least work

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35.Briefly explain the two types of DOF.


Joint type DOF
This includes the DOF at the point where moment of inertia changes,
hinge and roller support, and junction of two or more members.
Nodal type DOF
This includes the DOF at the point of application of concentrated load
or moment, at a section where moment of inertia changes, hinge
support, roller support and junction of two or more members.

36.What are the different methods used to analyze indeterminate


structures?
Finite element method
Flexibility matrix method
Stiffness matrix method

37.Write the formulae for degree of indeterminancy.


Two dimensional in jointed truss (2D truss)
= ( + ) 2
Two dimensional rigid frames/plane rigid frames (2D frame)
= (3 + ) 3
Three dimensional space truss (3D truss)
= ( + ) 3
Three dimensional space frame (3D frame)
= (6 + ) 6
Where,
m = number of members
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r = number of reactions
j = number of joints

38.Write the element flexibility matrix for a truss member.


The element flexibility matrix (f) for a truss member is given by,

39.Briefly mention the two types of matrix methods of analysis of


indeterminate structures.
Flexibility matrix method
It is defined as the deformation produced for unit load. It is denoted
by the symbols[] [] []. This method is also called the force
method in which the forces in the structure are treated as unknowns.
The no of equations involved is equal to the degree of static
indeterminacy of the structure.
Stiffness matrix method
It is defined as the force required for unit deformations. It is denoted
by the symbol[]. This is also called the displacement method in
which the displacements that occur in the structure are treated as
unknowns. The no of displacements involved is equal to the no of
degrees of freedom of the structure.

40.Define flexibility influence coefficient.


Flexibility influence coefficient (fij) is defined as the displacement at
joint i due to a unit load at joint j, while all other joints are not load.
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41.Define element co ordinates.


Each element having a displacement along two directions (x and y) is
said to be an element coordinates.
42.Define global co ordinates.
For the whole structure having a displacement along the two
directions (x and y) is said to be a global coordinates.

43.Write the element flexibility matrix for a beam element.


The element flexibility matrix (f) for a beam element is given by,

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TRANSPORTATION ENGINNERING 1
UNIT 1
1. What are the functions of transition curve?
Introduce super elevation gradually from zero at the tangent point to
the value on the circular curve.
Maintains a constant proportionality between super elevation and the
rate of change of curve.
Eliminates discomfort and overturning.
Eliminates discomfort to passenger.

2. Define simple curve.


Simple curve is a curve consists of a single arc with a constant radius
connecting two straights or tangents.

3. Define horizontal curve.


Horizontal curve is one which is provided in the horizontal plane
connecting two straight alignments.

4. Define vertical curve.


In a highway a change in the rate of grade or direction may cause the
vehicle a sudden impact. So far a smooth and safe running of vehicles the
change in gradient or direction is smoothened by a curve called a vertical
curve.

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5. Define transition curve.


It is also called as an easement curve, is an arc introduced between a
straight and a circular curve or between two arcs of a compound curve. The
radius of a transition curve varies from infinity to a fixed value.

6. Define reverse curve.


When two curves of different or equal radius are bending in opposite
directions then it is called a reverse curve. Reverse curves have one
common tangent.

7. Define compound curve.


When a curve consists of more than one radius connecting two
intersecting straights it is called as a compound curve.

8. Define valley or sag curve.


A vertical curve, concave upwards, is called as a valley or sag curve.
This occurs when,
A descending gradient meets another descending gradient
A descending gradient intersects an ascending gradient
An ascending gradient meets another ascending gradient
A descending gradient meets a horizontal

9. Distinguish between summit and valley curves.


For a smooth and safe running of vehicles the change in gradient or
direction is smoothened by a curve called a vertical curve. The vertical
curves adopted in highway may be classified as summit curve or valley

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curve. A curve with convexity upwards is called a summit curve. A curve


with concave upwards is called a valley curve.

10.Define gradient.
Gradient is the rate of rise or fall along the length of the road with
respect to the horizontal. It is expressed as a percentage rise or fall or a rate
of rise or fall with respect to horizontal distance. A gradient of 1 in 20 or
5% represents that there is an ascending or descending of road profile by one
meter for every twenty meters. It is denoted by the symbol n.

11.What is meant by exceptional gradient?


In some field conditions it will be unavoidable to provide a gradient
steeper than limiting gradients. Such gradients are referred to as exceptional
gradients. Such situations may rise in approaches to causeways, near hairpin bends, etc. They should be limited for short stretches not exceeding
about 100 meters at a stretch. At hair-pin bends, the gradient is restricted to
2.5%.

12.What is meant by minimum gradient in highway? Why it is provided?


A road with less gradient or level may not be in a position to drain
easily. The surface water may be drained to the side drain due to the
camber. But a longitudinal slope is needed to drain the water on the surface
and from the side drain. Hence, it is essential to have a certain minimum
gradient on roads from drainage point of view provided topography permits.
The minimum gradient depends on the factors like rainfall, run-off, type of
soil, topography and other site conditions.

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13.Define ruling gradient.


This is the desirable upper limit of gradient adopted in the normal
course of design. This adoption of ruling gradient should balance the cutting
and filling of earth work which will give an economical design. Different
factors which are to be considered in the choice of ruling gradient is type of
terrain, the length of the grade, the speed, pulling capacity of vehicles and
the presence of horizontal stretches of road.

14.State the factors controlling the alignment of highway.


The various factors, which control the highway alignment, may be listed as:
Economy
Geometric design
Obligatory points
Traffic
Other considerations
In hill roads additional care has to be given for
Stability
Drainage
Geometric Standards
Resisting Length

15.List the details to be collected during ground reconnaissance.


The following are the details to be collected during ground reconnaissance:
Climatic conditions
Crossings
Economic factors
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Geometrics
Obligatory points
Resource
Roads
Soil type
Topography

16.List the type of surveys and details to be taken during a conventional


preliminary survey.
Hydrological data
Leveling work
Primary traverse
Soil survey
Topographical features

17.Name the detailed survey to be conducted.


Construction material investigation
Cross-section and profile
Investigation on crossings
Right of way investigation
Soil investigation
Surface drainage area

18.What is called super elevation?


To counterbalance the centrifugal force the outer edge of the road is
raised which is known as the super elevation or cant or banking. This
transverse slope is provided throughout the length of the horizontal curve.
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The super elevation e is expressed as the ratio of the height of the outer
edge with respect to the horizontal width.

19.Define sight distance.


Sight distance is the actual length of road over which a driver sitting
at a specified height in a vehicle can see objects either moving or stationary
on the road surface. The computation of sight distance depends on the
following factors.
Efficiency of brakes
Reaction time of the driver
Speed of the vehicle

20.Define stopping sight distance.


Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) or absolute minimum sight distance is
the sight distance needed when the visibility should be such that a driver
travelling at the design speed has sufficient length of the road ahead to stop
vehicle after seeing the object without collision or accident. It is also called
non-passing sight distance.

21.Define intermediate sight distance.


When it is not feasible to provide overtaking sight distance,
intermediate sight distance is provided to give limited overtaking
opportunities to fast vehicles. Intermediate sight distance is taken as twice
the stopping sight distance.

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22.Define overtaking sight distance.


The distance visible to the driver of a vehicle intending to overtake
another slow moving vehicle, without causing any inconvenience (or)
possibility of accident to the traffic in the opposite direction is called
overtaking sight distance (or) safe passing sight distance.

23.What are the factors on which SSD depends on?


Features of the road ahead
Height of the drivers eye above the road surface
Height of the object above the road surface

24.What are the factors on which OSD depends on?


Velocities of the overtaking vehicle, overtaken vehicle and of the
vehicle coming in the opposite direction.
Spacing between vehicles, which in-turn depends on the speed
Skill and reaction time of the driver
Rate of acceleration of overtaking vehicle

25.Define setback distance.


Setback distance m or the clearance distance is the distance required
from the centerline of a horizontal curve to an obstruction on the inner side
of the curve to provide adequate sight distance at a horizontal curve. The
setback distance depends on:
Sight distance (OSD, ISD and OSD)
Radius of the curve
Length of the curve

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26.Define camber.
A convexity provided to the cross section of the surface of carriage
way is called camber is also called as cross fall. It is the difference in level
between the highest point, known as the crown usually located at the center
of the carriage and the edge. Camber is provided so as to,
Drain the surface
Separate the traffic in two opposite directions
Improve the appearance of the road.

27.What camber recommended in WBM road?


2.5 to 3% (1 in 40 to 1 in 33).

28.What camber recommended in cement concrete road?


1.7 to 2% (1 in 60 to 1 in 50).

29.What is Kerbs?
Kerbs indicate the boundary between the pavement and shoulders.
Sometimes kerbs are also provided on islands or footpaths. Based on their
functions, kerbs may be divided into three groups as given below.
Low or mountable Kerb
Low speed barrier or urban parking Kerb
High speed barrier

30.What are the different types of camber?


Composite camber
Parabolic camber
Sloped camber
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31.Define design speed.


A road has to be designed for a specific speed known as Design
speed. Thus design speed may be defined as the maximum uniform speed
which will be followed approximately by majority of drivers. The choice of
design speed depends on terrain condition and load classification.

32.What is called perception time?


Perception time is the time required for an average driver for his/her
sensations received by the eyes or ears are to be transmitted to the brain
through the nervous system and spinal cord.

33.List the factors controlling geometric design.


The following are the factors which control the geometric design:
Cross-sectional elements
Details of vehicles and design speed
General alignment
Gradients
Horizontal alignment
Sight distance
Super elevation
Terrain classification
Vertical alignment

34.What is remote sensing?


Photogrammetry is often called as remote sensing. This is defined as
the science and art of obtaining measurements needed for highway surveys
by means of photography. It is intended to encompass procedures for photo
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interpretation and converting single photographs into composite over and


into maps.

35.What are the requirements of ideal alignment?


The basic requirements of ideal alignment between two terminal stations are
that it should be:
Short
Easy
Safe
Economical

36.What is mean by geometric design?


The geometric design of highway deals with the dimensions and
layout of visible features of the highway such as alignment, sight distance
and intersections. The geometrics of highway should be designed to provide
optimum efficiency in traffic operations.

37.What is meant by highway alignment?


The position or the layout of the centre line of the highway on the
ground is called alignment. Highway alignment includes both horizontal
and vertical alignments of the roadway. The horizontal alignment includes
the straight path, the deviations and horizontal curves. The vertical
alignment includes the changes in gradient and vertical curves.

38.Mention the functions of medians in urban roads.


To avoid the head-on collision between vehicles moving in opposite
direction
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To channelize the traffic in to streams at intersections


To provide protection for pedestrians
To separate slow moving traffic

39.What are the requirements of ideal transition curve?


It should meet the straight path tangentially.
It should meet the circular curve tangentially.
It should have the same radius as that of circular curve at junction of
circular and transition curve.
The rate of increase of curvature and super elevation should be the
same.

40.What are the markings made on the runways?


Runway centerline marking
Runway edge strips
Runway numbering
Touchdown or landing zone
Threshold marking
Two or more parallel runways

41.Mention the main objectives of traffic engineering.


Thus the basic objective of traffic engineering is to achieve efficient,
free and rapid flow of traffic, with least number of traffic accidents.

42.State the basic requirement of pavement.


Functional requirements from the point of view of road users

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Structural requirements from the point of view of the highway


engineer

43.What are the objectives of highway planning?


To plan overall road network for efficient and safe traffic operation,
but at minimum cost. Here the costs of construction, maintenance and
resurfacing or strengthening of pavement layers and the vehicle
operation cost are to be given due consideration.
To arrive at the road system and the lengths of different categories of
roads which could be provide maximum utility and could be
constructed within the available resources during the plan period
under consideration.
To divide the overall plan into phases and to decide priorities.
To fix up date-wise priorities for development of each road link based
on utility as the main criterion for phasing the road development
program.
To plan for future requirements and improvements of roads in view of
anticipated developments.
To work out suitable financing system.

44.What are the classifications of road markings?


Longitudinal markings
Transverse markings
Object markings
Word messages
Marking for parking
Marking at hazardous locations
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45.What are the types of traffic signal system?


Traffic control signals
Pedestrian signals
Special traffic signals

46.What are the factors affecting the skid resistance developed at the
pavement interface?
Type of pavement surface namely, cement concrete, bituminous,
WBM, earth surface, etc.
Macro-texture of the pavement surface or its relative roughness
Condition of pavement namely, wet or dry, smoothened or rough, oil
spilled, mud or dry sand on pavement
Type and condition of tyre
Speed of vehicle
Extent of break application or brake efficiency
Load and tyre pressure
Temperature of tyre and pavement

UNIT 2
1. Mention any four tests for bituminous materials.

Ductility test: Ductility is the property of bitumen which permits the


material to undergo great deformation without breaking.
Penetration test: Hardness or softness of bitumen is assessed by
penetration of a standard needle.

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Softening point test: Softening point is the temperature at which the


substance attains a particular degree of softening under specified
condition of test.
Viscosity test: Viscosity is a measure of resistance to flow.

2. What is meant by elongation index?

Elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of the


particles whose greater dimension is greater than one and four fifths (1.8
times) their mean dimension. Presence of elongated particles in excess of 10
to 15% is generally considered undesirable. The elongation index test is not
applicable to sizes smaller than 6.3 mm.

3. Mention the function of base course.

Base-course is that portion of the roadway which is provided under


the wearing course or pavement. Base-courses have to fulfill rigid
specifications. They have to satisfy the following requirements:
Thickness should be adequate to distribute the heavy wheel load
pressure gradually to the sub-grade through a sub-base.
Should have sufficient structural stability so as to resist the vertical
pressures and shear stresses due to moving vehicles.
It should have enough resistance to weathering.
It should be compacted well to have sufficient density.

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4. What do you understand about flash and fire points of bitumen?

The flash point of a material is the lowest temperature at which the


vapor of a substance momentarily takes fire in the form of a flash under a
specific condition.
The fire point is the lowest temperature at which the material gets
ignited and burns under specific conditions.

5. Define flaky aggregate.

Aggregate which pass through the appropriate elongated slot of


thickness gauge are called flaky aggregate. Width of elongation slot would
be 0.6 times the average of the size range. For example, if the size-range is
16 to 20 mm whose average size is 18mm, the width of the elongated slot is
10.8 mm (0.618). Hence in aggregates of 16 to 20 mm size, the aggregate
passing through 10.8 mm is called flaky aggregate.

6. Define Flakiness index.

The flakiness index of aggregate is the percentage by weight of


particles in it whose least dimension (thickness) is less than three fifths (0.6
times) of their mean dimension.

7. Define angularity number.

It is the amount to the nearest whole number by which the percentage


voids exceeds 33%, when an aggregate is compacted in a specified manner
in a standardized metal cylinder.
= 67

100

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8. Write the importance of California Bearing Ratio test.

It is the best suitable method for evaluating the stability of soil subgrade and other flexible pavement materials.
The test results have been correlated, for highways and airfields.

9. What are the limitations of C.B.R test?

It cannot be used to evaluate the soil properties like cohesion or angle


of internal friction or shearing resistance.
Materials passing through 20mm sieve can only be used for this test.
If the test sample consists of coarse grained particles, then obtained
results are not so suitable for proper designing of pavements.

10. Mention the purpose of conducting softening point test for binder.

Softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains a


particular degree of softening under specific condition of test.
Higher softening indicates lower temperature susceptibility and is
preferred in areas where warm weather exists. Hard grade bitumen
possesses higher softening point than soft grade bitumen. Bitumen used in
paving jobs should have softening point varying between 35 to 70 C.

11. What are the desirable properties of soil as highway material?

The desirable properties of soil as a highway material are,


Adequate drainage
Easy for compaction
Incompressibility
Minimum change in volume
Permanency
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Stability

12. What are the requirements of a good road aggregate?

Resistance to impact or toughness


Resistance to abrasion or hardness
Resistance from getting polished or smooth/slippery
Resistance to crushing or crushing strength
Good shape factors to avoid too flaky and elongated particles of
coarse aggregates
Resistance to weathering or durability
Good adhesion or affinity with bituminous materials in presence of
water or less stripping of bitumen coating from the aggregates.

13. What is called toughness and soundness of stone aggregate?

Toughness or impact susceptibility is one of the necessary properties


of an aggregate. Moving vehicles cause some impact on the road aggregate.
The magnitude of impact would increase with the roughness of the road
surface, the speed of the vehicle and other vehicular characteristics.
Soundness refers to the ability of aggregate to resist excessive changes
in the volume as a result of change in physical conditions. The physical
conditions that affect the soundness are,
Alternate wetting and drying under normal conditions
Alternate wetting and drying under salt water
Freezing and thawing
Variation in temperature

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14. Define softening point of bitumen.

Softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains a


particular degree of softening under specific condition.

15. List the desirable properties of bitumen.

The desirable properties of bitumen are as follows,


Attainment of desired stability
Easy to get mixed
Even under adverse weather conditions should maintain stability
Provide sufficient adhesion with the aggregate in the mix in the
presence of water
Sufficient flexibility should be available throughout so as to avoid
cracking of bituminous surface.

16. List the tests for road aggregates.

Abrasion test
Crushing test
Impact test
Shape test
Elongation index test
Flakiness index test
Soundness test
Stone polishing test
Devals test
Los Angeles test
Water absorption test

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17. Name the different types of viscometer with their temperature range.

Capillary tube viscometer (31 160)


Brooke filed syndro-electric viscometer (38 160)
Sliding plate micrometer (25 38)

18. Differentiate between tar and bitumen.

FACTORS
Source

Solubility

BITUMEN

TAR

Derived from naturally

Obtained from destructive

occurring petroleum

distillation of coal or wood

Soluble only in toluene

Soluble in carbon-disulphide
and carbon tetrachloride

Colour

Black or brownish black

Black

UNIT 3
1. What are the components of flexible pavements?
Flexible pavements are based on the principle that the wheel loads of
vehicles are dissipated to the natural soil through successive layers of
granular materials. Highest quality material is placed on the top. The
components of the pavement from the top are surface course, base course
and sub-base course. The strength of sub-grade decides the thickness of
flexible pavements.

2. Define plastic deformation.


If applied stress is excessive, than the stability of sub grade and the
plastic flow takes place then it is called plastic deformation.

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3. Differentiate between flexible and rigid pavement.


FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

RIGID PAVEMENT

Deformation in the sub grade is

Deformation in the sub grade is not

transferred to the upper layers.

transferred to subsequent layers.

Design is based on load distributing

Design is based on flexural strength

characteristics of the component

or slab action.

layers
Load is transferred by grain to grain No such phenomenon of grain to
contact.

grain load transfer exists.

Have low completion cost but

Have low repairing cost but

repairing cost is high.

completion cost is high.

Have low life span.

Life span is more as compare to


flexible.

Surfacing cannot be laid directly on

Surfacing can be directly laid on the

the sub grade but a sub base is

sub grade.

needed.
No thermal stresses are induced as

Thermal stresses are more vulnerable

the pavement has the ability to

to be induced as the ability to

contract and expand freely.

contract and expand is very less in


concrete.

That why expansion joints are not

That why expansion joints are

needed

needed

Strength of the road is highly

Strength of the road is less

dependent on the strength of the sub dependent on the strength of the sub
grade.

grade.

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Rolling of the surfacing is needed.

Rolling of the surfacing in not


needed.

Road can be used for traffic within

Road cannot be used until 14 days of

24 hours.

curing.

Force of friction is less.

Force of friction is high.

4. Define pavement.
Highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed layers of
processed materials above the natural soil sub-grade, whose primary
function is to distribute the applied vehicle loads to the sub-grade.
The pavement structure should be able to provide a surface of
acceptable riding quality, adequate skid resistance, favorable light
reflecting characteristics, and low noise pollution.

5. Define frost heaving.


Frost heaving is often misunderstood for shear or other types of
failure. In shear failure the upheaval of portion of pavement is followed
with a depression. In the case of frost heaving, there is mostly a localized
heaving up pavement portion depending upon the ground water and climatic
conditions.

6. Define Warping.
Warping is the bending of the concrete slab due to uneven expansion
or contraction of top and bottom slab surfaces. It is caused by any
differences in temperature above and below the slab or caused by moisture
differences.

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7. What is unevenness index?


Unevenness index is defined as the cumulative measure of vertical
undulations of the pavement surface, recorded per unit length of the road. It
can be measured by using Bump Integrator.

8. What are the factors to be considered for the design of flexible


pavements?
Various factors to be considered for the design of pavements are:
Design wheel load
Properties of sub-grade and pavement components
Other factors

9. What are the factors to be considered for the design of rigid pavements?
Wheel load
Temperature variations at the location of the road
Types of joints and their spacing
Sub-grade and other supporting layers below the CC pavement slab
Drainage characteristics

10.What are the design methods available in flexible pavement?


Group index method
California bearing ratio method
Stabilometer method
Tri-axial test method
McLeod method
Burmisters method

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11.Define perimeter area ratio.


Perimeter-Area, (P/A), where load is P and A is the area which is used
in Mc Leod Method. This is used in the computation of radius of contact.

12.What is rigidity factor in design for highway pavement?


The ratio of contact pressure to the tyre pressure is called Rigidity
Factor.

13.What is traffic index?


Traffic index is an empirical term used to estimate the traffic volume.
This is given as,
. = 1.35 ( )0.11
Where, EWL is the accumulated sum of the products of the constants
and the number of axle loads.

14.What do you mean by traffic volume?


Traffic flow or volume is measured in terms of number of vehicles per
unit time. The common units of time are day and hour. Thus the flows are
measured in terms of vehicles per day or vehicles per hour.

15.Define equivalent single wheel load.


Total stress produced by dual wheel at any depth is produced by a
single wheel at that same depth is called the Equivalent Single Wheel Load.
This ESWL can be determined by equivalent deflection or equivalent stress
criterion.

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16.Define highway capacity.


Highway capacity is defined as the maximum number of vehicles that
can pass over a given section of road during a given time period under
prevailing roadway and traffic condition.

17.Define traffic density.


Traffic density is defined as the number of vehicles occupying a unit
length of roadway at a given instant and is expressed in vehicles per
kilometer.

18.Give the deflection equation for rigid and flexible plates.


Burmisters elastic two layer system can be used to compute the
elastic modulus of pavement material for a maximum deformation.

= 1.5

2

= 1.18

2
Where,
P = pressure on the plates
a = radius of plates
Es = modulus of elasticity of sub-grade
F2 = deflection factor

19.What is deflection factor?


In the Burmisters two layer system a deflection factor F2, has been
introduced which is a function of

2
1

and . Where E2 and E1 are the modulus

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of elasticity of bottom and top layer respectively, h is the thickness of top


layer and a is the contact radius.
20.What are the assumptions made in applying Burmisters layer theory
on flexible pavements?
The assumptions made in applying Burmisters layer theory to
flexible pavements are as follows,
All the material used in the pavement structure including the subgrade is isotropic, homogeneous and elastic.
The surface layer is infinite in horizontal direction and finite in
vertical direction. The underlying layer is infinite in both the
direction.
The layers have continuous perfect contact
The top layer is free of hearing and normal stress outside the loaded
area
Poisons ratio, is 0.5 in both layers.

21.Define contact pressure.


The wheel load is assumed to be distributed over a circular area. The
distributed load is the tyre pressure which is differently referred to as
inflation pressure or contact pressure. Theoretically, all these terms should
mean the same thing. Tyre pressure and inflation pressure mean exactly the
same. Contact pressure is given by the relationship,
, =

Where,
p = contact pressure
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L = load on wheel
A = contact area or area of imprint

22.How do you calculate the ESWL at a given depth below the pavement
for a dual wheel assembly?
ESWL for any depth can be calculated using the following formula.
0.301 log10 (
log10 = log10 +
log10 (

)
2

2
)
2

At any depth greater than 2S, the stress due to dual wheel is
considered to be equivalent to a single load of magnitude 2P.

