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LIBRARY OF

WELLESLEY COLLEGE

PURCHASED FROM
BUNTING FUND

MUSIC THEORY TRANSLATION SERIES


Richard L. Crocker, Editor

The Practical Harmonist at


by Francesco Gasparini

the

Harpsichord,

The Practical Harmonist


at the Harpsichord

The Practical Harmonist


at the Harpsichord

by

FRANCESCO GASPARINI

translated by

FRANK

S.

STILLINGS

edited by

DAVID

L.

BURROWS

YALE SCHOOL OF MUSIC

NEW HAVEN

Xit^r\>CoW

Copyright 1963

The

Journal of Music Theory


Yale School of Music
New Haven, Connecticut

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 63-20104


Design, Typography, Printing, and Binding by
Kingsport Press, Inc., Kingsport, Tenn.

MUSIC LIBRARY

41

This publication ivas made possible by a grant from


the

Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies


of the University of Michigan.

Foreword

TRANSLATION OF GASPARINl's TREATISE ON FIGURED

bass scarcely needs justification during the present revival of interest in

baroque music.

The pivotal role of the harpsichordist in the proper rendi-

tion of this music has created an urgent need for formal instruction in
realizing a basso continuo

and

especially for realizing

it

in an authentic,

appropriate fashion. Despite the best efforts of editors of baroque music


to provide

ready-made

solution acceptable to

realizations,

Aside from
there

is

this

increasingly clear that the only

the original one, in

all is

keyboard player provides

it is

his

own

which

a properly trained

realization tailored for the occasion.

purely practical purpose of a figured bass

treatise,

wider purpose that touches on the education of every musician,

amateur or professional. Figured

bass,

long identical with the teaching of

harmony, can lead us to an understanding of the very fabric of our

tradi-

tional music. Just as

we now

the

development of modern harmonic practice, so

first

step in the

realize that placing

also realize that learning to play


first

of

on

a bass in the traditional

step in the mastery of that practice.

harmony
There

is

in

chords over a bass was

The

is

the

student can begin his study

no better way than with figured

no better introduction

manner

we

bass.

to figured bass than Gasparini's

L'Armonico Pratico al Cimbalo of 1708. Born in 1668, Gasparini studied


vii

Foreword

vili

in

Rome

under Bernardo Pasquini, was then professionally occupied in

Venice, and

later

Rome,

until his death in 1727; thus he

worked amid

the operas and cantatas of Pasquini, Bononcini, and Alessandro Scarlatti.

Writing

in

Venice shortly

after 1700, Gasparini stood at the historical

time and place best suited to a clear understanding of Italian baroque

music

and therefore of figured

harmony. Late enough to include

bass

comprehensive treatment of mature baroque

style, early

enough

to avoid

the sometimes intricate, sometimes extravagant procedures of the mid-

eighteenth century, Gasparini's formulation was, indeed, the classic one,

providing the core of

later,

more

elaborate systems such as Heinichen's.

In summarizing what was essential in seventeenth-century practice, Gasparini presented the basic facts of traditional

harmony in

a simple, elegant

way.
Gasparini's treatise begins at the beginning, showing the student
to place his hands

on the keyboard

work proceeds through

to

produce harmony. From there the

ascending, then descending motion

by leap, always providing

how

by

and

step

with enough variants and ex-

a basic rule along

ceptions to reflect actual harmonic practice and to furnish musical interest.

All that

criticize,

from

but no more,

is

included; indeed, one might

a theoretical point of view,

some of the rough-and-ready

is

essential,

and octaves. But

solutions to basic problems, for instance parallel fifths

Gasparini

writing for the player, not the composer: his rules cover

is

those aspects of style that a player, accompanying from a bass

even

can be expected

at sight

that a composer,
parini's treatise

working

is

to control, not necessarily those niceties

at leisure,

must

attain.

For

this

reason too, Gas-

well-suited to the needs of the beginning student,

cannot be expected to grasp

the. reasons for provisions against sins

not yet hear. As a reward for the student


treatment of triads and chords of the

sixth,

end a rich dessert of sevenths and ninths

who

down

has depended in our

own time.

he can-

Gasparini provides toward the

not

"for fuller sonority,"

who

perseveres through the

to speak of those magnifi-

cent diminished sevenths and acciaccaturas, requiring

hands can put

perhaps

as

upon which

many notes as

the

the author's fame

Foreword

ix

The problems

of translation have been treated too often and too

well to be rehearsed here; enough to say that

be

as literal,

have not hesitated to

or as free, as the original text and clear English allowed and

required. Gasparini's

meaning

is

almost always apparent; his language

presents the English translator with


equivalents,

we

drawn from

few

real problems.

Modern English

the standard vocabulary of the subject, have

been found for most technical terms. For the few exceptions, the meaning and justification will usually be self-evident.

comment here on a few matters.


The most interesting problem
was struggling

may

be helpful to

of terminology occurs in Chapter

VIII, devoted to keys and modulations.


rini

Still, it

Throughout

to express concepts for

which

this

chapter Gaspa-

a standard

vocabulary

did not yet exist; he hesitated between old terms and concepts
relevant,
ally

and new, pragmatic ones. Here

awkward

we

have

let

stand his occasion-

expressions, since these are of great interest to the history

of theory. In this chapter the term "Tono," always capitalized,


designate a higher tonal order
talized (except in

fused, set

now

and always has

this

is

used to

meaning when capi-

one instance where the typesetter, understandably con-

"mezzo Tono"); but the meaning of "Tono" changes

course of the chapter from

term

no longer

one way,

marked with

now

a footnote

"mode"

We

the other, according to

what seemed

one meaning to the other.

to "key."

The

its

in the

have translated the

meaning, and have

to be the principal transition

from

reader can obtain the original appearance

by reading both "mode" and "key"

as "tone,"

noting at the same time

the transitional use of this term.

In Chapter
risk of

IX we have

retained Gasparini's term "mordent"

momentary confusion

because there seemed

to be

no

at the

alternative.

The original term "acciaccatura" has, of course, been retained. In Chapter


VII we have followed Gasparini in referring to diminished sevenths as
"minor," since this happens only a few times; we have, however, placed
this

"minor" in quotation marks.


Gasparini sometimes provides pitch-letters with solmization syllables,

for example
it

will

G sol re ut. These have been preserved, on the grounds that

do the student no harm to be familiar with them; in any case they

Foreword

offer

no cause for confusion or obscurity, being

we

sistently perhaps,

always
is

Incon-

easily passed over.

have rendered "b.molle," "b.quadro," and "diesis"

and "sharp"; but here the original meaning

as "flat," "natural,"

not immediately apparent to the modern reader, nor

Gasparini's

is

own

usage (he sometimes uses merely the sign) so consistent. In the musical

examples

except

in

Chapter

III

we have

when the latter canceled a sharp,


The word "andante" has been
household word in

mon

Italian,

substituted a natural for a flat

in accordance

with modern practice.

variously translated.

and has been so interpreted

It

is,

of course, a

in Ex.i 36

("Com-

cadence" for "Cadenze andanti"), the more technical meanings not

seeming applicable in that

case.

But even

its

technical meanings pose

problems, for in cases like Ex.i 38, the expression "pi andante" certainly

means

"faster."

There

is,

incidentally, other evidence for such a reading;

one can make out a good case for understanding "andante"


along" in

as

"going right

seventeenth-century meaning.

its

In accordance with seventeenth-century practice, Gasparini beats


"one-to-the-bar": each measure of
tuta"), a

way

downbeat

through.

been translated

at the

common time receives one beat

beginning of the measure and an upbeat half-

"mezza battuta," therefore,


but

as such,

it is

is

a half-measure,

time the beat also

falls

own notion of beat.

on the measure; here the downbeat

tionally twice as long as the upbeat, hence notes that begin

beat and extend through the third

On two

fetto,

deals

or "in perfect, that

only

be regarded

as

common

time. In the

on the second

syncopated.

first

mean

case (at Ex.31),

is,

"in perfect (triple) time, or in duple time,"

duple time"; the quarter-note progressions he

however, would be too complex for the

triple

time that could be involved.

fast

The second

pace of

another

name

for duple, or

common

time. In

the

case (at Ex.62) al-

lows only the second interpretation, in which "tempo perfetto"


as

tradi-

with quarter-note motion, Gasparini's words "in tempo per-

o binario" could

describes,

may

is

In

occasions Gasparini speaks of "tempo perfetto" ("perfect

time"), but means thereby

which

and has

of great importance for an understanding

of Gasparini's harmonic rhythm to be aware of his


triple

("bat-

any

is

taken

case, the triple

Foreword

xi

measures of the seventeenth century are

properly

"perfect time" (this not having been in

common

speaking

not

in

use since the early

sixteenth century), but are proportions, as Gasparini elsewhere calls

them. Gasparini's term "tempo,"

when

it

means the time-unit equal to

a quarter-note, has been translated as "count," hence "for

The

traditional

their

modern

The

names for the various rhythmic values have been given

equivalents, as "half -note" for "minima."

rendering of the musical examples has required more adjust-

ment than the

text itself, in order that

distract the student, while at the

the

form of the

the

few examples

original.

in

no peculiarity of notation might

same time retaining

by

clef

The

as

much

as possible

No reduction of times-values was made, even for

or

^
;

these, of course,

appearance suggests, but that in any case


marks.

two counts."

soprano clef has been replaced

is

by

go much
clear

faster than their

from Gasparini's

the "violin" clef, the tenor

the bass clef; but exception has been made, particularly in the

examples, where the original clefs seemed

re-

more

appropriate.

The

first

familiar

cursive (oval) note-forms have been substituted for the rhomboidal ones

formerly used for typeset; accordingly, eighth- and sixteenth-notes have

been beamed in appropriate groupings, except in a few cases

illustrating

recitative.

Barlines presented the greatest problem: Gasparini used the single bar
to

mark

off separate instances of the progression in question;

single bar
ture,

is

also

but the

used in those examples that have, or imply, a time signa-

hence a regular measure. Apparently put off by

original editor did not escape inconsistency;

this

ambiguity, the

nor have the present ones.

We have used the double bar, rather than the single one, to mark off successive instances of the

same example. These instances may, or

may

not,

be playable consecutively; but they need not be so played for the sake of
the example.

When a time-signature

(C)

is

present in the original (or, be-

ing implied, has been added), then the single bar has been used regularly
in accordance

with modern practice.

Gasparini places his figures sometimes above, sometimes below the


bass;

sometimes the greater figures are above the

lesser ones,

sometimes

Foreword

xii

not. It

we

perhaps more convenient to put the figures above the bass, but

is

have put them below, with the greater above the

more common

practice nowadays. In a

few

lesser, that

being the

cases an essential figure, obvi-

ously missing or wrong, has been supplied in parentheses; no attempt has

been made, however, to "complete" the figuring, for


ridiculous extremes, but

is

this

not only leads to

contrary to the original intent, which

is

to

teach the student to play from an z/Tzfigured bass, deriving the nature of
the chord

from the nature of the progression. Omission of

figures, then,

speeds the student's progress, while unnecessary addition hinders

To all of this there is one notable group of exceptions.


sionally writes out a progression in "tablature," a
score. After
as

much

it.

Gasparini occa-

form of keyboard

hesitation, the editors decided to leave these

examples

they stood, partly for lack of a modern equivalent that retained certain

important features of the original, partly because the original, in

its

external appearance, bears a striking resemblance to those difficult "un-

measured preludes" found in French keyboard music of the


teenth century

for which Gasparini's examples

in tablature

later seven-

might con-

ceivably prove helpful. Also left untouched (except, as always, in the

manner of forming the notes themselves)

are certain examples

showing

the constitution of intervals, especially diminished fifths and sevenths;

here the original notation seemed as good as any.

showing where to

sustain a note in the

And

in Ex.83 tne

u es

upper part over movement in the

makeshift for a later notation.

bass, are Gasparini's

Gasparini, or his editor, consistently places each musical example at


the point

cerns

it.

where

it is

needed, directly following the discussion that con-

We have endeavored to do the same; only in two or three trivial

cases have several examples

been placed on one

line,

for purely typo-

last

chapter has been

graphical reasons. Similarly, the format of the

changed considerably, without, however, changing the substance. The


incomplete

state of

Ex. 141 was probably caused by the requirements of

the original format; the student can easily


Eitner's Quellen-Lexikon

publisher Bortoli

fourth in

the

745 (there

first in

is

at

lists five

fill

in the missing notes himself.

editions

by

the original Venetian

1708, a second in 17 15, a third in 1729, a

Yale what seems to be a reprint of

this

fourth

Foreword

xiii

edition, dated

MDCCLIV),

and

a fifth in 1764; other editions

by

in

Bologna in 171

in

Venice in 1802. Our translation has been made from the

and 1722;

finally a sixth, revised edition

by

Silvani

Seb. Valle

first edition,

Few emendations have been


necessary; they are indicated in the footnotes. The later editions are menwhose

title

page

is

reproduced on page

tioned only in a very

few

cases

2.

where they provide better

numerous minor differences not being noted


F.

here.

readings, their

Except for portions in

T. Arnold's The Art of Accompaniment from a Thorough-Bass (Lon-

don, 193 1), Gasparini's treatise has not previously been published in

English translation.

RICHARD
Yale University

January 1963

L.

CROCKER

Acknowledgment

The

editors of the Journal of Music Theory wish to

express their appreciation to Brooks Shepard


script;

Jr.,

for reading the

manu-

Marion Gushee, for copying the musical examples; Adrienne Sud-

dard, for readying the manuscript;

and the Library of Congress, for

furnishing a photograph of the original

title

page.

Contents

Foreword

vii

Acknowledgments

xv

The

Practical

Harmonist

Harpsichord

at the

Facsimile of the Original Title-page

Dedication

To

the Reader

To Organ

Teachers

Introduction

CHAPTER

The Names and


CHAPTER

How

to

CHAPTER

Positions of the

Notes

II

Form Harmony with

the Consonances

17

III

Musical Accidentals

CHAPTER IV
Remarks on Ascending Motion,

[And Later by Leap]

23

First

by Step
26

Contents

CHAPTER V
Re??iarks on Descending by Step and by Leap

CHAPTER

VI

How to Make Cadences of All Kinds


CHAPTER

41

VII

Dissonances, Ties, Syncopations, and

How to Resolve Them

CHAPTER VIII
Remarks on How Best to Master Accompaniment in Every Key:
How to Modulate Well, Anticipate, and Pass Properly from One
Key to Another
CHAPTER

36

48

64

IX

Dissonances in the Recitatives, and

How

to Play Acciaccaturas

78

CHAPTER X
Diminution, Embellishment, and Adornment of the Accompani-

ment
CHAPTER

85
XI

Diminution or Adornment of the Bass

CHAPTER

How to

90

XII

Transpose through All Keys

95

The Practical Harmonist


at the Harpsichord

LARMONICO
PRATICO
CIMBALO.

