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INTRODUCTION

1.1

Concrete: -Concrete is stone like material obtained artificially by hardening of the mixture of cement,

inert-aggregate materials (fine & course) and water in predetermined proportions. When these

ingredients are mixed, they form a plastic mass which can be poured in suitable moulds (forms) and

set-on standing into hard solid mass, as a result of exothermic chemical reaction between cement and

water. To produce a workable mix, more water is used over and above that needed for this chemical

reaction (water-cement ratio required for complete chemical reaction is about 0.25). The reaction

between cement and water is relatively slow and requires time and favorable temperature for its

completion.

Compressive Strength of concrete: -A wide range of strength properties can be obtained for concrete

by appropriate adjustment of the proportions of the constituent materials, using different degree of the

compaction and the conditions of temperature and moisture under which it is placed and cured. Watercement ratio is the main factor affecting the strength of concrete, as shown in figure below.

Compressive

Strength of

Concrete

Water-cement ratio

Standard test specimens of 150mm cube are taken at the age of 28days to determine the compressive

strength of concrete according to Ethiopian standard institution (ESI). At age of 7days, concrete may

attain approximately about 2/3 of the full compressive strength of concrete. In some national standard

(example ACI code), cylinder specimens of 150mm diameter by 300mm high are taken. Although the

load is applied uni-axially, the friction between the loading plate and the contact faces of the test

specimen has more effect on cube strength than the cylinder strength. Because of this, the cube strength

gives more strength than the true compressive strength of concrete, whereas, cylinder strength gives

reasonably the true compressive strength. On average, cube strength is taken as 1.25 times cylinder

strength. If large size aggregates are used, a cube mold with side 200mm may be used to determine

compressive strength of concrete. And strength of concrete is converted to 150mm cube compressive

strength by factor of 1.05.

The performance of materials of structure under load best be represented by stress-strain diagram. A

typical set of such curve are obtained at normal, moderate testing speed on concrete of 28days old are as

shown in figure below, for various compressive strength of concrete.

fc3

Concrete comp.

Strength

fc3>fc2>fc1

fc2

fc1

.002

.004

.006

Concrete strain

All the curves have some what similar character. Initially the curves are relatively straight line then begin to

curve to the horizontal, reaching the maximum compressive strength (cube or cylinder strength) at strain

approximately between 0.002 and 0.0025 and finally show a descending branch. Also it is seen that concrete

of lower strength are less brittle, that is fracture at a large maximum strain. Modulus of elasticity is seen to be

larger, the higher the strength of concrete. Modulus of elasticity of concrete may be defined as the initial

(dynamic) modulus, the tangent modulus and secant (static) modulus at stress level of 25% to 50% of the

compressive strength of concrete. But secant modulus is the simplest and the most commonly adopted

definition of elastic modulus of concrete. The definitions of elastic modulus of concrete are diagrammatically

shown in the figure below.

Tangent

modulus

Stress

Initial

modulus

Secant

EC

Strain

Tensile strength of concrete:- Even though concrete is weak in tension, its tensile strength is important in a

variety of items. Shear and torsion resistance of RC members primarily depend on tensile strength of

concrete. Further, the conditions under which cracks form and propagate on tension zone of RC flexural

members depend strongly on the tensile strength of concrete. Two methods are used to determine tensile

strength of concrete. These are beam-test and split-cylinder test method.

In beam test method, tensile strength of concrete is obtained by loading plain concrete test-beam laterally by

two point loads at the third points of test-beam until the tension zone of the beam fracture. Tensile strength of

concrete is then computed using flexural stress formula

M.c

in terms of modulus of rupture concrete. Where

I

M is the moment caused by the load applied on test beam that fracture on tension side and I c is sectionmodulus of a section of test beam. Standard size of test-beam according to BS 1881 is 150 x 150 x 750mm.

Because of the assumption that concrete is an elastic material and the bending stress is localized in outer most

fibers, it is apt to be larger than uniform axial tensile strength of concrete.

In split-cylinder test method, tensile strength of concrete is obtained by loading standard plain concrete

cylinder along the side until the cylinder splits in to two pieces. The tensile strength of concrete is the

computed by

2P

. d .l

based on the theory of elasticity for homogeneous material in a bi-axial state of stress.

Whatever the method, it is known that, the tensile strength of concrete is relatively low, and it is about 10 to

15% of compressive strength of concrete.

Shrinkage and Thermal Movement: -Concrete may under go deformations and volume changes with out

application of loading. This phenomenon may be caused by shrinkage and thermal-movement in fresh and

hardened concrete. Shrinkage of concrete is liable to cause cracking, but it has the beneficial effect of

strengthening the bond between the reinforcing steel and the surrounding concrete. Shrinkage of concrete

increases with time at decreasing rate as the drying of concrete continues with time at a decreasing rate, and

ceases with maximum strain approximately about 0.003. Shrinkage increases with increase in cement and

water content. Shrinkage of concrete caused initially by the absorption of water by cement and aggregate, and

further by evaporation of water which rises to surface as a result of capillary action. During setting process the

hydration of cement causes a great deal of heat to be generated, and as the concrete cools, further shrinkage

takes place due to thermal contraction. Thermal shrinkage may be reduced by:

1. Using a mix-design with low cement content. EBCS-2 specifies cement content not to exceed

550kg/m3 of concrete.

