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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT

QUARTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON


TOPIC / LESSON NAME
CONTENT STANDARDS
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
LEARNING COMPETENCIES
SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOME
TIME ALLOTMENT

Doing Philosophy
The learner understands the meaning and process of doing philosophy
The learner reflects on a concrete experience in a philosophical way
Realize the value of doing philosophy in obtaining a broad perspective on life (PPT11/12-Ib-1.3)
Do a philosophical reflection on a concrete situation from a holistic perspective (PPT11/12-Ic-1.4)
At the end of the lesson, the learners will be able to:
1. Write a one-page reflection paper following the structure of Day-to-day Life, Reflection, and
Application
120 minutes

LESSON OUTLINE:
1. Introduction/Review: Communicating learning objectives & reflection on excerpts from Platos Apology and Sapagkat ang Pilosopiya ay
Ginagawa by Roque Ferriols, S.J. (30 minutes)
2. Motivation: The March To Progress in the Philippines (15 minutes)
3. Instruction: Discussion about Indigenous Peoples and Philosophical Reflection on Progress (60 minutes)
4. Practice: Deconstructing personal beliefs (10 minutes)
5. Evaluation: Giving of instructions on the take-home reflection paper (5 minutes)

MATERIALS

Copy of the articles, notebook


Ferriols, Roque. Pambungad sa Metapisika. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press Blue Books, 2014.
Abella, Jerrie. Indigenous people remember Macliing Dulags martyrdom. GMANews.TV. 24 Apr. 2010. Web. 23 Jun.
2015.http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/189239/news/nation/indigenous-people-remember-macliing-dulag-s-martyrdom

RESOURCES

Carolino, Ditsi. The March to Progress in the Philippines. Aljazeera. 4 Nov. 2014. Web. 23 Jun. 2015.
http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/viewfinder/2014/11/march-progress-philippines-2014112122317640995.html

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT


QUARTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
PROCEDURE

MEETING LEARNERS NEEDS

INTRODUCTION (10 MINUTES)


1. Introduce the following learning objectives using any of the suggested protocols (Verbatim,
Own Words, Read-aloud)
a. I can explain the value of philosophy in my life.
b. I can write a philosophical reflection on a concrete situation from a holistic perspective.
2. Unlock the definitions of the following words. Ask the learners first and see if the class can
derive the definitions based on student responses:
a. Holistic perspective
b. Concrete Situation
c. Philosophical reflection
REVIEW (20 MINUTES)
1. Ask the learners to read the following passages for ten (10) minutes.
a) Excerpt from Platos Apology (38a): The unexamined life is not worth living.
b) Excerpt from Sapagkat ang Pilosopiya ay Ginagawa ni Roque Ferriols, S.J.
May mga taong gusto raw matutong lumangoy. Nakasuot-panlangoy na sila at samasama silang nakatayo sa tabi ng swimingpul. May notbuk at bolpen ang bawat isa.

Teacher Tips:
Role of the Text:
The chosen texts are meant to facilitate the
learners acquisition of insight. The role of the
teacher is not to impose one interpretation of
the text but to point towards the crucial
elements that may serve as the basis of the
learners reflection.

Nagsasalita ang guro. Una sa lahat, aniya, magsanay ka munang magtampisaw sa


tubig. Tapos huwag huminga pero idilat ang mata at magpasailalim ng tubig. Tapos
bastat dumapa. Huwag matakot. Lulutang ka. Tapos, matutong gumalaw ng paa,
matutong gumalaw ng kamay. Matutong huminga. At paulit-ulit na pagsikapan at
pagtiyagaan ang praksis. Habang siyay nagsasalita, masipag nilang sinusulat ang lahat
ng sinabi niya.
At ngayon, patuloy niya, eto ang swimingpul. Oras nang magsimula. Lundagin mo
beybe! Walang lumundag, pero sulat nang sulat pa rin sila. Hoy, sa tubig na kayo!
Walang kabuluhan ang sulat-sulat niyo kung hindi ninyo ginagawa. Wala pa rin
lumulundag. Sulat pa rin sila nang sulat.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT


QUARTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
2. Ask the following guide questions to the learners:
a. What does Plato mean when he says the unexamined life?
b. Based on Ferriols text, what do you think the students are thinking when they are
diligently copying the instructions given by the teacher instead of diving into the pool?
c. Why is the teacher so keen on making the learners jump in the swimming pool instead
of just taking down notes on how to swim?
3. Write the following terms on the board: day-to-day life, reflection, and application
4. Instruct them to do the following:
a. Define what each term refers to.
b. Share a brief narrative where they encountered the three moments in their own life.
c. Give insights as to the importance of reflection and application (praxis) in ones dayto-day life.
Sample responses:
It is important to examine our lives.
Unlike animals, human beings are able to think about what they have done in the
past. This allows us to reflect on the kind of persons we are becoming.
Plato suggests that thinking about the past will help us act better in the future.
Ferriols story tells us that we can not just study about things. We need to do them.
When I come home, I always have food to eat. But I see children in the streets that
beg in order to buy food. I realize that while eating three times a day is normal for me,
not everyone is able to do so because they have no money.
MOTIVATION (10 MINUTES)