AL

ed Avvertimenti per ben


Tuonare il Baffo 5 e accompagnare fopra il
Cimbalo, Spinetta > ed Organo

Regole

Oflervazioni

FRANCESCO GASPARINI

LUCCHESE,

Maeftro di Coro del Tio Ospedale della Piet in


Venezia , ed Accademico Filarmonica

DEDICATO
GIROLAMO ASCANIO
Ali* Illuftrffmo >

ed

Eccelkntiffimo Signor

GIUSTINIANI
Nobile Veneto.

IN VENEZIA

>

MDCCVIIL

Apprett Antonio Bortoli


LJCENZ A DE* SUPERIORI , E PRIVILEGIO.
.

CON

The

Practical

at the

Harmonist

Harpsichord

Rules, Observations, and Admonitions

for Realizing the Bass

and Accompanying on the Harpsichord, Spinet, and Organ

by

FRANCESCO GASPARINI
of Lucca

Choirmaster at the Fio Ospedale della Piet in Venice


and a Member of the Accademia Filarmonica

DEDICATED TO

The Most

Illustrious

and Worthy

GIROLAMO ASCANIO GIUSTINIANI


Noble Venetian

VENICE,
At Antonio

BY PRIVILEGE,

1708
Bortoli's

AND WITH PERMISSION OF THE AUTHORITIES

Most

Illustrious

and

Excellent Sir:

a large sea does not refuse the meager tributes

If

of a small stream, gently receiving

it

into

vast

its

bosom, then can

I,

with

assurance, offer, as unto a sea of matchless gentleness, this tribute of

feeble intellect (insignificant though

it is)

my

your Ex-

to the greatness of

who benignly receives every gesture of reverence from the least


of his servants. I, who from your first years recognized in your most noble
countenance the true image of virtue, am not now misled as I dedicate to
cellency,

you

this small labor of

mine, in the hope that

will be accepted

it

with that generosity one already admires in the


thoughts of a childhood wherein the

lofty,

looms so

spirit

wherein a wisdom more than mature can be discerned.

many books on harmony


one that
that,

though youthful,
great, of a

And

the least significant

its

defeat in the test of flight.

Giustinian eagle,
rivals at the

the presence at
lency. It

its

this

its

would be

nonetheless

journey.

Any

Mounting the wings of the

will be able to boast of a triumphant victory over

it

end of

having composed

glory

all

might have deserved for

book, crude and poorly made

as it

derives

is,

from

very opening of the esteemed name of Your Excelsufficient for

pages were to be granted

me

if

a benign glance at

by you, whose most

some of

excellent taste

ably inclined to the diversion of music. If these please you,

is

these

so favor-

should hope

through them, the harpsichord will partake of that honor enjoyed

those other musical instruments so sweetly sounded

hand of Your Excellency.


1

so

having only voice and feathers, in competition with winged flocks

do not fear

by

among

if,

like a chattering bird

lacks the strength to raise itself to the level of the others

that,

youth

already brought into the light of the world, the

you seems

present to

by you

And in

truth,

music has been

by

the gentle

known

so nobly

Girolamo Ascanio Giustiniani (1697-1749) came from a Venetian family long


for their support of the arts. His most notable contribution was the poetry for

known

Benedetto Marcello's Estro poetico-armonico (Venice, Lovisa, 1724-26).

Dedication

6
to satisfy

you

that

desired refuge. Let

it
it

may
be

well hope to find in your patronage

said, to the greater

glory of

its

long-

Your Excellency,

that the practice of music has not in the least prejudiced those studies to

which you must apply yourself

at

your present tender age

in order to

prove yourself the worthy son of a father, and descendant of a grandfather,

who,

together, are the

their country,

offspring of

compendium

of science, the splendor of

and two luminaries of the Adriatic

skies.

And

mine beseeches your all-powerful protection;

pilgrim setting out to

make

himself

known

to the world,

so this

little

like a fledgling
it

will fear nei-

ther tempests, nor shocks of boulders, nor reverses of fortune, as long as


it is

guided by the rays of that splendor

spirit

of such esteemed patronage.

scend to accept
sire I

this

will receive

May Your

from the guardian

Excellency then conde-

my devotion, because of the burning de-

testimony of

have of being considered

it

as,

with most profound reverence,

dersign myself

Your Excellency's most humble, most


and most obsequious

devoted,

servant,

FRANCESCO GASPARINI

un-

To

the

YOU WILL

Reader

expected brought into the light of the world.


consider

me

because you did not

First,

an organist and, consequently, as being well-suited to treat

such material. In the second place,

know

that

you

will say,

time on so useless and unnecessary a labor? There


teacher

WORK YOU NEVER

BE SURPRISED AT SEEING A

who

does not

know how

to impart

it

is

few

in a

"Why waste

not a journeyman
lessons,

nor a be-

who does not understand it within a few months." I reply


that experience has not proven to me the validity of your opinions. And if

ginning student

you

will

pages,

you.

be

condescend to glance quickly with tolerant eyes through these

you will perhaps find something new in them

If I

it; I

write plainly and without the niceties of a cultivated style

shall

not be hurt

if

you consider me

For if you are then determined


will confirm

me

little

in

to

my

make me

If,

on the other hand, you

spirit that it pleases

work

to you, that

desirous of helping
lished

it

you

you

the target of your criticism,

role of virtuoso, of

are so agreeable of

to bear with me, then

receive

it as

a friend

whom

it all

by

so

it

it

would be

me more

than offend

mind and

so gentle of

I ask,

in presenting this

and that you regard

my fellow man in having as a good

and written

a musician, not a rhetorician.

proper to make such a target; thus you will honor

me.

that will not displease

Catholic

myself. All good go with you.

me

as

pub-

To Organ Teachers

Forgive me, beloved colleagues,


ble intent of this

work

aspired to intrude

it

should seem to you, at

upon your knowledge and

one to approach the task of learning


if

this art

you will reconsider, you will perceive

wise physician

who

that

it

to hurt his colleagues

to help his neighbor. Thus,

and

may God

glance, that

interests

have

by tempting any-

without your

assistance.

But

my intent benefits you. That


and successors

my real goal has been to

ease the labor of the beginner, to encourage

work

first

fee-

publishes secrets and remedies for the well-being of

mankind does not do

lessen the

from some

if

assist

the student, to

and entice the amateur, and to

of the teacher. Bear with me, harbor

be with you.

in the art, but

no

ill

feelings,

Introduction

YOU WILL NOT DENY (WHETHER YOU ARE A

PROFESSIONAL

or amateur of music) that to master this noble and beautiful art requires
principally three things, namely, resolve, application, and a

But even though


three suffice to

make a

tice I differ, for it

and really want


able;

and

perfect musician,

it,

will apply myself to

it

teacher." All this

is

considerable, in

if

a certain natural disposition does

the greater part of

what

is

practice of correct, well-modulated

Of

these things the easiest

all

disposition: easiest, since


difficult,

or

it is

is

most

because not

rare,

municate

harmony

will be missing.

and the most

a gift uniquely

derived easily from one's

the most arduous, since

easily,

not

all

all

few

not accom-

necessary for arriving at the sound

like to

own

work.

good teachers

difficult

from

might rather say impossible, because

quired. Resolve
is

agree only in principle. In prac-

am determined,
as much as I am

first-rate, diligent

fact indispensable, but

pany

teacher.

authorities that these

not enough to say, "I have decided,

to learn music;

have a

is

by some weighty

asserted

it is

good

God

at

no

is

this natural

and nature; most


price

is it

ever ac-

disposition. Application

A good teacher

is

the thing

instruct willingly, not

students of music can afford

good

all

com-

teachers,

nor

can these be found everywhere (although today, to be sure, there are

more teachers than students) In the meantime,


.

to

accompany, or

realize the bass

another keyboard instrument,

seeing

many eager to learn

on the harpsichord, organ, or perhaps

hope with

this little

volume of mine to

Introduction

convey the

spirit of

accompanying, lessening the labor of practice, and

many observations useful not only


teachers who will not scorn my advice.

facilitating the task

but also to those

with

certainly true that in order to

It is

must make

become

a truly skilled organist, one

a special study of scores, particularly of the toccatas, fugues,

ricercars, etc. of Frescobaldi or of other excellent composers,

under

able, learned teachers. Finally,

and

but also good

as

well as to accompany the singer with flexibility and

discretion, encouraging, satisfying,

among

greater part, as

the

many who

I said,

do not

and supporting rather than confusing

have the ability to learn,

like to

some because they do not have

advanced in age.

It is

and some because they are

indeed a study for youths, who, whether through

but mainly through the pene-

tration of their intellects, learn so easily that they

There

princes,
is

who

are an infinite

feel

note that the

as the preparation of a score

time,

inclination, or fear of the lash, or emulation,

credit.

work, some because they do not

have the will to apply themselves continually,


requires,

taste, natural-

ready recognition of the style of a composition, in order to

play in ensembles

him. But

and to study

accompaniment demands not only

a grasp of all the valid rules of counterpoint,


ness,

to students,

number of

do themselves great

nobles, gentlemen, ladies,

an inclination toward music, but should they

and

start in,

it

certain that, because of their customary preoccupation with studies of

literature or other

them

not

suffice

not

state this as

spirit

gentlemanly

exercises, a generation, so to speak,

to arrive at the playing of four notes.

an absolute

and ready wit that they absorb admirably everything to which they

greater

knowledge and grasp of

company themselves on
I

course, I do

because some of them are of such high

rule,

who

desire either a

like to

be able to ac-

apply themselves.) So, too, there are those singers

vote

(Of

would

much

singing, or

occasion, but

time to study, since

work

who
is

would

cannot or do not wish to de-

sometimes harmful to the voice.

conclude, finally, that whoever can apply himself to such study will

do very well and will derive from

my work some benefit for accompany-

ing or realizing the bass. For those

who

wish to begin learning accom-

paniment without other studies in scoring or counterpoint,


explain things simply, starting

from the naming of the

have tried to

notes, the

method

Introduction

of forming consonances, the movements of the hands, etc. Having discov-

my own

ered from countless observations of

others in times past, correct though they

may

that
be,

many

rules given

by

meet with endless ex-

ceptions because of the great variations, the motifs, inspirations, caprices,

by our
put forward from

modulations, and movements of the bass used especially today

modern composers

nevertheless

have resolved to

the beginning those same rules, since

do not wish to boast of bringing

the student to perfection, but rather hope to be of such assistance that

labor

may

not be judged useless and vain by him

able to profit

from

it.

who may be

my

willing and

CHAPTER

The Names and Positions


of the Notes

The student should memorize the names


notes and their positions in
ticed

by using

Ex. i

The

the clefs. This can be conveniently prac-

the table placed in the last chapter of this book.

clefs

B
C

Here

all

of the

are the

sol fa ut

names of the

I
F

fa ut

mi

re

ll

G sol re ut

notes:

la

fa,

sol fa ut

la sol

lami

fa ut

sol re ut

B mi
re

13

The Names and Positions

The

of the Notes

teacher should then explain, with the help of the following ex-

ample, the five registers, namely, grave, acute, superacute, most acute,

and most grave.

Ex.2

Grave

Acute

gab
^=22:

-=

n*

a.

c " a

Most acute

Superacute

Most grave

Another example, showing the location of

all

the natural keys:

Ex. 3

s
^: rr ^-

"

&

<?

^=Z*=

Most grave

<

Grave

t>

<?

Acute

-f

a
-0-

Most acute

b
.a.

=^=ZE

3
Superacute

The Names and

Positions of the

Notes

Next comes the practical recognition

of

the keys. In order to facili-

all

tate this, observe first the disposition of the natural, or

are said to be of the diatonic genus,

white keys, which

and then observe the accidentals,

are the black keys, said to be of the chromatic genus.

which

these black keys are

grouped

white keys not separated by

Observe that

and twos, between which are two

in threes

black one.

Thus

the

names of the keys can

be quickly and easily learned by remembering their location, since in

among the three black keys are G sol re ut and A la mi re. Between the
other two black keys is D la sol re. It is the same in all registers of the keyon some harpsichords some contrabass

board, except that

strings are

added below the lowest octave.

The

black keys, which are of the chromatic genus, are indicated

the major or

now

that

Next
fourth

minor accidentals, the sharp and the

as will

become

flat,

using

is,

now this one,

clear in the course of these rules.

learn the positions of the notes in the clef of

line, that

by

the bass clef, as

fa ut

on the

shown below.

Ex.4

In order to place the hands on the keys to produce a correct and per-

harmony,

fect

it is

necessary to

second, third, fourth,

may

know

fifth, sixth,

the musical intervals.

These are the

seventh, octave, ninth, and tenth.

One

continue up to the twenty-second and beyond, but for greater clar-

ity every interval larger than

tenth

is

an octave

is

considered doubled.

Hence

the

called a third, the eleventh a fourth, the twelfth a fifth, these hav-

compound
compound oc-

ing the same relationship; these doubled intervals are called


3

or decompound. For example, the fifteenth


tave,

and the octave above, that

is,

is

called the

the twenty-second,

"Diesis $ e b.molle b." See the

Gasparini wrote "composti, o decomposti."

Foreword.

is

called the de-

The Names and Positions

compound, or doubly compound

octave. In the same

of the Notes

way

the tenth

be called the compound third, the twelfth the compound

The

Ex.5

7-

gj

>

fifth.

intervals

I.
<j
II

.*^

II

^. ~i

1
II

<?

I
Il

II

From these it will be easy to work out all the


Of these numbers, or intervals, the third,
called consonances. All the others, that

enth,

may

is

^. g

1
II

.
<?

"
II
II

<?

others at the keyboard.


fifth, sixth,

and octave are

to say the second, fourth, sev-

and ninth, are called dissonances. Of the four consonances, two are

perfect and
octave.

two

imperfect.

The

perfect consonances are the fifth and

The imperfect consonances are the third and sixth; they are

called

imperfect because they are subject to the major and minor accidentals
as will

become

clear further on.

CHAPTER

How

to

II

Form Harmony

with the Consonances

In order to accompany every note and provide it with


perfect harmony,

This serves

as a

it is

necessary to add to

the third, fifth, and octave.

it

general and infallible rule, unless

requires either a sixth or

it is

clear that the note

some other accompaniment of

nance, as will be seen later on.

The

third

is

natural

a passing disso-

if it is

formed by

the natural keys. Using these, one should practice carefully, beginning as
follows.

Ex.6

..*

Ex.8

^m

g=i gj^i

In order to harmonize the


left

hand, placing the

little

note; next the index finger

on G-acute, which

Ex.9

Ex.7

first

finger

note

G sol re ut, one spreads out the

on G-grave, which

on D, which

will be the octave.

will

The

be the
right

index finger on D-acute, which will be another

is

the fundamental

fifth;

then the thumb

hand follows with the

fifth;

then the ring finger


'7

How to V orm Harmony with the Consonances

on the

on the B-superacute which follows. This

finger

with

following, which will be another octave; and finally the

the

it

harmony of

moving from one note


as possible; as the bass

the third, or tenth, and

G sol re ut

the fundamental note

to another

is

little

is

complete. In

one must disturb the right hand

as little

changes one should see whether one note of the

accompaniment can remain

fixed, the others

moving only

stepwise, either

up or down.
Proceeding then to
placing

it

on

C sol fa ut

(Ex.7)

move

the left

hand up

a fourth,

C with its octave. Place the index finger of the right hand on

E-acute, which will be the third; the middle finger on the following G,

which

will be the fifth; then the

which

will be the octave. Proceeding to

hand down

left

a third to A-grave,

the right hand in the

which

higher,

way

in the

which

will

be E, A, and C.