2. Avoiding rapid hardening & finely ground cement.

3. Keeping aggregate & mixing water cool, or may be need to keep them under shade.

4. Maintaining the temperature & evaporating water by proper curing.

The use of low water-cement ratio also helps to reduce drying shrinkage by minimizing lose of volume of

moisture in concrete by evaporation.

If concrete shrinks freely without restraint, stresses will not develop in the concrete. Restraint of concrete

shrinkage, on the other hand, will cause tensile stresses. This restraint may be caused externally by fixity with

adjoining members, and internally by the action of steel reinforcement. This restraint may be reduced by

casting concrete using a system of constructing successive bays. This method of casting concrete allows the

free-end of every bay to contract before the next bay is cast. Thermal-movement will also cause tensile

stresses in the structure. Thermal stresses may be controlled by correct positioning of expansion-joint in the

structure. When tensile stresses caused by restraint of concrete shrinkage & thermal-movement exceed the

tensile strength of concrete, cracks will occur. To control width of these cracks, steel reinforcement must be

provided close to the concrete surface. Codes of practice specify minimum quantities of reinforcement in a

member for this purpose.

Creep of Concrete: - Creep is the continuous deformation of a member under sustained compressive stress

over a considerable length of time (under long-term loading). It is a phenomenon associated with brittle

materials (concrete is a brittle material). Creep deformation depends on the stress in concrete, duration of

loading and water-cement ratio. The effect of creep has to be considered in design of reinforced concrete

member subjected to compressive stress mainly caused by long term loading (dead load). A typical variation

of deformations with time can be obtained for concrete member subjected to axial deformation under constant

Deformation,

inst.

inst.

creep re cov .

Reloading

Unloading

inst.. at 28 days

2

1. Creep increases with elapse of time at a decreasing rate and ceases at a final value depending on

concrete strength and other factors. The final creep can attain 1.5 to 3 times the instantaneous

strain.

2. Creep is found to be roughly proportional to the intensity of loading and to the inverse of concrete

strength.

3. Modulus of elasticity of concrete is found to be decreasing over period of time. It is modified

considering creep as (if required to determine long term deflection)

Ee =

Ec

1 +

where -- ratio of creep to instantaneous deformation depending on age of concrete at first loading

as given in table below

Table: Creep Coefficient (IS:456)

Age of concrete at loading

7 days

28 days

365 days

Creep coefficient

2.2

1.6

1.1

4. If the load is removed, only the instantaneous strain and some of creep will recover.

5. There is a continuous redistribution of stresses between the concrete and any steel present in the

un-cracked compression zone of reinforced concrete section.

The effect of creep is particularly important in beams, where the increased deformations may cause the

opening of cracks and damage of finishes. To reduce creep deformation, it is necessary to provide nominal

reinforcement in the compression zone of the beam. The nominal area of compression steel required by doubly

reinforced beam is about 0.4% of the area in compression (which may be taken as 0.2% of the whole area

including tension zone).

For both concrete end reinforcement the Code uses the term characteristic strength instead of

28-day works cube strength and yield stress, although it is related to these. The characteristic

strength for all materials has the notation fk and is defined as the value of the cube strength of

concrete (fcu), the yield or proof stress of reinforcement (fy), below which 5% of all possible test

results would be expected to fall. The value therefore is

fk = fm 1.64s

Where fm is the mean strength of actual test results determined in accordance with a standard

procedure, s is the standard deviation, and 1.64 is the value of the constant required to comply

with 5% of the test results falling below the characteristic strength, as indicated in Fig. 1.2.1.

Compressive Strength

The strength of concrete for design purposes will be based on compressive tests made on cubes

at an age of 28 days unless there is satisfactory evidence that a particular testing regime is

capable of predicting the 28-day strength at an earlier age. These 28-day characteristic strengths

determine the grade of the concrete and it is important to select the correct grade appropriate for

use. The concrete has to provide the durability for the environmental conditions as well as

adequate strength for the loading requirements.

Table 1.2.1 Grades of Concrete

Class

C5

C15

C20

II

C5

C15

C20

C25

C30

C40

C50

C60

tests on 150mm cubes at the age of 28 days. Cylindrical or cubical specimens of other sizes may

also be used with conversion factors determined from a comprehensive series of tests. In the

absence of such tests, the conversion factors given in Table 1.2.2 may be applied to obtain the

equivalent characteristic strength on the basis of 150mm cubes.

Conversion Factor

1.05

1.25

The characteristic cylinder compressive strength fck are given for different grades of concrete in

Table 1.2.3.

Table 1.2.3 Grades of Concrete and Characteristic Cylinder Compressive Strength fck.

Grades of

Concrete

fck

C15

C20

C25

C30

C40

C50

C60

12

16

20

24

32

40

48

In selecting an appropriate grade of concrete, the designer has to determine the environment and

exposure conditions to which the members of the structure will be subjected.