23.What is Equivalent Single Axle Load?


Equivalent Single Axle Load is the equivalent repetitions of standard
axle during the design life of the pavement.
The numbers of repetitions of different types of axles are converted
into Equivalent repetitions of standard axle by using Equivalent Axle
Load Factors (EALF).

24.List the stresses in concrete pavements.


The stresses in concrete pavement are as follows,
Stress due to wheel loads
Stress due to cyclic changes in temperature
Stress due to change in moisture content
Stress due to volumetric changes of sub-grade.

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25.What is Bradburys stress coefficient?


Bradbury generalized equation for stress is,
=

2
Where, Q is the stress co-efficient which is determined by the ratio

(l/b) in the case of interior and edge loadings and by the ratio of (a/l) in the
case of corner loading.

26.Name the critical load positions. What is more critical?


Three critical locations where the loadings should be considered in the
design depth are interior, edge and corner locations on a cement concrete
pavement.
Corner loadings are those which are applied at the intersection of
transverse joints or cracks. Edge loading is one when the load is applied on
an edge of the slab. Interior loading is one when the load is applied in the
interior of the slab surface of all the three the critical one is corner loading.

27.What are the reasons for development of edge cracks in flexible


pavements?
Poor drainage
Inadequate lateral support
In-sufficient pavement width

28.State the remedial measures in rigid pavement for edge cracks.


Application of sealants
Application of epoxy resin
Proper designing method
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29.What are the components of rigid pavements?


The components of a rigid pavement are sub-base and Portland
cement concrete. The concrete pavement, if rests directly on the sub-grade,
the sub-grade is compacted to a certain level. The special property of a rigid
pavement is that it takes minor irregularities in the sub-grade because of its
flexural strength and load transfer capacity.

30.What is meant by radius of relative stiffness?


Westergaard defined the stiffness property of pavement slab and subgrade as radius of relative stiffness, as,
1

4
3
= (
)
12 ( 1 2 )

Where,
E = modulus of elasticity of cement concrete
= Poissons ratio of cement concrete
h = slab thickness
K = modulus of sub-grade reaction or sub-grade modulus

31.What is equivalent radius of resisting sections?


The maximum bending moment occurs at the loaded area and acts
radially in all directions. This bending moment can be effectively resisted
by a sectional area of the pavement.
Westergaard suggested an equivalent radius of resisting section b, in
terms of radius of load distribution and slab thickness as,
= 1.6 2 + 2 0.675
Where,
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a = radius of wheel load distribution


h = slab thickness
When, a is greater than 1.72h, the value of b = a.

32.Mention flexible pavement failures.


Failures in sub-grade
Failures in sub-base
Failure in wearing course

33.What are the typical flexible pavement failures?


Alligator cracking
Consolidation of pavement layers
Shear failure
Longitudinal cracking
Frost heaving
Lack of binding
Reflection cracking
Formation of waves and corrugation.

34.Give the various defects in cement concrete pavement.


Disintegration of cement concrete
Formation of cracking
Spalling of joints
Poor riding surface
Slippery surface
Formation of shrinkage cracks
Ingress of surface water and further progressive failures
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35.What are the failures in rigid pavement?


Scalling of cement concrete
Shrinkage cracks
Spalling of joints
Warping cracks
Mud pumping
Structural cracks

36.List the steps followed to design the pavement thickness by Group Index
method.
The value of Group Index is found using the details of the soil.
The anticipated traffic is estimated and classified as light, medium or
heavy.
The appropriate design curve is chosen and the total thickness of
pavement is found for the corresponding Group Index.
The thickness of sub-base or base only is found from appropriate
curve, to find the thickness.

UNIT 4
1. Define the concept of CBR in highway design.
California Bearing Ratio has been used for the design of flexible and
rigid pavement thickness. It is a property of the sub-grade which shows
relative significance and do not provide absolute measure. It signifies that a
particular CBR of a material requires a certain thickness of pavement layer
as a cover for a given traffic load.

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2. Define CBR.
California Bearing Ratio is an adhoc property of a material which
shows relative significance and do not provide absolute measure.

3. Give the IRC recommendation for edge loading.


This equation is basically as that of Westergaards and modified by
Teller and Sutherland.
= 0.529

(
)
1
+
0.5
4
log
+ log10 0.408 )
(
10
2

Where,
Se = stress due to edge loading
p = wheel load
h = thickness of pavement
= Poissons ratio
l = radius of relative stiffness
b = radius of resisting section

4. What are the classifications of flexible pavement design?


The flexible pavement design methods may be classified under three distinct
groups:
Empirical method: These are based on soil classification, physical or
strength parameters of soils other factors such as climate and
moisture.
Semi-empirical method: These are methods based on stress strain
functions, performance and serviceability concept.

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Theoretical method: These are based on theoretical analysis and


mathematical computations considering Stress-Strain behavior of soil.

5. List the steps followed to use the CBR design chart.


In order to use the chart, the following steps are followed,
CBR value should be found for a soaked specimen of the sub-grade
soil.
Considering the design wheel load or the anticipated traffic, the
appropriate design curve is chosen.
Corresponding CBR value and the chosen curve the total thickness of
flexible pavement needed to cover the sub-grade is found.
If a superior material is to be used as a sub-base, whose CBR value is
found. Corresponding to this CBR value of sub-base material the
required thickness of construction on the already chosen traffic curve
is used.
Then the thickness of sub-base course is the total thickness minus the
thickness over the sub-base.

6. Give the IRC recommendations for traffic volume.


The growth of traffic volume after 20 years of construction has to be
considered in the design. The following formula may be used to estimate
the demand.
= ( 1 + )+20
Where,
Ad = number of commercial vehicle per day for laden weight greater
than 3 tonnes
P = number of commercial vehicles per day at last count
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r = annual rate of increase in traffic intensity


n = number of years between the last traffic count and the
commissioning of new cement concrete pavement

7. Give the IRC recommendations on Dowel bars.


Dowel bars are designed based on Bradburys analysis for shear,
bending and bearing in concrete.
The minimum dowel length is taken as( + ). The load bearing
capacity of the dowel system is assumed to be 40% of the design
wheel load. The dowel bar is considered to be effective 1.8 times the
radius of relative stiffness l on the either side of the load position.
Dowel bars are provided for thickness of slab more than 150mm or
more. IRC recommends 20 to 50mm diameter bars of 500mm length
with 200mm spacing for 250mm thick slab and spaced at 300mm in
case of 200mm thick slab.

8. Mention the function of Dowel bar in cement concrete pavement.


Dowel bars are load transfer devices which are usually provided at
expansion or contraction joint. These devices are provided to allow the
wheel load to reach the end of slab and cross over the joint without any
hindrance or difficulty but should be smooth and unnoticeable to drivers and
passengers.

9. Briefly explain about control of Ground water table.


There is no necessity for any sub-soil drainage system if the ground
water is deeper than 1.5 m below the sub-grade of the road.

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If the ground water is closer than this, the best approach is to go for a
road formation such that the sub-grade rests at least 1.2 m above the highest
water table.

10.Briefly explain about control of seepage flow.


Seepage flow is likely to exist along a sloping ground. If the seeping
zone is at a depth less than 0.6 to 0.9 m from the road surface, it is necessary
to intercept the seepage flow.

11.Briefly explain about control of capillary rise.


The sub-grade is likely to be disturbed by capillary water if the subgrade is near the capillary zone. In this case instead of lowering the water
table, the capillary rise can be arrested.

12.State any two techniques for protecting the sub-grade from moist due to
capillary rise.
If the water reaches the sub-grade due to capillary rise is likely to be
determined. It is possible to solve the problem by arresting the capillary rise
instead of lowering the water table.
The capillary rise may be arrested either by a capillary cut-off of any one
of the following two types:
By providing a granular material of suitable thickness, between the
sub-grade and the highest level of subsurface water table.
By inserting an impermeable or a bituminous layer instead of a
granular material

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13.What is the importance for highway drainage?


One of the major causes of the failure of highway is water. Water
brings about the destruction of highway by:
Softening the road surface when constructed of soil or sand-clay
gravel or Water-Bound Macadam.
Washing out unprotected areas of the top surface, erosion of side
slopes forming gullies, erosion of side drains, etc.
Softening the sub-grade soil and decreasing its bearing power.

UNIT 5
1. Mention the failures of wearing courses in flexible pavements.
Failure of wearing courses is due to inferior or improper mix design.
Inadequate binder cement and inferior duality of binder result in a poor
bituminous surfacing. Volatilization and oxidation of binders also makes the
bituminous surfacing brittle.

2. What are the different types of pavement roads?


The different types of pavement roads are as follows,
Bituminous roads
Cement concrete roads
Earth roads
Gravel roads
Macadam roads
Soil stabilized roads

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3. What is the purpose of dry-rolling in Water Bound Macadam road?


By dry-rolling it is intended to key the coarse aggregate thoroughly.
After completing spreading and checking for all irregularities the rolling is
done by a three-wheeled power roller of capacity 6 to 10 tonnes.
4. What are the important modifications made in macadams method of
road construction?
The total thickness of foundation was 250mm.
Smaller foundation stones are provided.
A cross slope of 1in 36 was adopted from the sub-grade.

5. What is the purpose of applying prime coat?


To plug the capillary voids and to act as a water proofing agent for
existing base.
To provide best bonding between existing granular layer and new
bitumen layer.

6. What is the purpose of applying tack coat in bituminous road


construction?
Tack coat is a single initial application of bituminous material on
surface which has previously been treated or prepared such as existing
bituminous, Portland cement concrete, brick or block surface. Tack coat is
simply applied to insure adhesion between the existing surface and the new
bituminous surface. Since in this case the base is comparatively impervious,
the quality of binder required may be less than the primer.

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7. Distinguish between Tack coat and Prime coat in bituminous


construction.
PRIME COAT

TACK COAT

Prime coat is the first coat of

Tack coat is the bituminous

bituminous surfacing done on an

surfacing done over an existing

existing pervious texture base.

cement concrete top or already


existing black top surface road.

Applied to create bonding between

Applied to create bonding between

base layer and bitumen layer

Bitumen layers.

Application of low viscosity cut

Application of low viscosity liquid

backs as primer on existing base

bitumen to an existing bituminous

layer

layer

Sprayed at an uniform rate of 7.3kg

Sprayed at an uniform rate of 5kg to

to 14.6 kg per 10 sq.m

10kg per sq.m

Rate of spraying depends on

Rate of spraying depends on the

porosity of the surface

type of the surface

8. State the concept of any one method of pavement evaluation.


Although several methods are used, the two methods categorized
below are the basic one,
Structural evaluation of pavements
Evaluation of pavement surface condition
The structural evaluation of pavements can be done by plate bearing
test can be conducted for both flexible and rigid pavements to assess the
structural capacity. The assessment may be made by the load carried at a

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specified deflection at a plate or by the amount of deflection at a specified


load on the plate.
Different equipments are available. Benkelman Beam is the most
commonly used. Before conducting the Benkelman beam measurements, a
rating survey of the road is performed by dividing the road into
homogeneous sections of approximately similar serviceability.

9. Why joints are provided in cement concrete pavements?


Joints are provided in cement concrete pavements to reduce temporary
stress, to prevent longitudinal cracks, to prevent shrinkage cracks, etc.
Various types of joints are provided in cement concrete pavements,
via, expansion joints, contraction joints and warping joint to reduce
temperature stresses. Other types of joints are longitudinal joint and
construction joint.
In order to prevent the formation of irregular longitudinal cracks and
at the same time to allow for transverse warping and unequal
settlement longitudinal joints are provided.
Construction joints are provided at the abrupt end of a days work
unexpectedly interrupted due to breakdown of plants, onset of bad
weather or some urgent repair work has to be carried out.

10.What are the requirements of ideal joints?


Should be easy to maintain
Moves freely without stress development
Should not allow infiltration of water
Should be convenient to road users.
Should be in level with the surface
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11.What is meant by streaking?


Presence of alternate lean and heavy lines of bitumen either in
longitudinal or transverse direction is called streaking. This is formed due to
non-uniform application of bitumen across the surface.

12.What do you understand about rutting?


Rutting is formation of longitudinal depression or groove in the wheel
tracks. Accumulation of water in the ruts can cause skidding. If
accompanied by adjacent bulging, it may be a sign of sub-grade movement
or weak pavement.

13.What is called raveling in flexible pavements?


Raveling is failure of binder to hold the aggregate show up by pock
marks or eroded areas on the surface. It generally starts from the surface
downwards or from edge inwards.
There are several causes for raveling, via, inadequate compaction,
insufficient binder in the mixture, excessively open graded mix, over heating
of mix or binder, improper coating of aggregate by binder, etc.

14.What is called Scalling of pavements?


Presence of chemical impurities in the mixture or due to poor mixture
design, scalling of cement concrete generally occur. Further, over finishing
at the edges and abrasion action of traffic are other causes.

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15.What do you understand by the term mud pumping?


Ejection of soil slurry through cracks formed on the pavement slab
due to wheel load or otherwise. This is caused due to more slab deflection,
type of sub-grade soil and amount of free water.

16.What are the factors considered in mud pumping?


Amount of free water
Extent of slab deflection
Type of sub grade soil

17.State the basic principle of deflection studies using Benkelman beam.


A well designed and constructed flexible pavement which has been
well conditioned by traffic deforms elastically under the design load. That is
there is an elastic recovery or rebound of the deformed pavement surface.
This is the principle on which the Benkelman Beam has been made.

18.Mention the reasons for the development of cracks in rigid pavement.


Cracks formed in rigid pavements are shrinkage cracks, warping
cracks and structural cracks. Shrinkage cracks are formed in cement
concrete pavements during curing operation. These cracks develop both in
the longitudinal and transverse directions.
Formation of excess warping stress at the edge causes the slab to
develop cracks at the edges in an irregular pattern. Design of thickness
should be made properly considered different aspects like wheel load,
temperature, sub-grade condition, etc. If the thickness is inadequate
structural cracks are liable to occur.

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19.What is spalling in rigid pavement?


Spalling is the breakdown or disintegration of slab edges at joints or at
cracks or directly over the reinforcing steel and generally due to the
breakdown of pavement joint edges from traffic action.

20.What are the causes of scaling?


Over vibration of concrete
Presence of chemical impurities

21.What is mud-jacking?
Mud-jacking is the repairing method of rigid pavements, in which the
raising of settled cement concrete slab or filling a void beneath the slab is
done with cement grout.

22.How pot holes are formed? How they are repaired?


Most common cause of pot hole formation is the movement of water
into the pavement through the surfacing course. This occurs if there is no
proper camber and open textured surfacing. Water enters through the
cracks.
Because of entry of water and traffic the pavement gets softened. This
is followed by information of bowl shaped holes of varying sizes on the
surface layer. Pot holes are repaired by filling premix open-graded or densegraded patching or penetration patching.

23.What are the general problems in earthen roads?


Formation of ruts in longitudinal direction along the wheel path of
slow moving vehicles.
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Formation of dust in dry weather.

24.Mention the types of skidding.


Straight skidding
Impending skidding
Sideway skidding

25.Define pavement roughness index.


Pavement roughness index is defined as the grading of irregularities in
the pavement surface that adversely affect the riding quality of a vehicle. It
is used to prepare the guidelines for measuring roughness on a standard
scale.

26.What is pavement serviceability?


It is defined as the evaluation of pavement in terms of surface
unevenness, patching and cracking etc. It is used to analyze the riding
quality of pavement.

27.Define overlay.
It means the additional thickness of the pavement of adequate
thickness in one or more layers over the existing pavement which is called
overlay.

28.Give the various types of overlay.


The overlay combination is divided into four categories based on the
type of existing pavement and the overlay.
Flexible overlay over flexible pavements
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Cement concrete or rigid overlay over flexible pavement


Flexible overlays over cement concrete or rigid pavement
Cement concrete or rigid overlay over rigid pavement.

29.What are the main functions of seal coat?


Premised snail bitumen (or) surface dressing type seal coat is applied
either immediately (or) after a few days.

30.What is surface dressing?


Bituminous Surface Dressing is provided over a prepared base course
or existing pavement to serve as thin wearing coat. Surface dressing work
consists of application of suitable grade of bitumen or emulsion by spraying
over a prepared base course or existing pavement surface followed by
spreading specified size of hard aggregates at the recommended rate and
rolling.
The surface dressing does not add to the structural stability or strength
of the pavement nor will it improve the existing riding quality of the
pavement surface. Two types of surface dressing are,
Single coat surface dressing
Double coat surface dressing

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TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING 2
UNIT 1
1. What is meant by zonal railways?
The entire railway station has been divided into nine zonal railways
having different territorial Jurisdictions which are responsible for all
management and planning of works.

2. What are the advantages of railways?


Railways have helped in the mass migration of the population.
The role of railways during emergencies in mobilizing troops and war
equipment has been very significant.
Railway has made it easier to reach places of religious importance.
Railways provide a convenient and safe mode of transport for the
country.
Land values have increased due to industrial development which
ultimately results in the increase of national wealth.
Speedy distribution of finished product is achieved through railways.
Environment friendliness
Higher safety and energy efficiency.

3. What are the different types of gauges?


Broad gauge
Metre gauge
Narrow gauge
Feeder track-gauge (or light gauge)

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4. Define gauge of track.


The gauge of a track in India is measured as the minimum distance
between the inner or running faces of the two track rails.

5. Enumerate the various factors that govern the selection of various types
of gauges.
Cost of construction
Volume and nature of traffic
Development of the areas
Physical features of the country
Speed of movement

6. Define formation.
Formation is the prepared sub grade ready to receive the ballast.

7. Define ash pits.


These are long masonry pits built longitudinally under the track for
discharging of ash from locomotives.

8. Define drop pits.


They are rectangular deep pits in which wheels of the locomotives are
taken out for repairs.

9. Define examination pits.


These are rectangular masonry lined pits, larger than ash pits in size,
and are provided in locomotive yards to examine the engine from
underneath.
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10.Define inspection pits.


These are the pits, similar to ash pits, but of larger dimensions
provided in loco yard for inspection of the engine from underneath.

11.What is meant by cutting?


When the ground has to be cut, it is called cutting. Cutting is termed
as shallow cutting when the depth is 3m or less and is called deep cutting
when the depth is more than 3m.

12.What is meant by embankment?


The raised structure above the ground level for carrying the railway
track is called embankment. When the height of the embankment is more,
the side slopes are steepened for better stability of slopes.

13.What are the two types of continuous automatic brakes?


Compressed air brakes
Vacuum brakes
14.What are the objectives of Reconnaissance Survey?
To acquire the knowledge of physical features of the country like the
rivers, valleys, cultivated lands, forests, hills, existing roads, canals,
etc., for selecting the proper position of alignment
To collect geological information regarding the following points are
nature of soil, surface formation of the ground, dip of the existing
rocks and hill slopes

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To collect the information regarding availability of constructional


materials, labour and sources of water as permanent facilities for the
proposed alternative alignments
To have an idea about possible alternative alignments
To have an idea of rivers and streams which may cross the proposed
alignments for determining suitable bridge sites and their bridging
requirements
To locate various control points or obligatory points for getting an
idea from where the alignment should pass and from where the
alignment should not pass
To decide the maximum gradient and curvature for proposed
alignment
To prepare rough estimates for different proposed alignments to know
most economical, safe and efficient alignment

15.What are the various resisting forces which a locomotive has to


encounter before starting a train and to keep it in motion?
Train resistances
Resistances due to track profile
Resistances due to starting and acceleration
Wind resistance

16.What engineering surveys are to be conducted for choice of route for a


new railway line?
Traffic survey
Reconnaissance survey
Preliminary survey
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Detailed survey

17.What are the details to be taken on reconnaissance survey?


Accurate topography of the country.
Towns, railways, river crossings, tunnel sites, etc.
Geological characteristics of the soil of the area affecting foundations
for bridges and stability of the project line.
Width of waterway required for rivers and drainages.
Maximum flood levels of the intercepting natural drainages.
Availability of building materials and labor.
Probable radii of the horizontal curves.
The total length of the route.
Amount of expected earth work.
The approximate cost of construction of each probable line.

18.What are the factors to be kept in view during reconnaissance survey?


The reconnaissance survey should be done for the whole area
influencing the railway project, particularly for wide belt on either
side of the general direction of alignment rather than for a line only
All the possible alignments marked on the map, during map study,
should be examined and improvements made if necessary
All the intermediate points should be very carefully fixed so as to
attract maximum traffic and hence more revenue; less construction
problems and hence economy in construction, to achieve this, the
following points should be considered:
Rivers should be crossed at right angles and those places where
approaches are sound and approach banks are not very high
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Mountain passes should be so located that they could be


reached without steep gradients or deep cuttings
A tunnel may also be proposed if very economical
The station site should be located within 2km from the existing
town or village and at level stretch of land.

19.What are the instruments used in preliminary survey?


Theodolite for traversing
Tacheometer for plotting main features
Dumpy level for drawing the longitudinal sections and cross
sections
Plane table for plotting interior details
Prismatic compass for magnetic bearings of routes and main points

20.Write a brief note on Indian railways.


In the nineteenth century before the introduction of railways, India
was a country with extremely poor means of communications and without a
well-developed system of transport. Early efforts for the introduction of
railways may be traced back to the year 1832 when construction of a railway
line between madras and Bangalore was contemplated, though it did not
materialize then.

21.What is a dynamometer car and what is its purpose in railways?


This car gives information regarding the condition of track. It is
placed between the locomotive and train. It plots automatic graphic record
called Hallade Chart of the track profile. The recording equipment is

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called Hallade recorder. This test on the track condition with


Dynamometer car is usually conducted every six months.

22.What is EDM?
Electro-magnetic Distance measurement is a general term used
collectively in the Measurement of distances applying electronic methods.

23.List the uses of Remote sensing data.


Gives a birds eye view of large areas
Ground condition can be defined with a combination of satellite
images and Topographic maps

24.Write the advantages of flat footed rails.


Initial cost is less
Higher strength, stiffness and rigidity
No chairs required
Simple arrangements at points and crossings
Less liable to form kinks
Load distribution is high

25.What are the merits and demerits of bull headed rails?


MERITS:
They keep better alignment and give more solid and smoother track
The rails are easily disconnected from sleepers as they have no direct
connection with the latter
The heavy chairs with larger bearing on sleepers give longer life to
wooden sleepers and greater stability to the track
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DEMERITS:
They require additional cost of iron chairs
They have less strength and stiffness
They require heavy maintenance cost
26.What do you understand by the term Buckling of rails?
Buckling means the track has gone out of its original position or
alignment due to prevention of expansion of rails in hot weather on account
of temperature variations. This buckling may take place on tangent lengths
and at curves.

27.What is the importance of railways?


The railways have their greatest utilization in the transport of large
volumes of heavy and bulk commodities over long distances and in very
long distance journeys of passengers with safety, comfort and convenience.
28.What are the advantages of Coning of wheels?
To reduce the wear and tear of the wheel flanges and rails, which is
due to rubbing action of flanges with inside faces of the rail head
To provide a possibility of lateral movement of the axle with its
wheels
To prevent the wheels from slipping to some extent

29.Define kinks of rails and write its causes and effects.


When, the ends of adjoining rails move slightly out of position,
shoulders or kinks are formed.

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CAUSES:
Loose packing at joints
Defect in gauge and alignment
Defect in cross level at joints
Uneven wear of rail head, where kinks are formed at joints.

EFFECTS:
These kinks cause unpleasant jerks in vehicles passing over them
Due to uneven wear of rail heads, these kinks appear at places other
than the joints and obstruct the smooth running of trains
A series of kinks are seen at curves due to which defect in gauge,
alignment and camber may occur. This involves, sometimes, a
serious risk in turning operations of trains.

30.Define sleepers.
Sleepers are members generally laid transverse to the rails on which
the rails are supported and fixed, to transfer the loads from rails to the ballast
and sub-grade below.