D, A, and

on the higher C-superacute,


la

its fifth,

D la sol re

mi

re (Ex.8),

and

sol fa ut, using the

little

its

move

the

Move

octave.

to the keys one step

(Ex.9) follows, harmonized

in the left hand,

Those who understand

right.

finger

manner indicated above for G,

noted above for

will be

little

keys one step higher,

and F, A, and

about tablature will find

in the

all

these

notes in the following example.

Ex.10
S

I V
1

0-

J2-

132=

For the present we


prohibited, that
parallel

motion;

Nor need

is,

two

later

on

will not consider those octaves or fifths that are

octaves or
I

will

two

fifths that

show how

follow one another in

to avoid or correct such errors.

thought be given to the doubling of the consonances, although

When the

he must endeavor to em-

this is a

good

thing.

ploy

many

notes as possible in order to bring out greater harmony.

as

player

is

skilled

How to Form Harmony with the Consonances

Let the beginning student take care to learn thoroughly and confidently the four above-named notes, together with their consonances,

ways counting up from

the fundamental note.

Be

al-

sure to place the hands

carefully so that each finger assumes a natural position, not forced or

on the keys,

twisted, or too straight, but poised

relaxed, supple,

and with

appropriate readiness.

After

this,

harmonize the following notes.

7
C

'

1 " "

sol fa ut

is

harmonized

fnger of the left

on A, which

be the

fifth.

the

"

The

is

fa ut place the ring

the fundamental note; then the index

and the thumb on C, which will

will be the third;

right

described above. For

as

Q--

hand on F, which

finger

will

Ex.14

Ex.13

Ex.12

Ex.11

hand follows with the index finger on F, which

be the octave; the ring finger on A, which will be another third; and
little

finger

on C, which

will be another fifth. This

venience the position of the

when

fifth, just as

fifth,

because the

called for con-

hand alone forms a

left

the left hand forms an octave

is

called the position

it is

of the octave.

D la sol re follows, and can be harmonized in the manner given above.


Afterwards,
of the
is,

fifth, just as

was F

with G,B,D in the

in the right.

G sol re ut acute

la sol re,

G,B,E
left

la

left

fa ut,

mi (Ex.

The

right

harmonized in the position

moving the hand one

3)

step higher, that

follows in the position of the octave like

but one step higher, that

in the right.

will be

2)

hand and with G,B,D of the superacute octave

last note,

hand may be placed so

ger on

(Ex. 1

as to

with E,B,E in the

is,

la

form

mi

a third, that

is,

and the index finger on C, which will be

on A, which

will be the octave;

will be the tenth, or another third.

and the

This

hand and

re (Ex.14) follows,

la

little

mi

re

and the

with the ring

its

fifth;

finger

may

fin-

third. Place the

hand with the index finger on E, which will be the

finger

left

the ring

on C, which

also

be realized

How to Form Harmony with the Consonances


in the position of the fifth, like the G sol re ut acute, that
with A,C,E
20

is,

hand and A,C,E of the superacute octave

in the left

The

notes just described

may be

in the right.

studied in tablature.

Or

Ex.15
3

ft

t>

rr"

-1

c O

^ g

S"

n)

-0-

&

5"

^_

835 -

58

- -a-

8
<7

f,

-&

*>&

1
1
1

(1

fa,

,,

35

ZT-jtL -27-^

58

5
-a-

<*

=^
-#-^- s
g *

remains to be harmonized.

7ra

Ex.16

It is set apart

because one must note that

in the natural keys;

its fifth is

false fifth, is a dissonance.

with a

sixth,

in between.

be a third;

its

right

and

fa ut,

this fifth,

a perfect fifth

which

is

called a

Therefore, for now, learn to harmonize

playing an octave in the

The

B mi does not have

left

hand may place

B mi

hand without touching any key

its

index finger on D, which will

fourth finger on G, which will be a sixth; and

ger on B, which will be another octave; or

may move

(with the same fingers) G,B,D, which will be the

its little fin-

higher, playing

sixth, the octave,

and

the third.
Fuller

Or

Ex.17

the sixth in the middle

With

-<2_

-O-

Hoiv

Form Harmony with

to

the Consonances

21

In this manner one goes about acquiring knowledge and

skill

with the

consonances, taking care to play the notes on the proper key and string,
as

they are written and not

in

its

proper

register.

at the octave

above or below, but every one

For example, when the notes are found in the acute

octave, as in the following,

Ex. 1

&

<*

^_
O

they are to be played with the consonances in close position,


cient

if

being

it

the left hand forms only a third, or sometimes just the note

but with

all

the necessary consonances in the right hand

and the octave, or

third, the fifth,

student

is

mind

proficient one does not

at the octave

this

in the case of
if

B mi

that

the sixth.

suffiitself,

is,

the

When the

he sometimes doubles the notes

on the authority of the

experts.

way of showing the beginning student how best to assure keeping time when playing certain notes of longer
4
duration, for example of a measure or half -measure in length. One can
The

teacher will not

fail

to find a

repeat the note every quarter, or


tave in the left hand, or
fifth,

fill

out the measure

some other note

by playing an oc-

in between, such as the third,

or sixth.

Ex.19

(a)

(b)
9

U)

SB
EE

4 3

The

original reads "una, o

mezza

battuta." See the

Foreword.

How to Form Harmony with the Consonances

2 2

In triple time the same


for

two

Ex.20

is

done with notes that

last a

whole measure, or

counts, or are syncopated.

(a)

II |

r~

q
\

r i*

r ir I

*
i

HH

(b)

<*)

?E#

?^uirrri

3= =22
56

+3

In any case, the student must properly understand the beat.

See the Foreword. In Ex.20 the notes marked

are blackened in the

first edition.

CHAPTER

III

Musical Accidentals

in that

way

easily to the

work well with simple consonances, are not subject so


errors of two fifths and two octaves, and do not require dif-

they

ferent kinds of

know

HAVE USED LEAPS IN THE PRECEDING EXAMPLES BECAUSE

accompaniment nor any

accidentals. It

about the musical accidentals, or accidental

These are the semitones, which are of three


6

and sharp. These

serve, for

is

now necessary to

signs,

sorts,

and

namely

The

effect of the flat

lower the note a semitone (or half tone), of the sharp to

by a flat. The latter


Note

that

it

to

its

Notice that between

the

except that from mi to

The

and

B mi, E la mi, and A la mi re.


B fa, and without it B mi.

all

called

the notes, that


is

fa, that is

from

to

three notes indicated

flat.

The

Gasparini has "cio b.molle

b,

is,

from one

to the next, or

normally the interval of a whole tone,

mally have a major third above them that

with the accidental

it,

to

natural place after having been altered

flat is

to another, there

only a half tone.

raise

is

applies to the three notes

B fa, B mi with

from one key

natural,

flat,

our purposes, for passing from a white key to

a black one, either ascending or descending.

of the natural to return

their uses.

F and from B

by

is

to C, there

the clefs, F,C, and

subject to being

is

G, nor-

made minor

other four notes, A,B,D, and E, normally


b.quadro

b,

e [diesis] #"; here the

term

"diesis"

is

omitted. See the Foreword.


23

24

Musical Accidentals

have

minor third above them

the accidental sharp. A,B, and

have

major

that

sixth, subject to the

subject to being

is

have a minor

sixth,

made major with

and C,D,F, and

same modifications by these same acci-

dentals.

The

sharp placed next to a note raises

it

a half tone,

key next above

that instead of the white key, one plays the black


to ascend.
to

its

The flat has the opposite effect, and the

Effect of the

\o

i*

flat

o jo

\o

fra

Notice that the

flat

by

to

natural place.

its

a =#a=

%o

Fg

b<

=1

flat

and sharp

%o

ba

in this case the flat does not lower the note, but returns

When the sharp is found placed above or below the note,


a

major

=^=

\>*

serves also to cancel the sharp of a note previously al-

tered

it;

$Q

and natural

\o

ba

$n

Another example, descending with

rj:

natural returns the note

%o

%0

<

in order

natural place.

Effect of the sharp

Ex.21

which means

third; the

flat,

minor

it

indicates

third. Likewise, placed next to a

these accidentals have the same effect

perfect) or dissonance, as the case

on

number

that consonance (perfect or im-

may

be.

Ex.2 2

t>

it

*6

b?

-**=&
*b

b7

*4

Musical Accidentals

2 5

When these accidentals are found at the beginning of the staff next to
the clef, the pitches

mental notes or

as

on which they

are located,

whether used

as

funda-

accompaniments, are altered accordingly, becoming

black keys.

Ex.23

With one

With two

*3

#3

With

mg
m&
i^

From
clef

three %

9*

With

#3

#3

With one

four #

#3

*3

With two

"
#3

(#9)

this it is clear that

#3

(*)

b3

bs

any note marked with an accidental sign

must be played with that

accidental.

at the

CHAPTER

IV

Remarks on Ascending
Motion, First by Step

[And Later

by Leap]

When notes ascend by step,

seeing that

two perfect

consonances of the same kind are prohibited in parallel motion, one can
play a sixth after each

fifth,

thus avoiding the progression of

two

fifths.

Ex.24

5-4.

5 6

5b

6b

5 b

5b

5b

5 6

5b

When a note ascends a semitone, either natural or accidental (as in the


following from E to F, from B to C, from F-sharp to G, from A to B-flat,
and in similar instances) the

first

note takes a minor

sixth.

Ex.25

^m
2'>

SE

Remarks on Ascending Motion

Or one may
two

the

play the sixth followed

by

a diminished fifth,

and sometimes

together.

Ex.26

WW

65

U,l

b S

Sb

pipi
6

5b

When a note that ascends a semitone has either a natural or accidental major third above

found

cated, or

then do not play a sixth with

it,

in the upper, written part)

it

(unless either indi-

the following note usually

for a natural major sixth.

calls

Ex.27

t=

X9
And when

the composition calls for a sixth, either directly or through

resolution, together with the said

may

have a

major

and sometimes the

fifth,

third,

fifth

then the following note

followed by

a sixth.

Ex.28

With

With

the direct sixth

as

fifths

much

hand

a sixth

We

two

octaves.

To

is

bass.

when

when

b s

very easy to

avoid them,

as possible, particularly

(that

with the

or

Sb

5b

it is

&

In these stepwise progressions

two

the sixth as a resolution

make

fall

76

into the error of

use of contrary motion

the outermost finger of the right

to say, the highest key) forms either a fifth or an octave

One

cannot go wrong using a tenth in the highest part, or

necessary.

have exchanged the last two instances of Ex.28;


change 65 to the easier reading 56.

later editions, e.g. the fifth,

Remarks on Ascending Motion

8
In

accompanying quarter-notes, or eighth-notes, one

meet with much

difficulty, particularly

knowledge of counterpoint

great deal of practice and

though not impossible, not


vallic relations. It

is

and the next

step.

judge

Without
it

to err in the consonances or create

many

however, that

true,

trapuntal practice) give


essential

when moving by

certain to

is

it

as unessential,

that

is

to say,

difficult,

bad

inter-

accordance with con-

one should

as a rule that
8

(in

treat

one note

as

accompany one note

with the appropriate consonances and pass over the next, playing only the
This would be worthwhile to observe on the organ; but because

bass.

seems to produce a dry, sparse effect on the harpsichord,

company each note with

own

its

it is

it

better to ac-

appropriate harmony, which will be

easy with the help of the remarks given here for the purpose.

Now

if

stepwise, or

the composition begins with three quarter-notes ascending

two

by

quarter-notes followed

notes of other values, the

first

will be harmonized according to the rule of the simple consonances, the

second with a major

sixth,

and the third with

a natural sixth.

Ex.29

m
#4

#6

higher, the note that


sixth the second.

was given

Study

this

t-fp

ror

#6

If after the three quarter-notes the

Ex.30

same notes are repeated one step

major

sixth the first time

is

given a minor

example carefully.

'

m
i

be

t^m

P
U

Gasparini wrote "una buona e una cattiva."


In the

last

measure of Ex.30, the

first

edition places the sharp over the last note.

Remarks on Ascending Motion

3
If

w*r

29

bb

#fa

w=*

four quarter-notes ascend by step in

pany the

first fully,

and

common

others

as for the

#fc

note that forms an octave with the

first

time,

b6

10

note, giving

them

But where there

fully,

with a natural sixth for the two in the middle.

an

they are

initial rest

one can accom-

highly effective to hold the

it is

tenth.

is

all

all

to be

the third or

harmonized

Ex.31

With

d-+

Where

676??

E
b

there are five notes ascending

four notes above, or in the

before
n\

ci

7
(5)

a quarter-rest

by

way shown

step,

=*
b

one can play them

like the

in the following example.

Ex.32

#4

How

#6

to gain assurance in the correct

named

P
bib

way

of accompanying the notes

above, and any stepwise progression, will emerge

from remarks

to

be made in Chapter VIII.


Eighth-notes can be considered like quarter-notes, except that in

some

faster

tempos

it is

sidering one essential

scending. This

is

permissible to

and the next

unessential,

easier for the beginner,

judgment and discretion


10

accompany them

in the matter of

alternately, con-

both ascending and de-

while the expert will use his

tempos and progressions.

Gasparini wrote "in tempo perfetto, o binario." See the Foreword, and translator's

note at Ex.62 further on.

Remarks on Ascending Motion

30

Note

that

when

either the

downbeat or the upbeat of

measure be-

gins with an eighth-rest, the three eighth-notes of that half measure

must

be accompanied, because one cannot treat the eighth-note that begins


each fourth of the measure

as unessential.

Ex.33

^^
With an

Htj

rj^J

rirj

eighth-rest before

s m uzr
w~f E f

ai

jjjj

[**

The same procedure is used if in place


note that does not move by step.

^
b$

b$

of the eighth-rest there

is

another

Ex.34

3ff
6

bUf

In proportional measures, such as

b*

triple, sextuple, sesquialtera, etc.,

one can pass over the middle note of the three in each measure, making
sure to

accompany properly the one

that

is

on the downbeat.

Ex.35

mi
T

In rapid tempos
other two.

it is

also possible to

rf

accompany the

SB
first

and pass over the

Remarks on Ascending Motion

Sixteenth-notes are passed over four at a time


wise,

whether ascending or descending, and one

leaps of a third. It

is

sufficient to

when they occur

may

also pass

accompany, or harmonize

step-

over some

fully, the first

sixteenth-note of every quarter of the measure.

Ex.36

^SrM^tatiSpj^^:-:":-^:^---!
J* J
*'U>

-^"^^-iBE^S^f-^P

When there
to be

r-^

are various leaps of a fourth, fifth, sixth, or octave, they are

accompanied two

at a time, that

is

to say, one

is

accompanied and

the next not.