Stress Strain Curve

0.5

Tan - Secant Modulus

Tan - Tangent Modulus

As there is no fixed ratio of fck/ to define the term modulus of elasticity, whenever E is used

without further designation, it is usually meant the secant modulus Ec in MPa.

The modulus of elasticity depends not only on the concrete grade but also on the actual

properties of the aggregates used. In the absence of more accurate data,

Ec = 9.5( f ck + 8) 3

1

Creep

increase in strain under constant load with time is observed. Factors attributing:- loading at an

early stage, high water cement ratio, exposing the concrete to drying condition.

Tensile Strength

- Difficult to obtain from test because of handling problems. Based on tests for other

property empirical relations are used to obtain tensile strength. For instance, in Ethiopian

standards f ctk = 0.21 f ck2 3 , where fctk = tensile strength of concrete in MPa and fck =

1.2

Reinforcing Steel

Steel reinforcements are available in the form of round bars and welded wire fabric. The most commonly used

bars have projected ribs on the surface of bar. Such bars are called deformed bars. The ribs of deformed bar

improve the bond between steel and the surrounding concrete in RC members by providing mechanical keys.

A wide range of reinforcing bars is available with nominal diameter ranging 6mm to 35mm. Most bars except

6mm diameter are deformed one. Some of the common bar size with their application in concrete works are

given in table below.

Diam.

(mm)

Area

(cm2)

Weight

(kg/m)

Per.

(cm)

for stirrups

6

8

for slabs

10

12

16

18

20

22

25

14

28

0.28

0.50

0.785

1.13

1.54

2.01

2.52

3.14

3.8

4.9

6.2

.222

.395

.617

.888

1.21

1.57

2.0

2.47

3.0

3.9

4.8

1.88

2.51

3.14

3.77

4.4

5.02

5.65

6.28

6.9

7.85

8.79

Strength of reinforcing steel:- Reinforcing steel is capable of resisting both tension and compression.

Compared with concrete, it is a high strength material. For instance, the strength of ordinary reinforcing steel

is about 10 & 100 times, the compressive & tensile strength of common structural concrete.

Typical stress-strain curves for mild-steel and high-yield (cold-worked) steel are shown in figures below.

Ultimate

stress

0.2%

Fracture

point

Fracture

point

fy

stress , fS

Stress, fS

proof stress

ES = 200GPa

ES = 200GPa

0.002

Strain, S

(S-250MPa, S-300MPa)

Strain, S

(S-420MPa, S-460MPa, S-500MPa)

The strength of mild steel is taken as yield point or yield stress of steel whereas for high-yield steel is based

on specified proof stress of steel. 0.2% proof stress is specified in most codes to determine strength of highyield steel. A 0.2% offset is drawn parallel to the linear part of the stress-strain curve to determine 0.2% proof

stress.

The shape of the stress-strain curve is similar for all steel, and differs only in the value of strength of steel, the

modulus of elasticity, ES being for all practical purposes constant. ES is taken as 200GPa. For a design of RC

members, reinforcing steel up to grade of 550MPa can be used. If steel with grade beyond 550MPa is used for

RC member, the sections are under utilizing the reinforcement. This is because the width of concrete crack is

wide if the steel is fully stressed.

1.3

It is known that plain concrete is quite strong in compression, weak in tension. On the other hand, steel is a

high cost material which able to resist both tension & compression. The two materials (plain concrete &

reinforcing steel) are best be utilized in logical combination if steel bars are embedded in the plain concrete in

tension zone close to the surface. In this case, plain concrete is made to resist the compressive stresses and

reinforcing steel resists the tensile stresses. Both plain concrete & reinforcing steel bar together assumed to

act as one composite unit and it is termed as reinforced concrete (RC). The tensile stresses developed in the

section are transferred to reinforcing steel by the bond between the interfaces of the two materials.

In all RC members, strength design is made on the assumption that concrete does not resist any tensile

stresses. All the tensile stresses are assumed to be resisted by the reinforcing steel imbedded in tension zone.

Some times if necessary, reinforcing steel is provided in compression zone to assist the concrete resisting

compression in addition to reducing creep deformation.

Reinforcing steel & concrete may work readily in combinations due to the following reasons.

1. Bond between the bars & the surrounding concrete prevents slip of the bars relative to the

concrete. Adequate concrete cover for steel bar and embedment length of bar are required to

transfer stress between steel and concrete without slipping.

2. Proper concrete mixes provide adequate impermeability of concrete against bar corrosion.

3. Sufficiently similar rates of thermal expansion (0.00001/0C to 0.000013/0C for concrete and

0.000012/0C for steel) introduce negligible stresses between steel and concrete under temperature

changes.

Advantages of Reinforced Concrete:

1. It is monolithic. This gives it more rigidity.

2. It is durable. It does not deteriorate with time.

3. While it is plastic, it can be moldable into any desired shape.

4. It is fire, weather and corrosion resistant.

5. By proper proportioning of mix, concrete can be made water-tight.

6. It maintenance cost is practically nil.

10

1. It is difficult to demolish in case of repair of modification.

2. It is too difficult to inspect after the concrete has been poured.

Loads

Loads that act on structures can be divided into three categories: dead loads, live loads, and

environmental loads.