31.What are the functions of sleepers in the track?


To hold the rails to correct gauge.
To hold the rails in proper level or transverse tilt.
To act as an elastic medium in between the ballast and rails to absorb
the blows and vibrations of moving loads.
To distribute the load from the rails to the index area of ballast
underlying it or to the girders in case of bridges.

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To support the rails at a proper level in straight tracks and at proper


super elevation on curves.

32.What are the requirements of sleepers?


The sleepers to be used should be economical
The fittings of the sleepers should be such that they can be easily
adjusted during maintenance operations such as easy lifting, packing,
removal and replacement
The weight of sleepers should not be too heavy or excessively light
The design of sleepers should be such that the gauge, alignment of
track and levels of the rails can be easily adjusted and maintained
The sleeper design and spacing should be such as to facilitate easy
removal and replacement of ballast
The sleepers should be capable of resisting shocks and vibrations due
to passage of heavy loads of high speed trains

33.Define sleeper density.


Sleeper density is the number of sleepers per rail length and it is
specified as (M + x or N + x), where M is the length of the rail in metres (N
is the length of rail in yards) and x is a number, varying according to the
following factors and is fixed by the railway board for various axle loads.
The factors governing the sleeper density are,
Axle load and speed
Type and section of the rails
Type of ballast and ballast cushion
Type and strength of sleepers
Nature of foundation
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34.Write a small note on the need of construction of a new railway line.


Strategic reasons
Connecting trade centers
Developing a backward area
Shortening the existing route

35.Define track alignment.


The direction and position given to the centre line of the railway track
on the ground is called the track alignment.

36.What is meant by track circuit?


The length of the track, which is connected by electric circuit to signal
cabin, block telegraph apparatus, etc. required for indication of light or bell,
is called track circuit.

37.List the factors influencing the selection of a good railway track


alignment.
Obligatory or controlling points
Position, amount and type of traffic
Gauge selection
Geometric standards
Topography of the country
Economic considerations
Other considerations

38.What are the three stages of construction of new railway track?


First stage: Earth work formation and consolidation
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Second stage: Plate laying laying of a railway track


Third stage: Laying of ballast on the track

39.Write the requirements of a good rail alignment.


Purpose of the track
Feasibility
Economy
Safety
Aesthetic aspects

UNIT 2
1. Define permanent way.
The combination of rails fitted on sleepers and resting on ballast and
sub-grade is called the railway track or permanent way.

2. What are the requirements of ideal permanent way?


The gauge should be correct and uniform
The rails should be in proper level
The alignment should be correct
The gradient should be uniform and as gentle as possible
The radii and super elevation on curves should be properly designed
and maintained
Drainage system must be perfect for enhancing safety and durability
of track

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3. What is meant by capacity of a railway track?


Capacity of the track is the number of trains that can run safely on a
track per hour.

4. What is meant by hauling capacity?


Hauling capacity of locomotive is the total load which can be hauled
by it. It indicates the power of the locomotive.

5. What are the three types of rails?


Double headed rail
Bull headed rail
Flat footed rail
6. What do you understand by the term Ballast?
Ballast is the granular material usually broken stone or brick, shingle
or kankar, gravel or sand placed and packed below and around the sleepers
to transmit load (due to the wheels of the train) from sleepers, to formation
and at the same time allowing drainage of the track.

7. What are the functions of ballast?


It transfers the load from the sleeper to the sub-grade and distributes it
uniformly over a larger area of the formation
It holds the sleepers in position and prevents the lateral and
longitudinal movement, due to dynamic loads and vibrations of
moving trains
It imparts some degree of elasticity to the track
Provides effective drainage to track
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Act as a medium for provision of super elevation in curves of railway


tracks

8. What are the requirements of good ballast?


It should be able to withstand hard packing without disintegrating
It should not make the track dusty or muddy due to powder under
dynamic wheel loads
It should allow for easy drainage with minimum soakage and the
voids should be large enough to prevent capillary action
It should offer resistance to abrasion and weathering
It should retain its position laterally and longitudinally under all
conditions of traffic, particularly on curves, where it should be able to
prevent transverse displacement of sleepers
It should not produce any chemical action with rail and metal sleepers
The size of stone ballast should be 5cm for wooden sleepers, 4cm for
metal sleepers and 2.5cm for turnouts and crossovers
The materials should be easily workable by means of the implements
in use
9. What are the different types of Ballast?
Broken stone
Gravel or river pebbles or shingle
Ashes or cinders
Sand
Moorum
Kankar
Brick ballast
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Blast furnace slag


Selected earth

10.What are the components of a permanent way?


Rails
Sleepers
Ballast
Formation

11.What is creep of rails?


Creep is defined as the longitudinal movement of rails with respect to
sleepers in a track.

12.What are the causes of creep?


Ironing out effect of moving wheels on waves formed in rails
Tendency of wheels to push rails forward and backward during
braking, acceleration, deceleration and running
Impact when wheels run on ends of rails

13.What are the effects of creep?


Sleepers get out of square and consequently gauge and alignment get
distorted
Rail joints get opened out, resulting in failure of fishplates and bolts
The joints are continuously jammed
Points and signals fails

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If any rails is removed from the track for any purpose, it becomes
difficult to fix it again at proper position because by the time gap
becomes too short or too long due to creep

14.What is meant by coning of wheels?


The distance between the inside edges of wheel flanges is generally
kept less than the gauge of the track. So there is a gap between the wheel
flanges and running edges of the rails, nearly equal to 1cm on either side.
Normally, the thread of wheels is absolutely dead centre of the head of the
rail, as the wheel is coned to keep it in this central position automatically.
These wheels are coned at a slope of 1 in 20.

15.What are the various types of sleepers used in Indian railways?


Wooden sleepers
Metal sleepers
Cast iron sleepers
Steel sleepers
Concrete sleepers
Reinforced concrete sleepers
Pre-stressed concrete sleepers

16.What are the different types of rail joints?


Supported rail joint
Suspended rail joint
Bridge joint
Base joint
Welded rail joint
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Staggered or broken joint


Square or even joint
Compromise joint
Insulated joint
Expansion joint

17.Write short notes on rail section.


The rails on the track can be considered as the steel girders for the
purpose of carrying axle loads. They are made of high carbon steel to
withstand wear and tear. Flat footed rails are mostly used in railway track.

18.What are the functions of rails?


Rails provide a hard, smooth and unchanging surface for passage of
heavy moving loads with a minimum friction between the steel rails
and steel wheels
Rails bear the stresses developed due to heavy vertical loads, lateral
and braking forces and thermal stresses
The rail material used is such that it gives minimum wear to avoid
replacement charges and failures of rails due to wear
Rails transmit the loads to sleepers and consequently reduce pressure
on ballast and formation below

19.What are the requirements of rails?


They should be of proper composition of steel as given above and
should be manufactured by open hearth or duplex process

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The vertical stiffness should be high enough to transmit the load to


several sleepers underneath. The height of rail should, therefore, be
adequate
Rails should be capable of withstanding lateral forces. Large width of
head and foot endows the rails with high lateral stiffness
The head must be sufficiently deep to allow for an adequate margin of
vertical wear. The wearing surface should be hard
Web of rails should be sufficiently thick to bear the load coming on it
and should provide adequate flexural rigidity in horizontal plane
Foot should be wide enough so that rails are stable against
overturning, especially on curves

20.What is meant by hogged rails?


Due to battering action of wheels over the end of the rails, the rails get
bent down and get deflected at the ends. These rails are called hogged rails.

21.What is meant by corrugated or roaring rails?


In some locations, heads of the rails are found to be corrugated.
Vehicles passing over such rails produce a roaring sound. Such rails are,
therefore, called roaring rails.

22.What are the different forms of rail failure?


Crushed heads
Square or angular break
Split heads
Split web
Horizontal fissures
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Transverse fissures
Flowing metal in heads
Horizontal cracks

23.What is meant by wear of rails?


Due to movement of very heavy loads at high speeds, the concentrated
stresses often exceed the elastic limit of metal, resulting in the metal flow.
This flowed material of rails is chipped off by the striking of wheels. The
rail is then called worn out and this happening is called wear of rails.

24.What are the types of fittings and fastenings available in railway?


Fish plates
Spikes
Bolts
Chairs
Blocks
Keys
Plates
25.What do you understand by the term Fish Plates and what are its
uses?
Fish plates are used in rail joints to maintain the continuity of the rails
and to allow for any expansion or contraction of the rail caused by
temperature variations. They maintain the correct alignment of the line both
horizontally and vertically.

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26.What is meant by spikes?


Spikes are used for fixing rails to the wooden sleepers. There are
various types of spikes commonly used for holding flat footed rails. These
can be used with or without bearing plates below the rails.

27.What are the uses of spikes?


For holding the rails to the wooden sleepers
Spikes should be strong enough to hold the rail in position
Spike should be as deep as possible, easy in fixing, removal, cheap in
cost.

28.What is meant by chairs?


C.I chairs are used to hold the bull headed and double headed rails.
These chairs are fixed to sleepers by round spikes.

29.What is meant be blocks?


To provide the required gap between the two rails, steel pieces called
blocks or heel blocks are used. Such blocks are used between main rails and
check or guard rails.

30.What is meant by bearing plates?


Bearing plates are rectangular plates of mild steel or cast iron and are
used below flat footed rails to distribute the load on a larger area of timber
sleepers particularly of soften variety.

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31.What are the uses of keys?


Keys are tapered pieces of timber or steel to fix the rails to the chairs
on metal sleepers.

32.Define elastic fastening.


These are the special types of fastenings used for holding rails to the
sleepers firmly at a constant pressure without affecting the track structure for
sufficient time. These fastenings are suitable for high speed tracks as they
can withstand high frequency vibrations and shocks.
33.Define Track modulus.
Track modulus () is an index for stiffness of track (i.e. resistance to
deformation) and is defined as load per unit length of the rail required to
produce a unit depression in the track.
34.List down the various causes of Track stresses.
The wheel loads
The dynamic effect of wheel loads
The hammer blow due to overbalance of driving wheels of
locomotive
The horizontal thrust
The horizontal thrust due to nosing action of the locomotive
Pressure exerted by flanges of wheels on sides of the rail
Stresses due to irregularities in the track
Additional stresses on curves

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UNIT 3
1. Enumerate the necessities of Curves.
To bypass the natural or artificial obstacles
To provide easier gradients by diversions from the straight route
To route the line through areas having traffic potentialities
To balance the earth work in excavation and cutting thereby
minimizing the cost of construction

2. Write the types of horizontal curves.


Simple curve
Compound curve
Reverse curve
Transition curve

3. Define Simple curves.


The horizontal curve which consists of a single arc of a circle is called
a simple curve or simple Circular curve. Simple circular curves are
designated either by their degree of radius. They are inserted between two
straights or between two transition curves.

4. Define Compound curves.


The horizontal curve which consists of two or more arcs of different
circles with different radii, having different centers on the same side of the
common tangent and bending in the same Direction, is called a compound
curve.

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5. Define Reverse curves.


The horizontal curve, which consists of two arcs of different circles of
same or different radii, bending in opposite directions with a common
tangent at the junction, is called a reverse curve.

6. What is transition curve? Where is it provided?


Transition curve is defined as a curve of parabolic nature which is
introduced between a straight and a circular curve or between two branches
of a compound curve. Its radius rises from infinity to a selected minimum in
order to attain full super elevation and curvature gradually. This is also
known as spiral or easement curve. The transition curves are, therefore,
necessary to provide an easy change from a tangent to the radius selected for
a particular curve.

7. Define valley or sag curve.


Valley or sag curves are formed when a descending gradient meets
with an ascending gradient. When a train passes over sag, front portions of
the train ascend while rear portion may traverse on the descending gradient.
This compresses the couplings and buffers. Once the train passes on the sag,
again the couplings and buffers are under tension causing a jerk. In order to
avoid inconvenience, sag curves are introduced at the meeting points.

8. Define summit curve.


Summit curves are formed when an ascending gradient meets a
descending gradient. Deviation angle between two intersecting gradients is
equal to algebraic difference between them. When a trains climbs at a

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uniform speed and passes over them summit of a curve, acceleration begins
to act up on it and makes the train to move faster.

9. What is cant deficiency?


Cant deficiency occurs when a train travels on a curve at a speed
higher than equilibrium speed. It is the difference between theoretical cant
required for such higher speed and actual cant provided.

10.Define cant excess.


Cant excess occurs when a train travels on a curve at a speed lower
than equilibrium speed. It is the difference between actual cant and
theoretical cant required for such a lower speed.

11.List few objectives of signaling.


To provide facilities for the efficient movement of trains.
To ensure safety between two or more trains which cross or approach
each others path
To provide facilities for the maximum utility of the track.
To provide facilities for safe and efficient shunting operations
To guide the trains movement during maintenance and the repairs of
the track.
To safeguard the trains at converging junctions and give directional
indications at diverging junctions.

12.What are the types of signals based on the various categories?


Operating characteristics
Detonating signal (also called fog or audible signal)
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Hand signal (visual indication signal)


Fixed signal (visual indication signal)
Functional characteristics
Stop or semaphore type signal
Warner signal
Shunting signal (disc or ground signal)
Coloured light signal
Locational characteristics
Reception signal
o Quoter signal
o Home signal
Departure signal
o Starter
o Advance starter
Special characteristics
Repeater or co acting signal
Routing signal
Calling on signal
Point indicators
Modified lower quadrant semaphore signal
Miscellaneous signal

13.Write the types of transition curves and draw it.


Spiral curve
Cubic parabola
Bernoullis lemniscate
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14.Define shift and write its formulae.


For the main circular curve to fit in the transition curve, which is laid
in the shape of a cubic parabola, it is required be moved inward by a
measure known as the shift. The value of shift can be calculated using the
formula is given by,
2
=
24
15.What are the requirements of a transition curve?
It should be perfectly tangential to the straight
The length of the transition curve should be such that curvature may
increase at the same rate as the super elevation. This is necessary to
attain the full super elevation at the junction of transition and circular
curve.
This curve should join the circular arc tangentially (i.e.) curvature of
transition curve should conform to that of circular curve.

16.What is meant by Widening of gauge on Curves?


Due to impounding action of the wheels on curves, the gauge of the
track gets widened and the Rails get tilted outward. To prevent the tendency
of tilting the rail outward the gauge of the track on curves is suitably
widened. The amount of widening of gauge depends on the radius of the
Curve, gauge and rigid wheel base of the vehicles.

17.Write the formulae for widening of gauges.


13 ( + )2
=

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Where,
B = rigid wheel base in metres
For B.G track, B = 6m
For M.G track, B = 4.88m
R = radius of the curve in metres
L = lap of flange in metres
= 0.02 2 + . Metres
Where,
h = depth of wheel flange below rail top level in cm
D = diameter of wheel in cm.

18.Define switch angle.


This is the angle formed between the running faces (gauge face) of
stock rail and tongue rail.

19.Define Angle of deflection.


The angle through which forward tangent deflected is called angle of
deflection of the curve. It May be either to the left or to the right.

20.What is meant by flange way clearance?


This is the distance between the adjacent faces of the stock rails or
running rails and the check or guard rails. It is provided for free movement
of the wheel flanges.

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21.What is flange way depth?


It is the vertical distance between the top surface to the running rails
or stock rails top to the surface of the heel block which is used between
stock rail and the check rail.

22.Define gradient.
Any departure of the track from the level is known as grade or
gradient, an up or rising gradient is one when the track rises in the direction
of movement, and a down or falling gradient is one when the track fails in
the direction of movement.

23.What are the Various Types of Gradients?


Ruling gradient
Momentum gradient
Pusher or helper gradient
Gradients at station yards
24.What do you understand by the term Grade compensation?
In order to avoid resistances beyond the allowable limits, the gradients
are reduced on curves and this reduction in gradients is known as grade
compensation for curves.

25.Define cant or super elevation.


When a vehicle negotiates a curve, it is subjected to a constant radial
acceleration which produces Centrifugal force acting horizontally at the
center of gravity of the vehicle, radially away from the center of the curve.
To counteract the effect of centrifugal force, the level of the outer rail is
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raised above the inner rail by a certain amount to introduce the centripetal
force. This raised elevation of outer rail above the inner rail at a horizontal
curve is called super elevation.

26.Differentiate between equilibrium cant and negative cant.


When the lateral forces and wheel loads are almost equal, the cant is
said to be in equilibrium. This equilibrium cant is provided on the basis of
average speed of the trains.
Elevation of outer rail below inner rail of turnout or branch track at
the place it meets main track on a curve is known as negative super
elevation/cant.

27.Define crossing.
A crossing is a device, inserted at a location, where two rails cross
each other. Purpose of the introduction is to enable the wheel flanges of rail
vehicles to pass from one track to another. Flanged wheels jump over the
gap provided from the throat to the nose of a crossing. Checkrails guide
wheels on the other side of the train vehicles in order to ensure that wheels
negotiate the gap properly and do not strike the nose.

28.What you mean by Diamond crossing?


When straight tracks or curved tracks of the same or different gauges
cross each other at an angle less than 90 degree, a diamond shape is formed.
So this crossing is called as diamond crossing.

29.What are the various types of crossings?


On the basis of shape of crossing
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Acute angle crossing or V crossing or frog


Obtuse angle crossing or diamond crossing
Square crossing
On the basis of assembly of crossing
Spring or movable wing crossing
Ramped crossing

30.What are the component parts of crossing?


A crossing or Vee piece
Point and splice rails
Wing rails
Check rails
Chairs at crossing, at toe and at heel
Blocks at throat, at nose, at heel and distance block
In some cases, packing below the wing rails at toe and throat

31.List down the characteristics of Crossing.


The assembly of crossing has to be rigid to stand against severe
vibrations
The wear on parts of wing rails opposite the nose and also of nose
itself must be protected

32.What is meant by crossing number?


The number of crossing is defined as the ratio of spread (i.e. distance
between the point and splice rails at the leg of crossing, generally 30cm) to
the length of crossings are designated by this number and is denoted by the
symbol N.
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33.What is meant by nosing action?


The wheels of the locomotive, wagons and compartments follow a zig
zag path moving from one rail to another within the limits of wheel gauge
tolerance. This happening is called as nosing action.

34.List out the special types of signals.


Repeater or co-acting signals
Routing signals
Calling on signals
Point indicators
Modified lower quadrant semaphore signal
Miscellaneous signals

35.What is meant by turnouts and write its functions?


Turnout is the simplest combination of points and crossings which
enables one track either a branch line or a siding, to take off from another
track. So the object of turnout is to provide facilities for safe movement of
trains in either direction on both the tracks.

36.Define tongue rail.


It is a tapered movable rail, made of high-carbon or -manganese steel
to withstand wear. At its thicker end, it is attached to a running rail. A
tongue rail is also called a switch rail.

37.What is termed as points and crossing?


Points and crossings are arrangements by which different routes are
connected. The connection facilitates movement of trains from one route to
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another safely. It is also useful for marshalling and shunting operations in


station yards. Combination of points and crossings are termed as turnouts.

38.What is the necessity of points and crossings?


Points and Crossings provide flexibility of movement by connecting
one line to another.
They help in Imposing restrictions over turn outs which necessarily
retard the movements.
In regard of safety aspects, points and crossings are weak kinks or
points in the track which are susceptible to derailments.

39.List down the different types of track junctions.


Turnouts
Symmetrical split (or equivalent turnout)
Three throw switch (contrary and similar flextures)
Double turnout or tandem
Diamond crossing
Cross overs (between parallel tracks and diverging tracks)
Single slip and double slip
Gauntlet track and fixed point system
Scissor cross over
Gathering lines or ladder tracks
Temporary diversion
Triangle
Double junctions

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40.Define cross-over in track junction?


When two adjacent parallel or diverging tracks, which may be straight
or curved, are connected by two sets of turnouts, with or without a straight
length between them, the connecting line is known as cross-over.

41.Define Ladder tracks?


When a number of parallel tracks are branched off from the straight
track in Continuation of a turnout, it is called a gathering line or ladder track.

42.What is meant by flare?


It is the gradual or tapered widening to the flange way which is
formed by bending and splaying the end of check rail or wing rail away from
the gauge line.

43.Define buffer stop.


The dead end of a railway line is provided with a barrier erected
across the track to prevent the vehicles running off the track is called buffer
stop.

44.Define switch.
A switch consists of a stock rail and a tongue rail. Switches are
tapered rails with the thicker end known as the heels, fixed to the main track
while thinner end known as the toe is kept movable.

45.What are the two types of switches?


Stub switch
Split switch
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Loose heel type or articulated type


Fixed heel type or spring type or flexible type
Under cut switches
Overriding switches
Straight cut switches

46.What is meant by throw of switch?


It is the distance through which the toe of the tongue rail rotates
sideways, with heel of tongue rail as the centre of rotation.

47.Define Platform.
A raised level surface from where passengers board and alight from
trains at the station is called platform.

48.Write short notes on Drainage of Platforms.


All end platforms shall normally be sloped away from the track.
All drains from platform shelters, tea stalls toilets, water taps or other
sullage generation points shall be in pipes and normally discharge on
the non-track slide of the end platform. If necessary longitudinal
covered drains may be provided on the platform.

49.What are the various sources of moisture in a railway track?


Surface water due to rain, dew or snow.
Hydroscopic water or Held water.
Seepage water
Moisture by capillary action In sub grade

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50.What is meant by mechanical tamping or mechanized maintenance?


This is a mechanized method of maintaining the track by use of Tie
Tamping Machines. This method is more effective, economical and
efficient for maintaining high speed and super high speed tracks. This
method is widely used on Indian railways these days.

51.What is directed track maintenance?


Directed track maintenance is a method of track maintenance. This is
based on the directions that are given for maintenance given every day rather
than the routine maintenance. It is need based maintenance.

52.What is calendar system of maintenance?


Calendar system of maintenance is conventional method. Track
maintenance work to be performed by gangs on the course of a year.

53.Write any two necessity of Track Maintenance.


The strength of track structure goes on deteriorating or reducing due
to movement of high speed trains, heavy axle loads and repetition of
loads. The elastic structure of railway track thus get disturbed in
alignment, gauge and surface level of rails.
The track structure is also subjected to other deteriorating effects like
rain water, action of sun and wind. The wear and tear of rails and of
rolling stock is then bound to take place due to their adverse effects.
The track structure has to bear too many other effects due to
curvature, speed and load, particularly on curves, points and
crossings, bridge approaches and at level crossings.

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54.Write the essentials of Good Track Maintenance.


The correct gauge is within specified limits.
Longitudinal levels are uniform.
The cross levels are same except on curves where difference in cross
levels is equal to the desired super-elevation.
Along straights, the alignment is perfectly linear.
There is a sufficient quantity of ballast bed.
The sleepers are well packed.
The formation is well maintained with good track drainage for
disposal of rain water.

55.Write any two advantages of Proper Track Maintenance.


A well maintained track provides safe and comfortable journey to
passengers. If the track is not maintained properly, there will be
discomfort to the passengers and sometimes, there may be a
derailment of vehicles, causing accidents and consequently loss of
lives and property.
Proper maintenance of track increases the life of track as well as that
of the Rolling stock.

56.What is Rolling stock?


Rolling stock consists of locomotives, passenger coaches and goods
wagons. The term is used because they roll on the rails.

57.What are the advantages of good maintenance of railway track?


The life of both track as well as of rolling stock increases by proper
maintenance
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A well maintained track imparts smooth riding quality surface for


vehicles which results in comfort to passengers and safety to goods.
There is also saving in operating costs as fuel consumptions is less by
locomotives due to reduced friction between wheels and rail surface.
Safety to passengers and goods encourages the use of railways and
better earnings.

58.What are the requirements of a track drainage system?


The track alignment should be made to rest on pervious naturally
drained soils.
The highest level of water table should be much below the level of
sub grade.
Sub surface water should be efficiently drained off by the sub surface
drainage system.
The surface water from adjoining Land could be prevented from
entering the track formation.