Ex.37

+-?-

*-*

t&WUSU!i^
^xr

When there is a sixteenth-rest, it is effective for the right hand to


consonances of the

first

note of that beat while the left hand

rests.

Ex.38

^?

jgrrr.,r.urrf

* f*

^^^[[[fi^ ^^ET m-i*


r*?

'

Ccll

play the

* **

Remarks on Ascending Motion

32

Ascending by Leaps of

A sixth

is

Third

ordinarily added to the note that follows a leap of a third,

whether the third

major or minor.

is

Ex.39

Major

P^

9E
6

If the

Minor

third

1X3-

W^

<Eip

third

preceding note must carry a

sixth, the

following

calls

for a

fifth.

Ex.40

Major third

Minor

3E

#S

#ff

Whenever one finds a sharp


a sixth,

third

b6

b6

before the second note of this leap,

and the preceding note

major

it

receives

third.

Ex.41

*e

3S

When after this leap,


fifth

down

gives to the

31

either

note

its

4=
=fcz*

major or minor, there follows a leap of

or of a fourth up, which


first

is

called the cadential leap, then

one

natural sixth, and to the second a major third.

Ex.42

3E

6#
And when

Igf
6

'#

'6#

after the leap of a third there follow

P
6

two or more

leaps of a

Remarks on Ascending Motion


fourth up or a fifth down, then

3 3

are

all

accompanied by the simple conso-

nances without any accidentals. But for

this

and

to the study of leaps of a fourth

down,

many

this rule

where

up

is

that, like the

note that

unconditionally, because this leap

situations that require a

clear later on,

how

for a major third. But

it calls

be dangerous to adopt
in

Fourth

rule generally given for the leap of a fourth

leap of a fifth

better to proceed

a fifth.

Ascending by Leaps of

The

would be

it

minor

illustrate the

way

where

to use a major third only

third. It will therefore

it

is

may

found

be made

of modulating from key to key,

it is

required.

For now, study the

following example.

Ex.43

W?=?
#
b

**-

==*
6

Here one

sees ascending leaps of a fourth that

except where

it

leap of a fifth

down. In

comes

naturally,
fact, it

and where

never
a

call

cadence

for a major third


is

formed by the

must be observed that when finding many

of these leaps together one must never use the major third except where
it falls

naturally,

cept the

first,

and then for the

which begins the

final leap

series of leaps,

nates them, have the seventh added,


that every seventh
third of one

is

tied over

forming the cadence.

it

and the

last,

which termi-

will be very effective.

Make

from the preceding chord, noting

becomes the seventh of the

If all ex-

that the

next.

Ex.44

777
b

sure

77777

Remarks on Ascending Motion

34

Do
or

not use a

false, fifth,

with the note that follows the leap of

fifth

because

it

produces a bad relation.

The

a diminished,

third and seventh

are sufficient.

Ex.45

777
3

7.

'

This observation will be better understood from some examples in Chapter VII.

The leap
that

is,

fifth,

of a fifth

up

will be studied for

now only in long note values,

values of a measure or half measure. After playing the third and

resolve to a fourth and major sixth.

Do

the same

when descending

a fourth.

Ex.46

+#

This rule

st,
3 +*

is

1%

4*

f*

very useful for certain piagai cadences used in church music.

The note that


quicker tempo

ordinarily follows this leap in certain compositions of a

calls

for a major third.

Ex.47

fe
It is

necessary to observe that relationships sometimes do not permit a ma-

jor third with the leap just mentioned.

ing natural notes, as here.

One can tell from

the correspond-

Remarks on Ascending Motion

35

Ex.48

fr

The

ascending leap of a sixth

may

be considered

of a third, and will be treated in the next chapter.

as a

4 3

descending leap

CHAPTER V

Remarks on Descending

and

by Step

When
first

note a

fifth

by

descending stepwise in long notes, give the

and then a

sixth.

To

all

solved with the natural sixth, except the

major

Leap

the others give a seventh re-

last

which must always have

76

76#

sixth.

Ex.49

):

o o
56

76

A single
sixth,

76

76

76

76

56

6*

note descending stepwise receives a

or a seventh followed

by

fifth

56

76

76#

followed by

a sixth, or sometimes the

major

major

sixth only.

Ex.50

5i#

For the most


last

36

56
part,

where there

note receives a major

56

56 #

sixth,

are

many

76$

notes descending stepwise, the

being a kind of cadence; for in a certain

Remarks on Descending by Step and by Leap


sense that note

following

is

provided the

thought to

interpreted as bringing about a modulation to the note


bass then

moves

in

some other manner,

ascending stepwise or leaping in various ways.


little

this

either

necessary to give no

It is

example.

Ex.51

9c?

*r r

#6

When
Following

fc

*6

descending stepwise in half-notes and quarter-notes, notice

when one

that

^m

rrv 5

is

note has the simple consonances, the next

calls

for a sixth.

an example of two notes that descend stepwise.

Ex.52

?c
An

example of three quarter-notes, or three notes of different values,

moving

stepwise:

Ex.53

m
When the
a

it

first

whole tone,

with

3E

3E
6

(.

of the three takes a major third, and the second descends

pass over

it

completely.

the same keys as for the

mented fourth, and

a sixth.

The

first

It is

very effective to play along

note, resulting in a second, an aug-

following note gets a natural

sixth.

Ex.54

fw

m
#

*4

P-0

'*'

te

Remarks on Descending by Step and by Leap

If the

middle note descends

semitone

it

often a minor or natural sixth. However, one can


tion,

and

takes a third
tell

a sixth,

most

from the composi-

or from the progressions noted in the examples above,

when

it

must

be major.

Examples of four quarter-notes, or four notes of

moving

different values,

stepwise:

Ex.55

Si
In

this

one

may

takes a sixth,

*4
6

observe the same rules as above: mi before or after fa

and every cadence that descends stepwise a major

Sometimes one proceeds with

sixths alone,

will be indicated in the composition

upper

itself,

but

this,

by

either

sixth.

for the most part,

the figures or

by

the

part.

With
sential

4*

tf*

eighth-notes one observes the rule given above of one note es-

and the next

unessential,

making frequent use of

tenths,

and play-

ing the fourth eighth-note with a major sixth on either upbeat or

down-

beat.

Ex.56

better dn\*rrtj

m^^p te

=i

When descending a leap of a third, if the first note is harmonized with


the simple consonances and

if

after the leap the

motion

the second note takes a sixth. If the continuation

is

by

is

stepwise, then

leap, use the sim-

ple consonances.

Ex.57

a
*b

Remarks on Descending by Step and by Leap


If

the

first

when

the leap

is

sixth, regardless

note takes a major third, the next takes a

any leap that may follow. However,


only

39

the leap

minor

is

major

third, that

second note sometimes

this rule applies

third, that
is,

whole tone and

calls for a fifth

without exception

two whole

is,

of

tones; for

a semitone,

when

then the

but, subject to the progression,

one observes the rules indicated above.

Ex.58

Leaps of a minor third

Leaps of a major third


always like this:

Or

like this:

tt

s^-p-

Sometimes the composition forms

on

note with

its

major

third,

this:

31

kind of cadence, coming to rest

and then makes

new

start,

moving

to the

third below. In such cases, that note calls not for a sixth, but a fifth.

Ex.59

7 b

This
the

is

found

ffi

in sacred as well as secular vocal compositions,

chamber and for the

theater, in

which

it is

both for

used to end an interrogative

or exclamatory phrase and then to begin the next;

it is

usually found in

the serious style, or in recitative.


If the

next

is

note that leaps a third, either major or minor, takes a sixth, the

given the simple consonances, without moving the right hand.

Ex.60

On the

#=F

other hand

i
5-66-6

tsm
6

Remarks on Descending by Step and by Leap

40

A
fifth.

descending leap of a fourth

is

treated like an ascending leap of a

Likewise, a descending leap of a fifth

is

treated like an ascending leap

of a fourth, since they are complementary, in that they

have the same sound, that


ing leap of a sixth

is

is,

move

to notes that

the octave. For the same reason the descend-

considered as an ascending leap of a third, and vice

versa.

But

let

us not pass over the leap of a descending fifth without dis-

cussing the cadences, since most cadences are formed with this leap.

CHAPTER

VI

How

Make

to

Cadences

of All Kinds

Cadences are principally of two kinds, simple and


compound. Simple cadences

are

formed

in

two ways, one with

major

third descending a leap of a fifth or ascending a leap of a fourth, the

other with a major sixth descending stepwise.

Simple cadences

Ex.6 1

By

By

leap

There
ished,

*i

are four kinds of

compound

step

&

cadences: greater, lesser, dimin-

and deceptive.

The greater cadence is formed in common time, 11 using four counts,


the following way.

On

the

first

nances with the major third.


11

On

in

count give the note the simple consothe second count play the fourth and

Gasparini has "in tempo perfetto." See the Foreword, and translator's note at Ex.31

above.

41

How to Make Cadences of All Kinds

42
sixth.

On

On

the third count play the fifth together with the fourth.

fourth and

last

count (the

last

the

count, resolve the fourth to a major third, and on the same

which then de-

eighth of the measure) add the seventh,

scends one step to the third or tenth above the next bass note, ending the
cadence.
Greater compound cadences

Ex.62

**

**
5 6 ?
#3 + 4 3

5" (,

5-

#344

Often these cadences

S6 S

3443

are anticipated

with

?* 5 7
#34 4 3

a tied

seventh in the following

way.
Ex.63

ft

7tf* 7

5"6

ft

ft

*F
7*C
#3443

#34-43

b7*" 7
344-3

Notice that in these greater cadences the accompaniments indicated here


are always required, even

with the note except for


In triple time,

though for the most part one

3,4,3

finds

no

figures

or 7,6,5, and sometimes nothing at

two measures

are needed to

all.

form the cadence.

Ex.64

ft

ft

By

1
4 3
5"

lesser

cadence

a*

is

meant shorter

in time.

with the fourth. But for the most part

fifth

when

4 5

This cadence

with the fourth resolved by the major third; the

for solo voice

5"

7 6
#3 4

is

formed

fifth is

played together

particularly in

chamber works

the fourth goes well with the

sixth,

which

is

resolved to a

the fourth resolves to a third. Playing the seventh at the

same time creates an excellent

effect.

How to Make Cadences of All Kinds


12

Ex.65

6 7

43

The

#=H2

and

43

Lesser cadences

4!

diminished cadences are several.

lesser cadences, since the

They

derive

from the

note forming the cadence

is

greater

divided into

two, four, or more notes. Several examples are shown here.


Ex.66

13

Greater cadences

5*y

.0

(a)

c
tii

63

*
34 4

6-

2
3

(,

#34

<S

4 3

(b)

Pt M

-
Diminished

(c)

S
?

h4=J

p
4

=&=
3

^ P 3=
*

(d)

PSI

* mW
-m "

12

In Ex.65, the cadence on C reads (in the first edition): barline, C-half, G-half,
C-quarter, G-quarter, barline. In the sixth edition the second C is made a whole-note,
the second
omitted.
have made a more elaborate emendation.

In Ex.66c, the

We

first

edition gives the figures

for the

first

note.

How to Make Cadences of All Kinds

44
Most of

the diminished lesser cadences are similar to the greater ca-

dences, with the single difference that they last only a half measure.
are

formed

Ex.67

many

in

ways,

as the

following examples show.

Lesser cadences with fourth and fifth resolved to a third

m 02

Sg3
9
+

sixth resolved to third

pjn

-Wm~

*
1*

*fc

afe^rro:

e^TT

Other cadences with fourth and

3*

and

fifth

i
%

The method

of resolving these cadences of the fourth and sixth

easy, because

when the

sixth,

and octave,

with each

it is

right

hand

is

way

the fourth descends to a major third, the

and the octave to a seventh.

hand produces

but in the resolution one must not allow the major third

On

the harpsichord, leaving the fourth to sound together

fifth

while resolving to the major third in the right hand pro-

duces a most pleasing harmony;

formers

sixth in the left

effect,

be heard.

with the

very

properly placed, playing the fourth,

Sometimes doubling the fourth and


very good

is

not necessary to do anything but descend one step

finger. In this

sixth to a fifth,

to

They

call

it,

it is

kind of acciaccatura,

an effect that will be discussed separately

however, does not work well on the organ, except in

full,

as

many

per-

later on. This,

thick texture.

When the cadence is to fall on some middle note, such as C sol fa ut,
D la sol re, or E la mi (so called because in the customary clef of F fa
ut these notes occupy the middle of the
Ex.68

Ex.69

staff,

How to Make Cadences of All Kinds


and

because of their position in the middle of the keyboard on the

also

harpsichord)
ut

it is

both easy and effective to play

to resolve to

is

45

sol fa ut (Ex.69),

as follows. If

then place the index finger on

G above, which

E-acute, which makes a sixth, the middle finger on the

makes an octave, and the

little

fnger

G sol re

on the following C, which makes

Then resolve by moving each finger down one step, so that the
cadence may be, as said above, well prepared and resolved; to end on C
sol fa ut, move the hand back up stepwise to the same keys as before.
Along with the seventh one may add an octave with the ring finger, so
that the harmony may be fuller and more sonorous. The other two cafourth.

dences on

D la sol re and E la mi are formed in the same manner.

yourself at the instrument

how

easy this

is;

Satisfy

here are the three cadences.

Ex.70

5m
fifth

? 3=*

Note

Ji

*=F

that the resolved third of the cadence

of

B mi is

raised a semitone to

become

is

left

fifth instead

hand, as

is

the sharp of
is

this

fa ut.

sometimes formed

of the sixth, playing this fifth with the

more convenient. Also with

always major, and that the

Using the same hand-position, the same cadence


with a

thumb

of the

same hand-position, one

can successfully play the greater cadences in the middle positions described above. See

them

in tablature.

35-8

Ex.71

5n
-

4f

0-

-=-#

~m

45703J5-8

=-H ^

1
Greater cadence

Lesser cadence

5"

4,

i^
-d-* ^

f r~"

How to Make Cadences of All Kinds

46
In the

compound cadence formed by descending

distinction

between greater or

that prepares

it is

stepwise there

is

no

forms, because, whether the note

lesser

of larger or smaller value, nothing

the seventh resolved to the major sixth, as

more

is

required than

shown below.

Simple stepwise cadences

Ex.72

EH

i(4

6#

-7

Diminished cadences are formed in

76 #

6*

this

76

manner:

Ex.73

mm

*=tz2

ti

7 6#

*#

Deceptive cadences are formed in different ways.


ceptive

when

on the usual

is

They

76

are called de-

the composition containing the cadence does not terminate

notes, but

pated chord or note.


tion

SEgE

moves

in

A cadence

minor instead of major;

figures or in the

an unexpected
is

way to

another unantici-

when

also called deceptive

however, would be indicated in the

this,

upper composed

the resolu-

part.

Deceptive cadences

Ex.74

E
43b

43

iS

**rr^
43

*? *mf

*
i

3*

fF&W
?VJ S>

45*

43b

Ffpg

ccrr illfJ^iDfr
i

w
At

this

point

it

seems to

me

I*

+a#

'

that

b7.

4 3*

have said enough about cadences.