Dead loads are those that are constant in magnitude and fixed in location throughout the lifetime

of the structure. Usually the major part of the dead load is the weight of the structure itself. This

can be calculated with good accuracy from the design configuration, dimensions of the structure,

and density of the material. For buildings, floor fill, finish floors, and plastered ceilings are

usually included as dead loads, and an allowance is made for suspended loads such as piping and

lighting fixtures. For bridges, dead loads may include wearing surfaces, side walks, and curbing,

and an allowance is made for piping and other suspended loads.

Live loads consist chiefly of occupancy loads in buildings and traffic loads on bridges. They may

be either fully or partially in place or not present at all, and may also change in location. Their

magnitude and distribution at any given time are uncertain, and even their maximum intensities

throughout the lifetime of the structure are not known with precision. The minimum live loads

for which the floors and roof of a building should be designed are usually specified in the

building code that governs at the site of construction. Representative values of minimum live

loads to be used in a wide variety of buildings are found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings

and other structures.

Live loads in codes are usually approximated by uniformly distributed load. In addition to these

uniformly distributed loads, it is recommended that, as an alternative to the uniform load, floors

be designed to support safely certain concentrated loads if these produce a greater stress. Certain

11

reductions are often permitted in live loads for members supporting large areas, on the premise

that it is not likely that the entire area would be fully loaded at one time.

Service live loads for highway bridges are specified by the American Association of State

Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in its Standard Specifications for Highway

Bridges. For railway bridges, the American Railway Engineering Association (AREA) has

published the Manual of Railway Engineering, which specifies traffic loads.

Environmental loads consist mainly of snow loads, wind pressure and suction, earthquake loads

(i.e., inertia forces caused by earthquake motions), soil pressures on subsurface portions of

structures, loads from possible ponding of rainwater on flat surfaces, and forces caused by

temperature differentials. Like live loads, environmental loads at any given time are uncertain

both in magnitude and distribution.

Much progress has been made in recent years in developing rational methods for predicting

horizontal forces on structures due to wind and seismic action. Most building codes specify

design wind pressure per square foot of vertical wall surface. Depending upon locality, these

equivalent static forces vary from about 0.48 KPa up to 2.4KPa. factors considered in more up to

date standards include probable wind velocity exposure (urban vs. open terrain, for example),

and height of the structure, the importance of the structure (i.e. consequences of failure), and the

guest response factors to account for the fluctuating nature of the wind and its interaction with

the structure.

Seismic forces may be found for a particular structure by elastic or inelastic dynamic analysis,

considering the expected ground accelerations and the mass, stiffness, and damping

characteristic of the construction. However, often the design is based on equivalent static forces

calculated from provisions. The base shear is found by considering such factors as location, type

of structure and its occupancy, total dead load, and the particular soil condition. The total lateral

force is distributed to floors over the entire height of the structure in such a way as to

approximate the distribution of forces from a dynamic analysis.

12

Characteristic loads

For loading we use the characteristic load (Fk) as the basis. Ideally this should be determined

from the mean load and its standard deviation from the mean, and using the same probability as

for the materials we should say that Fk = Fm + 1.64s. The characteristic load would be that value

of loading such that not more than 5% of the spectrum of loading throughout the life of structure

Frequency of results

will lie above the value of the characteristic load (Figure 1.4.1).

Mean

Load

Characteristic

Load

1.64s

5% of results

to right of this

line

Fk = Fm + 1.64s

Fm

Load

The characteristic dead, imposed and wind loads have the notation Gk, Qk, Wk respectively,

where the upper-case letters denote the total load on a span. Lower-case letters denote uniform

load per square meter, although in design examples for beams the lower-case letters have been

used for a uniformly distributed load, so that Gk = gkl.

Behavior

In RC structures such as beams, the tension caused by bending moment is chiefly resisted by the

steel reinforcement while the concrete alone is usually capable of resisting the corresponding

compression. Such joint action of the two materials is assumed if the relative slip is prevented

13

which is achieved by using deformed bars, with their high bond strength at the steel concrete

interface. To illustrate the stress strain development for increased loading consider the following.

Increasing load

Tension cracks

c

fc

fc

NA

fc

As

ct

Strain

fs

f ct

Stress

(a) Very low loading

fs

Strain

Stress

s

Strain

fs

Stress

(c) loading nearly at failure

At low loads where tensile stress is less than or equals to fctk stress-strain relation shown in

At increased load tensile stress produced is larger than fctk (figure 1.4.2b) crack develops

below neutral axis, the steel alone carries all tensile force and hence the compressive stress

at extreme fiber is less than fc (linear stress distribution).

For further increment of load, the stress distribution is longer linear as shown in fig. 1.4.2c.

If the structure, say the beam, has reached its maximum carrying capacity, one may conclude the

following on the cause of failure.

