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Pilot Study on Time Use Survey, 1998/1999

1. Introduction
National Socio-Economic Survey (properly known as Susenas 1) and many other survey
conducted by BPS-Statistics Indonesia (BPS), could only produce data for macro level, at most up to
district level. During the era of centralistic planning the availability of data at macro level might be
sufficient, but when the government implemented the autonomy era, the needs for micro level data
would be more desirable. Considering the needs for micro level data, especially at village level, then in
1994 BPS conducted a survey, called 100 Village Survey. This survey is almost similar to that of
Susenas, but for village level estimates. In line with its name, the survey was indeed conducted in 100
villages, located in 8 provinces and 10 districts. The survey was initially designed as a longitudinal
survey, in which selected villages/household samples would be traced over time.
The survey was repeated in 1997 with funding support from UNICEF and Asian Development Bank
(ADB). The planned panel survey, could only be conducted at village level since collecting data from
the same selected households of the 1994 survey could not be undertaken, due to incompleteness in
household identification. To evaluate the impact of the 1997 economic crisis during 1998-1999,
UNICEF again provided funding for 100 village survey. In a way of identifying possible changes
which might happen drastically, then during these two years the survey was conducted four times, two
times in 1998 (August and December), and two times in 1999 (May and October).
Time Use Survey was a part of 100 village survey 1998 and 1999. Time use data were collected
twice, i.e., in December 1998 and October 1999. The general objective of the Time Use Survey is to
find the time allocation of activities conducted by each household member. The specific objectives
among other are:
-

To find the time allocation of household members, representing children age 0-11 months, 1-5
years, 6-21 years, women age 15-49 years, and head of household.

To see the contribution of parents and youth in the domestic works, particularly in caring
children2.

2. Survey Methodology
One of the objective of 100 Village Survey is to profide socio-economic data, differentiated according
to village typology; i.e., urban vs rural, coastal vs in land, poor vs non poor, java vs outer java, and
western part vs eastern part of Indonesia. To fulfill this objective, then provinces, districts, and villages
were selected purposively, such that the selected locations representing all kinds of village typology as
mentioned above.
1
2

Susenas is an annual household survey to provide data on social welfare of the population
Time Use Survey was conducted in relation to Mother and Child Survival Development and Protection (MCSDP) framework.

As many as 120 households were selected using systematic random sampling in each village for
Susenas type data collection. Total household samples for 100 villages were 12,000 households. The
sample size for Time Use Survey were 10 percent of 100 village survey, i.e., 12 households per village,
or totally 1,200 households. These 12 households were drawn systematically from eligible households
in the 120 selected households. The selected households for Time Use Survey must fulfill the criteria
for eligible respondent, i.e., there should be at least one household member age 0-11 months, 1-5 years,
age 6-21 years, and women age 15-49 years. If there were more than 1 household member in an age
group, then only 1 person was selected as respondent.
3. Result of the Survey
The example of the results of Time Use Survey are shown in the 3 tables attached. Table 1
indicates time allocation for youth (age 6-21 years), Table 2 shows time allocation for women age 1549 years, and Table 3 present time allocation for the head of households.
4. Lessons Learnt
Time use data provide important information on distribution of activities among household
members. It can give a better picture on the number of hour spent by each household member for
domestic works, economic activities, as well as leisure. Implementation of the survey however, is
relatively difficult and costly. Difficulties in data collection among others are:
-

Respondent, especially those living in rural area and less educated, didnt care with time. They
couldnt give any information on when and how long they spent for each activity. For these
kind of respondents, the enumerator have to stay and observe the respondent activities for a
whole day,

Respondent, especially women aged 15-49 years, may conduct more than one activity at the
same time. A mother for example, may do cooking and cleaning house interchangeable, and at
the same time carrying her child in her neck. This might results that the total number of hours
for all activities more than 24 hours a day.

Table 3. Time Allocation* of Children Age 6-21 Years by Age Group, Year 1999
(Hours)
Activities

6-12 Years

13-15
Years

16-18
Years

19-21
Years

House keeping

1.12

1.82

2.16

2.18

Caring children age 1-5 years

1.53

1.70

1.67

1.42

Caring elderly

1.47

1.32

1.21

0.48

Schooling

4.65

4.72

5.35

4.07

Working

2.29

3.87

4.40

6.07

Leisure

2.39

2.91

2.73

2.96

13.45

16.34

17.52

17.18

Total
*

Excluding private activities such as eating, bathing, and praying

Table 4. Time Allocation* of Women Age 15-49 Years by Urban-Rural, Year 1999
(Hours)
Activities

Urban

Rural

Total

House keeping

5.53

4.53

4.73

Caring children age 1-5 years

4.70

4.69

4.69

Caring elderly

1.40

1.45

1.44

Schooling

1.44

0.82

1.13

Working

5.64

4.63

4.79

Leisure

2.00

1.52

1.64

Social Activities

5.09

6.09

5.88

25.80

23.73

24.24

Total
*

Excluding private activities such as eating, bathing, and praying

Table 5. Time Allocation* of Head Household by Urban-Rural, Year 1999


(Hours)
Activities

Urban

Rural

Total

House keeping

1.10

0.78

0.85

Caring children age 1-5 years

1.15

1.09

1.10

Caring elderly

1.59

1.22

1.32

Schooling

3.68

0.78

1.79

Working

7.86

7.46

7.60

Leisure

2.48

1.87

2.05

Social Activities

3.17

2.52

2.63

21.03

15.72

19.13

Total
*

Excluding private activities such as eating, bathing, and praying

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