How to Make Cadences of All Kinds


The
for

teacher must

all

now show

the student,

the keys that have sharps or

flats in

47
little

by

little,

the accidentals

the scale; then the industrious

student will be able to occupy himself in seeking out and practicing these

cadences over the whole keyboard, being guided by the standard forms

given in the examples above.

CHAPTER

VII

Dissonances, Ties,
Syncopations,
to

Resolve

Among the
Chapter

I,

and

How

Them

musical intervals, as mentioned in

there are the dissonances. Just as these are often used in har-

monic composition for the sake of

their great

beauty and charm, and for

the unusual pleasure they bring to the listener

when they

prepared and resolved,

so, too, it is

make

companying, knowing

how

with the composed

They

necessary to

to prepare,

tie,

by

use of

them

in ac-

and resolve them in accord

parts.

are called dissonances because they

described as such

are properly

the ancients,

and displeasing to the

ear,

who

produce discordant sounds,

not only found them

but judged them so

also

false, harsh,

by well-founded

rea-

we will not seek explanations other than those which the


curious reader may find in Boethius, or in many other well-known writers on this subject. It will suffice for our purpose to know that the dis-

sons of nature;

sonances are the second, the fourth, the diminished or false


enth,
48

and the ninth. These are considered the same

fifth,

the sev-

in their doublings at

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

49

the acute or at the superacute octave, being

pound

like the

The

many

among

authors that the

in fact the fourth, placed

among

both the ancients and the moderns

approved for use

we

com-

as a

the perfect consonances: one

first intervals

and diapason, that

diatessaron, diapente,

And

or doubly

consonances.

ancients placed the fourth

reads in very

compound

is,

to be used

the fourth,

fifth,

the consonances,

as a perfect

is

were the

and octave.

considered

by

consonance, but was not

foundation. So, for this reason and for our purposes,

shall call it a dissonance;

it

must be used with

its tie

and resolution

like the other dissonances.

Above
lier (2, 4,

those notes
7, 9),

\>Si

where one

finds written the figures

one must notice that the added part

is

mentioned
tied over

ear-

from

the preceding note; hence the note preceding the one that has the sign of
the dissonance has above
for the next note.
leave or depart

it

the very note that

One must

from

see to

that position,

it,

and

is

to serve as a dissonance

therefore, that the

hand does not

specifically that the finger, remain-

ing on that same key found over the said preceding note, must then resolve to the nearest consonance, descending stepwise. Usually the fourth
resolves to a third, the seventh to a sixth,
I

shall illustrate

and the ninth to an octave; but

everything more precisely.

The second may be considered the same as the ninth, since the ninth is
the compound of the second, and because ordinarily one indicates a second and the

interval will be a ninth.

There

is,

however, a notable

differ-

ence between the two, since the second does not derive from, but proceeds to a

tie,

that

is

to say,

when

case the second does not resolve, as

the bass

itself

resolves stepwise

the bass

is

tied or syncopated. In this

do the other dissonances, but instead

downward.

Ex.75

The second,

then,

copated note, and

must be played on the second count of the

when

the preceding note, to

which

tied or syn-

it is tied,

is

of

$o

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

longer value, notice that the second


ure. Notice, too, that a fourth

augmented or perfect

is

is

played on either half of the meas-

required along with the second, either

or as the composition indicates

as it falls naturally,

through the use of accidentals.

Ex.76

w~w

^m

t
1
*t
Sometimes one finds repeated notes, in which case one should play the

second and fourth with those that come

at the

beginning of every half

measure, whether downbeat or upbeat, exactly as in the case of tied values.

Ex.77

9*

tftr

These

r_r

are treated as

LrrrrrcriEffff
+
1

12.

they were tied in the following way.

if

Ex.78

r r

fy

ep
X

After these and similar


calls

ties

for a sixth, particularly

more, the sixth


as well.

is

(,

the note that descends stepwise usually

when

the fourth

is

augmented. Further-

always desirable along with the second and the fourth

All of this applies even

if

the tied or syncopated note has no sign,

or has only one, either the second, fourth, or sixth, because on such occasions

one does not play one without the other.

An exception occurs when

a syncopated note in the bass does not have a descending resolution but

is

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

followed by some other note, ascending either stepwise or by leap,

as will

be seen in the example below. In such cases one plays either a sixth or the
simple consonances with the syncopated note.
Ex.79

mmt

If a

second

is

found

tied like a ninth,

which

resolves to the octave, the

second should be resolved to a unison. But since the keyboard


adapted to
such

it,

ties are

such a resolution would not be heard. For

needed (which

a ninth instead,

which

is

is

more

rare in

this reason,

is

not

when

harmonic composition) one can use

distinctly resolved to an octave

as will

be

seen in the proper place.


In cantilene one finds

augmented fourth and

though

a sixth.

rarely

a certain passage using the

See the following example of

it,

giving

the upper part.

Ex.80

p^e
S

j'j

t*

9*=f*

9=&
4

#t

This sort of augmented second

is

usual in certain preparations for ca-

dences, and for expressing melancholy words, etc. So


tice

for the prac-

and study of the second.

The
upper
this

much

fourth

parts,

reason

is,

as

mentioned, a consonance

but placed next to the bass

it,

too,

must be

tied over, or be

above

a tied-over bass, as already

and

resolved to a third;

is

it is

it calls

when

it

occurs

among

the

considered a dissonance. For

played together with a second

shown. The fourth serves for cadences


for a fifth added above

it,

and often

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

5 z
sixth, as

demonstrated in the cadences of Chapter V.

The augmented
sonance.

and

It

fourth, otherwise called the tritone,

is

always a

dis-

was not used by the ancient musicians, being considered harsh


But

intolerable.

treated properly
ous, provided

it is

much

and with good

it is

when

used by modern composers, for

taste

it

resolved correctly.

becomes very sweet and harmoni-

The augmented

fourth

is

always

placed together with the second and the major sixth, as mentioned before.

The

diminished, or

false, fifth is a

dissonance. It

is

similar to the tritone

with the difference that the tritone consists of three tones, the diminished
fifth

of

two tones and two

semitones.

There

is

also this difference, that

the tritone, or augmented fourth, comprises four steps, the diminished


fifth five.

Ex.8
Tritones

(a)

a
Diminished

(b)

n:

$m

io

fifths

^=#^

This diminished
tied or untied. It

nances, since

it

fifth as

may

would

used in the accompaniment

it

this false fifth

Sl
may

occur either

not be resolved in the manner of the other dissoresolve to a fourth. Instead,

the note above must descend to

over

form

when

a third, that

is,

ascends stepwise a semitone, and

descends stepwise, the result

is

a third, either

the bass moves,

the note that has

when the

false fifth

major or minor according to

the composition.

Ex.82

w=w

*p221
b

b?

1
3

bs

#*
A

To the diminished fifth must always be joined a third,

and often

a sixth-

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

when

especially

quired

using long note-values, in which case the sixth

provided there

Ordinarily

when

is

no seventh

the bass forms a false fifth

that

in length, throughout

was the diminished

fifth at the

is

re-

tied over.

But sometimes the bass note proceeds to

more notes

5 3

it

will ascend stepwise.

a diminution two, three, four, or

which

it is

necessary to hold the key

beginning until the arrival of the note

that forms the third for the resolution of the diminished fifth.

Study the

example carefully.
Ex.83

14

b* b7
It is excellent
fifth.

the

Take

new

practice to derive another dissonance

from the

false

care in such cases to hold the tied note until the resolution of

dissonance. See the example with the

composed

part.

Ex.84

&3=$

rTr

M
bff

It is

^r

^ ^

m
4

l>7

t>5

customary in compositions for several voices to use

the upper parts

where they

are linked with

few

ties

in

one another by dissonances

of a second or seventh. In relation to one another they resolve regularly,

but are always consonant with the


sixth are indicated together, as ^ or

bass.

They occur when

The

third

is

the fifth and

always necessary;

its

14
For the third note of the third measure of Ex.83, the first edition gives A, which,
however, is not out of the question; in the same measure (and the next) the tie in the
first edition includes only the last three notes before the bar.

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

54
resolution depends
resolve (for the

stepwise or

by

on

that of the fifth, which, in descending one key, will

most part)

leap,

to a third.

according to

its

At

the same time the bass ascends

movements,

as the

example demon-

strates.

Ex.85

#=F
6

Of

all

mm m

all

the most frequent since

it

has

used in composition. In order to distinguish them

we

the dissonances, the seventh

three forms,

3c

shall call the first the

is

major seventh, the second the minor seventh, and

the third the diminished or imperfect seventh. In speaking of the seventh,

however,

we do not refer to it as major or minor unless accidentals make it

necessary to do

so. It will ordinarily

standing thereby the natural seventh.

posed of

five

whole tones and

be referred to

The first,

a semitone;

as a seventh,

the major seventh,

more simply,

it is

underis

com-

the one

that lacks only a semitone of being an octave.

Ex.86

Major sevenths
using accidentals

Natural major sevenths

J^_

r&
But

we

flats also

call

3*=^

major only those sevenths formed with sharps. Notes with

have the major seventh, but here they are called natural sevenths.

Ex.87

Natural major sevenths using a

**-

flat

+ **

**dp-oz

3SE

te

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

The second

seventh,

of four tones and

two

which we

55

shall call

semitones, and lacks a

minor,

the one

is

composed

whole tone of being an oc-

tave.

Ex.88

Natural minor sevenths

Minor sevenths using

^^
The

the major sixth, and

it

and

te-

ffi

third seventh,

lacks a tone

accidentals

which

is

same interval

as

composed of three tones and three semitones.

It

is

called imperfect, has the

a half of being

will always be called the

an octave. But for the sake of clarity

minor seventh.

Ex.89

fr#

tfez:

+ t*

All three are called sevenths because they are

made up

**#i

of seven steps.

Ex.90

Major seventh

^=a 4=BL

Minor seventh
-'-

ten

Imperfect seventh

, n09*\\
=^22 ^PX

The major and minor sevenths will be so


of accidentals; but when they are natural
usage to give them any special name.

called
it

ten

te

W^-

on the

Q n c<

basis of their use

will not be necessary in our

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

56

Generally the seventh must never be without a third.


the

fifth,

but one must distinguish clearly where and when,

show by examples. To begin


a

may

It

preceding note, and

it

with, the seventh

must resolve

when

pens in the stepwise cadence. But

occurring stepwise that

call for a

to the

is

tied in the

major sixth

also

have

we

shall

as

upper part to

as ordinarily

hap-

there are several successive notes

seventh and a

sixth,

only the

final

one

is

resolved with the raised sixth.


Ex.91

single 7 to 6

Several in succession

ff

7 6#

When

7 6

76

56

76#

76

76

descending stepwise in longer note-values (a half-note or

longer) one can add a fifth along with the seventh, but the fifth must be
released immediately with the resolution to the sixth; in

double the third or

sixth, as best suits the

its

place one can

hand. First, however,

would

advise the student to master this tied seventh without the fifth, since

not always necessary.


a

It

must

also

be pointed out that some

fifths

bad relationship with the bass note, particularly in the case of

it is

stand in

B mi and

those notes with a sharp, and are therefore to be avoided.

Ex.92

Here

the fifth

may be

used

Here, no

te

*&
7 6

7 b

76*

And

Here, yes

although in some cadential

leaps,

7 6#

namely those of

.6*

a fifth

down

or a

necessary to join the fifth to the seventh, nevertheless in

fourth up,

it is

those cases

where

it

does not occur properly and naturally, or correctly

prepared by the accidentals,

it

must be avoided.

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

57

Ex.93

[The

No Yes

fifth:]

Yes

No

Yes

-*

P
7

()

No Yes

Yes

No

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

-*<-

E
7 6

?
I

7b

No

No

Yes Yes Yes

1BE

f
7

Study these
is

Yes

jtt
\

common progressions that require

a seventh

not indicated, considering carefully where to omit the

even

when

fifth.

Ex.94

The

fifth:

No

Yes Yes

Yes

No
9:

r r

No

Yes

7 7

No

IE

3
7 7

Yes

ft

No

Yes

^E 4M
7

#fc

>g-h

==E
7

No

Yes

*
7 7
5

ffi

it

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

58

The

diligent student can continue in this fashion, studying each

genus, and observing carefully that


a
if

minor
the

third,

first

the

if

key and

note (of the example) has

first

then the note with a seventh does not take a

but does

fifth,

note has a major third. Similarly, as a general rule, a

used with the seventh each time

it

fifth is

occurs with a major third, especially

over the note that leads into a cadence.


In some bass progressions the seventh

with the condition

that, in

may resolve to

a third or fifth

order to be correct, the resolution must de-

scend stepwise from the seventh, falling on the next adjacent key.

Ex.95

mm
There
leaps,

are

m&Eg
7

some cadences, much

one descending

m^

in use, that are preceded

a third, the other ascending a fourth.

takes a fifth and sixth, and the second note a seventh. If the

major
it

third, the other,

may

which has the seventh, may take

not, for the reasons

The
first

by two

first

note

note has a

a fifth; otherwise

mentioned above.

Ex.96

The

fifth:

No

No

Yes

S
I

Yes

iilg
7

The

743

43

#143

seventh often serves for a particular anticipation of the cadence.

When there is a note a tone or semitone below the one leading to the
dence, and
it

when

this

always receives a

ca-

note has a seventh, either tied over or direct, then

fifth.

Even

false, still this fifth is desirable

if it is

altered

by

a sharp

and the

and, indeed, very effective.

fifth is

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

59

Ex.97

m b

In this anticipation of the cadence with the tied seventh, even

when

the

seventh resolves to a sixth, the fifth must remain along with the sixth.

Ex.98

^^
7

1 6
5"

These examples,

The

if

7tf

well practiced, will prove very useful.

imperfect seventh, which

we

shall

always

call

"minor,"

is

much

used by modern composers, but particularly for two sorts of very delightful

and expressive passages, especially in

this clearly

seventh

second

Now

used are these: in the

is
it

with examples.

the

it,

which

two ways

in

which

this

"minor"

the bass ascends a semitone; in the

first

descends a semitone. In the

along with

demonstrate

recitatives. I shall

first, this

will be naturally minor,

bass then leads into the note a step above,

seventh

and

calls

for a third

a diminished fifth.

which

is

The

harmonized by the

simple consonances.

Ex.99

^^

?
The
all

Be

&
bj

b7

*7

fuller

duce.

#a=

one can make these chords, the more harmony they will pro-

sure,

however, to double

the notes in the left hand, that

all
is,

the notes,

which

easy

if

one plays

the principal note, the third,

fifth,

way

hand

and seventh, and then doubles them in the same


an octave higher.

is

in the right

6o

Dissoiances, Ties,

This seventh

may

be found either tied or

and Syncopations

When

direct.

it is tied, it

generally resolves above the same bass note to a sixth, retaining the di-

minished

and the

fifth

third, as

shown

in the last example but one

(Ex.98); see also the following example.

Ex.100

#2:

"W-

The second

&

1 6

passage

where one meets

this

in
5

"minor" seventh

the tied seventh resolved to a sixth over a bass descending

by

is

simply

semitones.