(i). When the amount of steel is small at some value of the load, the steel reaches it yield

point. In such circumstances, the steel stretches a large amount and tension cracks in the

concrete widen visibly resulting significant deflection of the beam. Compression zone of

concrete increases ending up with crushing of concrete (secondary compression failure).

Such failure is gradual and is preceded by visible signs, widening and lengthening of

cracks, marked increase in deflection.

14

(ii). When a large amount of steel is used, compressive strength of concrete would be exhausted

before the steel starts yielding, thus, concrete fails by crushing. Compression failure

through crushing of concrete is sudden and occurs without warning.

Thus it is a good practice to dimension sections in such a way that should they be overloaded,

yielding of steel rather than crushing of concrete would initiate failure.

Behavior of RC Beam under Lateral Loading

When beam is subjected to gradually increasing lateral load, there is change in stresses & deformations. If

these stresses and deformations exceed the capacity of the materials of the beam, the beam will fail. Tests

have shown that RC beams may fail either along a vertical (normal) plane or a diagonal plane. The aim of

design of a member is to ensure resistance of section of beam along all planes. Three stages of behavior can

be observed at a section of maximum moment, when singly reinforced beam is subjected to gradually

increasing load till failure.

Stage-I (un-cracked section):- In initial stages of loading (under low loading), tension-cracks will not

develop in the section of RC beam. The stresses in compression & tension zone of concrete are within elastic

range; and the maximum tension stress, fct in the concrete is smaller than the tensile strength (modulus of

rapture) of concrete. The reinforcing steel deforms the same amount of the adjacent concrete and subjected to

tension stress. The distribution of strains and stresses in concrete & steel at section of maximum bending

moment of a beam in stage-I are shown in figure below. These strains & stresses distributions are used in

design of water-tight structures.

At low loading

No tension crack

fCC = EC. C

AS

b

Un-cracked

f S ES . S

=

n

n

Ct

Strain

Stress

15

Stage-II (cracked section under working load):- When the loading is further increased, the tensile strength

of concrete is soon reached, at this stage tension cracks start to develop in tension zone of the beam. These

cracks propagate quickly upward to or close to the level of the neutral plane, which in turn shifts further

upward with progressive cracking. In well designed beams, the width of these cracks is so small (hair-line

cracks) that they are not objectionable from the view point of either corrosion protection or appearance of

crack. It is known that the presence of these cracks profoundly affects the behavior of RC beam under the

load. These cracks make the concrete not to resist any tension stresses, the entire tension stresses are to be

resisted by the reinforcing steel placed in tension zone. At moderate loading, if the concrete stresses do not

exceed approximately fcu/3, stresses & strains continue to be closely proportional. The distribution of strains

& stresses developed in section of maximum bending moment of a beam at or near to vertical tension-crack

are shown in figure below. These strains & stresses distributions are used in working stress (elastic) design

method and in serviceability limit state for crack.

At moderate loading

Tension crack

fC fC,allow

C

x

d

f

fs

S , allow

n

n

AS

b

Cracked section

(Under working load)

Strain

Stress

Stage III (cracked section under ultimate load):- When the load is still further increased, the cracks in the

tension zone open and the tension in the bars reaches yield stress. The compressive stress in the concrete is no

longer proportional to the strain and, concrete continue to deform plastically. As the load is increasing, plastic

deformation in concrete is complete and failure commences. The strains & stresses developed at section of

maximum bending moment of a beam in this stage are shown in the figure below.

16

fcu

cu

x

d

S yd

< yd

AS

fS = fyd

= ES . S

b

Cracked section

(Under ultimate load)

Stress

Strain

The character of the transition from stage-II to stage-III depends upon the amount of reinforcement used by

the section. If the section is properly reinforced that is, under reinforced, failure will initiated by yielding of

tension steel. As steel bars yielding, the beam continues to deform until compression concrete cracks. Such

yield failure is gradual, and it is followed by visible signs. On other hand, if the section is over-reinforced, the

compression zone concrete will fail (crushes) before the steel bars reach the yield stress. Compression failure

through crushing of concrete is sudden, of an almost explosive nature, and occurs without warning. Beside

this, the section is uneconomical because large amount of steel is used by section compared to concrete.

1.5

The object of reinforced concrete design is to achieve a structure or part structure that will result in a safe and

economical solution. For a given structural system, the design problem consists of the following steps:

1. Idealization of structure for analysis (dimension of members, support condition of structure and etc.)

2. Estimation of loadings.

3. Analysis of idealized structural model to determine stress-resultants (axial forces, shear forces,

torsions & bending moments) and their effects (deformations).

4. Design of structural elements (if assumed dimensions are adequate).

5. Detailed structural drawings and schedule of reinforcing bars.

To achieve safe and economic structures, three philosophies of design had been adopted by codes of practices.

These are:

Working Stress Design (WSD) method: -WSD is the oldest and simplest method of design used for

reinforced concrete structures. It is based on the assumption that concrete is elastic, steel & concrete

together act elastically. Also, the stresses developed in concrete & steel are not exceeded the respective

17

allowable stresses any where in the structure when structure is subjected to the worst combination of

service design loads. The allowable stresses of materials are determined dividing material strengths by a

factor of safety. Safety factors specified by British standard are 3 for concrete and 1.8 for reinforcing

steel. These safety factors are obtained from many years of practical experience and engineering

judgment. The safety factors specified by codes are assumed to cover all uncertainties existing in

estimations of service design loads and material strengths.