Subjective Interpretation of the Text


If the learners give a different interpretation of
the text, do not dismiss their answers as
incorrect but ask them what their basis was for
their interpretation.
The Nature of Philosophical Reflection
Philosophical reflection is open-ended in the
sense that the goal is not to arrive at one
definitive answer for everyone. This means that
while learners may not necessarily agree with
others interpretations, they do not dismiss them
immediately without trying to understand where
these people are coming from and what their
reasons are for holding their beliefs. This openmindedness to the horizons of other people
enables learners to fairly evaluate different
interpretations and to distinguish which among
them are excellent, plausible, and poor
interpretations of the text.

1. Remind the learners that todays topic revolves around current events, and that they need
to be aware of the things happening in the country.
2. Hand out a copy of the news article, distributed as worksheets. This may also be written
on a manila paper; or shown as a news item on-screen.
3. Let them read the text quietly for five (5) minutes.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT


QUARTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
The March to Progress in the Philippines
A tribesman leads his village in resisting a development project that promises progress but
threatens his tribe.
By Ditsi Carolino, AlJazeera
November 4, 2014 14:19 PM
I first stumbled upon this story four years ago. My husband, a human rights lawyer, told me
about a remote village in Casiguran, Aurora province where farmers, fishers and indigenous
peoples needed legal help. They were protesting a massive government project called Aurora
Pacific Economic Zone (APECO).
APECO covers 12,923 hectares and would build an airport, a seaport, resorts and factories. It
promised jobs and progress in the once sleepy town of Casiguran. But the project was mired in
controversy.
"They say APECO will bring progress. But we feel this progress is not for us," said Vic, a
Dumagat, an indigenous group who have lived there since the 1900s. They subsist on hunting,
gathering and fishing and need vast forests and coasts to survive.
After a grueling 350km protest march to Manila, Vic meets the president of the Philippines,
looks him in the eye and tells him: "We also want progress, but our idea of progress is different
from your idea of progress."
I asked Vic where he found the courage to speak to the president like that and he said: "We
walked for 17 days to tell the president what we felt. So I did."
Vic was not a tribal chief. He was an ordinary tribesman who finished grade one in school. But
his practical wisdom and the slow, dignified way he spoke reminded me of much-revered
chieftains, long dead and gone but well remembered for the way they led their people against
"development" projects.
While he was fishing, he told us how much the Dumagat valued their freedom. "If we work in the
APECO factories, we work for a boss. In our ancestral land, there is no boss."
Another time he was foraging for food in the forest. "Everything we need to survive is here. If we
nurture our forest and seas, it will sustain our needs. The life of the tribe is simple. We are able
to eat everyday. Our huts are small but we are happy."
Ultimately Vic makes us wonder about the big questions at the heart of this story: What is
progress? Who defines it? And who really benefits from "development" projects?

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT


QUARTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
4. Ask the learners to write their reactions about the given article on their notebooks.
Encourage them to write as many questions as they can for three (3) minutes.
5. Gather some questions from the class. Write them on the board.
Teacher Tips:
INSTRUCTION (45 MINUTES)
1. Ask this question and call on three learners to share their answers for each term.
a. What is the first thing that comes to your mind when you hear the following terms:
i. Progress/Development
ii. Indigenous Peoples (IPs)
iii. Traditional Lifestyles
iv. Modern Lifestyles
v. The Good or Happy Life
2. Tell the learners to examine the following excerpt from the article and reflect on the
following questions.

Expanding Learners Perspectives


For most learners, the good or happy life is
associated with having a modern lifestyle (living
in a concrete house with electricity and internet,
malls, gadgets, cars). The traditional lifestyles
of indigenous peoples are often depicted as
backwards or inferior to the progressive city-life.
The goal of the discussion is to examine this
commonly-held belief and to see whether we
can expand our beliefs to accommodate other
perspectives.

"Everything we need to survive is here. If we nurture our forest and seas, it will sustain
our needs. The life of the tribe is simple. We are able to eat everyday. Our huts are
small but we are happy." Vic, Dumagat Tribesman
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

From your point of view, how will you describe Vics lifestyle?
What do you think is his notion of the good life?
How will you describe your own lifestyle? Is it modern or traditional?
What is your notion of the good life?
Is there a difference between your notion and Vics notion of the good life?
How would you compare the two notions? Is one inferior to the other? Why or why
not?