Ex.101

Here
7'C

r
5

the seventh should not have the fifth but always the third

*p

ft

6b

The

semitone above the octave,

clarity,

two
is

first

kinds, one a

6fr

7 6

b7

whole tone and the other

not called major or minor, because the com-

shows which

however, the

bfe

ninth, although of

position inevitably

y$

3M3

ninth

by

it is

may

the appropriate accidentals. For

be called just and the other minor

because, while they both require a third or tenth, the just ninth requires
a fifth, but the

the

out

fifth

minor ninth does


forms a

not.

This

false relationship

is

because

may

be used, although

it is

must be pointed

with the note that

semitone above the octave, and so must be avoided. In


sixth

as

its

is

the ninth, a

place the minor

not absolutely necessary.

Even though the ninth is the equivalent of the second, being a compound second, still it is treated differently. It is never used without a tie:
in contrast to the second,
bass), the ninth itself

the octave.

is

which occurs over

tied in the

a tie in the lower part (the

upper part

in order to

be resolved to

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations

61

Ex. 1 02
Just ninths

*F

If the

ninth

r
is

minor, the

sixth;

or the sixth

fifth

is

not used, except that

stepwise for several notes the fifth and sixth

only the

may

may

when

ascending

be used, or sometimes

enter with the octave resolution of the

ninth.

Ex.103
Ninths: Minor

WS
6

a:

f
3

tied notes are

g=a

48

9 8

56

Two

Minor

Just

***!

*1*

sometimes found together,

ninth and the seventh. In such cases each requires

as for

its

4 3

example the

proper resolution,

and the chord always has a third or tenth.


Ex.104

zmn

*=zz

is*

<i

7 6

3fr

4 3

The ninth may also be used tied over along with the fourth. Here the
is

used,

and not the

third,

because the third occurs

as the resolution

fifth

of the

fourth.
Ex.105

S
W

&=f^
4

T&
4 e

|3

9 8
5-

Dissonances Ties, and Syncopations

In diminutions of the bass the ninth

sonance, that

is

to say

by the third,

tion correctly descends to the

seventh

when

moves

the bass

may be resolved by any other con-

fifth,

or sixth, provided that the resolu-

key next below,

like the resolution of the

to a note other than the usual one.

This practice, followed by the better modern composers,

found

is

particularly in the extremely delightful Sinfonie of Arcangelo Corelli, su-

preme virtuoso of the


shifts his basses

violin, true

much

with so

Orpheus of our

artfulness, care,

who moves and

time,

and grace, using these

ties

and dissonances, so well controlled and resolved, and so well interwoven

may well say he has rediscovered the


harmony. And I could go on except that it

with a variety of themes, that one


perfection of ravishing

would

divert us

from our purpose, and

small wit, going out of


tation

and by

his

my way to

would,

be regarded

I fear,

speak of one so well

known by

as of

repu-

own magnificent accomplishments. But whoever under-

takes to practice using the basses of his compositions will derive great

benefit thereby,

and will

attain the highest skill in

every style of accom-

paniment.

Study the following examples; with tied-over notes of

this

kind en-

deavor to make the resolutions carefully and judiciously, keeping the

hand

right

in close position

and moving

ing direction. This will be easier to do

uppermost

finger,

which

is

it

for the most part in a descend-

if

the

first ties

are played

by

the

to say, in the highest part.

Ex.io6

f. ,,

,i

J"T^

PS
9

m&

asas^pM

3BE

tS-

Be sure

5"

9 7 3

to treat the second eighth-note of every four as unessential even

may be approached by a leap, applying


Chapter IV concerning the accompaniment of

though
in

9 7

it

the rules given above

stepwise quarter- and

Dissonances, Ties, and Syncopations


eighth-notes.

Here

is

63

another example of double

ties

above diminutions

of the bass:

Ex.107

SlEi
3

>

J I

rr ^rrr
f

OTi

Another progression, in which the ninth

JTm
4 3

is

resolved to a third:

Ex.108

1
.

m P

It will

^JI ^Ofl

m P m

help to

3^

remember

that,

finger that plays the suspension,

hand

in

forming the

ready discussed.

ties,

93

,f *
&
9

with dissonances of any

namely the finger that

creating the dissonance, also plays


right

its

resolution.

Try

% 1

sort,

the same

strikes the

note

always to use the

and in joining them to the consonances

al-

CHAPTER

Vili

How

Remarks on

Best

to

Master Accompaniment in
Every Key:

How

to

Modulate Well, Anticipate,

and Pass Properly from

One Key

to

Another

The first thing one must determine about any commode

position to be accompanied

is

(without entering into the

difficulties

second, third, etc.) to

know

the

precisely

15

in

which

it is

written, or at least

of the modes, that

is,

of the

on which note the piece

is

first,

com-

posed. Because of the variety of melodic figures, the bass does not always

begin with the proper fundamental note on which the composition

formed and on which


15

64

The

original has

it

must end. This

is

"Tono." See the Foreword.

is

particularly true in the basses

Remarks on

How Best to Master Every Key

of arias for either one or

one

figure,

unless

it

may

two

65

often have doubts about the proper accompaniments

begins with precisely the note on which

it

out extensive knowledge and experience, one can

by looking

with a thematic

voices. If the bass begins

may

immediately

tell this

cadence, or, to be absolutely sure, at the

at the first

instance, a motif

But even with-

ends.

begin with the upper

For

last.

the following ex-

fifth, as in

ample.

Ex.109

' |:g

This

mi

is

re

called beginning with the

and the cadence ends on

From

upper

fifth

because the

tell

down

as unessential.

will take

ing stepwise and because of

A will
Aand

its sixth,

by

D.

again take a major third because of

first

similarly the other notes that follow will

in the

memory,

But since

will

it is

proceed to

very

the

would seem

number

of the

that

its

relationship to the

conform to the

difficult to retain so

illustrate a

number

ing their mastery; but particular attention


It

step, is passed

G will take a fifth and a

sixth.

rules already given.

a fifth, requires

according to the rule for ascend-

relationship to

its

A la

half of the second count of the measure,

naturally has the simple consonances. E, being reached

over

is

immediately what accom-

paniments these notes require. While A, leaping


first

note

la sol re.

the rules already given one could

the major third, D, as the

first

is

many

things

of points for facilitat-

here required.

ought here to describe the characteristics and

modes and

their formation.

But

this

is

a subject re-

quiring a lengthy treatise, better adapted to the needs of a student of

counterpoint; moreover

it

has been sufficiently treated

well-known authors, among whose works the student


needs. In order not to dwell too long
in order not to inflict

on the mind

device that will permit

my

on what

is

by numerous

will find

what he

not essential for

a double burden, I

us,

and

have hit upon a

ingenious player to understand without too

much

confusion what

is

proper accompaniments.
ever

is

formed

involved in the treatment of each key


It sufficies to state that

third, starting

from precisely

its

any composition whatso-

that note

on which the composition

minor

major
built,

is

third: re, mi, fa. I leave out

and fourth modes, which must be read: mi,

sideration of the third

con-

fa, sol,

not applied rigorously by present-day composers with

is

with transpositions that would make explana-

original structure, but

tions necessary.

to deviate

with

in reading the notes. In the case of a

read: ut, re, mi; in the case of a

since this

10

major third or with the minor. This be-

either with the

comes immediately evident

its

How Best to Master Every Key

Reni arks on

66

I shall

from our

revert to

common, accepted

practice in order not

subject. Study, then, examples of every key, begin-

ning with those with the major third.


Ex.no 17
Using

Natural major thirds

sO

flats

\)c

Accidental major thirds using sharps

Natural minor thirds

o
o

Q
%

Notice in
tals

all

16
17

The
The

original has
first title

these cases that

one may read do,

flats

iJE=g

Accidental minor thirds


using sharps

using sharps

3m

n O O
T& t=a

Natural minor thirds

0-1

Accidental minor thirds using

re,

mi

either naturally, or

&g
by

the use of acciden-

for the major and re, mi, fa for the minor,

"Tono." See the Foreword.

of Ex.i io reads "Terze minori naturali" in the

first edition.

Remarks on

How Best to Master Every Key

since the flat changes the note, giving

on the other hand, changes

it

by

it

6j

the nature of

giving

fa,

and the sharp,

the nature of mi.

it

In the rules for ascending stepwise already given in Chapter

may

how

discover

to provide correct accompaniments.

But

in

IV one

changing

and varying the keys and in modulating abruptly, one needs further
structions,

which

shall explain little

Having recognized

is

written

major accidental employed


major

which

is

sixth

little

the semitone next

la

mi

re.

the natural, except


the bass, that

is,

when

notice the
D la sol re

major third above

This will be the black key above F,

below G. Therefore

the latter

note of the key in

example

sol re ut for

at its cadences, a

above

which F may enter one must always play

in

with examples.

at the outset the principal

which the composition


and

by

in-

is

it

accompaniment

in every

with the sharp, avoiding

explicitly written in the bass.

the foundation and basis of the harmony,

to

is

For

be con-

sidered as the master, while the accompaniments (the consonances) are


as servants subject to

And

it.

so, as stated before,

give the major sixth to

the note next above the fundamental prime of the key.

observation

is

necessary

Here another

an easy one. When moving from the

raised

semitone never descend, but always ascend. For example, imagine that
the composition

is

in the

key of

la

mi

The

re.

cadences will be G-sharp, so that G-natural

companiments. Thus the major


note ascending stepwise from
a semitone, to

sixth,

is

sharp called for

by

to be avoided in the ac-

G-sharp, that one gives to the

(which

will be

Ex.m
Good

Good

Bad

?c J J

<i

H>

1 1

tl

#6

Good

Bad

I I

J r

J
1

J r

=^ ^
==

Good

Bad

first

B) can then only ascend

A.

Bad

its

Is,

How Best to Master Every Key

Remarks on

68

The

other observation concerns the notes that customarily form the

cadence in

a key.

There

bor a whole tone above, the other the

For example,

in relation to

requires a major sixth, the

by

dates this rule

one

are principally two:

the

E always

(the key's) neigh-

above or the fourth below.

fifth

first

is its

The B

will be B, the second E.

major third

unless the bass invali-

passing into other keys through the formation of other

cadences, or unless there are other indications in the composed part, or

following example) in the figures or accidentals.

(as in the

Ex.112

^m

3
#

Here

4*

key has been changed from

the

shown by

la

mi

PP

&

fr&

G sol re ut.

re to

This

the sixth indicated for the last B, preparing the cadence of

descending to G.

is

When the G-sharp returns it will be a sign that the key

has returned to A.

Ex.113

+~M

From
which

is

this it is

is

third,

sufficient to identify the key.

fa.

minor

it is

a sign that the

key

Thus

is

made about intervals within

third, that

requires a

its

required accidental,

if

one recognizes immediately that the key

observation to be

minor

understood that every key has

accidental sharp and

zr

the major third of the chord preceding the cadence, and this

same sharp
major

P=^

is,

with

third.

re,

mi,

fa,

one
is

if

with a

A. Remove that

changed. There

keys:

sees

the

key

is

is

another

one with

the note a fourth above the key also

At that point there

occurs the same pattern,

This can be seen in the following example.

re,

mi,

Remarks on

How Best to Master Every Key

69

Ex.114

JUL

m o g
re

mi.

when

Therefore,
or

by

b re

mi

always

call

re

fa

that note (a fourth above)

leap, it will

18

Ex.115

re mi fa

fa

is

mi

fa

reached, whether

by

step

for a minor third.

(a)

*== *=
*6

b3 #

43

*6

(b)

Sfiz

~9=*

|i

From
quire,

this,

even

UM?
then,

when

we

can be sure which consonances the notes re-

the bass begins

cipal note of the key.

4*

its

figure

on

a note other than the prin-

After careful study of the

first

example in

this

chapter, one can figure out similar solutions for the other keys, applying

the same accidentals, as will be

shown

farther on.

The

first

example,

once again:

Ex.116

J^gP

*
b

The

last

b3

18

two eighth-notes before the cadence may

may both

create difficulties,

be either passed over

as

un-

or accompanied with the sixth.

In the third measure of Ex. 115b, the

emends to

but since they occur stepwise they


essential,

**-

"6."

first

edition gives "3,"

which the

sixth edition

Remarks on

yo

How Best to Master Every Key

Ex.117

4r

Imi

Ex.118

4-

in

which the

rj

6 7

5-3

figure begins a third above the key.

(a)

rrrrr, r

#6

The same

^^

i^
#66

53=
6

#6

The same

#66

43

a tone lower

nn
(c)

C 6

Here is another example,

(b)

Or

Accompanied

Passed over

,f
i

tjf

#6

a fifth lower

4t
:

9c

"'

ILf
4b

TJ

#6

Another example, beginning

a fifth

I'J
*6

it

above the key, with a modulation to

another key.

Ex.119

19

(a)

Return

Modulation

is=mm
#

19

the

The

in

3S
*

"7" at the beginning of the second measure

Ex.noa, and omitted

in

Ex.nob.

is,

f.

in the first edition, placed over

Remarks on

How Best to Master Every Key

The same

(b)

71

a tone higher

Return

Modulation

^m ^
One may
tone, that

is,

tone above

we

it.

For example,

tion
said,

is

if

it

we

will

formed

At

formed on the note

a semi-

com-

find A-sharp, the composition will be in

B mi;

Dand so on for every key.

in the

we

be in

find G-sharp,

fa ut

it

But

and

is,

and seeing no other accidental

major semi-

indicates that the

if

in

one of the two keys,


this.

easy to

it is

tell

that the composi-

or F; but the cadences, as

have

See the examples of these natural keys.

^
a
^

(a)

(b)

7c

can confirm

Ex.120

?c

A;

is

first

C sol fa ut no accidental major semitones are enE and B, are the semitones. They are
and the notes mi, that

natural keys

natural,

from the appearance of the

the sharp, that the composition

find C-sharp,

countered,

EE5

(7)

reason, then,

position will be in
if

gtr te r
the fifth below

Ji

The most

urTViii^

necessary and most difficult rule concerns recognizing and

foreseeing the modulations and variations of the keys. This, indeed, requires considerable practice, but

always to keep the ear and eye


the bass that are led
until a sharp occurs

up

to

by

it

can be made

easier

alert for those notes in the progression of

a sharp, as

on some other

note,

mentioned before; continue

whether

in the bass itself, or in

the signature, or even in the upper part, and deduce


that has been reached.

by remembering

I shall illustrate this

but observe carefully that sometimes

it is

from

this the

key

with more than one example,


necessary to foresee this acci-

How Best to Master Every Key

Remarks on

72

more notes ahead, and

dental two, three, or

to anticipate

it

depending on how

it is

used

accompaniments.

in the

Ex. I 2 I

Irrr

cu

*t

<

&

p*^
7 b

-M

this

From

#6

example

it

p43

can be concluded that one accidental cancels an-

other, since, as can be seen, the composition begins in

we have at once the accidental

G-sharp.