The sections of members of structure are designed in accordance with elastic theory of bending assuming that

both materials obeying Hookes law. The elastic theory assumes a linear variation of strain & stress from zero

at neutral axis to a maximum at the extreme fibers of section of member; and the maximum stress developed

any where in properly designed element of structure not to exceed the allowable stress of the materials.

Thus, design format used in WSD method may be expressed as:

The main drawbacks of WSD method are as follows:

1. Concrete is not elastic material. The inelastic behavior of concrete starts right from very low stresses.

The actual stress distribution of concrete in section can not be described by a triangular stress

diagram.

2. Since factor of safety is applied on the strength of materials, there is no way to account for different

degrees of uncertainty associated with different types of loadings.

3. It is difficult to account for creep and shrinkage by computations of elastic stresses.

Beside these drawbacks, the method does not ensure consistence safety of structure and also provide

uneconomical section.

Ultimate Strength Design (USD) method: -Design of structure or part of structure in USD method is

based on ultimate load theory; and it is made to resist the desired ultimate (collapse) loads using idealized

strength model (either parabola or parabola-rectangle stress block) just before failure of section

plastically. In ultimate load theory, it is assumed that the section of member of structure failed plastically

when the maximum compressive strain of concrete reaches the ultimate compressive strain of concrete

specified by codes (may be about 0.3 to 0.35%). The desired ultimate loads are obtained by increasing

sufficiently the service loadings using specified factors. These factors are called over-load factors.

Separate over-load factors are applied for different loadings considering uncertainties existing in

estimation of different loadings. Design format used in USD method may be expressed as:

strength provided

( stress block )

( analysis of structure )

18

A major advantage of USD method over WSD method is that total safety factor of structure thus found to be

nearer to its actual value. Further, structures designed by USD method require less reinforcement than those

designed by the WSD method.

The main draw backs of USD method are as follows:

1. Since load factor is used on the service loads, there is no way to account for different degrees of

uncertainty associated with variation in material strengths.

2. There is complete disregard for control against excessive deflections.

Limit State Design (LSD) method: -Limit state design method has developed from ultimate strength

design method in order to apply in service load and ultimate load conditions. Design of structure in limit

state is made to achieve an acceptable probability that structure or part of it will not become unfit for use

for which it is intended during expected life. That is, it will not reach any of the specified limit state. The

limit state of structure is the condition of its being not fit for use. A structure with appropriate degrees of

reliability should be able to withstand safely all possible combinations of design loads that are liable to

act on it throughout its life and it should also satisfy the serviceability requirements, such as, limitations

on deflection and cracking. Further, it should be able to maintain the required structural integrity during

and after accidents such as fires, explosions and local failure. In other words, all relevant limit states must

to be considered in design to ensure an adequate degree of safety and serviceability. These limit states

which must be examined in design are broadly classified in to two major limit states. These are:

- Ultimate strength limit state (Limit state of collapse), and

- Serviceability limit state

Ultimate strength limit state: -which deals with the strength and stability of the structure under the

maximum over load it is expected to carry. This implies that whole of the structure or part of it should not

fail under any combination of expected over load. Ultimate load theory is generally applicable for

ultimate strength limit state. Ultimate strength limit state may include ultimate limit state for:

-flexure

-shear

-compression

-torsion

-tension

-stability of structure for over-turning & sliding

19

Serviceability limit state: -which deals with conditions such as deflection, cracking of structure under

service loads, durability, excessive vibration, fire resistance, fatigue, etc. Elastic (working stress) theory is

generally applicable for serviceability limit state.

When dealing with the most economical structure associated with safety and serviceability requirements,

the variability exists between construction materials and the construction process itself. We should be

able to state a design philosophy to cope with the various criteria required to define the serviceability or

usefulness of any structure in a rational manner.

The various criteria required to define the serviceability or usefulness of any structure can be described

under the following headlines. The effects listed may lead to the structure being considered 'unfit for use'.

(i). Collapse: failure of one or more critical sections; overturning or buckling.

(ii). Deflection: the deflection of the structure or any part of the structure adversely affects

the appearance or efficiency of the structure.

(iii). Cracking: cracking of the concrete which may adversely affect the appearance or efficiency of the

structure.

(iv). Vibration: vibration from forces due to wind or machinery may cause discomfort or alarm,

damage the structure or interfere with its proper function.

(v). Durability: porosity of concrete.

(vi). Fatigue: where loading is predominantly cyclic in character the effects have to be considered.

(vii). Fire resistance: insufficient resistance to fire leading to 1, 2 and 3 above.

When any structure is rendered unfit for use for its designed function by one or more of the above causes,

it is said to have entered a limit state. The Code defines the limit states as:

(i). Ultimate limit state: the ultimate limit state is preferred to collapse.

(ii). Serviceability limit states: deflection, cracking, vibration, durability, fatigue, fire resistance and

lightning.