59.List the methods of sub-surface drainage methods adopted in railways.


Drainage of capillary water
Drainage of seepage water

60.Define railway station.


Railway stations are selected locations along railway tracks where
trains stop for boarding and alighting of passengers, loading and unloading
of goods, detachment or attachment of wagons and compartments, crossing
of trains and for fuelling or watering of locomotives.

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61.What are the datas to be collected for the site selection of railway
station?
Acquisition of land
Proximity to town or village
Nature of land area
Approach roads to station site
Station site alignment
Site drainage
Station amenities
Type of station and yard
Role of authorities

62.What are the requirements of a railway station?


Public requirements
Traffic staff and police requirements
Train requirements
Requirements of locomotives
Requirements for development of railways

63.What are the different classifications of railway stations?


Classification based on operational characteristics
Halt station
Flag station
Crossing station
Junctions
Terminals
Classification based on minimum signal requirement
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A class station
B class station
C class station
D class station or Non block stations

64.What do you mean by halt station?


This is the lower most in the hierarchy. In its simplest form, the halt
stations have rail level platform with name boards at either ends. Sometimes
a small waiting shed, which may also serve as booking office is also
provided.

65.What do you mean by flag station?


A flag station stands next to halting station, in ranking. The flag
station has a waiting hall, booking office, platforms with benches and
drinking water facilities. Importantly, the flag stations may have a control
phone connected to one of the stations on either side for easy
communication.

66.What do you mean by crossing station?


The crossing stations have in addition to basic facilities, arrangements
and equipments to control movement of trains. This facilitates trains going
in opposite direction. In case of double line section, there are separate up
and down lines. This enables trains from either direction to pass
independently.

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67.What do you mean by double line station?


Layout of a double line station, with separate up and down line is
different to certain extent.

68.What do you mean by junction station?


Railway stations, where two or more lines from different directions
meet are termed as railway junctions. The meeting may be between main
lines and branch lines or between main lines. Different lines are linked by
foot over bridges or other arrangements.

69.What do you mean by terminal station?


A station at which, a railway line or one of its branches terminates is
known as terminal station. Such terminal facilities require higher order
facilities such as servicing, repairing, reversing, sidings, changing of
carriages and such other allied facilities.

70.What do you understand by the term Stations yards?


A yard is defined as a system of tracks laid usually on a level within
defined limits, for receiving, storing, sorting, making up new trains, dispatch
of vehicles and for other purposes over which movements are not authorized
by a time table. The various movements on a system of tracks are governed
by prescribed rules, regulations and signals.

71.Write the types of yards.


Coaching or Passenger bogie yard
Goods yard
Marshalling yard
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Flat yard
Gravitational yard
Hump yard
Locomotive yard

72.Define marshalling yard.


A goods yard which deals with the sorting of goods wagons to form
new goods trains is called a marshalling yard.

73.What are the functions of marshalling yards and explain any one.
Reception
Sorting
Departure

74.Define coaching or passenger bogie yard.


The main function of a coaching yard is to deal with the reception and
dispatch of passenger trains. Depending upon the volume of traffic, this yard
provides facilities such as watering and fuelling of engines, washing of
rakes, examination of coaches, charging of batteries, and trans-shipment of
passengers.

75.Define goods yard.


A goods yard provides facilities for the reception, stabling, loading,
unloading, and dispatch of goods wagons. Most goods yards deal with a full
train load of wagons. No sorting, marshalling, and reforming is done at
goods yards except in the case of sick wagons or a few wagons booked for
that particular station. Separate goods sidings are provided with the
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platforms for the loading and unloading of the goods being handled at that
station.

76.Define locomotive yard.


These yards provide services to locomotives and serve as stables. The
services include coaling, watering, repairing, oiling and cleaning. Normally,
junction stations have locomotive yards. Usually, they are constructed on
the same side as that of the marshalling yard. The loco yards have engine
sheds, inspection pits, repair pits and coaling site.

77.Define flat yard.


In this type of yard, the entire space of the yard is almost level and all
the sorting works or movements of wagons are carried out by means of
engines running to and from this arrangement is costly due to more
consumption of power in the use of engines. But this type of yard is
justified where the available space is limited for the layout of marshalling
yards. The other two types of yards require more area for their layouts.

78.Define gravitational yard.


In this yard, the level of the natural ground is such that it is possible to
lay some tracks at a gradient. The tracks are so laid that the wagons move to
the siding assigned for the purpose of sorting by the action of gravity.
Sometimes, shunting is done with the help of gravity assisted by engine
power. However, it is very seldom that natural ground levels are so well
suited for gravitation yards.

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79.Define hump yard.


In this type of yard, an artificial hump or summit is made through
proper earth work. Wagons are pushed upto summit or hump with the help
of engines. Then wagons move down the hump and go to sidings under the
action of gravity.

UNIT 4
1. What are the classifications of airport?
Terminal airport
Defense
Commercial
o Ownership
Public
Joint
Private venture
o Size
Smaller
Medium
Larger
o Area of operation
Domestic
International
ICAO classification
o Letter code : A , B, C, D, E
o Number code : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Intermediate landing port

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2. What are the types of surveys conducted on airport?


Approach zone survey
Drainage survey
Meteorological survey
Natural resources survey
Soil survey
Topographical survey
Traffic survey

3. What is meant by clearway?


It is defined as a rectangular area at the end of a strip or channel in the
direction of takeoff over which the aircraft may make its initial climb.

4. List out the merits and demerits of air transport.


MERITS:
Accessibility
Continuous journey
Demand for technical skill
Emergency use
Engineering use
Saving in time

DEMERITS:
Flight rules
Operating expenses
Safety
Weather conditions
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5. What are the drawings should be prepared for construction of new


airport?
Drainage plan, grading plan, Lighting plan, Master plan, Obstruction
plan, paving plan and Topographic plan

6. What is the necessity of surveying in construction of new airport?


To ascertain the characteristics of soil.
To workout the detailed estimate of the project.
To prepare suitable drawings
To make provision for future extension of the airport
To give an idea of the meteorological conditions prevailing at the
proposed site

7. What are the three aspects considered for the airport planning?
Adequate access to the metropolitan area
Securing sufficient airspace for access to the air
Sufficient land for carrying out ground operations

8. Write the objectives of airport planning.


Justify the need for an airport
Formulate a layout plan for the airport and design of runways,
taxiways and airport buildings
Prepare cost estimation
Propose institutional arrangement

9. What are the factors affecting the size of an airport?


Elevation of the airport site
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Meteorological conditions
Performance characteristics of aircrafts
Volume of traffic

10.What are the environmental factors considered in the development of a


new airport or the expansion of an existing one?
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

11.Define Turning zone.


Area of airports used for turning operations of aircrafts is termed as
turning zones. In the event of any emergency like engine failure, if pilots
opt for landing immediately after taking over, aircrafts have to come in line
with runways before landing. Normally, area of an airport other than an
approach zone is used for turning.

12.Comment on clear zone.


Clear zone is the innermost portion of an approach zone. It is the
most critical part of an approach zone from obstructions point of view. As
name itself indicates, the portion should be clear and no developments of
any type are permitted.

13.Define apron.
It indicates a defined area of the airport to accommodate aircrafts for
loading and Unloading of cargo and passengers, parking, refueling, etc. It is
usually paved and is located in front of the building or adjacent to hangers.
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14.What are the three factors which affect the size of an apron?
Gate position
Number of gates
Systems of aircraft parking

15.Define gate position.


The space allotted to an aircraft parking at a loading apron is known
as gate position.

16.Define holding apron.


The portion of paved area which is provided adjacent to the ends of
runway in case of busy airports is known as the holding apron.

17.Define orientation of the runway.


The orientation of a runway is defined by the direction, relative to
magnetic north, of the operations performed by aircraft on the runway.
Typically, but not always, runways are oriented in such a manner that they
may be used in either direction. It is less preferred to orient a runway in such
a way that operating in one direction is precluded, normally due to nearby
obstacles.

18.Define runway.
A defined rectangular area prepared for landing and take-off of
aircrafts and over which aircrafts runs on ground.

19.What are the four basic patterns of runway?


Single runway
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Parallel runways
Intersecting runways
Divergent or open V runways

20.Write the design elements of a runway.


Runway orientation
Length of runway basic and corrected runway lengths
Runway width
Width and length of safety area
Transverse gradient
Longitudinal and effective gradient
Rate of change of longitudinal gradient
Sight distance
Design of runway pavement

21.Write the elements of geometric design of runways.


Runway length
Runway width
Width and length of safety area
Transverse gradient
Longitudinal and effective gradient
Rate of change of longitudinal gradient
Sight distance

22.What are the markings made on the runways?


Runway centre line marking
Runway edge stripes
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Runway numbering
Touchdown or landing zone
Threshold marking
Two or more parallel runways

23.What are the types of runway lightings?


Emergency lighting
Aeronautical beacons
Approach lighting system
Runway lead in lighting systems
Runway threshold identification lights
Runway edge lights
Runway threshold and wing bar lights
Runway end lights
Runway centre line lights
Runway touchdown zone lights
Stop way lights

24.What are the corrections required for runway length?


Correction for elevation
Correction for gradient
Correction for temperature

25.What do you understand by the term basic runway length?


The length of the runway based on the following assumed conditions
is known as the basic runway length.
No wind is blowing on the runway
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The aircraft is loaded to its full loading capacity


The airport is situated at sea level
There is no wind blowing on the way to the destination
The runway is leveled in the longitudinal direction or in other words,
it has zero effective gradient
The standard temperature is maintained along the way
The standard temperature of 15oc exists at the airport

26.Define taxiway.
A defined path on a land aerodrome selected or paved for the use of
taxiing aircraft to and from the runway and loading apron is known as
taxiway.

27.Mention the different types of aircraft propulsion.


According to the method of propulsion, the aircrafts can be classified
in the following three categories
Piston engine
Jet engine
Turbo jet
Turbo propulsion
Ram jet
Rocket engine

28.What is meant by wind rose diagram?


The diagram showing direction, duration and intensity of wind over a
certain period in a specified region is known as wind rose diagram.

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29.What are the parameters represented in a wind rose diagram?


Direction of wind
Duration of wind
Intensity of wind

30.Differentiate between approach zone and approach surface.


APPROACH ZONE

APPROACH SURFACE

An approach zone is an area through

A line rising at a particular slope

which aircrafts approach or leaves

from the runway end

airports. It is the climb out and landing represents the obstruction


path. In this zone, aircrafts loose or

clearance line and the imaginary

gain altitude at a very slow pace as

inclined plane containing this

compared to forward speed. In view of line and directly above the


this, wider clearance on both sides of

approach area is known as

the runways is required in the approach approach surface.


zones of the airport.

31.Name the different characteristics of aircrafts?


Aircraft capacity
Aircraft speed
Aircraft weight and wheel arrangement
Fuel spilling
Jet blast
Minimum circling radius
Minimum turning radius
Noise
Range
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Size of aircraft
Takeoff and landing distances
Type of propulsion
Tyre pressure and contact area
32.What are the datas to be collected for airport site selection?
Regional plan
Types of airport
Ground accessibility
Topography
Soil characteristics
Meteorological factors
Wind
Frost and fog
Temperature
Noise nuisance
On site and off site infrastructures
Shape and dimensions of site
Future development
Comprehensive evaluation

33.Define airport obstructions and zones.


Restrictions and removal of obstructions in airspace around airports
are essential to conduct safe aircraft operations. Obstructions may be
broadly divided into two categories. They are,
Imaginary surfaces
Objects with actual heights
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The different types of zones are,


Approach zone
Clear zone
Turning zone

34.What is meant by zoning?


It pertains to the enactment of legislation for a restricted development
of the area surrounding the airport so that no structure protrudes above the
obstruction clearance line and thus cause hazard to safe air navigation,
especially in the approach and turning areas.

35.What are the two types of zoning?


Height zoning
Land use zoning

36.What are the phases of Master plan by FAA recommendation?


Phase : Airport Requirements
Phase : Site selection
Phase : Airport plans
Phase V: Financial plans

37.What do you mean by airport capacity?


The number of aircraft movements which an airport can process or
handle within a specified period of time, usually an hour, is called the airport
capacity. A landing or take off operation is taken as one movement.

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38.Define wind coverage.


The percentage of time in a year during which the cross wind
component remains within the limit of 25kmph is called the wind coverage
of the runway.

39.Define Hangar.
The large shed erected at the airport for the purpose of housing,
servicing, and repairing of aircrafts is known as hangar.

40.Define terminal area.


The portion of the airport other than the landing area is known as
terminal area and it includes terminal building, aircraft apron, cargo storage
building, hangars, automobile parking area, etc.

41.Define terminal building.


The building or buildings which are meant for providing facilities to
all Passengers, for serving as office for airport management and for carrying
out other non- aeronautical functions are known as terminal buildings. They
act as the focal points of the terminal area.

42.What is the main function of hangar?


The main function of a hangar is to provide an enclosure for housing
and repairing of the aircraft. They are constructed of steel framework
covered with the galvanized iron sheets.

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UNIT 5
1. Specify the functions of taxiway.
The main function of taxiways is to provide access from the runways
to the terminal area and service hangars. It is evident that the speed of
aircraft on the taxiway will be much less than that on the runway at the time
of landing or take off. The standards for the taxiway design and
construction will therefore not be as rigorous as for the runway.

2. Differentiate cross wind and head wind components.


CROSS WIND COMPONENT

HEAD WIND COMPONENT

It is not possible to get the direction

The runway is usually oriented in

of opposite wind parallel to the centre the direction of the prevailing


line of the runway length everyday

winds. The head wind indicates

of throughout the year. For some

the wind from the opposite

period of the year at least, the wind

direction of the head or nose of the

may blow making some angle with

aircraft while it is landing or

the direction of the centre line of

taking off.

the runway length. If V kmph is the


velocity of the inclined opposing
wind, its component sin which is
normal to the centre line of the
runway length is called cross wind
component.

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3. What are the advantages of head wind?


During landing, it provides a breaking effect and the aircraft comes to
a stop in a short length of the runway
During takeoff, it provides greater lift on the wings of the aircraft

4. What are the elements of geometric design of taxiway?


Length of taxiway
Width of taxiway
Longitudinal gradient
Rate of change of longitudinal gradient
Sight distance
Transverse gradient
Turning radius
Width of safety area

5. What are the markings made on taxiways?


Taxiway centre line marking
Taxiway holding position marking
Taxiway intersection marking

6. What are the types of taxiway lightings?


Taxiway centre line lights
Taxiway centre line lights on rapid exist taxiways
Taxiway centre line lights on other exit taxiways
Taxiway guard lights

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7. What are the factors should be consider for layout of taxiway?


Arrangement
Busy airports
Crossing
Higher turn off speeds
Route

8. What are the factors considered for the location of exit taxiways?
Air traffic control
Exit speed
Location of runways
Number of exists
Pilot variability
Topographical features
Types of aircraft
Weather conditions

9. Enumerate the necessity of aircraft classification.


The necessity of aircraft classification is the method of propulsion and
method of engine is provided. The main purpose of providing an engine to
the aircraft is to make available the force for propelling the aircraft through
the air.
10.Define turning radius of taxiway.
A horizontal curve is to be provided whenever there is a change in the
direction of the taxiway. It is necessary to design the curve in such a way
that the aircraft can negotiate it without significantly reducing the speed.
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For this purpose, the circular curve of large radius is most suitable and its
radius can be obtained from the following formula
=

2
125

Where,
R = radius of curve in m
V = speed of aircraft in kmph
f = coefficient of friction between the tyre and pavement surface
usually assumed as 0.13

11.Mention the purpose of installing visual aids at the airport?


To avoid accidents during landing of the aircraft
To convey to the pilot the ground to air visual information required
during landing
To direct the pilot to make the landing of the aircraft in the landing
area only
To enable the pilot to locate and identify the particular feature
specified by the marking
To grant safety to the persons and properties
To maintain an orderly flow of aircraft without any congestion
To satisfy the visual requirements for takeoff and taxiing

12.What are the airport markings?


Apron marking
Landing direction indicator
Runway marking
Shoulder marking
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Taxiway marking
Wind direction indicator

13.What are the guidance and information required by the pilots during
landing operation?
Alignment guidance
Height information
Visual parameters

14.What are the factors, which affect the type and intensity of airport
lighting?
Airport classification
Amount of traffic
Availability of power
Nature of aircraft using the airport
Type of night operations planned
Type of the landing surfaces provided
Weather conditions

15.Give the elements of airport lightings.


Airport beacon
Approach lighting
Apron and hangar lighting
Boundary lighting
Lighting of landing direction indicator
Lighting of wind direction indicator
Runway lighting
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Taxiway lighting
Threshold lighting

16.Define heliport.
The area for landing and taking off of helicopter is known as heliport.

17.What are the two arrangements adopted for approach lighting?


Calvert system
ICAO system

18.Define the term visibility.


The greatest distance, to which a prominent object of certain specified
dimension is perceivable to the eye, the object being observed in the day
light during day and properly lit during night under the existing atmospheric
conditions is known as visibility.

19.Define ceiling.
The meteorological visibility is also generally associated with the
height of the underside of a dense cloud above the airport surface. The
height is referred to as the ceiling.

20.What are the broad principles that are to be observed in the design of a
terminal building?
Arrival and departure areas
Baggage delivery
Information
Movement
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21.What are the basic requirements to be kept in mind while deciding the
site for a terminal building?
It should be centrally located with respect to the runways
It should have convenient and easy access to the highway
It should have enough provision for future expansion
It should have favorable orientation with respect to wind,
topographical features of the area, etc.
There should be adequate space available for the parking of the
vehicles
The site should have easy facility of natural drainage
The utilities like water, sewage and telephone should be easily
available

22.What is the importance of air traffic control?


It avoids the possibility of occurrence of the accidents in the air
It grants the economic and efficient utilization of the aircraft and the
airports
It guides the aircraft to their destinations safely and speedily
It increases the confidence of the passengers using the facility of air
travel
It separates the aircraft to a safe distance during their flight both
vertically as well as horizontally

23.What are the three components of an air traffic control network?


Control centres
Control towers
Flight service stations
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24.What are the types of air traffic control aids?


En route aids or airway aids
Landing aids or terminal aids

25.Define passenger flow.


The design of the terminal building should be such that an
uninterrupted flow route is formed for the passengers to follow on or off an
aircraft without offending or disturbing each other.

26.Define calm period.


The absence of appreciable wind, generally considered as 6kmph or
less is called the calm period. The knowledge of calm periods of a particular
place throughout the year plays an important role in designing an airport.

27.What are the systems of aircraft parking?


Frontal or linear system
Open apron or transporter system
Pier or finger system
Satellite system

28.What are the different types of parking of aircraft?


Nose in parking
Angled nose in parking
Nose out parking
Angled nose out parking
Parallel parking

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29.Define time of concentration.


The total time required by the flow to reach to the maximum limit is
known as the time of concentration and it consists of two parts are time of
entry and time of flow.

30.What are the functions of airport drainage?


To intercept and divert the surface and groundwater flow originating
from lands adjacent to the airport
To lower the sub surface water level in the airport so as to be within
permissible limit
To remove the surface runoff from the airport

31.What are the characteristics of airport drainage?


Absence of side surface ditches or drains
Combined drainage pipe for surface and sub surface drainage
Comparatively flat longitudinal and transverse grades
Concentration of the outfall flow
Extensive area under consideration
Heavy concentrated wheel loads of the modern aircraft
Large percentage of paved areas in the form of the aprons, taxiways
and runways
Proper provision of future runway extension
Requirement of rapid drainage for the safety of the aircraft operations
Shallow water courses
Varying soil conditions

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32.What are the basic requirements of airport drainage system?


Capacity
Future expansion
Rapid drainage
Strength

33.What are the aims of Airport drainage?


If the sub surface drainage system is improper, it may moisten and
weaken the sub grade and thus, reduce its load bearing capacity,
resulting in the failure of pavements of runways, taxiways, etc.
If the surface drainage system is improper, it may result in the
ponding on the pavements of runways, taxiways and aprons which
might prove hazardous to the takeoff and landing operations of the
aircraft
It grants longevity to the pavements
It increases the efficiency of the airport
It is essential for proper and safe functioning of the aircraft
It reduces the maintenance cost of an airport
It shortens the periods during which the airport might have to be kept
out of use due to inundation, etc. The closing down of the airport
results in great loss in addition to the inconvenience of the passengers

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COASTAL ENGINEERING
UNIT 1
1. Define coastal engineering.
Coastal engineering is the study of the processes ongoing at the
shoreline and construction within the coastal zone. The field involves
aspects of near shore oceanography, marine geology, and civil engineering,
often directed at combating erosion of coasts or providing navigational
access.

2. Define coastal zone.


Coastal zone is the interface where the land meets the ocean
encompassing shore line environment as well as adjacent coastal waters. Its
components can include river deltas, coastal planes, wet lands, beaches,
reefs, mangrove forest, lagoons and other coastal features. The coastal zone
is divided into four subzones. They are,
Coast
Shore
Shore face
Continental shelf

3. What is meant by coastal regulation zone?


Under the Environment Protection Act, 1986 a notification was issued
in February, 1991, for regulation of activities in the coastal area by the
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). As per the notification, the
coastal land up to 500m from the High Tide Line (HTL) and a stage of 100m
along banks of creeks, estuaries, backwater and rivers subject to tidal
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fluctuations, is called the Coastal Regulation Zone(CRZ). CRZ along the


country has been placed in four categories. The above notification includes
only the inter-tidal zone and land part of the coastal area and does not
include the ocean part. The notification imposed restriction on the setting up
and expansion of industries or processing plants etc. in the said CRZ.

4. Define coastal area.


The coastal area is the land and sea areas bordering the shoreline.

5. Define setback area.


A setback area is the strip of land along the coastal zone, where
certain development activities are prohibited or significantly restricted.

6. How coastal regulation zone are classified?


For regulation of developmental activities, the coastal stretches within
500m of HTL on the landward side are classified into four categories, viz.
Category I (CRZ-I)
Category II (CRZ - II)
Category III (CRZ-III)
Category IV (CRZ-IV)

7. List down the factors influencing coastal topography.


Population pressure
Wastewater disposal
Destruction of mangrooves
Increasing urbanization
Solid waste disposal
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Coastal constructions
Natural disasters

8. Write down the coastal types.


Cliff coast
Clayey bank coast
Intertidal / muddy coast
Sand dune coast
Sandy coast

9. Define waves.
When wind blows over water it exerts a drag on water surface and
water by virtue of its fluidity gets disturbed giving rise to waves. Such
waves are referred as wind waves or storm waves. Waves are usually
defined by their height, length and period.

10.Define tides.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects
of the gravitational forces exerted by the moon and the sun, and the rotation
of the Earth.

11.Define astronomical tide.


The astronomical tide is generated by the rotation of the earth in
combination with the varying gravitational impact on the water body of the
sun, the moon and the planets. These phenomena cause predictable and
regular oscillations in the water level, which is referred to as the tide. The

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astronomical tide at a specific location can be predicted and is published in


Tidal Tables.

12.Define tidal flat.


Shallow and often muddy, the part of foreshore, which are covered
and uncovered by the rise and fall of the tide. As a rule of thumb, a tidal flat
normally develops when the relative tidal range RTR, defined as the ratio
between the mean spring tidal range and the annual average HS, is higher
than 15.

13.What is meant by high tide and low tide?


At most places the tidal change occurs twice daily. The tide rises until
it reaches a maximum height, called high tide or high water, and then falls to
a minimum level called low tide or low water.

14.What are the types of tides?


Diurnal tide
Semi diurnal tide
Mixed tide

15.Define diurnal tide.


In the diurnal tide, only a single high and single low water occur each
tidal day. Tides of the diurnal type occur along the northern shore of the
Gulf of Mexico, in the Java Sea, the Gulf of Tonkin, and in a few other
localities.

