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some of its Kip

PjKlpBy is a versatile preposition which can be used in a number of


situations. Today we take a look at some of its basic uses:

The way something is done


We use by to show how something is done:

We send a postcard or a letter by post.

We contact someone by phone or by email.

We pay for something by credit card or by cash.

Something happens by mistake, by accident or by chance.

Travel
We use by to show how someone travels:

They came by car/ by taxi/ by train/ by plane.

Note: do not use the, my or a when you use by. Instead use:
'On the plane.'
'In my car.'
'On a boat.

We can also use by with ing to show how something happened:

She passed her test by studying hard.

I got into the house by using my key.

By in passives
In passive sentences we use by to show who or what did an action:

This was painted by Picasso.

This house was built by my grandfather.

I was invited by Sarah.

By with adjectives
By can be used after the following adjectives:

We were surprised by the news.

I was shocked by his death.

She was astonished by his request.

Note: at can also be used in the above sentences.

They were impressed by my exam result. (with can also be used)

By as next to
By is also used to mean next to or beside.

My dog came and sat by me.

Use by for an amount


Take a look at this other use of by:

He is older than me by 3 years.

We sell tomatoes by the kilo.

By as no later than
In the following situations by means on or before:

Give me your homework by Friday.

The boy must be in bed by 9 oclock.

By as alone
By can be used with:

myself/yourself/himself/herself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves

These all show someone or something being alone:

I stayed at home by myself and read the newspaper.

The cat opened the door by himself.


OF - FROM
Many learners find it difficult to know when to use of and when to use from
in English.
Very often this comes from the fact that in a number of languages the same
preposition
is used for both 'of and from.
The clarifications below are intended to serve as a guide for English learners.

OF

Of for possession :

To denote possession, the apostrophe followed by s ('s), (for example: Tom's),


is used
for living things or groups and institutions.

Tom's house.
The dog's tail.
The government's policy.

Of is used when referring to inanimate objects, to mean that something


belongs
to something else.

The roof of the car.

The title of the book.


The name of the game.

'Of' is used in certain expressions such as :

It is nice (good /kind /generous /silly /stupid etc.) of (somebody) to do


(something)

- It was nice of you to invite me.


- It was generous of Tom to pay for lunch.
- It was stupid of Sam to leave the window open.

Of is used after adjectives :


There is no real pattern you need to learn them as you meet them. Here are
some examples, but please remember that this is not a complete list :

- afraid of
- ashamed of
- aware / unaware of
- capable of
- fond of
- proud of
- sure/certain of
- tired of
'Of is used after certain verbs :
Again, this is not a complete list, but here are some examples :

- accuse (somebody) of something


- complain of
- dream of
- hear of
- remind (somebody) of someone/something
- think of

FROM

From is used to refer to origins :

'From' is used to indicate that something originates or comes from something


else or
some person. For example,
- Kate comes from England
- The passage is from a poem written by Lord Byron.

From - To / From - Until :


'From' is used with the prepositions 'to' and 'until' to mark the beginning and
ending point of an action in time. For example,
- I work from 9 to 5 every day.
- We will be in London next week from Tuesday until Friday.

'From' after adjectives :

From is seldom used after adjectives but in British English we find :


- different from

From is used after certain verbs :


This is not a complete list, but here are some examples :

- borrow from
- disappear from
- discourage from
- prevent from
- protect from
Adverb
What is an Adverb?
An adverb is a word that is used to change or qualify the meaning of an
adjective, a verb, a clause, another adverb, or any other type of word or
phrase with the exception of determiners and adjectives that directly modify
nouns.
1. The adverbs and the adjectives in English
Adjectives tell us something about a person or a thing. Adjectives can modify
nouns (here: girl) or pronouns (here: she).

Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something. Adverbs can modify
verbs (here: drive), adjectives or other adverbs.

adjective

adverb

Mandy is a careful girl.

Mandy drives carefully.

She is very careful.


She drives carefully.
Mandy is a careful driver. This sentence is about Mandy, the driver, so use the
adjective.

Mandy drives carefully. This sentence is about her way of driving, so use the
adverb.

2. Form
Adjective + -ly

adjective

adverb

dangerous

dangerously

careful

carefully

nice

nicely

horrible

horribly

easy easily
electronic

electronically

Irregular forms:

adjective

adverb

good well
fast

fast

hard

hard

If the adjective ends in -y, change -y to -i. Then add -ly:

happy happily
but:

shy shyly
If the adjective ends in -le, the adverb ends in -ly:

terrible terribly
If the adjective ends in -e, then add -ly:

safe safely
Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs:

adjectives ending in -ly: friendly, silly, lonely, ugly


nouns, ending in -ly: ally, bully, Italy, melancholy
verbs, ending in -ly: apply, rely, supply
There is no adverb for an adjective ending in -ly.

3. Use of adverbs
3.1. to modify verbs
The handball team played badly last Saturday.

3.2. to modify adjectives


It was an extremely bad match.

3.3. to modify adverbs


The handball team played extremely badly last Wednesday.

3.4. to modify quantities


There are quite a lot of people here.

3.5. to modify sentences


Unfortunately, the flight to Dallas had been cancelled.

4. Types of adverbs
4.1. Adverbs of manner
quickly
kindly
4.2. Adverbs of degree
very
rather
4.3. Adverbs of frequency
often
sometimes
4.4. Adverbs of time
now
today
4.5. Adverbs of place
here
nowhere
5. How do know whether to use an adjective or an adverb?
John is a careful driver. In this sentences we say how John is careful. If we
want to say that the careful John did not drive the usual way yesterday we
have to use the adverb:

John did not drive carefully yesterday.


Here is another example:

I am a slow walker. (How am I? slow adjective)


I walk slowly. (Ho do I walk? slowly adverb)

6. Adjective or Adverb after special verbs


Both adjectives and adverbs may be used after look, smell and taste. Mind
the change in meaning.

Here are two examples:

adjective

adverb

The pizza tastes good.


(How is the pizza?) Jamie Oliver can taste well.
(How can Jamie Oliver taste?)
Peter's feet smell bad.
(How are his feet?) Peter can smell badly.
(How can Peter smell?)
Do not get confused with good/well.

Linda looks good. (What type of person is she?)


Linda looks well. (How is Linda? She may have been ill, but now she is fit
again.)
How are you? I'm well, thank you.
One can assume that in the second/third sentence the adverb well is used,
but this is wrong well can be an adjective (meaning fit/healthy), or an
adverb of the adjective good.

Conclusion:
Use the adjective when you say something about the person itself.
Use the adverb, when you want to say about the action.
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