The purpose of design then is to ensure that the structure being designed will not become unfit for the use

for which it is required, i.e. that it will not reach a limit state. The essential basis for the design method,

therefore, is to consider each limit state and to provide a suitable margin of safety. To obtain values for

this margin of safety it was proposed that probability considerations should be used and the design

20

process should aim at providing acceptable probabilities so that the structure would not become unfit for

use throughout its specified life.

Accepting the fact that the strengths of construction materials vary, as do also the loads on the structure,

two partial safety factors will now be used. One will be for materials and is designated m; the other, for

loading, is termed f. These factors will vary for the various limit states and different materials. As new

knowledge on either materials or loading becomes available the factors can be amended quit easily

without the complicated procedures to amend one overall factor used in previous Codes.

The normal procedure is to design for a critical limit state and then to check for the other limit states are

satisfied. The critical state for reinforced concrete structures is usually the ultimate limit state. However,

water-retaining structures and prestressed concrete is usually designed at the serviceability limit state with

checks on the ultimate limit state.

The limit states failure criteria can be summarized as follows:

(Design load effects Qd) (Deisgn resistance Rd)

f Qn

Where

fk

Qn = nominal load

Rd = design resistance = fk/m

fk = characteristic material strength

Each of these terms are discussed in the following sections.

Safety Factors

Design Situations

Concrete, c

Reinforcing Steel, s

Class I

Class II

Class I

Class II

1.50

1.65

1.15

1.20

Accidental

1.30

1.45

1.00

1.10

21

Design Situation

Action

Factor,

Favorable

Unfavorable

Persistent and

Permanent

1.00

1.30

Transient

Variable

0.00

1.60

Accidental

Permanent

1.00

1.00

1.6

Class

Examples

Action

Direct

Indirect

Settlement, shrinkage,

Permanent

direct permanent

actions)

Time variation

Variable

Temperature effects

loads

Accidental

Temperature rise

during fire

Fixed

Free

Static

Dynamic

Closely bounded

Others

rails)

Spatial variation

Static/dynamic

Not closely

bounded

vehicles

All gravity loads

Engines, turbines, wind on

slender structures

Snow, people

22

Design values for actions for use in combination with other actions at ULS.

Permanent

Accidental

actions

actions

Principal action

Favorable

1.0Gk

Unfavorable

1.3Gk

1.6Qk

1.60Qk

1.0Gk

Ad

1.01Qk

1.02Qk

Design Situation

Fundamental

Accidental

Combination values:

Qr = 0Qk

Frequent values:

Qr = 1Qk

Variable actions

Where,

Qr = representative value

Qk = characteristic value

Category A, B

0.7

0.5

0.3

Category C, D

0.7

0.7

0.6

Category E

1.0

0.9

0.8

Action

Imposed loads

Wind

0.6

0.5

0*

Snow

0.6*

0.2*

0*

Category A Domestic, Residential.

Category B Offices

Category C Congregation areas

Category D Shopping areas.

Category E Storage areas

23

Characteristic Load: -It is defined as that load which has a 95% probability of not being exceeded

Lk = Lm + 1.64 L

Where

Lm

- mean load

Even if characteristic load can be defined ideally in statistical terms, it is not yet possible to determine

statistically in absent of sufficient load data. The nominal values given by codes may be taken as

characteristic values.

Design loads: - Factors are used to allow for the possible differences in the loads that may actually come

Ld = f . Lk

Where

Lk - characteristic load

- partial safety factor appropriate to the nature of loading and limit state being

considered

In the design of structures, the design loads shall be considered to act in combinations which produce the

most unfavorable effect.

-Design load combinations for Limit state according to ESCP-1/83 are given as follow:

i) Ultimate Strength Limit State:

DL & LL

(1.3DL+1.6LL) or

DL, LL &WL

0.8*(1.3DL+1.6LL+1.6WL)

1.2*(DL+LL+WL)

0.9DL+1.3WL

DL+1.6WL

DL, LL & EQ

(DL+LL+EQ)

or

DL & EQ

0.9DL+EQ

DL & WL

(1.0DL)

--the corresponding in EBCS-1

0.75*(1.3DL+1.6LL)+EQ

DL & LL

DL, LL & WL

DL+LL or

DL, only

DL+0.8*(LL+WL)

-Design load combinations for WSD method according to ESCP-1/83 are given as follow:

DL & LL

DL, LL & WL

DL & WL

DL+LL

0.8*(DL+LL+WL)

0.8*(0.9DL+WL)

24

DL, LL & EQ

DL & EQ

0.7*(DL+LL+EQ)

0.7*(0.9DL+EQ)

Characteristic Strength of Material: -is defined as that strength below which not more than 5% of the

test-results are expected to fall. The same definition is used for both concrete and reinforcing steel. The

characteristic strength of material, fk if given by

f k = f m 1.64 f

where

fm

concrete; and characteristic strength of steel is represented by the yield or 0.2% proof stress, f y , of

reinforcing steel.