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16.Define semi diurnal tide.


In the semidiurnal tide, there are two high and two low waters each
tidal day, with relatively small differences in the respective highs and lows.
Tides on the Atlantic coast of the United States are of the semidiurnal type.

17.Define mixed tide.


In the mixed tide, the diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations are both
important factors and the tide is characterized by a large inequality in the
high water heights, low water heights, or in both. There are usually two high
and two low waters each day, but occasionally the tide may become diurnal.
Such tides are prevalent along the Pacific coast of the United States and in
many other parts of the world.

18.Define gravity waves.


As the wind speed increases, the next stage of waves are gravity
waves, named for their restoring force, gravity as the wave height increases,
it overcomes surface tension, and is instead dragged back down by gravity.

19.Define tidal waves.


It is the combined effect of astronomical and meteorological surges the popular expression for an unusually high and destructive water level
along a shore. The expression of tidal wave also includes the influence of
the associated waves.

20.Define progressive waves.


If the whole profile moves in the forward direction the wave is a
Progressive Wave.
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21.Define sea water waves.


If winds of local storm blow towards the shore, the generated waves
will reach the beach in nearly the form in which they are generated. Under
these conditions, the waves are steep; i.e. the wave length is 10 to 20 times
the wave height. Such waves are called sea water waves.

22.What is meant by swell?


If waves are generated by a distant storm, they may travel through
hundreds or even thousands of miles of calm areas before reaching the shore.
Under these conditions, waves decay short, steep waves are eliminated,
and only relatively long low waves reach the shore. Such waves have
lengths from 30 to more than 500 times the wave height and are called swell.

23.How wind waves are generated?


In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface
waves that occur on the free surface of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and canals
or even on small puddles and ponds. They result from the wind blowing
over an area of fluid surface.

24.Write the classification of waves.


Based on repetition of

Regular, irregular

wave form
Based on wave period

Long period, short period

Based on shape

Sinusoidal, trochoidal, cnoidal, solitary, random,


progressive, standing, oscillatory, translatory

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Other types

Capillary wave, ultra gravity wave, ordinary


gravity wave, infra gravity wave, ordinary tide
wave, trans - tidal wave

25.What are the types of wave theories?


Linear or Airys (or sinusoidal or small amplitude) wave theory
Non-linear (or finite amplitude) wave theory

26.Write the assumptions of wave theories.


The waves have regular profiles
The flow is two dimensional
The wave propagation is unidirectional
The fluid is ideal (i.e.) inviscid, incompressible and irrotational
The sea bed is impermeable and horizontal

27.State the assumptions to be made in linear wave theory.


Fluid is homogeneous and incompressible. Therefore the density is
constant.
Surface tension can be neglected.
Pressure at free surface is uniform and constant.
The fluid is ideal.
The particular wave being considered does not interact with any other
wave motion.
The bed is horizontal, fixed, impermeable boundary which implies
that the vertical velocity at the bed is zero.
The wave amplitude is small and invariant in time and space.

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28.What are the advantages of linear wave theory?


It is the simplest available theory to describe the water wave motion
Provides insight to all periodic wave behavior
Adequate for most of the practical problems
Reliable over a large sequent of the whole wave region

29.What are the disadvantages of linear wave theory?


This theory is unable to account for mass transport due to waves
This theory cannot provide the information correctly either in shallow
water regime or in deep water regime for steeper waves, especially
during wave breaking

30.What is meant by wave celerity?


The speed at which a wave form propagates is termed as phase
velocity or wave celerity, C. Since the distance travelled by a wave during
one wave period is equal to one wave length.
=

31.Define wave energy.


The total energy, E of a wave system is the sum of its kinetic energy,
Ek and potential energy, Ep. According to linear wave theory, the total wave
energy in one wave length per unit crest width is given by,
2
= + =
8

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32.What is meant by group velocity?


The speed with which a group of waves or a wave train travels is
generally not identical to the speed with which individual waves within the
group travel. The group speed is called the group velocity, Cg.

33.Define wave amplitude.


The maximum vertical displacement of the sea surface from still water
level (half the wave height).

34.Define wave height, wave length, wave period.


The vertical distance from the top of the crest to the bottom of the
trough is called wave height.
The horizontal distance between the successive crest is called wave
length.
The time between successive crest passing a given point is called
wave period.

35.Define wave energy flux.


Wave energy flux is the rate at which energy is transmitted in the
direction of wave propagation across a vertical plane perpendicular to the
direction of wave advance and extending down the entire depth. The
average energy flux per unit crest width transmitted across a plane
perpendicular to wave advance is given by,
= =
Energy flux is called wave power.

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36.What is high tide line?


The high tide line means the line on the land up to which the highest
water line reaches during the spring tide". Here the word "highest water line
reaches during the spring tide" refers to the mean high water spring (19
years average of spring water) that is the regular water level fluctuations
caused by changes in relative position of the Sun, Moon and Earth.

37.What is spilling?
The spilling type of breaking occurs in deep water or over gentle bed
slope (m = 1: 50). This involves gradual release of energy and is
characterized by appearance of foam on forward side of the crest.

38.What is surging?
Surging takes place when the sea bed slope is steep with (m = 1: 10)
or so. In this case the entire water gets piled up and the foam is seen on
beach face.

39.Write the expressions for velocity potential function and stream


function.
VELOCITY POTENTIAL FUNCTION:
( , , ) = () () () =

cosh( ( + ))
sin( )
2 cosh( )

STREAM FUNCTION:

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40.What is meant by storm surges?


Storms and hurricanes can produce large rises in water level near
coasts, which are known as storm surges or wind set-up. In combination
with springtide conditions the water level rise may reach a critical stage
(flooding).

41.Write the expression for wave celerity in shallow and deep waters.
=

=
Where,
Co = wave celerity in deep water
Cs = wave celerity in shallow water
g = acceleration due to gravity
T = wave period

42.Write down the dispersion relation or scattering formula.


2 = tanh()

43.Mention the expression for group velocity and energy flux.


GROUP VELOCITY:
=

(For deep water)

= = (For shallow water)

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ENERGY FLUX (OR) WAVE POWER:


2
=
= =
8
44.What is meant by coastal hinterland?
The land that extends landward of the coast and which is not
influenced by coastal processes.

45.What is meant by coast?


The strip of land that extends from the coastline inland to the first
major change in the terrain features, which are not influenced by the coastal
processes. The main types of coastal features are dunes, cliffs and low-lying
areas, possibly protected by dikes or seawalls.

46.Define coast line.


Technically the line that forms the boundary between the coast and
shore, (i.e. the foot of the cliff or the foot of the dunes). In general the coast
line that forms the boundary between the land and the water.

47.Define shore line.


The shore line is the intersection between the mean high water line
and the shore. The line delineating the shoreline on Nautical Charts (Sea
Maps) approximates this Mean High Water Line. The shoreline is not easy
to identify in the nature in contrast to the coastline, which is based on a clear
morphological shift between the shore and the coast.

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48.What is meant by beach or shore?


The zone of unconsolidated material that extends from the mean low
water line to the place where there is a marked change in material or
physiographic form, or to the line of permanent vegetation (the effective
limit of storm waves and storm surge), i.e. to the coastline. The beach or
shore can be divided in the foreshore and the backshore.

49.Define backshore.
The part of the beach is lying between the foreshore and coastline.
The backshore is dry under normal conditions, is often characterized by
berms and is without vegetation. The backshore is only exposed to waves
under extreme events with high tide and storm surge.

50.Define foreshore.
The foreshore, or swash zone, is the region of the profile that is
alternately wet or dry as the waves rush up this steep portion of the profile.

51.Define beach berm.


Beach berms are built naturally by waves to above the highest
elevation reached by normal storm waves. When storm waves erode the
berm and carry the sand offshore, the protective value of the berm is reduced
and large waves can overtop the beach. The width of the berm at the time of
the storm is, thus, an important factor in the amount of upland damage, a
storm can inflict.

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52.What do you understand by the term continental shelf?


It is the shallow seafloor that borders most continents. The shelf floor
extends from the toe of the shore face to the shelf break where the steeply
inclined continental slope begins.

UNIT 2
1. Define waves of oscillation.
Water particles move in near circular orbits which decrease in
diameter with depth.

2. Define waves of translation.


Water particles actually move forward.

3. What are wave forecasting and its methods?


Forecasting of waves for operational or design purpose can be made
by measuring and analyzing the actual wave data. But considering the
difficulties and costs involved in gathering large scale wave data, many
times, the readily available wind information is gathered and then converted
into corresponding wave information. Though, this procedure is less
accurate than the actual wave analysis.
METHODS:
Simplified or parametric method
Sverdrup Munk and Bretschneider (SMB)
Hasselmann method
Darbyshire and Draper technique
Elaborate or numerical method

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4. What is meant by wave hind casting?


Wave hind casts refer to the predictions of wind waves on the water
surface for a past event. Wave now casts and forecasts similarly refer to the
predictions in real time and in the future, respectively. But the relations or
models used for predictions for a past, present, or future event are the same.

5. What are the types of transportation occurs within the water?


Solution
Suspension
Saltation
Traction

6. Write short notes on beach profile changes.


Beaches and dunes undergo a seasonal transformation from a
summer beach to a "winter" beach. A summer beach has a wide, welldeveloped berm often with a vegetated dune where American beach grass
grows seaward onto the berm. A winter beach is lower, may not have a
berm, and often shows signs of loss of beach grass.

7. What are the factors controlling profile variations?


Variation in wave energy
Sediment variability
Nature of sediment transport process over the beach slope
Tidal variations
Wind variations

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8. Draw a typical section of a coastal region.

9. Define the phenomena of wave transformation.


When the waves approach the shoreline, they are affected by the
seabed through processes such as refraction, shoaling, bottom friction and
wave-breaking. However, wave-breaking also occurs in deep water when
the waves are too steep. If the waves meet major structures or abrupt
changes in the coastline, they will be transformed by diffraction. If waves
meet a submerged reef or structure, they will overtop the reef.

10.State the assumptions to be made in the development of diffraction


theories.
Water is an ideal fluid (Inviscid and incompressible)
The small amplitude waves can be calculated by the linear wave
theory
The flow is irrotational and follows a potential function, which
satisfies the Laplace equation
The water depth shoreward of the breakwater is constant
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11.What is meant by refraction of waves?


When deep water wave crest line strikes the sea bed contours at some
non zero angle, it tends to change its direction and align its wave crest with
the sea bed contours. This is called the wave refraction.

12.What is meant by reflection of waves?


Wave reflection occurs when waves bounce back from an obstacle
they encounter. Reflected waves can cause interference with oncoming
waves, creating standing waves.

13.What is meant by diffraction of waves?


Diffraction can be seen when there are sheltering structures such as
breakwaters. Diffraction is the process by which the waves propagate into
the lee zone behind the structures by energy transmittance laterally along the
wave crests.

14.What is meant by angle of incidence?


The angle between the wave propagation direction and the normal to
the coastline or the angle between the wave front and the coastline is called
angle of incidence and it is denoted by the symbol . The deep water angle
of incidence is denoted by 0.

15.What is meant by deep water?


For a water depth larger than half the wavelength( >

), the phase

speed of the waves is hardly influenced by depth (this is the case for most
wind waves on the sea and ocean surface).
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16.What is meant by shallow water?


For a water depth smaller than the wavelength divided by
20( >

20

), the phase speed of the waves is only dependent on water

depth, and no longer a function of period or wavelength.

17.What is shoaling?
As the wave moves from deep water towards the coast its height
generally increases and its length reduces. This phenomenon is known as
shoaling.

18.Define wave overtopping.


Wave-overtopping takes place when waves meet a submerged reef or
structure, but also when waves meet an emerged reef or structure lower than
the approximate wave height. During over-topping, two processes important
to the coastal processes take place: wave transmission and the passing of
water over the structure.

19.Define white capping.


White-capping or top-breaking is steepness-induced wave-breaking,
which occurs in deeper water when the wave height becomes too large
compared to the wavelength.

20.Write short notes on bottom friction.


Bottom friction causes energy dissipation and thereby wave height
reduction as the water depth becomes more and more shallow. Friction is of
special importance over large areas with shallow water.
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21.What is meant by tsunami?


It also known as a seismic sea wave is a series of waves in a water
body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an
ocean or a large lake. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves,
because their wavelength is far longer.

22.How tsunami is formed?


Tsunamis are waves created by ocean bottom earthquakes, submarine
land slides and volcanic explosions. These long period waves can travel
across entire oceans at speeds exceeding 800 kmph causing extensive
damage to coastal areas.

23.What is meant by sea level rise?


The so-called greenhouse effect or global warming may cause a Sea
Level Rise, which will have a great impact on the long-term coastal
morphology. The possible and gradual Sea Level Rise will cause a general
shoreline retreat and an increased flooding risk and has to be handled
according to the local conditions.

24.What is Mean Sea Level (MSL)?


The sea level halfway between the mean levels of high and low water.

25.What is Mean Tide Level?


This is the average between mean low and mean high water, measured
from datum.

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26.Define still water level.


The level that the sea-surface would assume in the absence of wind
waves (not to be confused with mean sea level or mean tide level).

27.What is tidal range?


The tidal range is the vertical difference between the high tide and the
succeeding low tide. Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the
combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the
Sun and the rotation of the Earth. The tidal range is not constant, but
changes depending on where the sun and the moon are.

28.What is meant by stand?


The period at high or low water during which there is no apparent
change of level is called stand.

UNIT 3
1. Write short notes on wave forces on piles.
Wave forces on vertical cylindrical structures, such as piles exerted by
non breaking waves can be divided into two components such as,
Force due to drag
Force due to inertia

2. What is meant by breaker zone?


The breaker zone is the zone within which the waves approaching the
coastline commence breaking. The breaker zone is part of the surf zone.
However, the instantaneous width of the breaker zone varies with the
instantaneous wave conditions.
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3. Define near shore zone.


The zone extending seaward from the low water line well beyond the
breaker zone; it defines the area influenced by the near shore currents. The
near shore zone extends somewhat further seawards than the littoral zone.

4. Define offshore zone.


The offshore zone is not well defined. In relation to beach
terminology, it is thus not clear if it starts from the littoral zone, from the
breaking or from the near shore zone. In the present context, the offshore
zone is defined as the zone off the near shore zone.

5. Define littoral zone.


This zone extends seaward from the foreshore to some distance
beyond the breaker zone. The littoral zone is the zone in which the littoral
processes take place; these are mainly the long-shore transport, also referred
to as the littoral drift, and the cross-shore transport.

6. Define surf zone.


The surf zone is the region extending from the seaward boundary of
wave breaking to the limit of wave uprush. Within the surf zone wave
breaking is dominant hydrodynamic process.
7. Define non breaking waves.
When the depth of water against the structure is greater than about 1
times the maximum expected wave height, generally the non breaking
wave conditions occur.
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Forces due to non breaking waves are essentially hydrostatic.


Sainflou Method may be used for the determination of pressure due to non
breaking waves.

8. Define breaking waves.


In fluid dynamics, a breaking wave is a wave whose amplitude
reaches a critical level at which some process can suddenly start to occur
that causes large amounts of wave energy to be transformed into turbulent
kinetic energy. There are four types of breaking waves. They are spilling,
plunging, collapsing and surging.

9. Define broken waves.


Locations of certain structures like protective structure will be such
that waves will break before striking them. In such cases, no exact formulae
have been developed so far to evaluate the forces due to broken waves, but
only approximate methods based on certain simplifying assumptions are
available.

10.What is breaking wave height?


Wave height is limited by both depth and wavelength. For given
water depth and wave period there is a maximum height limit above which
the wave becomes unstable and breaks. This upper limit of wave height is
called breaking wave height.

11.Write the formula used to find the design breaker height.


=

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Where,
=
=

=
= =

( )
( )

12.What is breakwater? Name its types.


Breakwaters are one of the essential coastal structures and these are
constructed to provide a calm basin for ships and to protect harbor facilities.
Since sea waves have enormous power, the construction of structures to
mitigate such power is not easily accomplished. Breakwaters are generally
classified into three major categories according to the functional
requirements. They are,
Mound breakwaters
Vertical breakwaters
Mixed or composite breakwaters

13.What are the points should be considered for the design of breakwater?
The required lifetime of the structure
The return period of the design conditions
Allowable overtopping
Allowable wave disturbance behind a breakwater
Construction aspects (e.g. crest width and height)

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14.What are the boundary conditions should be considered for the design
of breakwater?
The design wave height and period
The design water level (high water and low water)
The bathymetry
The soil conditions
Seismic conditions

15.What are the functions of breakwater?


Protection against waves
Guiding of current
Protection against shoaling
Provision of a dock or quay

16.Define vertical breakwaters.


Vertical breakwaters especially the single unit monolithic types are
sometimes preferred to the rubble mound breakwaters mainly for reasons
such as saving in material due to smaller body with and rapidity in
construction. Obviously, the vertical structure is preferred in deep waters
and when rock quarries are not located near the harbor site and
transportation of large quantities of stones from distant quarries become
expensive.

17.Define rubble mound breakwater.


A rubble mound breakwater is composed of several layers of random
shaped and randomly placed stones protected with a cover layer of selected
armor units of either natural rock or specially shaped concrete units. The
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armor units in the cover layer may be placed at random or in an orderly


manner to obtain good interlocking between the individual units.

18.Define composite breakwaters.


This is a combination of a vertical monolithic breakwater founded on
a rubble mound base. The advantage of a composite breakwater is the
judicious and economical use of materials. It has the advantage of adopting
itself to uneven bottom. The height of the monolith is reduced. The
disadvantages are that the wave break on the structure and the impact forces
are several fold larger than the forces exerted by standing waves.

19.What are the types of failures occurs on vertical walls?


Settling in quicksand when the breakwater is founded on fine sand
Horizontal sliding at the foundation level
Overturning

20.What are the types of vertical breakwater?


Small blocks
Large blocks
Monolithic caissons
Sloping faces
Hanstholm type of breakwater
Cellular sheet pile breakwater
Vertical parallel sheet piles
Metal box caisson
Perforated breakwater

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21.What are the types of rubble mound breakwater?


Berm breakwaters armored with natural rock
Conventional multi-layer breakwater with armor over crest
Conventional multi-layer breakwater with crown wall
Composite structure incorporating caisson with armor protection

22.How do you calculate the height of break water?


= +
= 1.2
Where,
= ()
= ()
= ()
= ()
23.What are the forces acting on breakwaters?
Hydrostatic pressure
Buoyancy or uplift pressure
Non breaking wave force on non overtopping walls
Wave forces on overtopping vertical breakwaters
Impact pressure due to braking waves

24.What are the advantages of beach nourishment?


Widens the recreational beach
Structures behind beach are protected as long as the added sand
remains

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25.What are the disadvantages of beach nourishment?


Beach nourishment sand may erode, because of storms or lack of updrift sand sources
Beach nourishment is expensive, and must be repeated periodically
The beach turns into a construction zone during nourishment
The process of nourishment may damage, destroy or otherwise hurt
marine and beach life by burying it
The sand added to the beach is often different from the natural beach
sand. It can be hard to find a perfect match

26.Define clapotis.
When tidal wave is reflected back by solid wall of marine structure,
the reflected water may fall on the incoming tidal wave; increasing height of
water surface, which looks like a wall of water, such a wall of water is
known as clapotis.

27.Write a note on spring tide.


During full moon and new moon periods, we have high tides known
as spring tide.
Sun and Moon on the same side (zero degree)
Sun and Moon at opposite sides

28.Write a note on neap tide.


When the moon is in its quarter position, low tides occurs known as
neap tide.
Sun and Moon at 90 degrees
Sun and Moon at 270 degrees
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29.How is current created?


Ocean currents can be generated by wind, density differences in water
masses caused by temperature and salinity variations, gravity, and events
such as earthquakes. Currents are cohesive streams of seawater that circulate
through the ocean.

30.What are the types of current relevant to coastal engineers?


Ocean circulation
Tidal currents
Near shore currents
Long shore current
Rip current
On shore off shore current

31.Define tidal current.


The rise and fall of tide is accompanied by horizontal movement of
the water is called tidal current.
32.Define non tidal current.
Non tidal current includes all currents not due to the tidal
movement. Non tidal currents include the permanent currents in the
general circulatory system of the oceans as well as temporary currents
arising from meteorological conditions. The current experienced at any time
is usually a combination of tidal and non tidal currents.

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33.Define hydraulic current.


A slight departure from the sine form is exhibited by the reversing
current in a strait that connects two different tidal basins, such as the East
River, New York. The tides at the two ends of a strait are seldom in phase or
equal in range, and the current is called hydraulic current.

34.What is meant by slack water?


In rivers or straits, or where the direction of flow is more or less
restricted to certain channels, the tidal current is reversing; that is, it flows
alternately in approximately opposite directions with an instant or short
period of little or no current, called slack water.

35.Define near shore current.


A system of currents that is caused by wave activity within and
adjacent to the breaker zone. The current system includes the shoreward
mass transport of water, long shore currents and seaward-moving rip
currents.

36.Define the term long shore current and rip current.


The long shore current is the dominating current in the near shore
zone; it is running parallel to the shore. The long shore current is generated
by the shore-parallel component of the stresses associated with the breaking
process for obliquely incoming waves, the so called radiation stresses, and
by the surplus water which is carried across the breaker zone towards the
coastline.
An intermittent strong surface current flowing seaward from the shore
is called rip current.
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UNIT 4
1. What is known as lagoons?
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of
water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are commonly divided into coastal
lagoons and atoll lagoons. They have also been identified as occurring on
mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of
water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as
estuaries.

2. What is littoral drift?


Littoral transport is the term used for the transport of non-cohesive
sediments, i.e. mainly sand, along the foreshore and the shore face due to the
action of the breaking waves and the long shore current. The littoral
transport is also called the long shore transport or the littoral drift.

3. What is long shore drift?


Long shore drift is a geographical process that consists of the
transportation of sediments (clay, silt, sand and shingle) along a coast at an
angle to the shoreline, which is dependent on prevailing wind direction,
swash and backwash. This process occurs in the littoral zone, and in or close
to the surf zone.

4. What is stokes drift?


In reality, for finite values of the wave amplitude (height), the particle
paths do not form closed orbits; rather, after the passage of each crest,
particles are displaced slightly from their previous positions, a phenomenon
known as Stokes drift.
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5. Mention some of the environmental parameters.


Maximum tidal elevation
Wave characteristics
Storm surge
Long shore transport rate
Current
Soil characteristics of the backfill

6. What are the environmental parameters should be considered by


coastal engineers?
Waves
Tides
Currents
Wind
Storm surge
Sediment transport

7. What is meant by fetch?


The fetch, also called the fetch length, is the length of water over
which a given wind has blown. Fetch is used in geography and meteorology
and its effects are usually associated with sea state and when it reaches shore
it is the main factor that creates storm surge which leads to coastal erosion
and flooding.

8. What is meant by scour?


Rubble mounds may be subject to severe toe erosion by undermining
and scour. Scour is a process of removal of materials on the sediment bed.
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9. What is coastal erosion?


Coastal erosion is the wearing a way of land and the removal of beach
or dune sediments by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents, drainage or
high winds.

10.List the natural causes of erosion.


Sea level rise
Protruding headlands, reefs or rocks in to the sea
Tidal entrances and river mouths causing interruption of free passage
of sediments along the shore, natural protection of tidal entrances
Shoreline geometry causing rapid increase of drift quantity
Removal of beach material by wind drift
Removal of beach material by sudden outbursts of flood waters

11.List down the man induced causes of erosion.


Construction of dykes, dams and other coastal structures
Construction of breakwaters, groins, jetties, etc
Man-made entrances causing interruption of littoral drift. This
includes construction of jetties
Fills protruding in the ocean to an extent that they change local
shoreline geometry radically
Removal of material from beaches for construction and other purposes
Digging or dredging of new inlets, channels and entrances offshore
dumping of materials

12.What are the causes of coastal erosion in India?