A la mi re, where

Then comes C-sharp

which

continues as long as no other sharp appears. G-sharp returns (2), cancel-

Then comes D-sharp

ing the one before.


of

mi, and

it,

too, cancels the

(3),

which

C natural

(the three notes

cadence on C,

without foreseeing

this

a major sixth with

E la mi because

it

of

to the original
as the

key

major third of

priate until the

One must
rules,

bad

is

it is

its

canceled

marked

would have been

t).

same
(5),

that

it

must

anticipate the follow-

of returning

accidental, the G-sharp, occurring

first

and

Note

the

possible to play

E takes minor sixth. The sign, then,


that

by

relation to the preceding sharp

used for the major third of A. But because


ing cadence on C, this

the major third

one preceding. D-sharp continues until

C-sharp returns (4) which in turn continues until

cadence moving toward

is

this

sharp follows wherever appro-

end of the cadence.

not,

however, become confused and

because what

relationships.

we

have given here

For the

rest, it is

is

lose track of the first

a general guide for avoiding

necessary to continue according to

the other rules and according to the restrictions imposed

by

the upper,

Remarks on
composed

How Best to Master Every Key


changes in the accidentals

part, for

73

may

be deceiving,

as in

the following example.


Ex.122

3
Here one

sees that the

added accidentals of a major

sixth (at the

two

notes marked *) do not change the key, but are necessary to a kind of
stepwise cadence. But note that the accidental sharp of a sixth cancels
the sharp of the third, as seen with the
that the

major third

is

canceled

by

(at the first *); notice, too,

the preceding

G natural

(marked

t).

See the rule for descending stepwise in Chapter V.

The minor

accidental, the

also indicates

flat,

on occasion

change of

key, as in the following.

Ex.123

9c r

r r

J
r

m
keys,

bfe

To

PI

St'

provide assurance in the technique of modulating through

I shall illustrate

them

all

all

the

with examples, the mastering of which will

give the student great satisfaction.

Ex.124
*

-**

&- a -0- a
*b

&
*

&
*f>

o~ $0

/J

-&b

*6

n ~ G
*6

How Best to Master Every Key

Remarks on

74

mm
i

-Sfc

^6

#b

il

^i

&
b

0-

G o

4b

*
O

79
fcZ

#6

#6

^
^**
f b^

e-^rv

o r

-0-

1fb

|f

^
M

a
"

0-

"H?

Bf&.

'\

rr~ ^

-*

*
-1

&

-H
-H

ft*?

"

b<->
*

-W

6"

lo

2J

zki-,

EJt

O
#6

-*

^
6

z?
"*

&-**
*b

O -S
#

* -0 o

-5

--&-

4b

rrb

a~
b

ff

(6)

#6

[1

/b

"5

i)6

|6

^~

#6t
-te#

^-O-

*
*

-4=1
>

o~

(b)

o p
b

*b

<

f
6

kb

-H
_

4
2

71-

1
1

fb

77~-a
&-

o.

-0

il
b

#6

a.

0-

o
6

a
*b

00
b

0"

t=t

How Best to Master Every Key

Remarks on
Pr
i%
)
'

If

J*

j"?

IS
*

<?

f
t?

ti
"*

tf
r

#6

*fc

86?

/9

*6

#4,

H
"

4-

K
-A

gy, h

-A^

4/

* "

"

bo

r,

i}3

#6

* n

'

>-

J=

-a-

#6

-- ha.

tjb

-
f

-e

rTI

43

-a- a

-a =

11

4*

Others of enharmonic or chromatic genus that might


occur in the source of modulation

-9tt>

'V, a

IJ6

I?

'1* a

\>u

-o

~z>

a
#6

o-

- -

(bj

<>

ty

<>=^= C

"

4b

a- =fca=-9

~&

rr-

-p
#6

-a- "

<

ft?

"

<i

tf

Lb)

(b)

a h~g &H
r~

b3

&H

-^Pa_
-BH

4
z

t>

'

'

'

\)c>

io

t\

+
2.

P^8

O#6

.a

o-te-

ft

*
$

Z= -R
*

All the keys having a major third must also have a major sixth; those

having a minor third must also have a minor


keys that the note marked *

may

sixth.

But notice in major

have either the major or minor

sixth.

Remarks on

j6

In mastering

or two

all

these examples, be careful not to

fifths in parallel

motion.

succeed each other, since they


easy to

fall

into

How Best to Master Every Key

two

octaves.

It is

may

true that

employ two octaves

two

be avoided by using

But when there

move from one note


convenient to make use of tenths

sixths,

an octave

is

to the next

motion.

in the

they occur naturally. Avoid

as

much

as possible the

sharped notes, because then either one


else the

upper part moves awkwardly, creating

bad

it is

by contrary

upper

part,

where

upper octave of the


into

falls easily

but

as the highest

note in the right hand,


It is

hardly ever

fifths

two

effect.

octaves, or

The

doubling

of flatted notes in the highest part does no harm, provided one makes use

With
much as

of contrary motion.

these reservations, the filling or doubling of

the consonances as

possible

is

not

a thing to

one pay such close attention to octaves and

when they move


to be evaded by
and eight

six,

in parallel motion.

way

valid rules of counterpoint

two

St.

is

which the written

but interchange in such a

chapel of

inner parts, even

because they are considered

20

do not occur.

of blessed

parts double the consonances

that the irregularities forbidden


I

by

the

report this opinion from the

memory, formerly

Mark's in Venice, having seen

musicians.

fifths in the

the crossing of the parts, as in compositions for five,

voices, in

famous Ruettino

This

be avoided; nor does

it

organist of the ducal

in a letter of his written to

A similar question about the possibility of allowing fifths

and octaves in the inner parts of an accompaniment had been raised by


these two, and in the letter the question

cord with the same reasons

was

decisively resolved, in ac-

have given here.

make an exception, however, for accompanying on the organ. Here


it is good to make use of the full style in works involving several doubled
parts, but in shorter concerted pieces for one or two voices it is much
I

better to use only the essential consonances, without doublings, as


parts

were being played, regarding the

vised composing.

And

so,

act of

accompanying

as

if

four

impro-

proceeding with the parts sounding together,

with the appropriate consonances, with the dissonances and tied notes
Probably Don Giambattista Volpe, called Rovettino (that is, Ruettino), ?-i92?,
second organist of St. Mark's in Venice from n January 1665, first organist from
9 January 1678, maestro di cappella from 6 August 1690.
20

Remarks on

How Best to Master Every Key


may

correctly resolved, as

go well and

77

be appropriate, the composition cannot but

to the satisfaction of singer, composer,

Anyone with

the

good fortune

and

listener.

to have played or studied

guidance of the renowned Bernardo Pasquini in Rome, or


least

who

has at

heard or seen him play, has been privileged to observe the truest,

noblest,

and most beautiful

style of playing

a result of his richness of style, has heard

ous perfection of harmony. But


that

under the

all

the princes of

and accompanying, and,

from

let it suffice as

his

harpsichord a marvel-

an indication of

Europe have praised him,

as

in particular

his

fame

His Im-

who submitted his own musicians to his school


and supervision. And I, who had the good fortune to associate with him
for a long time, must not, cannot remain silent (permit me to say it) in
perial

Majesty Leopold

I,

him was such grace of manner, invariably


virtue, that

it

might truly be

Nee

said

so well paired with such high

among our

masters:

Quo

justior alter

Virtute fuit, modulis nee major, et arte.

CHAPTER

IX

Dissonances in
the Recitatives,

and

How

to

Play Acciaccaturas

In recitatives pay particular attention to the composed

part, that

is,

to the part that

is

sung. Often above a sustained bass

note the composed part will be dissonant, and after proceeding through

new and

different dissonances

bass having

becomes consonant

larly, if

the

without the

moved. Thus when the composed part begins with

sonance and moves to a second above the

by playing

again,

bass,

a con-

harmonize the bass note

simultaneously the second, fourth, and major seventh. Simi-

composed part goes

to

any other of these dissonances, that

is

to the fourth or major seventh, do not play one without the others.

Sustain these dissonances until the

nance, that

is

to a third, fifth, or octave.

notes, next to the fourth,


78

composed part

is

effective.

Adding

resolves to a conso-

a fifth to these dissonant

Dissonances in the Recitatives

79

Ex.125

j^

#7

Mr

ff

4
2

Sometimes, in these cantilene in recitative


passes first through a fourth

and

a sixth,

major seventh. In such cases play


fourth, and nothing else, because

style, the

then progresses to a second or

a sixth at the outset, along

this in

turn

by

its

resolution, as

with the

followed by a progression to the

it is

above-mentioned dissonance of a second, fourth,

and

composed part

shown

fifth,

and major seventh,

in this example.

Ex.126

E^E

Pp
|

The more

?p

J-J^

these dissonances can be played full and doubled, the better

will be the effect.

Note

that

when

the fourth

is

augmented,

it

does not

take a seventh, but instead an unprepared second and major sixth.

In order to perform the accompaniments of recitatives with some

degree of good

taste,

the consonances must be deployed almost like an

arpeggio, though not continuously so.

been heard, one must hold the keys


lead, singing at his discretion

words.

Do

fast

Once

the

harmony of

and in accord with the expression of the

not annoy or disturb him with

should

call

note has

and permit the singer to take the

continuous arpeggio, or with

ascending and descending scale passages, as some do.

whether

do not

know

those performers grandiloquent [Sonatoroni] or

8o

Dissonances in the Recitatives

trivial [Sonatorelli]

who,

in their desire to display their facility, create

confusion, and imagine that

In breaking a full chord as


in the right

have described, one can touch fleetingly

hand on the semitone

ample, in harmonizing

and so one

finger,

inspiration.

it is

below the upper octave. For ex-

just

G sol re ut the upper octave

strikes the

a certain quickness, in the

is

played by the ring

F-sharp with the third finger. Play

form of

grace rather than offending the ear.


"biting"] because of
releases

its

hold

may

hand

but only

also

soon

as

dent

as it bites,

is

and so does no harm. This same mor-

in chords of the fifth, and

hand plays

which

mordent [mordente,

It is called a

resemblance to the bite of a small animal that

when above

most often when the third

E la mi the

the note

at the octave, the ring finger

finger B, the fifth, then the

little

adds a certain

it

be played next to the key that forms a third in the right

minor. For example,


right

its

with

mordent, sounded on, or rather a

before the beat and released immediately, so that

little

it

mordent

falls

is

index finger of the

G, the

and the

third,

on the black key F-sharp,

played by the middle finger. In the following example the

bers above the notes refer to the right hand, those below to the

num-

left.

Ex.127
10

10
mcrr.

#7 $

w.#23

O'
7*

11

bio

<7

w.#Z3

&

11

II

&

II

11

g-

%
For the sake of
Notice that

all

clarity, I shall illustrate this as best I

can in tablature.

the notes placed between the barlines are played together

at a single stroke.
Ex.128
..

ft

/V

&
V

-a-

n\

/^
/9

m
o*kmO

' 1

Am
m
%

'

'

J)

&
/J

&

Q
v
1

a
l^U

m.

in.

(?V

f>

/^

g O n *
a *"
^
iffg trhere-*l

Ci

An
m&

Jl

#g
"9

m.

/j
f

*?

"

Dissonances in the Recitatives


Generally

it

may

be observed that the mordent

minor

third, the octave,

where

it

creates

on the

and the

sixth.

bad relationships,

when combined with


it falls

as for

minor third

raised fifth the

But use

to

mordent

appropriate for the

judiciously,

it

and not

example with the major sixth

form
is

is

a stepwise cadence; for

when

awkward, and point-

intolerable,

less.

Ex.129

Good

Bad

Bad

XE

Good

Bad

fe

-e-

Sometimes

a certain dissonance

is

used which consists of an acciac-

catura of two, three, or four notes one close

an admirable

upon

effect, particularly in recitatives

found especially with certain notes that take

the next. This creates

or in serious songs, and

major

is

sixth, as in the fol-

lowing.

Ex.130

=2*

#zz

=^=*:

=g*^

*b

*6

^^
d.

ac

AC.

^#=

1^* 2E

^
ac.

**

In order to learn this

==:

cue.

cu-

oc.

K 2^^
&

*=

0- O

more

easily,

note that the third and the fourth,

sounded together, go well with notes that take

major

sixth,

and that

82

Dissonances in the Recitatives

when

possible the seventh

the acciaccatura
right

is

formed.

is

added between

It is

sixth

and octave; in

necessary to employ

thumb.
sharp,

When the

add

diminished

minor

sixth,

fifth is

finger, usually the

heard over mi, or over a note with a

and for an acciaccatura

and tenth, creating an excellent

way

the fingers of the

all

hand and sometimes to play two keys with one

this

effect.

a ninth

between octave

The same arrangement

serves at

the cadences: every time a note calls for both seventh and major third,
the fourth, as an acciaccatura,

added between the major third and the

is

fifth.

Ex. 1 3

#* =#3=

** =*=zz

AC.

ocr cadent-a.

fe

=#*?

&^

IT

W>

32

&

M 3E

i*-em.

m.
-e-e-

^^

3
ac.

ac.

O.

p*

7 a *****

#E
ac.

o-O.

dfr

cadenza.

To

those notes calling for a second, an augmented fourth

stated, these

two do not occur independently

and

major

well to add a fifth as an acciaccatura between fourth and

as already

sixth, it is

sixth.

Ex.132
/->

A
it

m
T

V^&

M
*
io m a

s->
1
1

ac.

1^*^-

-0-H

<t#
ff

^
O

'

m.

-0-B

^ =&-

<~s
C>

ac.

"^

te
C
'a 0*
1

^-a

aa
* to

im0
*m

SS
H

""*-]

-*-0

=-*br-

'

ac-

^Sc
$o*W
^

-=r&\
L^_JI

Dissonances in the Recitatives


After

this

83

dissonance the mordent to the sixth of the following note (as

indicated in the foregoing example) retains


passage,

found sometimes in

recitative

acciaccatura in order to smooth


is

accomplished

it

particular

and serious

arias as well,

needs the

over and result in good harmony. This

shown here with

as

One

sweetness.

its

the vocal part.

Ex.133

s^s

|j

son

la-men- ti, sonh-mexi-

m
#4
2

The

T#^-

*F
Vf

ti

note marked * has an interval the equivalent of a minor third or

minor

which

tenth, but

is

actually

because

mented second or

ninth. In playing that note,

fourth, and above

them

hand.

Make

use, if

a sixth, doubling

you

will,

of

add

its

a third,

whichever

an

position

suits

aug-

an augmented

you

in the left

of the following example.

Ex.134

K&
OLA.

=fcc

*HC

to-

-&-0-

\E

The student
and

toax..

of

harmony must

strive to seek

out at the keyboard these

similar acciaccaturas in other keys of every genus. After gaining

familiarity

and

ease

with them in the natural and diatonic keys,

it

will

be easy to find them in the chromatic or enharmonic keys; but proceed

with discretion and with regard for rhythm.


well

as I did

myself

when

Try

to find

new

ones

as

discovered, in the course of practice, that

one can play a certain dissonance (a doubled acciaccatura of fourteen

Dissonances in the Recitatives

84
notes)

all

at

one stroke. This occurs,

of a major seventh

is

found

as in the

example,

when

the interval

in recitative.