Characteristic Tensile Strength of Concrete: the characteristic tensile strength of concrete can be

determined statistically by the same equation given above using test results obtained from split-cylinder

test or from beam-test. It can also be determined using empirical relation obtained from a number of tests

in terms of characteristic compressive strength of concrete given by codes. According to ESCP-2,

characteristic tensile strength of concrete is obtained using

f ctk = 0.35 f cu

Grade of Concrete: -concrete is graded in terms of characteristic compressive cube strength. The grade

of concrete to be used in design depends on the classification of concrete works and its intended use.

EBCS-2 specifies grades of concrete for two classes of concrete works as shown below.

Table:

Grades of concrete

Class

C-5

C-15

C-20

II

C-5

C-15

C-20

C-25

C-30

25

C-40

C-50

C-60

Classes of concrete works are given depending on the quality of workmanship and the competence of the

supervisions directing the works. Class II work are permissible only for single story agricultural, social or

residential buildings and structures.

Grades C-5 shall be used only for lean concrete bases and simple foundations for masonry walls. Grades

lower than C-15 can not be used in reinforced concrete, lower than C-30 can not be used pre-stressed

concrete.

Acceptance (Compliance) Criteria for Concrete: In order to ensure proper control on the quality of

concrete, codes provide acceptance criteria. Random samples of concrete mix are taken and tested after

28 days. According to IS:456-78 code, the strength requirement is satisfied if:

A. Every sample has a test compressive strength not less than the specified grade of concrete. or

B. The strength of one or more samples, though less than the specified grade of concrete, is in

each case not less than 0.8 times the specified grade of concrete.

According to ACI-318 code, adequate control of strength of concrete occurs when the following

requirements are met:

1) Average of all set of the three consecutive compressive strength tests is equal or exceeded the

specified grade of concrete.

2) No individual compressive strength test (average of two cylinders) fall below the specified grade

of concrete by more than 3.4MPa.

According to EBCS-2/95 code, adequate control of strength of concrete occurs when the following

conditions are satisfied simultaneously:

f C (avg of the min imum strength for several lots ) ( f cu m arg in strength, k 2 )

where

margin strength, k1 and k2 specified by code is 5MPa & 1MPa for samples in the first two lots,

4MPa & 2MPa for samples in third & fourth lots, and 3MPa & 3MPa for samples in fifth lots &

above, respectively.

Design Strength of Material in Limit State: The design strength for a given material and limit state is

given by:

fd =

fk

m partial safety factor for materials

26

However, in the case of concrete under compression, a further correction factor (about 0.67 times fd, the

corresponding in the latest code is 0.68 times fd) is introduced to account for the difference in strength

indicated by a cube test and the strength of concrete in structure. Thus, the design strength of concrete and

steel are given by:

(a) In compression:

f cd =

0.67 f cu

(ESCP-2/83)

or

f ctd =

(b) In tension:

f cd =

or

f cd =

0.68 f cu

(EBCS-2/95)

0.85 f ck

f ctk

f yd =

f yk

Design Strength of Materials in Working Stress Design Method: The design strength of materials in

working stress design method is the allowable (permissible) stress which is generally given by

f allow =

where

fk

FS

FS Factor of safety specified by code

-According to British standards (CP-114), factor of safety of 3 is applied to the strength of concrete; and

1.8 is applied to the strength of steel. And, whatever the strength of steel, the allowable tensile stress in

steel is limited to a maximum value of 230MPa.

-According to ESCP-1, allowable strength of materials are given depending on classes of concrete works

as follows:

27

for f y = 275.8 MPa & f y = 344.8 MPa

137.8 MPa

f s , allow =

165.5 MPa

Idealized Stress-Strain Diagrams: For s design purpose, most codes adopt idealized stress-strain

stress-strain diagram is given for concrete in compression as shown in figure below.

fc

f cu

f cd =

0.67 f cu

- 0.002

- 0.0035

This code also idealized the stress-strain diagram for steel with ultimate strain of 0.01 as shown in figure

below. It is a portion of stress-strain diagram of steel. The maximum strain of steel, s , max = 0.01

permitted by code assumed to limit width of concrete crack in tension zone to acceptable limit.

fy

fs

f yd =

fy

ES = 200 GPa

0.01

28

Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete: According to ESCP-2/83 and EBCS-2/95, mean value of the secant

modulus, EC is given as shown in table below.

f cu (MPa)

Ec (GPa) ---ESCP-2/83

Ec (GPa) ---EBCS-2/95

1.7

24

25

26

28

31

34

---

26

27

29

32

35

37

39

A structure should be analyzed for all possible arrangement of live loading (including dead load on the

structure which may cover the whole length) which produce the maximum stresses-resultant (bending

moment & shear force) at particular point of structure. Live load arrangement on continuous beam to

cause:

a) Maximum positive span moment is to load that particular span and alternate span.

b) Maximum negative support moment is to load the adjacent span of that support and then alternate

span.

Analysis of continuous beam are made for all possible alternative arrangements of live load (including

dead load) to obtain design shear force envelope diagram and bending moment envelope diagram by

over-lapping internal forces diagrams obtained for different loading arrangements.

29

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