Rise of sea level
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Reduction of sediment supply to shore


Effect of severe cyclonic storms and tides
Natural and manmade littoral barriers
Change in near shore topography
Lack of coastal environmental data

13.What are the effects of coastal erosion?


Dislocation of coastal population and loss of life and property
Loss of beaches, accretion of beach, areas, dislocation of coastal
transport system
Silting of ports, harbours and shipping channels
Stoppage of shore based fisheries
Loss of placer mining grounds
Scenic beauty affected, loss of agricultural land
Influx of saline water into coastal agricultural lands, causes erosion of
beaches due to reduced supply of sediment

14.What are the remedial measures for coastal protection?


Construction of suitable structures to prevent wave energy from
reaching the erodible shores or to trap and accumulate the littoral drift
material on the beach
Artificial nourishment of the eroding beach to make up for the
deficiency in sand supply. In some cases, a small structure such as a
groyne may be required to reduce the rate of loss of material from the
nourished beach

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15.What are the long term and short term measures provided for the
coastal zone management?
SHORT TERM MEASURES:
Seawalls
Anti-sea erosion bunds
Revetments
Groynes
Bulkheads

LONG TERM MEASURES:


Offshore breakwaters
Beach nourishment by sand
Sand by passing
Vegetative plantation
Sand dunes

16.What is dredging?
It is the process of removal of sediments and debris from the bottom
of river bed, lake or sea for the purpose of deepening them. It is an
important operation in navigation canals, harbors, dams etc.

17.Classify the dredging procedure.


Pre treatment
Extraction
Disposal

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18.What are the multiple uses of dredged material?


Construction purpose
Wetland creation
Sediment separation
Creation of harbors
Habitat restoration
Beach nourishment
Top soil creation

19.Mention some of the choice of dredging systems.


Nature of material to be dredged
Depth of dredging
Distance and height at which dredged material is to be deposited
Quantity of material to be dredged
The traffic conditions in area to be dredged
Weather conditions in area to be dredged
Availability of maintenance facilities
Types of prime movers for dredgers
Kinds of fuel for prime movers

20.What are the types of dredgers?


Mechanical dredger
Hydraulic or suction dredger

21.Mention the types of mechanical dredgers.


Grab dredger
Dipper dredger
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Rock breaker
Bucket dredger
Non propelling type or stationary bucket dredger
Self-propelling bucket dredger

22.Mention the types of hydraulic or suction dredger.


Stationary suction dredger
Cutter suction dredger
Suction dredger
Suction dredger with rotating bucket wheels
Hopper suction dredger
Trailing suction dredger

23.Define remote sensing.


Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or
phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in
contrast to on site observation. Remote sensing is a sub-field of geography.
In modern usage, the term generally refers to the use of aerial sensor
technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth (both on the surface, and
in the atmosphere and oceans) by means of propagated signals (e.g.
electromagnetic radiation). It may be split into active remote sensing (when
a signal is first emitted from aircraft or satellites) or passive (e.g. sunlight)
when information is merely recorded.

24.What are the advantages of remote sensing?


Observation of a large geographical area
Long-term and fast collection of data
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Lower collecting costs


"Inaccessible" regions become accessible (e.g. Antarctica)
Object is not being destroyed

25.What are the disadvantages of remotes sensing?


Lower spatial resolution (depending on the type of sensor)
Need for the installation of complex systems (which have a long
testing phase)
Captured data need to be calibrated via in-situ data
Noise caused by another source than the desired one
Atmospheric effects degrade the quality of the images and need to be
corrected

UNIT 5
1. Mention the methods of protection of shores.
Shore parallel structures
Seawall
Bulkhead
Revetment
Offshore breakwaters
o Reef breakwater
o Low created breakwaters
o Submerged breakwaters
Shore perpendicular structures
Timber groynes
Concrete groynes
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Stone groynes
Cellular groynes
High / low groynes
Beach nourishment

2. What is known as bulkhead?


This is defined as a structure or a partition to retain or prevent sliding
of the land. A secondary purpose is to protect the upland against damage
from wave action. Bulkheads are next in size, their function along to retain
the fill and are generally not exposed to severe wave action. Bulkheads
appear in three forms. They are,
Concrete slab and king pile bulkhead
Steel sheet pile bulkhead
Timber sheet pile bulkhead

3. What is meant by revetment?


Revetment in general is a sloping face made up of a randomly placed
stones, concrete, etc. built to protect an embankment, or shore structure
against erosion by wave action or currents. They are the lightest because
they are designed to protect the shorelines against erosion by currents or
light wave action. Revetments are of two types. They are,
Concrete revetment
Rip rap revetment

4. What is meant by sea walls?


Seawall is defined as a structure separating land and water body,
primarily designed to prevent erosion and other damage due to wave action.
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In general, seawalls are the most massive of the three types because they
resist the full force of the waves. They are designed to face severe wave
action and are provided with sheet pile cut off walls at the toe to prevent loss
of foundation material by wave induced scour, leaching from wave
overtopping water or storm drainage beneath the wall. Seawalls can be
classified as,
Concrete curved face
Combination of a curve and steps
Step faced
Rubble mound

5. What is meant by offshore breakwater?


Along certain coastal region, the shoreline is protected by a series of
submerged or raised rubble mound structures positioned intermittently in the
shallow waters. These breakwaters make the incoming waves to break
before they reach the coastline and in the process the beaches are protected
from the fury of the waves. These breakwaters are classified as,
Reef breakwater
Low created breakwater
Submerged breakwater

6. What are the materials to be used for building bulkheads and seawalls?
Concrete
Steel
Timber

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7. What is Groynes?
When the stretch of coast to be protected extends over a long distance,
it would be advisable to install shore perpendicular structures for coastal
protection. Usually finger like structures projecting into the sea for a short
distances are constructed at a pre determined spacing for the entire length
of the coast to be protected. The finger like structures are known as groynes
and a number of such groynes put together form a groyne field.

DEMERITS:
Induces local scour at the toe of the structure
Causes erosion down drift; requires regular maintenance
Typically more than one structure is required

8. Mention the types of Groynes.


Timber groynes
Concrete groynes
Stone groynes
Cellular groynes
High / low groynes

9. Give a brief description about beach nourishment.


Tidal inlets protected from waves by jetties face accretion along the
up drift coast and erosion on the down drift coast. Under such
circumstances the affected coast is nourished with sand from the up drift
accretion zone. This process has been proven to be effective provided the
process of by passing the sediments is carried out without any interruption.
The advantage of this system is that the beach maintains its natural beauty.
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10.What are the applications of GIS?


Current GIS applications in the coastal zone are diversified and casebased studies, mainly focusing on vector-based applications. These
applications can be categorized as,
Coastal mapping
Environmental monitoring
Coastal process modeling
Navigation and port facilities management
Coastal environmental / hazard assessment
Coastal management / strategic planning
Coastal ecological modeling

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CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND EQUIPMENTS


UNIT 1
1. Define excavation. What are the methods are used in excavations?
Excavation work generally means work involving the removal of soil
or rock from a site to form an open face, hole or cavity using tools,
machinery or explosives. Excavation has a number of important applications
including exploration, environmental restoration, mining and construction.
The two methods of excavations are,
Mass excavation
Structural excavation

2. What are the problems normally developed during deep excavations?


To prevent the collapsing of sides of the trenches
To prevent water oozing or coming out from the sides and bottom of
the trenches

3. What are the remedial measures to avoid the problems in deep


excavation?
Providing shoring for the trenches
Dewatering of the trenches

4. Define foundation.
Foundation is a part of the structure which is present below the ground
level. It supports the weight of the structure and the load carried by it. The
type of the foundation depends upon the bearing capacity of the soil.

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5. What are the types of foundation?


Shallow foundation
Spread foundation
o Strip footing
Simple footing
Stepped footing
o Column footing
Isolated column footing
Combined column footing
Raft foundation
Grillage foundation
Deep foundation
Pile foundation
Pier foundation
Well foundation

6. Define pier foundation.


A pier foundation consists of a cylindrical column of large diameter to
support transfer large super imposed loads to the firm strata below.
Generally pier foundation is shallower in depth than the pile foundation. It
has two types.
Masonry pier
Concrete pier

7. What are the types of caisson?


Open caisson

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Box caisson
Pneumatic caisson

8. What is caisson?
Caissons are structural boxes or chambers. These are sunk in place
through the ground or water by excavating below the bottom of the unit
which enables the caisson to reach the final depth.
These structures have a large cross sectional area and hence provide
high bearing capacity, which is much larger than what may be offered by a
cluster of piles.

9. What are the materials used for construction of caissons?


Cast iron
Reinforced Cement Concrete
Steel
Timber

10.Give the uses of caissons.


To reach the hard bearing structure for transferring the load coming on
support for bridge piers and building columns
To serve as an impervious core wall of earth dams When placed
adjacent to each other
To provide an access to a deep shaft or a tunnel

11.What are the operations involved in open caisson method of


foundation?
Constructing or fabricating the caisson and preparing site to receive it
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Placing the caisson over the site of the pier


Excavating the soil from the interior of the caisson and advancing the
caisson so than its cutting edge is at or below the bottom of the
excavation
Continuing this process until the foundation in the hard stratum is
reached
Sealing the bottom of the caisson to exclude water and soil

12.Define box caisson.


It is open at the top and closed at the bottom and is made of timber,
reinforced concrete or steel. This type of caisson is used where bearing
stratum is available at shallow depth.

13.Define open caisson.


Open caisson is a box opened both at top and bottom. It is made up of
timber, concrete or steel. The open caisson is called well. Well foundation is
the most common type of deep foundation used for bridges in India.

14.Define pneumatic caisson.


Pneumatic caissons has its lower end designed as a working chamber
in which compressed air is forced to prevent the entry of water and thus
excavation can be done in dry conditions.

15.Define basement.
Basement or cellar is the lower storey of a building constructed or
partly below the ground surface.

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16.Define basement construction.


Construction of basement is difficult for it must be carried out below
deep ground in adverse condition such as existence of ground water,
muddiness or limited working space. Besides, works are needed to be done
amidst layers of props, struts, waling and shores, which cannot be removed
until the permanent works are completed and capable of carrying the final
loads.

17.What are the methods of basement constructions?


Use of lattice beams
Use of ground anchors
Construct floor slab as support (top down method)
Cast the centre basement slab to support struts
In situ reinforced concrete and tradition formwork system

18.Define braced wall. What are the types of braced wall?


A braced wall is a structural system composed of braced panels (also
known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a
structure. Wind and seismic loads are the most common loads that braced
walls are designed to carry.

TYPES:
Single diagonal
Double diagonal
Chevron bracing
Storey height knee bracing (eccentricity braced frames)

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19.Define soil nailing. What are the types of soil nail wall?
Soil nailing is an earth retention technique using grouted tensionresisting steel elements (nails) that can be design for permanent or temporary
support. The walls are generally constructed from the top down. Typically, 3
to 6 feet of soil is excavated from the top of the planned excavation.

TYPES:
Grouted soil nailing
Driven nails
Self-drilling soil nail
Jet grouted soil nail
Launched soil nail

20.What are the applications of soil nail wall?


Roadway cuts
Road widening under existing bridge abutments
Tunnel portals
Repair and reconstruction of existing retaining structures
Hybrid soil nail systems
Shored Mechanically Stabilized Earth (SMSE) walls

21.What are the advantages of soil nail wall?


Creates less noise and traffic obstructions
Less impact on nearby properties
Allow excellent working space in front of the excavation face
Can be used for strengthening of either natural slope, natural or man
made cut slopes
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Grouting only once is required, saving time and labor


The technique is flexible, easily modified

22.What are the disadvantages of soil nail wall?


Nail encroachment to retained ground rendering unusable
underground space
Generally larger lateral soil strain during removal lateral support and
ground surface cracking may appear
Tendency of high ground loss due to drilling technique, particularly at
course grained soil
Less suitable for course grained soil and soft clayey soil, which have
short self-support time, and soils prone to creeping
Suitable only for excavation above groundwater

23.Define sheet pile wall. What are the types of sheet pile wall?
A sheet pile wall consists of a series of sheet piles driven side by side
into the ground, thus forming a continuous vertical wall for the purpose of
retaining an earth bank. They are commonly used for water front structures,
temporary construction and light weight construction where sub soil is
poor for supporting a retaining wall. A sheet pile wall may be of three types.
They are,
Cantilever sheet piling
Anchored sheet piling
Braced sheeting

24.Give the different types of sheet piles based on materials.


Concrete sheet pile
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Timber sheet pile


Steel sheet pile

25.Write the functions of sheet piles.


To enclose a site or part thereof to prevent the escape of loose subsoil,
such as sand, and to safeguard against settlement.
To retain the sides of the trenches and general excavation.
To protect river banks.
To protect the foundations from scouring actions of nearby river,
stream etc. To construct costal defense works

26.What are the uses of sheet pile?


To protect river banks
To retain the sides of foundation trenches
To resist flow of underground or loose soil or of both
To resist bending abrasion or other stresses which may arise in use

27.Define dewatering.
Dewatering means removal of excess water from the saturated soil. It
is used where the water table is high or in the case of deep excavations the
foundation trenches for buildings and other structures, are filled with seeped
water.

28.What are the methods of ground water control?


Pumping from open sumps
Pumping from well points
Pumping from bored wells
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29.What are the methods of dewatering?


Ditches
Well point system
Shallow well system
Deep well system
Vaccum method
Electro osmosis method

30.Write the essential features of a pump to be used for dewatering.


The pump should be portable so that it can be easily moved as and
when required
The pump should be capable of handling water mixed with impurities
such as sand, earth, etc.
The pump should be of strong make
The performance of pump should be reliable

31.What are the methods of water proofing?


Cementitious water proofing
Liquid water proofing membrane
Bituminous membrane
Bituminous coating
Polyurethane liquid membrane

32.Define trenching.
A trench is defined as a narrow excavation (in relation to its length)
made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth of a trench is

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greater than its width, but the width of a trench (measured at the bottom) is
not greater than 15 feet (4.6 m).

33.What are the types of trenching?


Single slot trenching
One side stepped trenching
Two side stepped trenching
Multi stepped trenching
One side sloped trenching
Two side sloped trenching

34.What are the advantages of using trenchers?


It is faster and cheaper method of trenching
It digs only as much as is necessary
A 10cm pipe can be installed in a 15cm wide slot cut by a trencher
It is a continuous process and is not like that of backhoe excavator
(i.e.) dug lift dump

35.On what basis you will select the equipment for the construction?
Volume of the material to be removed
Size of the machine used
Depth of excavation
Height to be lifted
Soil type
Duration of period
Rented or purchased
Production cost
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Spares availability
Skilled operation

36.What are the types of earth moving equipment for construction?


Production equipment
Equipment used for digging and moving
Service equipment
Dozers and motor girders

37.List out the material handling devices.


These are the lifting and lowering devices (vertical motion).
Block and tackle
Winches
Hoists
Elevators
Pillar crane
Overhead crane

38.List out the transportation devices (horizontal motion).


Wheel borrows and hand truck
Narrow gauge mine rail road
Tractors and trailers
Skids
Pipe line

39.List out the applications of motor grader.


Land clearance
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Snow clearance
Material mixing
Hard surface cutting
Ditch filling or digging
Bank cutting and reshaping

40.What are the devices used for combination of lifting, lowering and
transportation operations?
Spiral chute
Lift track
Crane truck
Forklift truck
Conveyors of various types

41.What is a tractor? Mention its types.


Tractor is earthmoving equipment which converts engine energy into
tractive energy. The two types of tractors are,
Crawler or tract type
Wheel or pneumatic type

42.What are the factors to be considered while selecting a tractor?


Size of the dozer for a given job
The type of work expected from the tractor dozer
Example: bulldozing, ripping, land clearing, pulling a scraper
The type and condition of hauled road
Gradient of the haul road
Distance to be moved
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Type of work expected to be taken from the equipment after the


present job is completed

43.What are the advantages of crawler excavator?


More tractive effort, hence can also operate on loose or muddy soil
In absence of tyres, can easily operate in rocky conditions, as there is
no danger for the damage of the tyres
Where maintenance of haul roads is difficult, it can be easily travel,
especially in rough terrains
Crawler tractors are more compact and powerful and hence can handle
difficult jobs as well

44.What are the advantages of wheeled tractors?


Can travel at higher speeds during the operation and also from one job
to another
Can travel long distance at its own power, whereas crawler mounted
needs trailers
When work is spread over long area, there are found to be producing
more output
Easy in operation. Operation feels less fatigue.

45.What are the uses of excavators?


Digging of trenches, holes and foundations
Material handling
Brush cutting with hydraulic attachments
Forestry work
Demolition
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General grading/landscaping
Heavy lift, e.g. lifting and placing of pipes
Mining, especially, but not only open-pit mining
River dredging
Driving piles, in conjunction with a Pile Driver

46.List out the types of excavators.


Compact excavator
Crawler excavator
Wheeled excavator
Backhoe loader
Dragline excavator
Bucket wheel excavator
Long reach excavator
Power shovel
Suction excavator

47.What are the main uses of a bulldozer?


Clearance of shrubs and small trees
Clearance of trees by using raised mould blade as a pusher arm
Acting as a towing tractor
Acting as a pusher to scraper machines

48.What are the applications of bulldozer?


Land clearing
Stripping
Side hill cuts
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Ditching
Spreading
Dozing rocks and frozen ground
Maintaining haul roads
Clearing the floors of borrow and quarry pits

49.Differentiate between crawler and pneumatic types of wheels.


CRAWLER TYPE WHEEL
The crawler moves on an endless

PNEUMATIC TYPE WHEEL


It moves on pneumatic tyres

chain
They are slow speed

They are faster in speed

They are used for uneven & rough

They operate best on smooth roads

ground
They have a speed of about 12kmph They have a speed of about 50kmph

50.What is motor grader?


Motor graders are used for leveling and smoothening of the
earthwork, spreading and leveling the base courses in the construction of
roads and airfield. It can be used for land reclamation, snow clearance,
gravel road repairing, mixing of stabilizing materials such as tar, asphalt,
cement and lime, maintaining quarry roads, etc.

51.What is a scraper?
Scrapers are the device to scrap the ground and load it simultaneously,
transport it over the required distance, dump at desired place and then spread
the dumped material over the required area in required thickness level, and

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return to the pit for the next cycle. The scrapers are of three types. They
are,
Towed type
Self-propelled or motorized
Self-loading or elevating scraper

52.What are the three types of scraper?


Crawler drawn scraper
Two axle scraper
Three axle scraper

53.What are the advantages of elevating scraper?


Better loading ability in loose free flowing materials
Good finishing ability
Can be operated independently
Pusher tractor dozer is not required
Smooth and complete unloading of bowl by reversing the elevator
rotation
Pulverizing and mixing action by the elevator places material in
uniform and homogeneous state for compaction.

54.Write short note on skimmers.


These excavators are rigged using a universal power unit for surface
stripping and shallow excavation work upto 300mm deep where a high
degree of accuracy is required. They usually require attachment haulage
vehicles to remove the spoil and need to be transported between sites on a

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low loader. Because of their limitations and the availability of alternatives


machines, they are rarely used today.

55.What are the factors governed the output of a dragline?


Output or the performance of the dragline depends on the following
factors,
Nature of soil
Depth of cut
Angle of swing
Capacity of hauling units, if employed
Mechanical condition of the dragline
Efficiency and skill of the operator

56.Write short notes on draglines.


Cranes are machines designed to move materials vertically (rise by
rope pulley operation) or horizontally. The range of cranes available is very
wide, from gear wheel to a complex tower crane. Therefore, choice must be
based on:
The loads to be lifted
Height of lifting
Horizontal distance to be covered
Time period of lifting operations
Utilization factors and
Degree of mobility required

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57.What is the power shovel?


It is used to excavate the earth of all classed and load it into wagons.
They are mounted on crawler tracks. It consists of a mountain, cab, boon,
dipper, strip, hoist line.

58.What is a clamshell?
Clamshell is a machine having most of the characteristics of dragline
and crane in common. Digging is done like a dragline and once the bucket
is filled, it works like a crane. It is very useful for accurate spot dumping of
material in a confined space in a vertical plane. It can be used for handling
of loose or soft and medium hard materials only.

59.What are the methods of underwater concreting?


Tremie method
Pump method
Toggle bags
Bags work

60.What are the types of temporary earth retaining structures?


Braced wall
Sheet pile wall
Soil nail wall

61.Define blasting.
Blasting is the process of discharging of an explosive to loosen the
rock.

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62.What are the parameters to be examined while blasting for quarrying?


While blasting for quarrying or excavation, the following parameters
are to be examined.
Spacing of the drill holes
Diameter of the drill holes
Depth of the drill holes
Burden of the rock at the toe
Burden of the rock at the crest
Degree of fragmentation desired and
Strength of the explosives to be used

63.Define dredging.
It is the process of excavating from river bed, lake or sea for the
purpose of deepening them. It is an important operation in navigation
canals, harbors, dams etc.

64.What are the types of dredgers?


Dipper dredger
Ladder dredger
Suction dredger

65.What is line system?


This system is employed when excavation area is long. The header is
laid out along the sides of the excavation, and the pumping is continuously
in progress in one length as further points are jetted ahead of the pumped
down section and pulled up from the completed and back filled lengths and
repeated till entire length is completed. For narrow excavation, like trenches,
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header is laid only on one laid, while for wide excavations, the header are
required to be placed on both sides of the area.

66.What is ring system?


When excavation is done in area of appreciable width, line system is
inadequate. The ring system is used in such condition and the header main
surrounds the excavations completely. This system is used for rectangular
excavations such as for piers or basements.

67.Where is grout anchors used in constructions?


In most cases, however anchorages may be embedded below ground
level, with backstays connecting them to adjacent towers, or they may
constitute the end abutments of the end spans. In addition to stability sliding,
the anchorage structure must also be checked for stability against tilting and
overturning.

68.Define texture. What are their classifications?


Texture is defined as the grain size of the rock. It is classified into 5
categories such as,
Porous rock
Loose grained rock
Granitoid rock
Fine grained rock
Dense rock

69.List out the construction equipment.


Bull dozers
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Graders
Skimmers
Scrapers
Loaders
Face shovels
Backhoe
Draglines

70.Mention the various operations involved in grading.


Grading
Spreading
Finishing and leveling
Ditch digging
Cutting
Bank cutting
Earthen road maintenance
Earthen road construction
Repairing gravel road

UNIT 2
1. Define pile foundation.
A pile is a slender column made of wood, concrete or steel. A pile is
either driven into the soil or formed in situ by excavating a hole and then
filling it with concrete. A group of piles are driven to the required depth and
are capped with R.C.C. slab, over which super structure is built. The pile
transfer the load to soil by friction or by direct bearing, in the latter case,

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piles being taken up to hard strata. This type of foundations is used when top
soil is not capable of taking the load of the structure even at 34 m depth.

2. Write the situations under which pile foundation is recommended.


When spread footing, raft and grillage foundations are uneconomical
When heavy concentrated loads are to be transmitted by the
foundation
Where there is scouring in the soil near the foundations
Where the soil is made up and of a compressible nature

3. Give the different types of piling.


Rotary board technique
Continuous flight auger piling
Low head room continuous auger pile
Cased flight auger piling
4. What is the equipment used for driving a pre cast pile in a sandy soil?
The equipment used for driving a pre-cast pile in a sandy soil is a
hammer. Hence maximum stresses are developed at the top due to direct
strokes and at the point in overcoming the resistance to penetration.
Therefore additional reinforcement is provided.

5. Define well foundation. What are the types of well foundation?


Well foundation is a type of deep foundation which is generally
provided below the water level for bridges. Well foundation is a box of
timber, metal, reinforced concrete or masonry which opens both at the top
and bottom, and is used for building and bridge foundations. Well
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foundations are being used in India from very early days. TajMahal was
built on such foundations.