3. After reflecting, ask them to partner with their seatmate and share answers for ten (20)
minutes. Encourage them to discuss their points of agreement and/or disagreement
with one another.
4. Call on three pairs to share their answers to the class. Ask the class whether they agree
or disagree with the pairs answers to question (f) and to explain their position.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT


QUARTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
5. Lead learners to realize that while our notions of the good life may differ from those held
by Indigenous Peoples (IPs) such as Vic, it does not necessarily mean that one or the
other is inferior or superior. Contrary to the stereotypical depiction of IPs in mainstream
media as backwards people who are against progress, IPs such as Vic actually desire
progress as well. As Vic states, "We [the Dumagats] also want progress, but our idea of
progress is different from your [the governments] idea of progress."
6. Ask learners to reflect on what Vics idea of progress.
7. Ask why the State should accommodate their understanding of progress into its own. As a
guide for reflection, share the following excerpt from an article about the life of Mac-liing
Dulag, an IP pangat (tribal chieftain) of the Butbut tribe in Kalinga province who was
assassinated while fighting against the establishment of the Chico Dam in the Cordilleras.
When an army engineer reportedly asked the Kalingas for titles to their ancestral
land, Dulag was said to have replied, "You ask us if we own the land. And mock us,
'Where is your title?' Such arrogance of owning the land when you shall be owned by
it. How can you own that which will outlive you?" (gmanews.tv)
8. After giving them two (5) minutes to reflect, call on three (3) learners to share their
answers to the class.
9. Synthesize the discussion by explaining to the learners that what have done is to engage
in a philosophical reflection as to the nature of progress. Following the structure laid out
earlier, we can divide the process of reflection into three parts.
a. Day-to-day Life: Prior to reflection, our notions of progress seem to be commonsensical and those who deviate from this notion would readily be labelled as
traditional, anti-progress, and irrational.
b. Reflection: However, an encounter with people coming from different horizons of
understanding (life-worlds) forces us to take a step-back from our notion of progress
and examine their rationality using their own criteria instead of ours. This enables us
to see the existence of an alternative perspective that is neither inferior nor superior
to ours.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT


QUARTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
Application (Praxis): After realizing that there are a plurality of perspectives as to
the meaning of progress and that our own perspective is not necessarily the (only)
correct one, one should realize that it would be unjust to impose ones beliefs on
others especially when it resorts to violence.
10. Ask a follow-up question: What can you, as an individual, do in order to ensure that the
tragedy that befell on Mac-liing Dulag does not happen again?

PRACTICE (15 MINUTES)


1. Instruct the learners to think of a belief that they hold to be common-sensical in their
immediate community (family, neighborhood, school, religious community, ethnic
community) which other people they have encountered do not share.
2. Ask them to formulate their belief in as concise a manner as possible as well as the
position maintained by those who do not share the same belief and their alternative
positions (if possible). Instruct them to write their answers in their notebooks.
Suggested Format based on class discussion:
Pre-examined Belief
Contending Belief
Progress consists in
Indigenous Peoples
having a modern
such as Macliing Dulag
lifestyle. (concrete
and Vic believe that
houses with electricity
there is an alternative
and plumbing,
notion of progress which
automobiles, computers, consists of living in
internet, etc.)
harmony with mother
nature and dwelling in
their ancestral lands.

Re-examined Belief
There is more than one
notion of progress and
one is not necessarily
better than another as
people coming from
different worldviews have
different ways of valuing
the world.

Teacher Tips:
Checking for Understanding:
Remind the learners that if they have any
questions and/or clarifications, they should
raise it as soon as possible.
Scaffolding:
If students are unable to think of any belief that
they themselves hold, ask them if they are
familiar with any cultural practice from other
countries that they do not necessarily
understand and/or agree with. They can use
this belief as a basis and propose a contending
belief.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT


QUARTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
EVALUATION (5 MINUTES)
1. Give the following instructions to the class: Based on what you have written down on
your notebook (for practice), write a one-page reflection paper following the structure of
(a) Day-to-day Life, (b) Reflection, (c) Application (Praxis).
2.

Remind the learners to cite their references accordingly using the APA format.

3. Refer to the attached rubric for the evaluation of the paper.

EVALUATION (For the Reflection Paper)


1 (NOT VISIBLE)

Depth of
Reflection
(Content)

Structure
(Form)

Grammar,
Spelling
(Syntax)

2 (NEEDS IMPROVEMENT)

3 (MEETS EXPECTATIONS)

4 (EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS)

Learners provided new and


creative insights resulting
from a profound reflection and
internalization of the given
material.

Learners demonstrate a lack


of reflection and internalization
of the given material.

Learners demonstrate a
minimal level of reflection and
internalization of the given
material.

Learners demonstrate a
sufficient level of reflection and
internalization of the given
material.

Learners did not comply with


the structure and format
provided for the reflection
paper and the thoughts were
not expressed in a coherent
and logical manner. Writing is
vague and disorganized.
The learners made more than
five spelling and grammar
errors.

Learners complied with the


structure and format provided
for the reflection paper but
the thoughts were expressed
in an incoherent manner.
Writing is vague and
disorganized.
The learners made no more
than five spelling and
grammar errors.

Learners complied with the


structure and format provided
for the reflection paper and the
thoughts were expressed in a
coherent manner. Writing is
sufficiently clear and
organized.
The learners made more than
two spelling and grammar
errors.

Learners complied with the


structure and format provided
for the reflection paper and
the thoughts were expressed
in a coherent manner. Writing
is very clear and organized.
The learners made no more
than two spelling and
grammar errors.

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