Ex.135

'h r

*-*

ss
-a

-3-

<?

II

/*>

/-*

ka

^ *bO

an O u

l<?

nz
In order to play

this acciaccatura it is

necessary to depress

a single finger at the extremes of both hands, that

and with the thumb. This, however,


or general rule;

its

occasional use

tions of time, place,

is

is,

two keys with

with the

finger

little

an oddity, rather than an example

would be

qualified

and company. These and

by

the considera-

similar dissonances, or

harsh harmonies, would seem to allow the good singer scope for better
expression of the affections and spirit of compositions. But, as
said before, use
self in

the

them with

first place,

discretion,

and

see to

it

that

you

so that in consequence the singer

and

satisfy

have

your-

listener will

be better pleased.

You

will be able to

make equal

use of the mordent and acciaccatura

in arias or canzonas, since they are essential for playing with grace

good

taste;

through their use the accompaniment becomes

harmonious and

delightful.

and

much more

CHAPTER X

Diminution,
Embellishment,

and Adornment
of the Accompaniment

WOULD LIKE TO SHOW YOU MANY KINDS OF DIMINUTIONS,

ornaments, embellishments, and other ways of lending grace to accompaniment. But since these are better expressed in tablature,

common

I shall illus-

trate

only a few of them in certain

may

apply himself with some enjoyment. In these examples the neces-

passages, so that the student

sary consonances are performed with the left hand, while the right hand
plays the upper part as

shown below,

for instance, in an example of as-

cending motion by step; other examples [of descending motion by


of motion

by

leap and] of certain cadences follow.

step,

21

21
In the second measure of the first passage in Ex.136, the fourth note has been
changed from a dotted sixteenth. In the second Cantabile cadence, a sharp given by the
first edition over the penultimate note of the right hand has been read as "tr." At the
beginning of the third cadence, also in the right hand, the first edition gives one too

many

sixteenth-notes.

85

Diminution, Embellishment, and Adornment

86
Ex. 1 36

ft

*.

e^j a ^g f *-$

0* ?=H*
4

#fc

ff

#6

Descending

^V

^'
J;

ft

g|pPl
.N

S
7 6

With leaps

p,

cr

^55

66*

of a third or fourth

rea

'

tP

^ ^ ^M A

- >

Starting

from a major

^m

third

rJ^-J.I I'^r

^11

r
f

IgJ Tu 1

rr

^^

'n

'

'

Diminution, Embellishment, and Adornment

Common

87

cadences arpeggiateci

tp

rrn

*rTrf

w UrUV
JN
^^
J

irrr .i

Qt

Jx,

Cantabile cadences

fu

=*3

#6

H>mrcftcr rj f

s
#6

56

^ %^^

PS

*i.

5"

^^

Diminution, Embellishment, and Adornment

88
For approaching

major third

fe
^

ft.

iii rrfj^g

8 7

fc*

KU^J
I

II

:=

CPTE&T UJJ

'

rLr r3
-

CeCr

J
:

43

For arriving

at

an augmented fourth

^^ s
93

3jtrf

-*

B # **

*. #

"*t

Is

way one may arrive at any sort of accompaniment. I could ilmany other things, but in order to avoid a pointless excess or

In this
lustrate

confusion,

leave

them

to the talent, industry,

student accompanist, who, as soon as he


I

could put on paper,

will, I

is

and good

taste of the

capable of playing

more than

assume, not have need of such examples,

being able to fend for himself by observing attentively the best players

and the compositions of the most celebrated composers and masters.

One must warn,

however, against confusing the singer with such diminu-

Diminution, Embellishment, and Adornment


tions (or should

that he

might

we

use.

say garlands): avoid playing an interval or figure

Furthermore, one must never play note for note the

vocal part or other upper composed part for violin,


that the

89

harmony contain

etc., since it suffices

the consonance or dissonance called for

the bass and supplied according to the rules of accompaniment.

by

CHAPTER

XI

Diminution or

Adornment of

because

it is

Bass

the

DO NOT APPROVE OF THE DIMINUTION OF THE BASS ITSELF,

very easy to miss or depart from the intention of the com-

and

poser and from the proper spirit of the composition


singer.

But

we

say "to accompany" advisedly: he

take pride in the

performer.

agile

title

how

suit his

when he

to play with grace

fancy and unleash

accompanies;

If

may

shall illustrate

when

at least, intend to suggest

be available for the expression

some diminutions of easy

basses.

played with discretion, a steady beat, and a clear idea of the nature of

the composition, these diminutions

may

altering the intention of the composer.


first

moving

Ex.137
n.-.

-t^-g

90

I,

his brilliance

and not with confusion.

Nevertheless, in order that they


of bizarre sentiments,

accompanies must

of a good, solid accompanist, not of a spirited and

He may

he plays alone, not

who

to offend the

be used without distorting or


shall give several examples, the

in quarter-notes.

(a)

$#
<f

f-

w*

u-*

-m

*#

Diminution or Adornment of the Bass

9*

(b)

gzBgg
Seeing that this
it

is

'W.-^W-

^T^m^-^F^

sa

#^z

an arpeggio drawn from the consonances themselves,

will be easy for the student to learn

but

it

should be used with

cretion.

Ex.138

*r

Another way

zmMMm&si^M w
Another way

ytr/tfrf
In triple, or

tempo

in a faster

some other proportion

m
?^rtrcf
r,^
-f-

tfcT pS=
rJ'tffr
l

,
,

^
^

/ rJJrJJicr

r^fffn

rtnf rrtrrf

^TflfrTujt^

r/fr

grr

dis-

Diminution or Adornment of the Bass

9^
Another way

g cJ*tJ Ef rK^ rlmf rJt


i

aiJrJtfi ff/
f

If

the

^
S

tempo

is

f r_rrf^r
i

faster

F=f=^
f
|

^M

| f

f=ff^=f

fir

<2=c

In certain eighth-note patterns

1
jlttTir

g^l

T r nnffrFffifj irffiniririij

g i^fitf cereri

ip i

Diminution or Adornment of the Bass

In using these and similar diminutions,

should be played in the right hand.


it

in ritornellos

As

and when the singer

the required consonances

all

to their use,
is

completely approve

beyond

silent;

known

not

is

the

world to be

different dispositions,

full

who must

would

have given

trifles

directly),

neither have

or childish tricks.

moment

part, declare
relief

my

had

expounded nor approved of

men

will call the examples

cannot condemn the opinions

of such men; but whoever wishes to use diminution


wisely and at the right

if I

of people of various inclinations and

diminution, in the knowledge that the wisest


that

more

appropriate. Actually (to speak

refer the

this, I

matter to the prudence and discretion of the accompanist,


decide what

can ignore

and

these opinions.

can do so
I,

for

my

motive to have been the introduction of some sort of

and delight to the labors of present-day students of harmony.

From

you

the examples above

will also understand that

and containing leaps are found

basses using diminution

for the theatre or the chamber, these are in fact in the

when

certain

in compositions

form of arpeggios;

therefore the notes between the counts must be passed over and not

accompanied. This

Camera printed

as

the bass goes like

may be
22

Opus

observed at the opening of


at the

words

"A

my

Cantate da

battaglia o miei pensieri";

this:

Ex.139

*.n u a 'm

[I |f [1 i

fmii')i? r[rrrrFi ?

Notice carefully that the underlying pattern of these notes

is this:

Ex.140

j^

J"]
*

r
b

Cantate da Camera a voce sola

Opera prima, Rome, Mascardi,

1695.

Diminution or Adornment of the Bass

94

Many
of

many

such motifs, of various kinds,


excellent composers

but

may be

observed in the cantatas

by Gio-

especially in those cantatas

vanni Bononcini, most worthy Virtuoso of His Imperial Majesty. In


these cantatas

you

will discern

no

little bizzaria,

studv, and fanciful invention, because of

beauty, harmony, artful

which they

justly receive the

applause of the whole world in admiration of his most delightful talent.


It
it is

seems to

me

the extent of

tions,

and

trate

how

that

what

styles of

have finally presented and

know and

illustrated

can expound about the

enough;

rules,

observa-

good accompaniment. There remains only

to illus-

to transpose, in order that this

may

be done with

ease.

CHAPTER

How

XII

Transpose

to

through All Keys

essential to the
tice, I
all

CONSIDER TRANSPOSITION THROUGH EVERY KEY AND GENUS

good

organist.

But

since this

comes exclusively with prac-

way than to make a special point of knowing


thus when it becomes necessary to transpose

can think of no better

the clefs instinctively;

a fourth, fifth, or third, either

up or down, or

one can picture immediately in which


order to be able to do this
notice

how

second higher or lower,

clef to read the composition. In

study carefully the following table and

easily,

the clefs are placed for any sort of transposition.

Ex.141

c
"

pba

_p

...

.__.

**
Without

tone higher:

Mezzo-soprano

accidentals

TI3*
clef

on the second

third higher:
Baritone clef on the third line

line

9-t>

..

a.

=:

^
a.

95

How to

96

Transpose through All Keys

""

fourth higher, or a fifth lower:


clef on the first line

Soprano

lb'A

fifth

Tenor

IK
lp g

higher, or a fourth lower:


clef

on the fourth

line

tone lower:
Contralto clef on the third line

-ai'

.
o c

g
c

A semitone higher:

With

A tone

flats

higher

A third higher

A fourth

higher

clef

\f

in

on the second

**o a o "

V)\\\>
9

major third lower:

The same

Mezzo-soprano

line

1?

IBi'Vb

* * *

m
w

a a

=,

u o

=1

'

ff

a o "

minor third lower:


Violin clef on the second line,
Or bass clef on the fifth line

"

o *

*=*
1

n
1

ii

How to

Transpose through All Keys

fifth

tone lower

third lower

higher

S
*
I

A semitone higher

.Ig

A semitone

m**

lower

One must
least

inconvenient and most natural.

[With sharps]

tone higher

is

possible, using this

semitone higher
using this clef

is

more conven-

ient,

A third

P fj^jt

%$

clef

higher

is

<?

<>

-a-o-

r^rrzc

tf

note which transpositions of keys with sharps or

Ex.142

97

perfectly easy

m
U

'"

-^-

flats

are

How to

98

fourth higher, or a

fifth higher,

A tone

fifth

fe
fit

lower

third lower

It is

lower

or a fourth lower

necessary to play the clefs of the acute and superacute registers an

octave lower so that the accompaniment


is

Transpose through All Keys

by

required

The key
tone higher

many

is

proper and conforms to what

the nature of the bass or foundation.

of B-flat (see the next example)


if

sharps;

so desired, but

still, it is

may

be transposed a semi-

a little inconvenient because of the

it is

easy to read because the bass clef

being necessary only to imagine the sharps added to

it.

Ex.143

[Key

<

of B-flat]

[A semitone

higher]

A semitone lower

is

convenient, using

this clef

A tone

higher

is

perfectly easy, using

this clef

V O

third higher, using this clef

H.' jf

ft

-Q7
~e~

^E

3S

is

retained,

it

How to Transpose through All Keys


A

third lower, using this clef

fourth higher, or a
ing this clef

A fifth

fifth

'

h
b

_P

fr

Hi

higher, or a fourth lower, us-

ing this clef

From

ho

O:

lower, us-

99

fr~

I^JT
'
"^

jj

these examples one can generally

transposition. In order to be

more secure

tell

which

in their use,

clef to use for

any

one can memorize

the following rules.

A tone higher becomes mezzo-soprano (C-clef on the second line)


A third higher becomes baritone (C-clef on the third line)
A fourth higher,
or a

fifth

lower, becomes soprano (C-clef

on the

first line).

A fifth higher,
or a fourth lower, becomes tenor (C-clef on the fourth line).

A tone lower becomes contralto (C-clef on the third line).


A third lower becomes violin G sol re ut (on the second line).
One must
that with a

next determine of which type the composition

major third or with a minor

is,

whether

third, either natural or altered,

then make appropriate use of the correct accidentals; otherwise great


disorder could arise, changing the quality of the key, and the composition

would be
fourth and

ruined.
fifth,

where necessary
composition.

For

this

reason be sure to retain the same species of

so that they remain correct,

in order to reproduce each interval as

could

illustrate

this as superfluous, for

when

the student

study will become skilled and


order easily to gain a

full

it

occurs in the

other ways of transposing, but

already given he can investigate

table,

and make use of accidentals

all

is

regard

capable of using the examples

the other keys

efficient in

by

himself,

and with

every sort of transposition. In

knowledge of the

clefs,

study the following

proceeding from the grave to the most acute

register.

How to

IOO
Ex.144

Table of

all

Transpose through All Keys

the musical clefs

4
4
1

J7

4?

1*
=1

f= 0

JL

^F

Sp
\

<z

<?

0 a

O 0 a
7

^?

<3

<?

T
a -e a

<*'

<7

-0-

I
-*

Gr

0 a 0 O

-&

XL

a
|

A.

Cr

o 1 ran spose thi'OUg hAl IKe ys


iD

U3

"

j-t

r*

&

Ls

ts

-*

D
c

-e-

^2.

A
-0-

IOI
/J

^2

0-

U2

ii

-0-

J2.

&

&

A.

&1

How to

io2

Any

transposition

clearly understood.
aid

and

tions.

satisfy

Transpose through All Keys

becomes very easy

And

this

is

as

much

my

all

can describe and

as I

reasoning

classical antiquity

by

or of

leniently. If

is

set forth to

have not sup-

citing the authority of the masters, either of

modern

teachings are approved,

me

the clefs

my imperfec-

you; your perceptive talent will make up for

In any case, rest content and judge

ported

exercise in

if this

you

times, in order to convince

you must recall

that

my

that

have neither discoursed on

counterpoint nor treated the art of harmony in general. This material


has been sufficiently dealt with in the excellent study of Zarlino, and

many other

celebrated authors, and finally so ably expressed

Reverend Father Baccelliere Zaccaria Tevo, of the


ventual in his Musico Testore [Bortoli, 1706].
a

manner of accompaniment

strument; in

matters

all

counterpoint. If
it

to

my glory,

you

of

some

am

Most High, who gave me

it

it,

will aid you;

do not
and

Minor Conkeyboard

to realize a bass at a

profit

from

in-

my work,

do not attribute

not desirous; but rather to the glory of the

the inspiration for

fail

if it

Very

have shown you but

it.

If

my work

or inaccurate to you, accept only the good will behind


pleased with

the

have endeavored to rely on the valid rules of

derive

which

how

Friars

by

by

to avail yourself of

it,

since

it is

seems useless

it.

If

you

my hope

are
that

does not suffice to sustain and satisfy you, rest

assured that after learning this

much Usus

THE END

te

plura docebit.

Date Due

Library Bureai

Cat. No. 1137

781.3 G21p

3 5002 00378 5610


Gasparini, Francesco
practical harmonist at the harpsicho

The

MT 49 .G1713

Gasparini, Francesco,

1666

1727.

The practical harmonist,


the harpsichord

MT 49

at.

G1713

Gasparini, Francesco,

1666

1727.

The practical harmonist at


the harpsichord