TYPES:
Open caisson
Single wall open caisson
Cylindrical open caisson
Open caisson with dredging wells
Box caisson
Pneumatic caisson

6. What is well cap?


It is a RCC slab laid at the top of the well Steining. It transfers the
load to the Steining.

7. What are the components of well foundation?


The components of well foundations are,
Well curb
Cutting edge
Steining

8. What is a Kent ledge?


In well sinking, to overcome the increased skin friction and the in
weight of the well due to buoyancy, additional loading is applied on the
wall. It is called Kent ledge.

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9. What is cofferdam?
Cofferdams are temporary or permanent structure which is
constructed so as to remove water / soil from an area and make it possible to
carry on the construction work under reasonably dry conditions. These are
constructed by driving sheet piles in the form of cells which are filled with
granular materials and become self-stabilizing retaining structures.

10.What are the factors you will consider while selecting cofferdams?
The area to be protected by a cofferdam.
The depth of coater to be dealt with shallow depth or deep depth.
The possibility of overtopping by floods, tides, etc.
The nature of bed on which the cofferdam is to test, (i.e.) previous
layer or an impervious layer.

11.What are the uses of cofferdam?


To facilitate pile driving operations
To place grillage and raft foundations
To construct foundations for piers and abutments of bridges, dams,
locks, etc.

12.What are the types of cofferdams?


The types of cofferdams are,
Dikes
Single wall construction
Double wall construction
Cellular cofferdam
Rock filled
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Concrete cofferdam
Suspended cofferdam

13.Define shoring.
Shoring is the construction of a temporary structure to support
temporarily an unsafe structure. These support walls laterally.

14.What are the types of shoring?


Depending upon their supporting characteristics the shores are
classified into 3 categories.
Racking or inclined shores
Flying or horizontal shores
Dead or vertical shores

15.Why is shoring provided in foundation?


When a wall cracks due to unequal settlement of foundation and the
cracked wall needs repair. So, shoring is provided in foundation.

16.Under what circumstances shoring is provided?


When walls bulge out
When walls crack due to unequal settlement of foundation and repairs
are to be carried out to the cracked wall
When an adjacent structure needs pulling down
When openings are to be newly made or enlarged in a wall

17.What are the methods of providing shoring for the trenches?


Stay bracing
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Box sheeting
Vertical sheeting
Runners
Sheet piling

18.Define wales.
The depth of sheeting is held in position by means of horizontal
beams called wales.

19.Define rakes.
If the excavation is too wide, the wales may be supported by inclined
struts known as rakes.

20.Define struts.
Strut is a compression member to provide temporary support to in-situ
retaining walls in deep excavations. It is mostly a steel beam of various
sections or a pipe. Reinforced concrete beams are seldom used.

21.Define underpinning.
The process of placing a new foundation under an existing one or
strengthening and existing foundation is called underpinning.

22.What are the types of underpinning?


Pit method
Pile method
Chemical method
Other methods
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23.Define diaphragm wall.


Diaphragm wall are structure elements, which are constructed
underground to prevent the seepage into the excavated area.

24.Define RCC diaphragm wall.


Diaphragm Wall is generally reinforced concrete wall constructed in
the ground using under slurry technique which was developed in Europe.
The technique involves excavating a narrow trench that is kept full of an
engineered fluid of slurry. Walls of thickness between 300 and 1200 mm
can be formed in this way up to depths of 45 meters.

25.When is diaphragm wall used?


A diaphragm wall is basically a deep trench excavated in soil in to
which reinforced concrete is placed. Diaphragm walls are used in
permanent and temporary foundation walls for deep basements in earth
retention schemes for highway and tunnel projects, as permanent walls for
deep shafts for tunnel access, and as permanent cut off walls through the
care of earth dams.

26.Write down the construction procedure of diaphragm wall.


Fixing of alignment
Guide wall construction
Trenching
Trench cleaning
Stop ends fixing
Reinforcement cage lowering
Placing of concrete
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Withdrawal of stop ends

27.What are the various methods adopted to construct a diaphragm wall?


Slurry trench technique
Soil mixing method
RC continuous diaphragm wall
Precast diaphragm wall
Glass diaphragm wall

28.Give the uses or applications of diaphragm wall.


Commonly used in congested areas.
Can be installed in close proximity to existing structure.
Practically suited for deep basements.
Used in conjunction with Top Down construction technique.

UNIT 3
1. Define scaffolding.
These are temporary erections constructed to support a number of
platforms at different heights raised for the convenience of workers so as to
enable them to work easily and raise the needed materials.

2. What are the component parts of scaffolding?


Standards
Ledgers
Braces
Putlogs
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Transoms
Bridle
Boarding
Guard rail
Toe board

3. Give the materials used for formwork.


Formwork can be made out of timber, plywood, steel, precast
concrete, fibre glass, used separately or combination.

4. When the removable of formwork are done?


The form should be removed until the concrete has hardened
sufficiently and they may be left in place for as possible up to maximum
days of 28 in normal weather conditions. A hard metallic sound indicates
the concrete has hardened sufficiently for safe removal of formwork.

5. State briefly the essential requirements of formwork.


It should be strong enough to withstand all loads coming on it, such a
dead load of concrete and live load during its pouring, compaction and
curing.
It should be stiff enough so that deflection is minimum
It should be as be light as possible
This form work should rest on non yielding supports

6. Define centering and shuttering.


Part of the form work which supports the horizontal surface is called
centering for example slab bottom, beam bottom etc.
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Part of the form work which supports the Vertical surface is called
Shuttering for example column sides, beam sides, slab side, wall side etc.

7. Define hoisting.
A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a
drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually
operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or
wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of
a lifting hook. There are three types of hoist namely,
Wire rope or chain hoist
Construction hoist
Mine hoist

8. Define rigging.
Rigging is the apparatus through which the force of the wind is used
to propel sailboats and sailing ships forward. This includes masts, yards,
sails, and cordage.

9. What are the types of cranes?


Overhead crane
Truck mounted crane
Side lifter crane
Rough terrain crane
All terrain crane
Pick and carry crane
Carry deck crane
Telescopic handler crane
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Crawler crane
Harbor crane
Railroad crane
Floating crane
Aerial crane
Tower crane
Level luffing crane
Gantry crane
Deck crane
Bulk handling crane
Stacker crane

10.Define plastering.
The process of covering the surfaces of masonry, beam or column
with mortar is called plastering. Mortar is a substance obtained by mixing
sand, a binding material (cement/lime) and water in definite proportions.

11.Define flooring. What are the types of flooring?


Flooring is the horizontal area in any floor of a building that is
actually the space used by the occupants for moving in the building.

TYPES OF FLOORING:
Mud flooring
Cement concrete flooring
Terrazzo flooring
Mosaic flooring
Glazed tile flooring
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Marble flooring
Linoleum flooring
Brick flooring
Stone flooring
Granolithic flooring
Timber flooring
Asphalt flooring
Rubber flooring
Epoxy resin flooring

12.What are the requirements of good flooring?


Low cost
Good appearance
Sound and thermal insulation
Strength and durability
Smoothness
Damp and fire resistance
Comfortability
Anti-skid

13.Give some aspects you consider while choosing the floor type.
Initial cost
Appearance
Cleanliness
Durability
Damp resistance
Sound insulation
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Thermal insulation
Smoothness
Hardness
Fire resistance
Maintenance consideration

14.What are the components of flooring?


Sub floor or base course
Floor covering

15.Define aggregate crushers and screening equipment.


Screening is the separation of material into 2 - 6 different sized
products. The material is separated by passing it through a vibrating 'screen
box' which a number of different has sized screens, or meshes, which the
material falls through like a sieve. The material falls onto attached
conveyors which stock piles the end products. The end products can then be
used in the building and construction industries.

16.Define aggregate feeders.


Aggregate feed bins are used for each of the size of the aggregate and
sand, and control their quality, weighting system is used for important jobs,
since control by volume is not perfect as it varies due to closeness of
packing of the material. The aggregate fed bins are loaded by any of the
following methods
By shovels directly into the bins
By lorries tipping directly into the bins
Aggregate are stored in bulkhead at ground level
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17.Define batching.
The measurement of materials for making concrete is known as
batching. There are two methods of batching.
Volume batching
Weight batching

18.What are the methods of equipment are used by volume batching?


Aggregate feeders
Cement silo
Water measuring device and
Mixing unit

19.Define mixing.
After measuring the materials required for preparing the concrete it
has to be mixed well before placing the concrete. It should ensure that the
mass becomes homogeneous and uniform. There are two methods of
mixing.
Hand mixing
Machine mixing

20.What are the methods are adopted for transportation of concrete?


Mortar pan
Wheel barrow
Crane, bucket and rope way
Truck mixers and dumpers
Belt conveyors
Chute
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Skip and hoist


Transit mixer
Pump and pipe line
Helicopter

21.What is meant by transit mixer?


Transit mixer is a piece of equipment that is used for transporting
concrete, mortar or ready mix material from a concrete batching plant
directly to the site where it is to be utilized. Transit mixer is loaded with dry
material and water. The interior of the transit drum is fitted with a spiral
blade.

22.What are the types of conveyors?


Belt conveyors
Roller conveyors
Chain conveyors
Pipe conveyors
Elevating conveyor

23.What are the advantages of using belt conveyors?


Its suitable levels eliminate a good deal of lifting and lowering of
material.
It require no stopping or standing but is continuous operation.
Transportation is affected by friction between material being
transported and the belt.
It largely saves labor cost.
No noise
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Carry the material horizontal, vertical, inclined.


It can withstand 1600 C.

24.What are the activities normally followed during concreting?


Batching
Mixing
Transporting
Placing
Compacting
Curing

25.Define compaction.
Compaction is defined as the process of densifying or increasing the
unit weight of a soil mass through the application of static or dynamic force,
with the resulting expulsion of air.

26.What are the factors influencing compaction?


Drum diameter
Frequency and amplitude
Relationship between frame and drum weight
Driven or non-driven drum
Centrifugal force
Total applied force
Static weight
Number of vibratory drums
Roller speed

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27.Name some compaction equipment.


Towed static smooth compactors
Static sheep foot or pad foot compactors
Static three wheel self-propelled compactors
Static tandem compactors
Three axle static compactors
Rubber tyred compactors
Vibrator compactors
Tandem vibrator compactors
Towed vibrator compactors
Sheep foot & tamping foot vibrator compactors
Self-propelled vibrator compactors
Hand guided vibrator compactors

28.What are the various types of concreting equipments?


Concrete mixers
Concrete hauling equipments
Wheel barrows
Dumpers
Ready mix concrete mixers
Concrete pumps for placement in different conditions
Concrete vibrators for compaction
Poker or internal vibrator
External clamp or tamping board vibrator

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29.Define shotcreting.
Mortar or high performance concrete conveyed through a hose and
pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a backing surface is known as
shotcreting.

30.How pumps are classified?


Positive displacement pump
Reciprocating pump
Rotary pump
o Gear pump
o Vance pump
o Screw pump
Rotodynamic pump
Volute pump
Circular pump
Diffuser pump
Vertical turbine pump
Centrifugal mixed flow pump
Propeller pump

31.Define drilling.
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular
cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often
multipoint. The bit is pressed against the work piece and rotated at rates
from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the

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cutting edge against the work piece, cutting off chips (swarf) from the hole
as it is drilled.

32.What are the types of drilling equipment?


Percussion drills
Rotary drills
Pressure drilling
Abrasion drilling

33.What are the factors affecting the selection of drilling equipment?


Nature of terrain
Required depth of holes
Rock hardness
The purpose for which holes are required to be drilled (i.e.) for
blasting or grouting or for exploration purposes
The size of the project

34.What are the methods used for building demolition techniques?


Manual method
Mechanical method
Demolition by machine
Demolition by hydraulic rushers
Demolition by wrecking ball
Explosive method

35.What are the methods used for tunnel driving?


Full face method
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Top Heading and benching method


Drift method
Pilot tunneling
Needle beam method

36.What are the factors you will consider while selection of route in
tunneling?
Geological conditions
Right of way
Alignment restraints
Environmental considerations

37.Give the various methods of tunneling through soft ground.


Fore poling method
Needle beam method
Five piece set method
Other methods
Casting methods
Square sets and logging method
Horse cups method

38.Give the various methods of tunneling through rock.


Full face method
Top heading and benching method
Cantilever car pump method
Drift method
Pilot tunneling
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UNIT 4
1. Define bridges. What are the types of bridges?
A bridge is a structure constructed to provide the passage for a road or
railways over an obstacle such as river, valley etc. without closing a wall.
Masonry arch bridge
Reinforced cement concrete bridge
Slab bridge
T beam bridge
Hollow girder bridge
Balanced cantilever bridge
RCC arch bridge
Steel bridge
Plate girder bridge
Steel arch bridge
Cable stayed bridge
Suspension bridge
Cantilever bridge

2. What are the types of sub structure?


Foundation
Abutment
Pier
Wing walls and return walls
Revetment
Apron
Approaches to bridge

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3. What are the types of super structure?


Bearings
Deck
Hand rails
Girder or truss
Roadway

4. Define abutment.
The abutment is a terminal support of the bridge. It is built on either
side of a valley where the road or railway joins the bridge.

5. Define pier.
In a multispan bridge piller like supports are constructed between the
abutments. These supports are called piers.

6. Define multispan bridge.


In a multispan bridge there are several piers and hence several spans.
The multispan bridges are built in the middle or lower reaches of rivers
where the valleys are generally very wide.

7. Define suspension bridge.


A bridge which is suspended with the help of cables and steel towers
across a deep and narrow river valley is called suspension bridge.

8. Define RCC bridges. What are the types of RCC bridges?


Reinforced Cement Concrete is well suited for the construction of
bridges in the small and medium span ranges. Different types of RCC
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bridges which are usually constructed are: Slab bridges, T beam (girder
and slab) bridges, hollow girder bridges, balanced cantilever bridges,
continuous girder bridges, rigid frame bridges, arch bridges and bowstring
girder bridges.

9. What are factors to be considered for selection of site for bridges?


Span of the bridge and number of spans
Purpose of bridge
Intensity of loading on the bridge
Type of super structure adopted
Headroom to be provided below the bridge
Type of foundation soil, available
Nature of material used
Nature of alignment
Relative position of floor of the bridge
Prevailing wind force and earth quake possibilities
Life expectancy of the bridge.

10.Define cable stayed bridges. What are the types of cable stayed bridges?
This type of bridge is especially suited for spans ranging from 200 to
500m. The main component of a cable stayed bridges are,
Inclined cables
Towers
Decks
In a simple form the cables are provided above the deck and
connected to towers. This eliminates intermediate piers and provides large
width for the purposes of navigation. The deck is supported by a number of
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cables. This type of bridge is widely used in recent years because of the
availability of high strength steel.

11.What are balanced cantilever bridges?


Providing continuous spans can minimize the bending moment and
hence individual span lengths can be increased. But this requires unyielding
supports. Any yielding of supports results in distress in structure. In order
to avoid this, a combination of cantilever and suspended spans may be
adopted. The bridge with this type of super structure is referred to as
balanced cantilever bridges. This type of bridge is suitable for medium span
in the range of about 35 to 60m.

12.What are the erection methods of launching of heavy deck?


Balanced cantilever erection method
Progressive placing method
Span by span (or) Steeping form work method
Incremental launching method

UNIT 5
1. Define roads. What are the types of roads?
Road is specially prepared path on which the transport vehicles pass
lawfully.

CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS ACCORDING TO LOCATION AND


FOUNDATION:
National highway
State highway
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Major district roads


Other district roads
Village roads

CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS BASED ON MATERIALS USED:


Earth roads
Gravel road
Water Bound Macadam road
Bituminous road
Asphalt road
Cement concrete road

2. Define flexible pavements. What are the types of flexible pavements?


Flexible Pavements are those, which on the whole have low or
negligible flexural strength and are rather flexible in their structural action
under the loads. The Flexible Pavements layers reflect the deformation of
the lower layers on to the surface of the layer.

TYPES:
Conventional layered flexible pavement
Full depth asphalt pavement
Contained Rock Asphalt Mat (CRAM)

3. Define rigid pavements. What are the types of rigid pavements?


Rigid pavements are those, which possess noteworthy flexural
strength or flexural rigidity. The stresses are not transferred from grain to
the lower layers as in the ease of flexible pavement layers. The rigid
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pavements are made of Portland cement concrete either plan, reinforced or


pre-stressed concrete.

TYPES:
Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)
Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement (JRCP)
Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)
Pre-stressed Concrete Pavement (PCP)

4. What are the factors to be considered for selection of site for roads?
Type and purpose of road
Cross drainage works
Bridges
Railway crossing
Existing right of way
Public demand
Availability of material
Availability of labour

5. What is a tunnel? What are their uses?


A tunnel is an underground or underwater passageway, dug through
the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit,
commonly at each end.

USES:
Tunnels are made for highways and railway for regular traffic and
transportation of goods
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Tube railways are made through tunnels


Diverting the river water through tunnels in the construction of dams
Pressure or hydropower tunnels are used in power generation
Tunnels are used for supply of drinking water, and oil or sewage
disposal or laying cables
Tunnels are made to extract minerals
Discharge tunnels to convey water from one point to another by
gravity

6. What are the advantages of tunneling?


Time saving and reduction in fuel
Avoid unwanted traffic congestion
Maintain a proper speed
Avoid tiredness of travel
Avoid unwanted accidents
To avoid deforestation and death of animal while crossing
To avoid land slide in hilly region
To avoid the long route around the mountain
To reduce the length of highway and railway and it may be
economical

7. What are the types of tunnel construction methods?


Classical method
Mechanical drilling / cutting
Cut and cover method
Drill and blast method
Shields and Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs)
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New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM)


Immersed tunnels
Special methods (tunnel jacking)

8. Define cut and cover method.


Cut and cover is a simple method of construction for shallow tunnels
where a trench is excavated and roofed over with an overhead support
system strong enough to carry the load of what is to be built above the
tunnel.

9. What are the component parts of pipe jacking?


Thrust yoke
Skid base
Power packs
Intermediate jacking stations

10.What is meant by pipe jacking?


Pipe jacking is a method of installing a pipe under roadway, railway
or highways without using an open cut trench. The pipe jacking procedure
was a casing pipe of sheet or reinforced concrete (i.e.) jacked through the
soil.

11.What are the techniques used in box / pipe jacking?


A technique used in box/pipe jacking requires the construction of just two
pits:
The thrust
Reception pits
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Dimensions of the pits vary according to site conditions. Excavation


of soil can be by manual or mechanical means depending on the type of
machines used.

12.Give the applications of box jacking.


The applications of box jacking are,
Underground pipes
Ducks and culverts

13.Give the advantages of box / pipe jacking.


Environmentally friendly with minimal damage to the surface
Highly accurate and cost effective
Suitable for all kinds of profiles for a wide variety of soil conditions
Traffic congestion and additional pollution will not cause
Extremely suitable for all kinds of underground utility infrastructure.

14.List the disadvantages of box / pipe jacking.


Limited tunnel run resulting in more required shafts (approximately
every 1000ft)
Relatively straight alignment required (minimum radius of curvature
approximately 4000ft)
Difficulty in replacing damaged pipe.

15.What are the types of cut and cover method?


Conventional method
Bottom up method
Top down method
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Cast in place method

16.What is grouting?
Grouting is an engineering and art combined to fill up the voids or
cavities in rock or soil masses with fluid that will increase the overall
strength and impermeability of the mass.

17.Give the types of grouting.


Chemical
Cement
Jet grouting

18.Give the characteristics of grouting materials.


The characteristics of grouting materials are,
The grouting material has high permeability
No vibrations are used
Application requires no additional structures used

19.Explain about cement grouting.


In this method, cement grout which is a mixture of cement, sand and
water is used. The process consists of making a number of holes in ground
and then filling these holes by cement grout under pressure. This process is
continued till no grout is coming up through the hole.

USES:
The grouting procedure can be used in stopping leakages from rock

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It can also be used to fill the voids in soil so as to strengthen the soil
and to make the rock or soil water tight

20.Define TBM.
A tunnel boring machine (TBM), also known as a "mole", is a
machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a
variety of soil and rock strata. They may also be used for micro tunneling.
They can bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters
can range from a 1 meter to 19.25 meters to date.

21.List out the advantages of tunnel boring machines.


There is very less danger of fall outs in machine bored tunnels, since
adjacent or surrounding rocks are undistributed as no blasting is done.
Mucking is also safe and convenient, since muck is conveyed from the
face to the rear of the machine and is loaded automatically by means
to the rear of the machine and is loaded automatically by means of
belt conveyors.
Higher speed of excavation.
Reduction in the tunnel supports requirement.
Less manpower requirement.

22.Define shafts.
In civil engineering a shaft is an underground vertical or inclined
passageway. Shafts are constructed for a number of reasons including:
For the construction of a tunnel
For ventilation of a tunnel or underground structure
As a drop shaft for a sewerage or water tunnel
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For access to a tunnel or underground structure, also as an escape


route

23.Define tunnel lining. What are the types of tunnel lining?


The finishing touch given to the cross section of the tunnel is known
as tunnel lining. The plain and reinforced concrete is generally used for the
lining.

TYPES:
Temporary ground support
Primary lining
Secondary lining

24.Mention the sequence of operations involved in during the tunnel


through rock.
Setting up and drilling
Loading the holes with explosives and firing
Ventilating and removing the dust resulted by explosion
Loading and hauling the muck
Removing ground water from the tunnel
Erection of supports for the roof and sides
Placing reinforcement
Placing the concrete lining
Curing and shuttering removal

25.What are the objectives of ventilation system in a tunnel?


To provide fresh air for workers
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To remove poisonous gases and fumes produced by explosion


To remove the dust caused by drilling, blasting, mucking and other
operations Performed in the tunnel.

26.Define mucking.
The operation of removal of excavated material in tunneling operation
is called mucking. Different methods of mucking are,
In small tunnels, hand carts or wheel barrows are used
Special power shovels are used in medium size tunnels which are with
a short boom and a dipper strikes.
Specially made mucking machines are equipped with dippers in large
tunnels.

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FAILURE ANALYSIS AND REHABILITATION OF


STRUCTURES
UNIT 1
1. Define Maintenance.
Maintenance is the act of keeping something in good condition by
checking or repairing it regularly.

2. Define Repair.
Repair is the process of restoring something that is damaged or
deteriorated or broken, to good condition.

3. Define Rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation is the process of returning a building or an area to its
previous good conditions.

4. What are the two facets of maintenance?


The two facets of maintenance are,
Prevention
Repair

5. What are the causes of deterioration?


Deterioration due to corrosion
Environmental effects
Poor quality material used
Quality of supervision
Design and construction flaws
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6. How will you assess the deterioration?


Visual inspection
Study of available documentation
Estimation of actual loads and environment effects
Diagnosis

7. Define physical inspection of damaged structure.


Some of the useful information may be obtained from the physical
inspection of damaged structure, like nature of distress, type of distress,
extent damage and its classification etc. Their causes preparing and
documenting the damages, collecting the samples for laboratory testing and
analysis, planning for in situ testing, special environmental effects which
have not been considered at the design stage and information on the loads
acting on the existing structure at the time of damage may be, obtained. To
stop further damages, preventive measure necessary may be planned which
may warrent urgent execution.

8. How deterioration occurs due to corrosion?


Spalling of concrete cover
Cracks parallel to the reinforcement
Spalling at edges
Swelling of concrete
Dislocation
Internal cracking and reduction in area of steel reinforcement

9. What are the steps in selecting a repair procedure?


Consider total cost
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Do repair job in time


If defects are few & isolated repair on an individual basis. Otherwise do
in generalized manner
Ensure the repair prevents further development of defects
In case of lost strength, repairs should restore the strength
If appearance is a problem, the number of applicable types of repairs
become limited & the repairs must be covered
Repair works should not interface with facilities of the structure
Take care in addition of section to a member and in redistributing live
loads and other live load moments. After selecting a suitable method of
repairs, and after considering all the ramifications of its application, the
last step is to prepare plans & specification and proceed with the work.

10.Discuss about the environment effects which leads to deterioration of


concrete structure.
Micro-cracks present in the concrete are the sources of ingress of
moistures, atmospheric carbon di-oxide into the concrete which attack
reinforcement and with various ingredients of concrete. In aggressive
environment concrete structure will be severely reduces.

11.What is the effect of selecting poor quality material for construction?


Quality of materials, to be used in construction, should be ensured by
means various tests as specified in the IS codes. Alkali-aggregate reaction
and sulphate attack results in early deterioration. Clayey materials in the fine
aggregates weaken the mortar aggregate bond and reduce the strength.
Salinity causes corrosion of reinforcing bars as well as deterioration of
concrete.
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12.How can we determine the cause for deterioration of concrete


structure?
Inspect & observe the structure
Observe in bad & good weather
Compare with other constructions on the area or elsewhere & be patient
Study the problem & allow enough time to do the job

13.What are the factors to be considered by the designer at the


construction site?
Minimum & maximum temperatures
Temperature cycles
Exposure to ultra violet radiation
Amount of moisture
Wet/dry cycles
Presence of aggressive chemicals

14.What are the steps in repair aspect?


Finding the deterioration
Determining the cause
Evaluating the strength of existing building or structure
Evaluating the need of repair
Selecting & implementing a repair procedure

15.Define the fixed percentage method of evaluating the strength of


existing structure.
It is to assume that all members which have lost less than some
predetermined % of their strength are still adequate and that all members
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which have lost more than the strength are inadequate. It is usually from
15% onwards higher values are applicable for piling & stiffness bearing
plates etc.

16.Discuss about the design and construction errors leading to


deterioration of a structure.
Design of concrete structures governs the performance of concrete
structures. Well designed and detailed concrete structure will show less
deterioration in comparison with poorly designed and detailed concrete, in
the similar condition. The beam-column joints are particularly prone to
defective concrete, if detailing and placing of reinforcement is not done
properly. Inadequate concrete cover may lead to carbonation depth reaching
up to the reinforcement, thus, increasing the risk of corrosion of the
reinforcement.

17.Discuss about the quality of supervision to be followed at a site.


Construction work should be carried out as per the laid down
specification. Adherence to specified water-cement ratio controls strength,
permeability, durability of concrete. Insufficient vibration may result in
porous and honey combined concrete, whereas excess vibration may cause
segregation.

18.What are the possible decisions that can be made after evaluating the
strength of a structure?
To permit deterioration to continue
To make measures to preserve the structure in its present condition
without strengthening
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To strengthen the construction


If deterioration is exceptionally severe, to reconstruct or possibly
abandon it

19.How can we evaluate the strength of existing structure by stress


analysis?
This method is to make detailed stress analysis of the structure, as it
stands including allowances for loss of section where it has occurred. This is
more difficult & expensive. Here also the first step is to make preliminary
analysis by fixed percentage method and if it appears that major repairs will
be required, the strength is reevaluated based on detailed stress analysis,
considering all contributions to such strength.

20.Define the load test method of evaluating the strength of existing


structure.
Load tests may be required by the local building offered, but they
should only be performed where computation indicated that there is
reasonable margin of safety against collapse. Load test show strengths much
greater than computed strengths when performed on actual structures. In
repair work every little bit of strength is important.

21.What are the possible decisions after finding a structure to be


inadequate?
If the appearance of the existing condition is objectionable repair now
If appearance is not a problem then put the condition under observation
to check if it is dormant or progressive
If dormant no repair
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If progressive check the feasibility & relative economics of permitting


deterioration to continue and performing a repair at some later date & of
making the repair right away

22.What are the objectives of condition assessment?


The main purpose of guide is to briefly describe how to carry out the
condition assessment of buildings before taking up repair and upgrading
work. This will determine whether or not a distressed building should be
demolished to build back better or whether it will be cost effective to either
repair or retrofit it, in the context of overall safety.

23.What are the factors causing building distress?


The reason for distress during service is the lack of maintenance of the
building which results in deterioration / aging of materials and structural
components leading to corrosion and cracking
Buildings or structures are damaged at different grades of damage when
they experience extreme loading conditions like in severe earthquakes or
cyclonic storms for which they are not designed
They may also fail if the building including the foundation is not
properly designed and constructed following the standard codes of
practice
Inadequacy of design and poor quality of construction and maintenance
are therefore the main reasons for the distress seen in buildings during
service or under natural hazards

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24.Explain the term crazing.


Crazing is the development of a network of fine random cracks on the
surface of concrete or mortar caused by shrinkage and is usually related to
finishing and curing procedures.

UNIT 2
1. How can you prevent the effect of freezing and thawing in concrete?
Concrete can be restricted from frost action, damage of the structure
by the entrainment of air. This entrainment of air is distributed through the
cement paste with spacing between bubbles of no more than about 0.4mm.

2. Write any two tests for assessment of frost damage?


The frost damage can be assessed by several ways:
Assessment of loss of weight of a sample of concrete subjected to a
certain number of cycles of freezing and thawing is one of the methods
Measuring the change in the ultrasonic pulse velocity or the damage in
the change in the dynamic modulus of elasticity of specimen is another
method

3. How does a concrete structure get affected by heat?


Heat may affect concrete and as a result of:
The removal of evaporable water
The removal of combined water
Alteration of cement paste
Alteration of aggregate
Change of the bond between aggregate and paste

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4. How can you control cracks in a structure?


Use of good coarse aggregates free from clay lumps
Use of fine aggregate free from silt, mud & organic constituent
Use of sound cement
Provision of expansion & contraction joint
Provide less water-cement ratio

5. Define aggregate splitting?


This phenomenon occurs most frequently when hard aggregates are
used in concrete. The thermal stresses except close to corners are
predominantly compressive near to the heated surface. This stress causes the
aggregate to split in this direction and the fractures may propagate through
the mortar matrix leading to deterioration.

6. What are the various chemical attacks of concrete?


Acid attack
Alkali attack
Carbonation
Chloride attack
Leaching
Salt attack
Sulphate attack

7. What are the factors affecting chemical attack on concrete?


High porosity
Improper choice of cement type for the conditions of exposure
Inadequate curing prior to exposure
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Exposure to alternate cycles of wetting and drying

8. Write the methods of corrosion protection?


Corrosion inhibitors
Corrosion resisting steels
Coatings for steel
Cathodic protection

9. List out the methods to protect steel from corrosion.


Coating to reinforcement
Galvanized reinforcement
Improving metallurgically by addition of certain elements
Using stainless steel
Using non ferrous reinforcement
Using corrosion inhibitors
Coating to concrete
Cathodic protection, either by means of impressed unit or by sacrificial
anodes
Electrochemical chloride removal
Improving the cover concrete

10.List out some coating for reinforcement to prevent corrosion.


Organic coating
Epoxy coating
Metallic coating
Zinc coating

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11.Define corner reparation?


This is a very common occurrence and appears to be due to a
component of tensile stress causing splitting across a corner. In fire tests,
corner separation occurs most often in beams and columns made of Quartz
aggregate and only infrequently with light weight aggregates

12.List any four causes of cracks?


Use of unsound material
Poor & bad workmanship
Use of high water-cement ratio
Freezing & thawing
Thermal effects
Shrinkage stresses

13.What are the types of cracks?


Class-1: Cracks leading to structural failure
Class-2: Cracks causing corrosion
Class-3: Cracks affecting function
Class-4: Cracks affecting appearance

14.What are alkali aggregate reaction cracks?


Alkali aggregate reactivity is a type of concrete deterioration that
occurs when the active mineral constituents of some aggregates react with
the alkali hydroxides in the concrete. Alkali aggregate reactivity occurs in
two forms such as Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) and Alkali Carbonate
Reaction (ACR). Indications of the presence of alkali aggregate reactivity

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may be a network of cracks, closed or spalling joints, or displacement of


different portions of a structure.
15.What changes occur, when hot rolled steel is heated to 500oc?
At temp of 500oc-600oc the yield stress is reduced to the order of the
working stress and the elastic modulus is reduced by one-third. Bars heated
to this temp virtually recover their normal temperature.

16.List out the various types of spalling?


General or destructive spalling
Local spalling which is subdivided as
Aggregate splitting
Corner separations
Surface spalling
Sloughing off

17.List some faults in construction planning?


Overloading of members by construction loads
Loading of partially constructed members
Differential shrinkage between sections of construction
Omission of designed movement joints

18.Define corrosion?
The gradual deterioration of concrete by chemically aggressive agent
is called Corrosion.

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19.Give some examples for corrosion inhibitors?


Anodic inhibitors
Cathodic inhibitors
Mixed inhibitors
Dangerous & safe inhibitors

20.Define effective cover?


The cover to reinforcement measured from centre of the main
reinforcement up to the surface of concrete in tension is called Effective
cover.

21.Define corrosion inhibitor?


Corrosion inhibitor is an admixture that is used in concrete to prevent
the metal embedded in concrete from corroding.

22.What are the operations in quality assurance system?


Feedback
Auditing
Review line
Organization

23.List the various components of quality control.


Five components of a quality (control) assurance system are:
Standards
Production control
Compliance control
Task and responsibilities and
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Guarantees for users

UNIT 3
1. What is expansive cement?
A slight change in volume on drying is known as expansion with time
will prove to be advantage for grouting purpose. This type of cement which
suffers no overall change in volume on drying is known as Expansive
cement.

2. What is the action of shrink comb in expansive cement?


Shrink comb grout acts like a Portland cement. It (shrinks) sets and
hardens; it develops a compressive strength of about 140kg/cm2 at 7days and
210kg/cm2 at 28 days.

3. List the various types of polymer concrete.


Polymer impregnated concrete (PIC)
Polymer cement concrete (PCC)
Polymer Concrete (PC)
Partially impregnated & surface coat

4. Give the various monomers used in polymer concrete.


Mehylmethacrylate (MINS)
Styretoc
Aerylonitrile
t-butyle slynene

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5. Define polymer concrete.


Polymer concrete is an aggregate bound polymer binder instead of
Portland cement as in conventional concrete polymer concrete is normally
use to minimize voids volume in aggregate mass. This can be achieve by
properly grading and mixing of aggregate to attain the maximum density and
the aggregates to attain minimum void volume. The entrapped aggregates
are prepacked and vibrated in a mould.

6. What are the uses of Polymer concrete?


During curing Portland cement form mineral voids. Water can be
entrapped in these voids which are freezing can readily attack the concrete.
Also alkaline Portland cement is easily attached by chemically aggressive
materials which results in rapid determination, there as using polymers can
compact chemical attack.

7. What is sulphur infiltrated concrete?


New types of composition have been produced by the recently
developed techniques of impregnating porous material like concrete with
sulphur. Sulphur impregnation has shown great improvement in strength.

8. What are the applications of sulphur infiltrated concrete?


Sulphur (impregnated) infiltration can be employed in the precast
industries. Sulphur infiltration concrete should found considerable use in
industry situation where high corrosion resistant concrete is required. This
method cannot be conveniently applied to cast- in place concrete Sulphur
impregnation has shown area improvement in strength.
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9. What is drying shrinkage?


Concrete made with ordinary Portland cement shrinks while setting
due to loss of water concrete also shrinks continuously for long time. This is
known as drying shrinkage.
10.What is Self Stressing cement?
This cement when used in concrete with restrained expansion includes
compressive stresses which approximately offset the tensile stresses induced
by shrinkage is known as Self-Stressing cement

11.What is polymer impregnated concrete?


PIC is a widely used polymer composition concrete, cured and dried
in over or dielectric heating from which the air in the (pipes) open cell is
removed by vacuum. Then low density manpower is diffused through an
open cell and polymerized by using radiation, application of heat or by
chemical initiation.

12.Define polymer partially impregnated concrete.


Polymer partially impregnated or coated in dep (CID) and surface
coated (SC) control partially polymer impregnated concrete is used to
increase the strength of concrete. Partially impregnated concrete is sufficient
in situations there the major required surface persistent against chemical and
mechanical attacks.

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13.How can we manufacture sulphur infiltrated concrete?


Sulphur is heated to bring it into molten condition to which coarse and
fine aggregates are poured and mixed together. On cooling, this mixture
gave fairly good strength, exhibited acid resistance and also other chemical
resistance, but it proved to be either than ordinary cement concrete.

14.What is the difference between ordinary cement and expansive cement?


Ordinary concrete shrinks while setting whereas expansive cement
expands while setting.

15.What are the uses of gas forming and expansive chemicals?


Gas formation and expansive chemicals to produce light weight
concrete as well as to cause expansion on application such as grouts for
anchor bolts. They are non-striking type. Principal chemicals used are
Hydrogen peroxide, metallic aluminium or activated carbon. Sometimes
bentonite clays and natural gum are also used.

16.What is the use of corrosion inhibiting chemicals?


They resist corrosion of reinforcement in adverse environment sodium
benzonate, calcium lingo sulphonate and sodium nitrate have good results.

17.Write the use of antifungus admixtures.


These are added to control and inhibit growth of bacteria or fungus in
surfaces expressed t moisture. Polyhalogenated phenol, Dieldrin emulsion
and copper compounds are some of the chemicals used for this.

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18.What are the uses of curing compounds?


They are either wax based or resin based. When coated in freshly laid
concrete they form a temporary film over the damp surface which stops
water evaporation and allows sufficient moisture retention in concrete for
curing.

19.Define sealants.
Sealants are flexibilized polymeric materials which are used for two
purposes. They are,
To plug irregular gap between two rigid surfaces
To provide a dynamic bridge across the gap between two surfaces

20.What are the uses of sealants?


They are used to seal designed joints. They are formulated from
synthetic rubbers or polysulphides. The choice of a sealant depends on the
location of the joint, its movement capability and the function of the sealant
is expected to perform.

21.What are the uses of flooring?


These are usually toppings based on metallic or non-metallic
aggregates which are mixed with cement and placed over freshly laid
concrete sub floor. These compounds in high viscosity liquid, form mixed
with recommended filters at site, are based on resins and polymers such as
epoxy, acrylic, polyurethane or polysulphide.

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UNIT 4
1. What is Vacuum concrete?
Only about half of the water added in concrete goes into chemical
combination and the remaining water is used to make concrete workable.
After laying concrete, water which was making concreting workable is
extracted by a special method known as vacuum method.

2. What are the equipments used in vacuum concrete?


The equipment essentially consists of:
Vacuum pump
Water separator
Filtering mat

3. What is Gunite?
Gunite can be defined as mortar conveyed through a hose and
pneumatically projected at a high velocity on to a surface.

4. What are the two types of process in shotcrete?


Wet mix process
Dry mix process

5. What are the stages in dry mix process in shotcrete?


In this process, the concrete is mixed with water as for ordinary concrete
before conveying through the delivery pipeline to the nozzle, at which
point it is jetted by compressed air, onto the work in the same way as that
if mix process.
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The wet process has been generally desired in favour of the dry mix
process, owing to the greater success of the latter.

6. What is shotcrete?
Shotcrete is a recent development on the similar principle of guniting
for achieving greater thickness with small coarse aggregate.

7. What are the preliminary investigations before demolition of a


structure?
The demolition contractor should have ample experience of the type
of work to be offered
Fully comprehensive insurance against all risks must be maintained at all
times
An experienced supervisor should be continuously in charge of the work
The contract price should include all safety precautions included in the
relevant building regulations
The completion date should be realistic, avoiding and need to take risks
to achieve the date

8. Write about protective clothing given before demolition.


Buildings where chemicals have been stored or where asbestos, lead
paint, dust or fumes may be present will require specialized protective
clothing.

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9. Give a brief note on shoring and underpinning in demolition.


The demolition contractor has a legal obligation to show technical
competence when carrying out the work. When removing sections of the
building which could have leave other parts unsafe, adequate temporary
supports and shoring etc. must be provided.

10.What are the major factors in selecting a demolition procedure?


Major factors to be considered in selecting an appropriate technique include:
Safety of personnel and public
Working methods
Legislation applicable
Insurance cover

11.Give the categories of demolition techniques.


Demolition techniques may be categorized as:
Piecemeal demolition, using hand-held tools or machines, to reduce the
height of the building or structure gradually
Deliberate controlled collapse, demolition to be completed at ground
level

12.Write short notes on demolition by hand.


Demolition of buildings or structure by hand-held tools such as
electric or pneumatic breakers, sometimes as a preliminary to using other
methods, should be carried out, where practicable, in the reverse order to the
original construction sequence. Lifting appliances may be necessary to hold

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larger structural members during cutting and for lowering severed structural
members and other debris.

13.In what cases demolition by machine can be done?


Simple roof structures supported on wall plates should normally be
demolished to the level of wall plates by hand, but if this may involve unsafe
working, then demolition totally by machine may be appropriate.

14.Write short notes on balling machine.


Balling machines generally comprise a drag-line type crawler chassis
fitted with a lattice crane jib. The demolition ball, with a steel anti-spin
device, is suspended from the lifting rope and swung by the drag rope.

15.How are explosives used for demolition of a structure?


If explosives are to be used for demolition, the planning and
execution, include pre-weakening, should be under the control of a person
competent in these techniques. For large demolition, the competent person is
likely to be an experienced explosive engineer; for smaller work, a shot-firer
may be sufficient.

16.What is a hydraulic pusher arm?


Articulated, hydraulically-powered pusher-arm machines are normally
mounted on a tracked or wheeled chassis, and have a toothed plate or hook
for applying a horizontal force to a wall. The machine should stand on a firm
level base and apply force by a controlled movement of the pusher arm.

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17.What is pre-weakening?
Buildings and structures normally have structural elements designed
to carry safely the loading likely to be imposed during their life.
As a preliminary to a deliberate controlled collapse, after loads such
as furnishings, plant and machinery have been removed, the demolition
contractor may be able to weaken some structural elements and remove
those new redundant. This pre - weakening is essentially a planned exercise
and must be preceded by an analysis of its possible effects on the structure
until it collapses, to ensure that the structural integrity of the building is not
geopardized accidentally. Insufficient information and planning relating to
the structure may result in dangerous and unsafe work.

18.What is deliberate collapse?


The deliberate collapse of the whole or part of a building or structure
requires particularly high standards of planning, supervisions and execution,
and careful consideration of its effect on other parts of the structure or on
adjacent buildings or structures. A surrounding clear area and exclusion zone
are required to protect both personnel and property from the fall of the
structure itself and debris which may be thrown up by the impact.

19.How can you develop a demolition strategy?


The strategy will need to take into account the method of construction
used for the original building and its proximity to other buildings, structures
and the general public. These factors, together with location, the cost and
availability of tipping and disposal and the desirability and economics of

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reuse, must be taken into account in the development of an appropriate


strategy for the demolition of a structure.

20.What are nibblers?


Nibblers use a rotating action to snap brittle materials such as concrete
or masonry. In either case, material should be removed from the top of walls
or columns in courses not greater than 600mm in depth, steel reinforcement
should be cut separately as necessary.

21.What are the considerations before demolition?


Considerations should be given to:
Conducting a site and building survey, with a structural basis
The examination of drawings and details of existing construction where
available
The preparation of details and drawings from site survey activities where
no such information is available
Establishing previous use of premises, especially with regard to
flammable substances or substances hazardous to health or safety
Programming the sequence of demolition work
The preparation of a Method Statement.

UNIT 5
1. Define stitching.
The tensile strength of a cracked concrete section can be restored by
stitching in a manner similar to sewing cloth.

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2. What do you mean by blanketing?


This is the simplest and most common technique for sealing cracks
and is applicable for sealing both fine pattern cracks and larger isolated. The
cracks should be dormant unless they are opened up enough to put in a
substantial pattern in which case the repair may be more properly termed as
Blanketing.

3. Define external stressing.


Development of cracking in concrete is due to tensile stress and can
be arrested by removing these stresses. Further the cracks can be closed by
including a compressive force sufficient to overcome the tension and
residual compression.

4. Write short notes on Autogenous healing.


The inherent ability of concrete to heal cracks within autogenous
healing. This is used for sealing dormant cracks such as precast units
cracked in handling of cracks developed during the precast pilling sealing of
cracks in water hands and sealing of cracks results of temporary conditions.

5. What is overlay?
Overlays may be used to restore a spelling or disintegrated surface or
to protect the existing concrete from the attack of aggressive agents.
Overlays used for this purpose include concrete or mortar, bituminous
compounds etc. Epoxies should be used to bond the overlays to the existing
concrete surface.

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6. Give short note on Jacketing.


Jacketing consists of restoring or increasing the section of an existing
member by encasing it in a new concrete. This method is useful for
protection of section against further deterioration by providing additional to
in member.

7. Give an account on how metal bonding is done on concrete member.


On the tension side of the beam 2to 3mm steel plates are to the
existing beam to increase its capacity. The glue or adhesive should
compatible with the existing concrete with behavioral characteristics under
load addition to providing integrity with parent member.

8. How clamps are used to overcome low member strength?


The distress is due to inadequate stirrups either due to deficiency in
the provision of C- stamps, U-clamp fixed externally along the length of
beam to provide adequate these will be protected by covering with rich
mortar or concreting as the a later stage.

9. Define grouting.
Grouting can be performed in a similar manner as the injection of an
epoxy. However the use of an epoxy is the better solution except where
considerations for the resistance of cold weather prevent such use in which
case grouting is the comparable alternative.

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10.Give a short note on epoxy coatings.


These are organic compound which when activated with suitable
hardening agents form strong chemically resistant structures having
excellent adhesive properties. They are used as binders or adhesives to bond
new concrete patches to existing surfaces or hand together cracked portions.
Once hardened, this compound will not melt, flow or bleed. Care should be
taken to place the epoxy within the pot life period after mixing.

11.What are protective surface coatings?


During of concrete can be substantially improved by preventive
maintenance in the form of weather proofing surface treatments. These
treatments are used to seal the concrete surface and to inhibit the intrusion of
moisture or chemicals.

12.List some materials used as protective surface coatings.


Materials used for this purpose include oils such as linseed oils,
petroleum etc.

13.Define dry pack.


Dry packing is the hand placement of a very dry mortar and
subsequent tamping or ramming of the mortar into place producing an
intimate contact between the old and new concrete work.

14.Give a brief account on routing and sealing.


This method involves enlarging the cracks along its exposed surface,
filling and finally sealing it with a suitable material. This is the simplest and
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most common technique for sealing cracks and is applicable for sealing both
fine pattern cracks and larger isolated.

15.What is pneumatically applied mortar?


Pneumatically applied mortar is used for the restoration of when the
location of deterioration is relatively at shallow depth. It can be used on
vertical as well as on horizontal surfaces and is particularly restoring
surfaces spalled to corrosion of the reinforcement. Damaged concrete
elements also retrofitted using this method. This also has known as gunning
or shotcreting techniques.

16.What is caging with steel?


A steel caging is prepared and made to surround the existing masonry
so that lateral expansion when it is loaded in compression. The confinement
of masonry will steel cage increases its capacity and ductility.

17.What are the techniques required for repairing cracks?


Bonding with epoxies
Routing and sealing
Stitching
Blanketing
External stressing
Grouting
Autogenous healing

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18.Give a brief note on dogs in stitching.


The dogs are thin and long and to cannot take much of compressive
force. The dogs must be stiffened and strengthened by encasement in an
overlay or some similar means.

19.Give some concrete materials used to overcome weathering action on


concrete.
The two concrete repair materials used were,
A flow able concrete with 16 mm aggregate and containing a plasticizer
and a shrinkage-compensating additive, to be cast against forms in
heights up to 1.5m, and
A patching mortar to be applied by rendering, for areas less than .01m2

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Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry