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Atha viupada-prakaraam1

Invocation
ya Wk(: s$avaR&paANAAM s$avaRnaAaAM taTaAaya: /
tasya ivaSNAAe: padM" s$ava< ivaSNAuBaftyaA ina&pyatae //
ya eka sarva-rp
sarva-nmn tathraya
tasya vio pada sarva
viu-bhakty nirpyate
yawho; ekaonly; sarva-rpmof all inflected words (or, of all forms);
sarva-nmnmof all nmas (nominal bases) (or, of all names); tathand;
rayashelter; tasyathat; vioof Lord Viu; padaminflected word (or,
abode); sarvamall; viu-bhaktyby a viubhakti (a nominal or verbal
suffix) (or, through devotional service to Viu); nirpyateperceived.
Lord Viu is the only shelter of all word bases (nmas) and inflected
words (rpas).Every inflected word (pada) refers to Him2 and is achieved
through the application of a viubhakti.
Lord Viu is the only shelter of all forms and names. All of His abodes
(the viu-padas) are perceived through devotional service (viubhakti).
atha nma-jni viupadni
nmno jtni yni viupadni athnantara tni nirpyante.
Now the viupadas produced from nmas (now the viupadas which are
produced from nmas are going to be described):
AmtaIn the grammatical sense, the word sarva-rpm means of all
inflected words like ka and so on and bhavati and so on, and the word
sarva-nmnm means of all the words like bhavat[u], yumad, asmad, and so on,
which express the prathama-purua (English third person), madhyama-purua

In this edition we have preferred to call this prakaraa the Nma-prakaraa as that is the title
generally used by both the commentaries (see Bla 1 and Amta 393 for example). Indeed, Jva
Gosvm himself uses this title in vtti 779. Moreover, the title Nma-prakaraa better describes
this chapter because a nma is more specific than a viupada as a viupada can be produced
either from a nma or a dhtu, and we are not dealing with viupadas produced from dhtus in
this chapter. While ending this prakaraa in vtti 393, Jva Gosvm calls it the Nma-viupadaprakaraa. This name is also good since this chapter specifically deals with viupadas that are
produced from nmas.
2
Thus they are called viu-padas (inflected words relating to Lord Viu).

(English second person), and uttama-purua (English first person) respectively3.


The word vio means viu-sambandhi (relating to Lord Viu) and nirpyate
means sdhyate (achieved). The nmas that are formed by kt and taddhita
pratyayas are also included by the phrase sarva-nmnm.
All of Lord Vius abodes (the viu-padas) are perceived only through
devotional service (viu-bhakti), and not by any other sdhana. Viupadas
(inflected words) are actually of two kinds: those produced from nmas and
those produced from dhtus. Out of them Jva Gosvm first describes the ones
produced from nmas as they are formed with less effort.
148 / @DaAtauivaSNAuBai(k(maTaRvaaAma /
148. adhtu-viubhaktikam arthavan nma
a-dhtu-viubhaktikamexcept the dhtus (verbal roots) and the viubhaktis
(nominal or verbal suffixes); arthavathaving artha (meaning); nmanma
(a nominal base).
Any word that has meaning, except for the dhtus and the viubhaktis,
is called nma.
bh-sanantdy dhtava. sv-di-tib-dy viubhaktaya. vibhaktaya iti
prca. tn dhtn t viubhakt ca varjayitv yad artha-yukta abda-rpa
tan nma-saja syt. ligam ity eke prtipadikam ity anye. te crth dravyagua-jti-kriy. tad-yukta tad-abhidhyaka abda-rpam ity artha. dravya
paramevaram rabhya mn-maya-paryanta sarva vastu. guas tad-ray,
aivarydi-abda-spardiko dharma. jti samnatva, brhmaatva-gotvdi.
kriy dhtv-artha, satthra-jna-vihra-prabhti. arthavad-grahat ka
ity-dau praty-akara nmatva na syt, gav ity ayam hety atra ca.
VttiBh and so on and san-anta and so on are called dhtus (see stra 365).
The sv-dis (nominal suffixes) and tib-dis (verbal suffixes) are known as
viubhaktis. The ancients called them vibhaktis. Any word that has artha
(meaning), except for the dhtus or the viubhaktis, is called nma. Some call
it liga. Others call it prtipadika. And the arthas are dravya, gua, jti, and kriy.
Thus arthavat refers to a word endowed with these arthas, that is to say a word
that expresses these arthas. Dravya (a substance, thing) is everything from the
Supreme Lord to things composed of earth. Gua (a quality) is that which
inheres in a dravya, qualities like sovereignty and so on, and sound, touch and so
on. Jti (common quality, class, species) is the samenes of quality (samnatva)
such as brhmaa-hood, or cow-hood. Kriy (the action expressed by a verb) is
the meaning of a dhtu such as being, eating, knowing, strolling, and so on. Due
to the use of the word arthavat here, in words like ka and so on every syllable
is not a nma. This is also the case in gav ity ayam ha.
3

Even though the word bhavat[u] (your good self) actually expresses the madhyama-purua, a
verb connected with it will take the prathama-purua endings. Thus bhavn gacchati.

AmtaThe word viubhaktika is formed by applying the taddhita pratyaya ka


in the sense of the original word (thus viubhaktika=viubhakti). The word
dhtu-viubhaktika refers to the totality (samhra) of the dhtus and
viubhaktis. And adhtu-viubhaktika means not a dhtu-viubhaktika. Or
else adhtu-viubhaktika is formed by the taddhita pratyaya ka[p] that is applied
at the end of a ptmbara-samsa (bahuvrhi-samsa). Thus adhtuviubhaktika would mean that in which there is no dhtus or viubhaktis. The
word artha here expresses meaning, and not purpose or wealth (which are its
other meanings). The word viubhakti also indicates, that which ends in a
viubhakti, namely a viupada. Thus the resultant meaning is that any word
that has meaning, except for the dhtus, viubhaktis, and viupadas, is called
nma. The mention of the viupadas is to exclude words like ka, bhavati,
and so on from being nmas. If we were to accept a viupada as a nma then
ahan, a bhtevara form of the dhtu han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to
go), would undergo deletion of its final n by nmntasya nasya haro
viupadnte buddha vin (260).
Jva Gosvm makes it clear, with the sentence beginning tn dhtn, that the
na[] used in the word adhtu-viubhaktika is used in the sense of exception
(paryudsa) and is connected to both words. Thus, by his explanation, he refutes
the possibility of dhtu-viubhaktika being a ah-samsa (genitive
compound). And one cannot say whats the loss if it is a ah-samsa?
Because by exluding the viubhaktis related to dhtus, the viubhaktis related
to nmas, namely the sv-dis, would be nmas.
The word samnatva is a mere gloss of the word jti. The actual definition will be
given later in the Taddhita-prakaraa, in the verse beginning kti-graha jti
(vtti). According to the adherents of the nyya philosophy, something is a jti
(common quality) if it inheres in many and always exists somewhere at any
given time. For example, brhmaatva (brhmaa-hood) is a jti because the
same quality of being generated from the mouth of the Supreme Lord inheres in
every brhmaa. Similarly, gotva (cow-hood) is a jti because the same quality
of having a large dewlap inheres in all cows. A jti is considered eternal because
of the steady existence of these various qualities due to the fact that the totality
of brhmaas and cows doesnt simultaneously perish when an individual
brhmaa of cow perishes.
Jva Gosvm describes the purpose of using the word arthavat with the sentence
beginning arthavad-grahat. Even though a meaning is given for each vara in
the Ekkara-koa, a dictionary of monosyllables written by Puruottama-deva,
the aggregation of varas in words like ka and so on is not arthavat because
there is no intention to speak the various meanings of all the varas that comprise
it (rather only when a word like ka is taken as one unit, having its own
meaning, is it a nma). This is in accordance with the maxim arthavad grahae
narthakasya na grahaam (see vtti 58).

Someone may argue, In cases like brahmato jas-aso si (223) how is another
viubhakti applied after the viubhakti as since a viubhakti is not a nma?
A viubhakti should certainly be applied because the anukaraa (in this case
as) is a nma due to being arthavat on account of the desire to speak the
difference between the anukrya and the anukaraa (see vtti 90). But when
there is no desire to speak the difference between the anukrya and the
anukaraa, the anukaraa isnt a nma as there is no separate meaning. Thus a
viubhakti cannot be applied after it. The example of this is gav ity ayam ha
(see vtti 90).
149 / ak{(ita: paUvaAR /
149. prakti prv
praktiprakti (base, the original word to which suffixes are added); prv
the first part.
The first part (of a viupada) is called prakti.
s ca nma-dhtu-bhedd dvi-vidh.
VttiAnd the prakti is of two kinds, due to the distinction of nma (nominal
base) and dhtu (verbal base).
150 / atyaya: par": /
150. pratyaya para
pratyayapratyaya (suffix); parathe later part.
The second part (of a viupada) is called pratyaya.
sa ca svdy-khyta-kt-taddhita-bhedc catur-vidha.
VttiAnd the pratyaya is of four kinds, due to the distinction of sv-di (nominal
suffix), khyta (verbal suffix), kt (a suffix used to form nmas from
dhtus), and taddhita (a suffix used to form nmas from other nmas).
151 / taa naAa: s$au @AE jas$a, , @ma, @AE zAs$a, , q%A ByaAma, iBas$a, ,
xe~ ByaAma, Byas$a, , x~is$a ByaAma, Byas$a, , x~s$a, @Aes$a, @Ama, , ix~
@Aes$a, s$aupa, /
151. tatra nmna su au jas, am au as, bhym bhis, e bhym bhyas, asi
bhym bhyas, as os m, i os sup

tatrathere, among a nma and a dhtu; nmnaafter a nma; su au jas, am


au as, bhym bhis, e bhym bhyas, asi bhym bhyas, as os m, i os sup
the viubhaktis su, au, jas, am, au, as, , bhym, bhis, e, bhym, bhyas, asi,
bhym, bhyas, as, os, m, i, os, and sup.
Among a nma and a dhtu, the following viubhaktis are applied after
a nma: su, au, jas, am, au, as, , bhym, bhis, e, bhym, bhyas, asi,
bhym, bhyas, as, os, m, i, os, and sup.
et su ity-daya eka-viatir viubhaktaya praty-eka nmna pare syu.
tsu ca su au jas pratham. am au as dvity. bhym bhis tty. e bhym
bhyas caturth. asi bhym bhyas pacam. as os m ah. i os sup saptam.
tatra prathamy eka-vacana su , dvi-vacanam au, bahu-vacana jas.
dvityaika-vacanam am, dvi-vacanam au, bahu-vacanam as ity-di jeyam. et
sv-daya. sy-daya ity anye. sup ity eke.
VttiThe twenty-one viubhaktis beginning with su may be applied after a
nma, one at a time. Among them su, au, and jas are called pratham (first
case), am, au, and as dvity (second case), , bhym, and bhis tty
(third case), e, bhym, and bhyas caturth (fourth case), asi, bhym, and
bhyas pacam (fifth case), as, os, and m ah (sixth case), and i, os, and
sup saptam (seventh case). Among these seven cases, the eka-vacana
(singular) of pratham is su, the dvi-vacana (dual) is au, and the bahu-vacana
(plural) is jas. The eka-vacana of dvity is am, the dvi-vacana is au, and the
bahu-vacana is as. The other cases are also divided in this way. These twentyone viubhaktis are called sv-dis (those beginning with su). Others call them
sy-dis. Pini calls them sup1.
AmtaThe word tatra here means among a nma and a dhtu. It will
described later in the khyta-prakaraa how the tib-dis are applied after a
dhtu. The sv-dis are our own name, anye refers to grammarians like Vopadeva
and so on, and eke refers to Pini and so on. The word eka here expresses the
sense of chief, because the sage Pini alone is accepted as the chief among
grammarians.
152 / taa jaq%zAx~paA wta: , o s$aAe: , x~s$aeir" /
152. tatra ja-a-a-a-p ita, u ca so, aser i ca
tatraamong the viubhaktis; ja-a-a-a-pja-rma, a-rma, a-rma, arma, and pa-rma; itaits (indicatory letters); u u-rma; caand; soof
the viubhakti su; aseof the viubhakti asi; ii-rma; caand.
Among the viubhaktis, j, , , , and p are indicatory letters (its). As
also the u of su and the i of asi.
1

Sup is a pratyhra that includes everything from su to sup. The su in su[p] comes from the
visubhakti su and the p in sup comes from the viubhakti sup.

eti gacchati na tihatti it, anubandha ca. sa ca uccrartha cihnrtho


vidhy-di-nimitta ca kvacit. ita caitesiddhopadee viricau ca sa-viucpasarvevara it, antya-viujana ca. at it ity-dau, -m-u-nasu ca. viricau tu
kvacit. dhtv-di-i-u-u. pratyaydy ja-a-a-p. a-ka-vargv ataddhite. na
viubhaktau ta-na-sa-m iti. siddhopade dhtu-pratyaya-viava. armdi-bhed sa-viucps tu vaidik.
VttiAn it (indicatory letter) is so named because it goes (eti). That is to say it
doesnt remain. The it is also called anubandha. Sometimes an indicatory letter is
employed to aid pronunciation (uccraa), sometimes to create a distinguishing
characteristic (cihna), and sometimes it is the cause (nimitta) of the application of
a rule (vidhi) or prohibition (pratiedha). These are also its: a sarvevara with a
viucpa in a siddhopadea or virici is an it. The final viujana in a
siddhopadea or virici is also an it. The final viujana in at, it, and so on, as well
in the avyayas , m, u, and na is also an it. But the final viujana in a virici is
only sometimes an it. i, u, and u at the beginning of a dhtu are also its, as are
j, , , and p at the beginning of a pratyaya. and ka-varga are also its when they
occur in a pratyaya other than a taddhita. A t, n, s, or m occuring in a viubhakti
is not an it. The dhtus, pratyayas, and vius are called siddhopadeas. The kind
of a-rma and so on that has a viucpa is found in the Vedas.
AmtaThe word tatra here means among the viubhaktis. J and are its by
pratyaydy ja-a-a-p, and by a-ka-vargv ataddhite, and p by antyaviujana ca. The u of su and the i of asi are its by siddhopadee viricau ca saviucpa-sarvevara it. An example of when an indicatory letter is employed to
aid pronunciation is the u in su , and an example of when it is used to create a
distinguishing characteristic (cihna) is the j in jas. Examples of when it is the
cause (nimitta) of the application of a rule (vidhi) is the in e, asi, as, and i, as
well as the c in auc and the i in i. The word di in vidhy-di indicates pratiedha
(a prohibition). An example of when an indicatory letter is the cause of a
pratiedha is the k in yak. Jva Gosvm speaks a paribh with the sentences
beginning siddhopadee and ending iti.
Although in stra the following definition on an upadea is seen, still, the word
siddhopadea only includes dhtus, pratyayas and vius because they alone are
self-accomplished (svata-siddha).
dhtu-stra-gaodivkya-lignusana
gama-pratyayde
upade prakrtit
The dhtus, stras, gaas (groups of words that follow the same rule), Udistras, vkyas (Ktyyanas Vrttikas), and the lignusana (a work dealing
with the rules of gender attributed to Pini), as well as the gamas, pratyayas,
and deas are called upadeas.

An example of sa-viucpa-sarvevara it in regard to a dhtu is the in cit


sajne, in regard to a pratyaya, the u in su and i in asi, in regard to a viu, the
u in nu and tuk, and in regard to a virici, the a of na in tasmt so na pusi
(157). The ancients have accepted that these have a viucpa. An example of
antya-viujana ca in regard to a dhtu is the r in sphuir viarae, in regard to a
pratyaya, the p of tip, in regard to a viu the of nu, and in regard to a virici
the c of auc in harito er auc (184). But due to the mention of the word kvacit
(sometimes), the final viujana in pad, dat, and so on, which are viricis of the
words pda, danta, and so on, is not an indicatory letter.
The word dhtv-di-i-u-u is a samhra-dvandva-samsa, thus it is declined in
the neuter singular. Examples of dhtv-di-i-u-u are the i in the dhtu iphal,
the u in the dhtu uovi, and the u in the dhtu uk. Examples of
pratyaydy ja-a-a-p are the j in jas, the in , the in al, and the p in
pam. The word ataddhite means in a pratyaya other than a taddhita. Examples
of a-ka-vargv ataddhite are the in as, the k in kvasu, the kh in khal, the gh in
gha, and the in e. Why do we say ataddhite? Because a-rma and ka-varga
are not indicatory letters in the taddhitas bahua, grmaka, and so on. Examples
of viubhaktau ta-na-sa-m are yt, ran, jas and bhym (here the t, n, s, and
m are not indicatory letters). Why do we say viubhaktau (in a viubhakti)?
Because the t of yat in sarvevarnta-dhtor yat ( and the m of nam in rudhde
ap-kha nam (751) are certainly indicatory letters by antya-viujana ca.
Someone may argue, Why should the i and u of asi and nu, for example, be
considered indicatory letters since they dont have a viucpa?. To refute that
Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning a-rmdi-bhed. In this
connection, it is confirmed in astra that the sarvevara has a viucpa and thus
the grammatical operations related to indicatory letters are applied. But this is
done in accordance with Vedic rules as the distiction of a sarvevaras being saviucpa or nir-viucpa is found only in the Vedas. Sometimes grammatical
operations belonging to the normal language (laukika) are ordained in relation to
Vedic (vaidika) rules, because the normal language also contains Vedic usages.
For example, although [k]vas[u], [k]i, and [k]na are Vedic pratyayas, they are
also used in the normal language. Such is the case here also.
SaodhinThe sv-dis are listed below in table form with their indicatory
letters in brackets. The uses of each case will be elaborately described in the
Kraka-prakaraa. But, for now, we need only know that the pratham
viubhaktis are also used for sambodhana (addressing) whereupon different
rules apply to them, as described here, in the Nma-prakaraa. This use of the
pratham viubhaktis is practically treated like an eighth case.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth

ekavacana
s[u]
am
[]
[]e

dvivacana
au
au
bhym
bhym

bahuvacana
[j]as
[]as
bhis
bhyas

pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

[]as[i]
[]as
[]i

bhym
os
os

bhyas
m
su[p]

s[u]

au

[j]as

The word it is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu i[]
gatau (2P, to go) and then applying vmant tuk pthau () and kevalasya
pratyaya-ver hara () The word anubandha was chosen by ancient grammarians
due to the similarity of the indicatory letter with the anubandhya-pau, the animal
tied down to a post in a sacrifice and subsequently slaughtered. In regard to
indicatory letters, Adhyy 1.6.9 clearly says tasya lopa (An indicatory letter
gets deleted). The phrase na tihati (it doesnt remain), which is Jva
Gosvms gloss on eti (goes), indicates the same. Thus students shouldnt be
bewildered when the indicatory letter is deleted without the mention of a
particular stra.
Since at, it, and so on (see vtti 37) and the avyayas [], m[], u[] and na[] are
nmas they dont fit into the category of siddhopadea or virici. Therefore their
final viujanas are separately designated as indicatory letters by the sentence at
it ity-dau, -m-u-nasu ca. Another example that shows the force of the word
kvacit (sometimes) in viricau tu kvacit is the fact that the final letters of the
viricis ay, y, av, and v mentioned in stras 63 to 66, are not indicatory letters.
The use of the nasalized vowel (sa-viucpa-sarvevara) is borrowed from the
Vedas as a means to instruct the rules of grammar. The ancients headed by Pini
have also employed it as such in their grammars. Pini himself has further
employed the Vedic device of svaras (accents) in his grammar for differentiating
the tmanepada and ubhayapada dhtus from the parasmaipada dhtus. This can
be seen in Adhyy 1.3.12 and 1.3.72.
Siddhnta-kaumud, commenting on Adhyy 1.3.2, says pratijnunsiky
piny (the followers of Pini say that the nasality of a vowel should be
inferred by the way in which an upadea is treated by Pini). That is to say the
viucpa is not actually written down, but is understood by convention. In Harinmmta-vykaraa, Jva Gosvm usually points out the indicatory letters
himself in the vtti, and where this is not the case, the commentaries supply that
information. From now on the indicatory letters will be given in square brackets for
claritys sake, and the cases and their numbers will be put in triangular brackets
such that the first case singular will be denoted by <1.1>, the first case dual by
<1.2>, and so on.
In all the printed editions of Hari-nmmta, we see that in this stra and the
previous stra, as also in the next vtti, the viubhakti su is listed as s u* . But
this reading is inconsistent and is actually a corruption, for if we were to accept
that s u* is the correct reading, the following question must be raised: Why is the
viucpa written only in s u* , when asi and various other dhtus, pratyayas,
vius, and viricis also have viucpas? Why dont we be consistent and write

as i* and so on? There is no good reason for this. Indeed, the fact that one
viubhakti is written with a viucpa and the other isnt, when both of them are
described here as having sa-viucpa-sarvevaras, makes the student search for
a difference that in fact does not exist. Pini and other grammarians write the
viubhakti merely as su, and are consistent in not writing the viucpa of the
indicatory letters. But these editions inconsistently single out s u* , writing it with a
viucpa while not writing the viucpa of other indicatory letters. Even then, s
u* is not always written with the viucpa as will be seen in sambodhane sur
buddha-saja (171) and in ana-prvasyrvao rvat su vin (272). Thus,
taking into consideration these grave faults of inconsistency, in this edition we will
consistently list the viubhakti as su, and not as s u* . Indeed, this is justified
because reliable manuscripts like manuscript 2135A (Serial No: 2996, Accession
No: 2135A) in the Vrindavan Research Institute also list it as su and not as s u* .
153 / naAmas$aMatauivaRDa: /
153. nma-saja catur-vidha
nma-sajathat which is called nma; catur-vidhaof four kinds.
The nmas are of four kinds.
yathpu-liga puruottama-saja, str-ligo lakm-saja, napusaka-ligo
brahma-saja, aligo vyaya-saja. tatra sarvevarnt puruottama-lig.
tatra a-rmnt ka-abda. tatra prathamaika-vacane ka su iti sthite urma uccrartha.
VttiFor example, pu-liga (one whose gender is masculine) is called
puruottama, str-liga (one whose gender is feminine) is called lakm,
napusaka-liga (one whose gender is neuter is called brahma, and aliga (that
which has no gender) is called avyaya. Among the four kinds of nmas are the
masculine words ending in a sarvevara. Among them is the word ka that
ends in a-rma. In regard to the word ka, when in the first case singular we
have ka + s[u], the u is an indicatory letter employed for the sake of
pronunciation.
SaodhinThe words pu-liga and so on are ambiguous. As bahuvrhisamsas they mean one whose gender is masculine and so on, but as
karmadhraya-samsas they mean the masculine gender and so on. Actually,
these words are used in both senses, but here they are bahuvrhi-samsas as we
are describing the four kinds of nmas, not the four kinds of genders. The proof of
this is that the word puruottama-lig here in the vtti is used in the plural, for if
it were a karmadhraya-samsa it would mean the masculine genders. Such a
meaning would be contradictory because there is only one masculine gender.
154 / ivaSNAuBai(is$aM" ivaSNAupad"ma, /

154. viubhakti-siddha viu-padam


viubhakti-siddhamachieved by a viubhakti; viu-padama viupada
(inflected word).
That which is formed by the application of a viubhakti is called a
viupada.
viubhakti-siddha nmno dhtor v rpa viupada-saja syt. padam iti
prca.
gag-sroto-vad evsya / bhaved vidhir ata para
nrohati para purva / yatropdhir na vidyate.
VttiThe form of a nma or dhtu achieved through the application of a
viubhakti is called a viupada. Earlier grammarians called it a pada.
AmtaThe word pada can mean feet or abode. Thus the implied meaning is
that Lord Vius feet or his abode are achieved only by devotional service to Him
(viu-bhakti), and not by any other means.
VttiFrom here on in, the rules of this book should be treated like the flow of the
Gag. A later rule doesnt set aside an earlier rule where there is no updhi
(apavda).
AmtaThe word asya here means of this book, and the word updhi means a
viea-kathana specific statement (in other words, an apavda). The meaning
of the verse is just as the current of the Gag flows in reverse when an obstacle
is met with, a later rule sets aside an earlier rule when there is a viea-kathana.
The resultant meaning of all this is that generally an earlier rule is applied
irrespective of a later rule. Examples of a later rule setting aside an earlier one are
patis tv asamse (192), khya-tybhym asi-asor us (193), and dhtor d-tor iyuvau sarvevare bahulam (195).
155 / s$ar"r"AmayaAeivaRSNAus$agAAeR ivaSNAupad"Antae /
155. sa-ra-rmayor viusargo viupadnte
sa-ra-rmayoof sa-rma and ra-rma; viusargathe replacement
viusarga; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta.
Sa-rma and ra-rma become viusarga when they are at the end of a
viupada.1
sa-ra-rmayo sthne viusarga syt viupadnte viayeka.
eva stra tato vttir / iti vistara-akay
1

See Saodhin 68 for an explanation why the viaya-saptam is translated like this here.

streaivrtha-siddhis tu / yath syt kriyate tath


sdhannukramrtha ca / ndhikrea stryate
anyath prakriy bhinn / mgyetja-prabodhan
pr-nimitta tath kry / krya para-nimittakam
atra kramea vaktavya / prya streu sarvata
kramc ca pacam ah / pratham saptam tath
kvacit para-nimittasya / sthne viaya-saptam
krya-prve pacam syt / krya-sthne tu ahik
krye tu pratham vcy / saptam viaye pare
vin-yoge niedhrtha / dvity kvacid iyate
sarvgsambhavo yatra / sv-alpny agni tatra tu
ato blaka-bodhya / pada vicchidya mrdhani
ak dey viubhakti- / vyakty-artha sarva-strata
yathsa-ra-rmayor iti krya-sthna, viusarga iti krya, viupadnto
viaya. para-nimitta prva-nimitta ctra nsti. tat tac ca yathi-dvayam eva
ya sarvevare ity atra para-nimitta sarvevara. tata a cho vety atra prvanimitta viudsa. viujana ity-dau ha-rau vineti tau niiddhau. tad eva
prathamy eka-vacane ka. dvi-vacane ka au, o-dvaye au, kau. bahuvacane ka jas, ja it cihnrtha as-di-bheda-jpanya. evam uttaratrpi.
trivikrama-viusargauk. dvityaika-vacane ka am.
VttiSa-rma and ra-rma become viusarga when the viaya is
viupadnta.
ka + s[u] (155) ka <1.1>.
AmtaWhy do we say when the viaya is viupadnta? Consider asti and
kuryt.
VttiIn this way there is a stra and then a clarification of the stra (the
vtti)! Due to such a fear of verbosity, the stras will now b made in such a way
that the meaning is conveyed by the stra itself
AmtaThe word vtti means stra-vivti (the clarification / explanation of a
stra). The word stram has to be supplied in this verse, thus stram kriyate
(the stras will now be made1). One should know that before this point the
speaking of vttis was simply for the easy assimilation of the rules of sandhi. The
definition of the word vtti is as follows:
stra-sthitn varnm
arthn ca prattaye
viuddh cdhik vykhy
vttir ukt manibhi

The word stram is singular as it expresses a jti. This is indicated in jty-khyym eka-vacane
bahu-vacana v (). The verb kriyate has a futuristic sense by vartamna-smpye vartamnavad v bhte bhaviyati ca ().

That which ensures the clear apprehension of the varas and arthas situated in a
stra, and which adds additional informatio is called a vtti by learned men.
SaodhinUp until this point Jva Gosvm has systematically clarified every
stra in the first line or first few lines of its vtti. He has done this by showing
which words are carried forward, and in some cases by using different words to
clarify the meaning or different sentence structures to clarify the syntactic
relations. As this method takes up a lot of space and in some cases makes for
redundancy, he now sets it aside, preferring to make the stra speak its own
meaning.
VttiAnd, to ensure an easy order of application, the stras will not be made by
adhikra (carrying forward from afar). Otherwise one would have to search out
a different work that enlightens the ignorant.
AmtaThe word adhikrea here means drnuvtty (by carrying forward
from afar), na stryate means stra na kriyate (the stras will not be made),
and anyath (otherwise) means if the stras were made by adhikra. The
implied meaning is that in the grammars of Pini and others, all of the
grammatical operations dealing with gua, vddhi, prohibitions of gua and
vddhi, and so on are given all at once in the very place where such topics are
begun. For example, in the Adhyy, wherever the prohibition of gua is
necessary in regards to an khyta, kt, or the desiderative pratyaya sa[n], all
such prohibitions are put in the second pda of the first chapter by anuvtti
(adhikra).
Its certainly less work for a stra-composer to make stras by adhikra. But for
students whose intelligence is weak, the strange order of application arrived at by
this method creates alot of difficulty. Therefore Jva Gosvm has set aside the
difficult method of carrying forward from afar so that the order of application may
be easily understood. Indeed he generally introduces a topic only where it is
necessary. In the very same way the author of Prakriy-kaumud, Rmacandra
crya, made the order of application easy to understand by re-arranging the
stras of Pinis Adhyy. Bhaoji-dkita also followed suit in his
Siddhnta-kaumud.
SaodhinSometimes adhikra (carrying forward) is naturally accomplished
by the method indicated in vtti 50, and sometimes adhikra-stras are
specifically made such that the word or words stated in the adhikra-stra are
carried forward into every subsequent stra until the adhikra is ended It is not
that Jva Gosvm hasnt used the grammatical device of adhikra in this book.
Rather, the use of adhikra so far has been quite common as in the carrying
forward of the words v and viupadnte, for example. Besides this, later in the
book, especially from the Kdanta-prakaraa onwards, adhikra-stras will
frequently be used. The difference, however, between the use of adhikra in this
book and the use of adhikra in the Adhyy and other grammars is that the
use of adhikra in this book doesnt interfere with the natural topical divisions
conducive for an easy order of application of the stras. In Adhyy and other

grammars the stras are often arranged according to specific grammatical


operations like gua and so on, such that everything that undergoes that
grammatical operation, regardless of whether it is a nma, khyta, samsa, or
taddhita, is dealt with in one spot. Whereas in this book, all the stras are
arranged so that they fall under the natural categories of saj, sandhi, nma,
khyta, kraka, kdanta, samsa, and taddhita, and the specific grammatical
operations like gua and so on are introduced only when they are needed. The
advantage of this is that the student can easily find the information they want by
looking in the appropriate prakaraa. Moreover, in each prakaraa, forms are
made one after another in a logical sequential fashion, thus ruling out the
possibility of having to set aside unfinished forms.
Had Jva Gosvm chosen to arrange the stras by adhikra rather than by
topical division, he would have been unable to make his promise, asiddha-rpa
na tyjyam, in stra 43, as the fatal side effect of arranging stras according to
adhikra is that one has to give up unfinished forms midway. An example of this,
from the Adhyy, is the word yaja. The word yaja is made by applying the
kt pratyaya na[] after the dhtu yaj[a] by yaja-yca-yata-viccha-praccha-rako
na (Adhyy 3.3.90). Thus we get yaj[a] + na[], but we have to set that
aside, only to be bombarded by a whole series of unrelated topics, until some
2908 stras later we get to s-to -cun -cu (Adhyy 8.4.40) which tell us
to change the n of na[] to . Only then do we get the word yaja, a kdanta, after
which the viubhakti s[u] is applied to form the first case singular, yaja.
VttiGenerally, in every stra of this book, thingsare spoken in the order of
pr-nimitta, kry, krya, and para-nimitta1.
BlaThe word atra here means in this book, and the word sarvata means
sarveu (in every). The word prya (generally) is used as there is not always
a pr-nimitta, kry, krya, and para-nimitta in every stra. (Thus, when one of
them is missing, the order naturally becomes different).
VttiAnd, in every stra, things are spoken in the order of pacam, ah,
pratham, and saptam. Sometimes in place of a para-nimitta there is a viayasaptam.
BlaThe words sarveu streu and vaktavy have to be supplied here. In
regards to the expectation which of them is spoken where? Jva Gosvm
speaks the following verse:
SaodhinThe terms pr-nimitta, kry, krya, and para-nimitta were already
defined and explained in Amta 50 and Saodhin 50. Viaya-saptam refers to
when a saptam viubhakti is used to denote the viaya. This has already been
seen in cases like viupadnte (when the viaya is viupadnta) and so on
(see Saodhin 68).

See Amta 50 for definitions.

VttiPacam is used when there is a pr-nimitta (krya-prva), ah when


there is a kry (krya-sthna), pratham when there is a krya, and saptam
when there is a viaya or a para-nimitta.
BlaKrya-prve (when there is that which is previous to the krya) means
pr-nimitte (when there is a pr-nimitta), krya-sthne (when there is the
place where the grammatical operation occurs) means kryii (when there is a
kry), and viaye refers to the viaya-saptam described in the previous verse.
VttiSometimes, for the sake of exclusion (niedha), dvity is used in relation
to that which is syntactically connected with the word vin. Where it is impossible
for all these elements to exist together, there are at least a few of them.
AmtaThe word sarvgni (all the elements) refers to the five elements
headed by pr-nimitta which were described in the previous verses. Due to the
use of the word prya in the fourth verse, there is no rule that all five elements
have to be present in every stra.
VttiTherefore, to enligthen children, in each stra one should split the words
(where there is sandhi) and put a number on top of each word so that the
viubhakti will be clear.
SaodhinThus, according to this recommendation, we would write the
current stra as sa-ra-rmayo6 viusarga1 viupada-ant7e. However, since
this edition already contains a word-for-word section that clarifies the viubhakti,
we will not follow this system. In the word-for-word section after indicates a
pr-nimitta, of... indicates a kry, when a follows indicates a para-nimitta,
and when the viaya is indicates a viaya-saptam. The krya is usually
mentioned as it is, without any preposition, and can be easily inferred from the
translation.
VttiFor example, sa-ra-rmayo is a kry (krya-sthna), viusarga is a
krya, and viupadnte is a viaya. In this stra there is no para-nimitta or prnimitta (prva-nimitta). Examples of them are as follows: In i-dvayam eva ya
sarvevare (59), sarvevara is a para-nimitta, and in tata a cho v (99),
viudsa is a pr-nimitta. In viujane viujano v, ha-rau vin (120), ha-rma
and ra-rma are excluded. Thus, in this way, in the first case singular we get
ka. In the first case dual we have ka + au which becomes kau by odvaye au (57):
ka + au (57) kau <1.2>.
In the first case plural we have ka + [j]as. The j is an indicatory letter
employed to create a distinguishing characteristic (cihna). Specifically, it is
employed to inform us that [j]as is different than []as and so on. Such is the case
later also. The a of [j]as then becomes trivikrama and the s becomes viusarga.
Thus we get k <1.3>:

ka + [j]as (46) ks (155) k <1.3>.


In the second case singular we have ka + am.
AmtaThe viubhaktis like []as and so on are included by the word di in asdi. The words eva uttaratrpi here mean that the i of []as[i] is employed to
inform us that []as[i] is different than []as.
SaodhinAfter removing the indicatory letters and applying the current
stra, the viubhaktis are as follows:
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

ekavacana

am

e
a
a
i

dvivacana
au
au
bhym
bhym
bhym
o
o
au

bahuvacana
a
a
bhi
bhya
bhya
m
su
a

At this point it is necessary to explain some of the basic meanings of each case.
We will do this by using the word suhd (friend) as an example since it doesnt
require any special rules save and except the deletion of s[u] by rdhviujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor hara (202). For the sake of clarity,
sandhi has not been done in the following examples.
1) Pratham is used to indicate the subject of a verb in an active sentence or the
object of a verb in a passive sentence.
suhd vadati (The friend speaks)
suhd liyate (The friend is embraced)
2) Dvity is used to indicate the object of a verb in an active sentence.
Sometimes this case is expressed in English by the use of the preposition to.
suhdam paymi (I see a friend)
suhdam vadmi (I talk to a friend)
3) Tty is used to indicate the instrument, or in other words the means by
which an action is accomplished. It is expressed in English by the use of the
prepositions by or with. Tty is also used to indicate the subject of a verb in
a passive sentence and this is also expressed with the preposition by.
suhd karea khdati (The friend eats with [his] hand)
suhd liyate kena (The friend is embraced by Ka)

4) Caturth is used to indicate the beneficiary who is the indirect object of a


verb. It is expressed in English by the use of the preposition to.
suhde dna dadmi (I give a gift to a friend)
5) Pacam is used to indicate the source. It is expressed in English by the use of
the preposition from.
suhda dna pratighmi (I receive a gift from a friend)
6) ah is used to indicate possession or intimate relation. It is expressed in
English by the use of an apostrophe s or by the use of the preposition of.
suhda gham (The house of a friend)
suhda putra (A friends son)
7) Saptam is used to indicate the location. It is expressed in English by the use
of the prepositions in, on, or at.
suhdi vivsa (Confidence in a friend)
suhd ghe asti (The friend is at home)
8) Sambodhana is used to address somebody.
he suhd (O friend)
Each of these cases, however, has many other meanings. These meanings will be
explained in the Kraka-prakaraa.
156 / d"zAAvataAr"Ad"mzAs$aAer"r"Amah"r": /
156. davatrd am-asor a-rma-hara
davatrtafter a davatra; am-asoof the viubhaktis am and []as; arma-haradeletion of a-rma.
When am or []as come after a davatra their a-rma is deleted.
kam. haro ya jpayatistre pratyaya-rpa-nimittd anyasya haro pi
mahhara iti. tenaiktmaka-mtra-nimittatvn na trivikrama. dvity-dvitve
ka aukau. prva-vad bahutve ka asa it, a-rma-hara. ekadea-viktam ananya-vat, tathpi tan-nmaivety artha. tata ca
Vtti ka + am (156) ka + m kam <2.1>.
This hara informs us that the hara of something other than a nimitta in the form of
a pratyaya in a stra is also considered a mahhara. Therefore the change to
trivikrama doesnt take place because in stra 46 the nimitta is just an ektmaka.
In the second case dual we have ka + au which becomes kau:
ka + au (57) kau <2.2>.

In the second case plural we have ka + []as. The , just like the j of [j]as
described in the previous vtti, is an indicatory letter employed to create a
distinguishing characteristic (cihna). The a-rma of []as undergoes hara by the
current stra, and then the following rule applies in accordance with the maxim
eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat (see vtti 146) which means even though
something is deficient in one place it is still called the same thing.
AmtaSomeone may argue, In kam, why isnt davatra ektmake
militv trivikrama (46) applied since the deleted a-rma is considered like the
original (sthni-vat) as it is not stated here that a-rma should undergo
mahhara? Jva Gosvm addresses this concern with the sentence beginning
haro yam. The word stre (in a stra) here means akita-vidhi-stre (in a
vidhi-stra which is suspected to be applicable). In the stra ordaining trivikrama
which is suspected to be applicable, the a of am isnt a nimitta in the form of a
pratyaya, rather it is a nimitta that is just an ektmaka. Therefore, since the a
undergoes mahhara by the current stra it cannot become trivikrama by stra
46. If the a-rma were to become trivikrama by stra 46, then the current rule
ordaining hara would be meaningless. Therefore this hara is considered a
mahhara. Someone may further argue, In the next stra, since []as is the paranimitta, how can the davatra become trivikrama as []as no longer exist when
the a of []as is deleted by the current stra. To settle this doubt, Jva Gosvm
speaks the sentence beginning eka-dea. The resultant meaning of this sentence
is that even though the a of as thus undergoes hara, the s of []as is still called
[]as in accordance with the maxim eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat.
157 / d"zAAvataAr"sya iaiva(ma: zAis$a , tasmaAts$aAe na: pauMis$a /
157. davatrasya trivikrama asi, tasmt so na pusi
davatrasyaof davatra; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; asiwhen
[]as follows; tasmtafter that; saof sa-rma; nana-rma; pusiwhen
the viaya is the masculine gender.
Davatra becomes trivikrama when []as follows. After that, the s of
[]as becomes n, provided the viaya is the masculine gender.
a-rma uccrarthakn. ttyaikatve
VttiThe a-rma (of the word na in this stra) is to aid pronunciation.
ka + []as (156) ka + s (157) k + s k + n
kn <2.3>.
In the third case singular, [] is applied.

158 / @r"AmaAnta: k{(SNAs$aMa: /


158. a-rmnta ka-saja
a-rma-antaending in a-rma; ka-sajacalled ka.
Any nma ending in a-rma is called ka.
AmtaThis is a saj-stra. Someone may say, It would have been proper to
assign this name right when we began the declension of the word ka. Why
then is it assigned only now when the declension of the first two cases of the word
ka has already been completed? The answer is that the three stras
beginning with sa-ra-rmayor viusargo viupadnte (155) are general rules
that also apply to words ending in i-rma and u-rma. But from now on, the stras
deal exclusively with words ending in a-rma.
159 / k{(SNAAta. q%A wna: /
159. kt ina
ktafter a ka (a word ending in a-rma); of the viubhakti [];
inathe replacement ina.
After a ka, [] is replaced by ina.
eti stra-balena lupta-ah, spaatrtham asandhi. evam anyatrpi. ka
ina, a-dvayam i-dvaye ekena. dvitve ka bhym
Vtti is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the strength
of the stra, and which, for the sake of clarity, doesnt undergo sandhi. Such is the
case elsewhere also (as in stras 182 and 346). Thus, when we have ka + ina,
a-dvayam i-dvaye e (48) is applied and get kena <3.1>:
ka + [] (159) ka + ina (48) kena <3.1>.
In the third case dual we have ka + bhym.
AmtaThe word stra-balena, in the vtti, indicates the usage found in the
Vedas. The non-sandhi of and ina takes place on the strength of the paribh
anitya stra-nirdee (44). The word spaatrtham just describes the purpose of
the non-sandhi.
SaodhinThe sixth case singular form , in this stra, is irregular. Usually,
when []as is applied after to form the sixth case singular, -rma-haro yadusarvevare, na tv pa (176) is applied and we get a. However, the ah
viubhakti []as is irregularly deleted here on the strength of the stra. The stra
referred to here is sup su-luk-prva-savarc-che-y--y-yj-la

(Adhyy 7.1.39), a stra that describes, among other things, the luk
(mahhara) of the sups (sv-dis) sometimes seen in the Vedas. When []as is thus
deleted, -rma-haro yadu-sarvevare, na tv pa (176) no longer applies in
accordance with the maxim nimittpye naimittikasypy apya (see vtti 245).
Thus we get the irregular sixth case singular form . In this way, to clearly
instruct the rules of grammar, Jva Gosvm is again employing a Vedic device,
the deletion of sv-dis, just as he uses the nasalized vowel (sa-viucpasarvevara) to distinguish indicatory letters.
That the stra referred to in the phrase stra-balena is indeed Adhyy 7.1.39
can be proven by referring to Jva Gosvms Laghu-vaiava-toa (10.6.22),
wherein he says aghri-jnv ity anayo supm su-luk ity-di-chndasa-strea
su-luk (the luk (mahhara) of the case endings of the words aghri and jnu takes
place in accordance with the Vedic stra beginning supm su-luk). This is in
reference to the irregular forms aghri <2.2> and jnu <2.2> found in
Bhgavatam 10.6.22. The usual forms would be aghr <2.2> and jnun <2.2>,
but in Bhgavatam 10.6.22, the second case dual endings of these words undergo
mahhara by Adhyy 7.1.39.
160 / k{(SNAsya iaiva(maAe gAAepaAlae /
160. kasya trivikramo gople
kasyaof a ka; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; goplewhen a
gopla follows.
The final a of a ka1 becomes trivikrama when a gopla follows.
eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartatekbhym. bahutve ka bhis
VttiA rule that is in reference to a single vara is applied at the end.
ka + bhym (160) k + bhym kbhym <3.2>.
In the third case plural, bhis is applied.
AmtaSomeone may wonder, When we say a ka becomes trivikrama, it
means that a word ending in a-rma becomes trivikrama. But within such a word,
which vowel becomes trivikrama? Is it the initial vowel, the middle vowel, or the
final vowel? To answer that doubt, Jva Gosvm speaks the paribh beginning
eka-vara. The paribh means A rule that is in reference to a single vara is
applied at the end.

In accordance with the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate in this vtti, we understand that
although the words of the stra literally say a ka becomes trivikrama when a gopla follows,
the actual meaning is that the final a of a ka becomes trivikrama when a gopla follows.

161 / k{(SNAAi"s$a Wes$a, /


161. kd bhisa ais
ktafter a ka; bhisaof the viubhakti bhis; aisthe replacement ais.
After a ka, bhis is replaced by ais.
e-dvaye ai, viusargakai. caturthy-ekatve e
VttiThen e-dvaye ai (55) and sa-ra-rmayor viusargo viupadnte (155)
are applied and we get kai <3.3>:
ka + bhis (161) ka + ais (55) kais (155) kai
<3.3>.
In the fourth case singular, []e is applied.
162 / k{(SNAAtxe~yaR: /
162. kt er ya
ktafter a ka; eof the viubhakti []e; yathe replacement ya.
After a ka, []e is replaced by ya.
kasya trivikramakya. dvitve bhymkbhym. bahutve bhyas
VttiThen kasya trivikramo gople (160) is applied and we get kya
<4.1>:
.
ka + []e (162) ka + ya (160) k + ya kya <4.1>.
In the fourth case dual, bhym is applied and we get kbhym <4.2>:
ka + bhym (160) k + bhym kbhym <4.2>.
In the fourth case plural, bhyas is applied.
163 / k{(SNAsya W vaESNAvae ba"tvae /
163. kasya e vaiave bahutve

kasyaof a ka; ethe replacement e-rma; vaiavewhen a vaiava


follows; bahutvewhen the viaya is bahu-vacana (the plural).
In bahu-vacana, the final a of a ka1 becomes e when a vaiava
follows.
kebhya. pacamy-ekatve ka asi
Vtti ka + bhyas (163) ke + bhyas (155) kebhya <4.3>.
In the fifth case singular, we have ka + []as[i].
SaodhinE is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the
strength of the stra (see vtti 159). Usually the form would be e. Such is the
case in stra 166 also.
164 / k{(SNAAtx~s$aer"Ata, /
164. kt aser t
ktafter a ka; aseof the viubhakti []as[i]; tthe replacement t.
After a ka, []as[i] is replaced by t.
kt. pacam-dvitva-bahutvayo caturth-vatkbhy kebhya.
ahy-ekatve ka as
Vtti ka + []as[i] (164) ka + t (46) kt <5.1>.
The fifth case dual and plural are the same as those of the fourth case:
ka + bhym (160) k + bhym kbhym <5.2>.
ka + bhyas (163) ke + bhyas (155) kebhya <5.3>.
In the sixth case singular we have ka + []as.
165 / k{(SNAAtx~s$a: sya /
165. kt asa sya
ktafter a ka; asaof the viubhakti []as; syathe replacement sya.
After a ka, []as is replaced by sya.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

kasya. dvitve os
Vtti ka + []as (165) ka + sya kasya <6.1>.
In the sixth case dual, os is applied.
166 / k{(SNAsya W @Aeis$a /
166. kasya e osi
kasyaof a ka; ethe replacement e-rma; osiwhen the viubhakti os
follows.
The final a of a ka1 becomes e when os follows.
e aykayo. bahutve m
VttiE ay (63) is then applied and we get kayo <6.2>:
ka + os
kayo <6.2>.

(166) ke + os (63) kay + os (155)

In the sixth case plural m is applied.


167 / vaAmanagAAepaIr"ADaAByaAe naux"Aima /
167. vmana-gop-rdhbhyo nu mi
vmana-gop-rdhbhyaafter a vmana, gop (feminine nma ending in or
), or rdh (feminine nma ending in [p]); nuthe gama n[u]; miwhen
the viubhakti m follows.
The gama n[u] is inserted after a vmana, gop, or rdh when m
follows.
do vidhir viu. u-v itau. id-gama para-sambandh, kid-gama
prva-sambandh.
VttiThis type of rule is a viu. In n[u], u and are indicatory letters. An
gama that has the indicatory letter is connected with the following element,
and an gama that has the indicatory letter k is connected with the previous
element.

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

AmtaThe word para-sambandh means pratyaya-sambandh (connected


with the pratyaya), and the word prva-sambandh means prakti-sambandh
(connected with the prakti). Thus, because n[u] is pratyaya-sambandh, due
to having the indicatory letter , it joins with the viubhakti m. Thus in the sixth
case plural we have ka + nm.
168 / taa iq%inmataAE s$avaRaAgAmaAE amaM ivanaA , ogAntaik(a /
168. tatra in-mitau sarvatrgamau nama vin, ug-anta-kic ca
tatrain that regard; it-mitauthings that have the indicatory letter or m;
sarvatraalways; gamaugamas; namamthe vikaraa []na[m] inserted
after the rudh-di dhtus; vinexcept; uk-anta-k-itthat which has the
indicatory letter k and ends in uk; caalso.
In that regard, things that have the indicatory letter or m are always
gamas, with the exception of []na[m], and something that has the
indicatory letter k and ends in uk is also an gama.
yathnuk puk tuk yuk ity-di. tato nmi sthite,
VttiFor example, n[uk], p[uk], t[uk], y[uk], and so on. Then, when we have
nm:
AmtaThis is a paribh. Even though []na[m] has the qualities of an gama
in that it has the indicatory letter m and comes between the prakti and a
pratyaya, the phrase nana vin exludes it from being an gama. It will be
described later how []na[m] is both called a vikaraa and a pratyaya.
SaodhinThere is actually ativypti in this definition because pratyayas like
the viubhakti [] also have the indicatory letter . In those cases the is an
indicatory letter by pratyaydy ja-a-a-p (vtti 152). However, for gamas,
can only be an indicatory letter if it is the final viujana (see siddhopadee ...
antya-viujana ca in vtti 152). Thus it would be more proper to say things
that end in the indicatory letter or m are always gamas.
169 / vaAmanasya iaiva(maAe naAima , na{zAbd"sya tau vaA , na
itas$a{cataaAe: /
169. vmanasya trivikramo nmi, n-abdasya tu v, na tis-catasro
vmanasyaof vmana; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; nmiwhen nm
(n[u] + m) follows; n-abdasyaof the word n (a man); tubut; v
optionally; nanot; tis-catasroof the words tis and catas (the feminine
forms of the words tri (three) and catur (four) respectively).

A vmana becomes trivikrama when nm follows. But the of n 1 only


optionally becomes trivikrama when nm follows, and the of tis and
catas doesnt become trivikrama when nm follows.
knm. kasya trivikrama ity anenaiva siddhatve pi strasya prayojana
harm ity-dv eva. saptamy-ekatve ka ia it, a-dvayam i-dvaye e
ke. dvitve oskayo. bahutve suppa-rma it, kasya e,
Vtti ka + m (167) ka + n[u] + m ka + nm (169)
k + nm knm <6.3>.
Even though knm could be achieved by kasya trivikramo gople (160),
the current stra is needed to achieve harm <6.3> and so on. In the seventh
case singular, we have ka + []i. The in []i is an indicatory letter. A-dvayam idvaye e (48) is then applied and we get ke <7.1>:
ka + []i (48) ke <7.1>.
In the seventh case dual, os is applied and we get kayo <7.2>:
ka + os
kayo <7.2>.

(166) ke + os (63) kay + os (155)

In the seventh case plural, su[p] is applied. The p in su[p] is an indicatory letter.
Then kasya e vaiave bahutve (163) is applied.
AmtaIn this connection, by the paribh arthavad-grahae narthakasya na
grahaam (vtti 58), nmi here refers only to the sixth case plural viubhakti m
along with n[u]. Thus this stra doesnt apply in aganm (the second case
singular of agan (a woman)) and so on. Someone may argue, In regards to
knm, n[u] was applied only because there was a vmana before there was
a trivikrama. Thus, since the rule of sannipta2 applies in this situation, how can
the change to trivikrama take place as it necessarily eliminates the very vmana
upon which n[u] is based? Not so. The current stra blocks the rule of sannipta
simply because of the special effort taken to make i. The prohibition na tiscatasro suggests this. For instance, if the vmana of the words tis and catas
had previously become trivikrama, and it was that trivikrama being prohibited in
this stra, then what would be the use of the prohibition na tis-catasro? (since
the trivikrama would have already been made). Therefore it is implied that this
stra blocks the rule of sannipta.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).
The rule of sannipta (collapse), sometimes called the sannipta-paribh or sanniptalakaa, states that if one thing is applied based upon the existence of another thing, that thing
cannot cause the disappearance of the thing which it is based upon. For example, the insertion of
n[u] is based upon the presence of a vmana, so by the rule of sannipta, the change to
trivikrama, which involves n[u], wouldnt be allowed to take place because it causes the
disappearance of the vmana upon which n[u] is based. See vtti 548 for further details.
2

170 / wRr"h"ir"imaak(xe~Bya: atyayaivair"ias$asya SaAe ,


nauimvaSNAus$agARvyavaDaAnae'ipa , na tau
ivaSNAupad"Antas$aAtaInaAma, /
170. vara-harimitra-ka-ebhya pratyaya-virici-sasya o, num-viusargavyavadhne pi, na tu viupaddy-anta-stnm
vara-harimitra-ka-ebhyaafter an vara, harimitra, ka-rma or a-rma;
pratyaya-virici-sasyaof the sa-rma of a pratyaya (suffix) or virici
(replacement); athe replacement a-rma; num-viusarga-vyavadhne
when n[um] or viusarga intervenes; apieven; nanot; tubut; viupadady-antaat the beginning or end of a viupada; stnmof the taddhita
pratyaya st[i].
After an vara, harimitra, k, or , the s of a pratyaya or virici becomes
. This is the case even when n[um] or viusarga intervenes. But s at
the beginning or end of a viupada and the s of st[i] dont become arma.
keu. atha sambodhanam. tatra he-abda sambodhana-scaka.
Vtti ka + su[p] (163) ke + su (170) ke + u keu
<7.3.>.
Now we begin sambodhana (the vocative case). In that regard, the word he
indicates sambodhana.
AmtaThe simple meaning of the phrase na tu viupaddy-anta-stnm is
that the sa-rma of a pratyaya or virici doesnt become a-rma when the sarma is situated at the beginning or end of a viupada. Likewise the sa-rma of
the taddhita pratyaya st[i] doesnt become a-rma. It will be described later (in
vtti 285) how the word n[um] refers to the viucakra alone. Why do we say
vara-harimitra-ka-ebhya? Consider rmasya and payasu. Why do we say
pratyaya-virici-sasya? Consider su-p and su-pisau. Why do we say na tu
viupaddy-anta-stnm? Consider madhu-seka, vyatise, hari, astau, and
agnist. Only the sa-rma of a virici which is comprised solely of sa-rma is
accepted here (see vtti 217). Thus the current stra doesnt apply to tisra and
so on (because sa-rma is not the only vara in the viricis tis, catas since there
are other varas beside sa-rma in tis, catas).
SaodhinIn rmasya (of Rma) and payasu (in milk), the s of the
pratyayas sya (from []as) and su[p] doesnt become because it comes after arma which is not an vara, harimitra, k or . Su-p and su-pisau are the first
case singular and dual forms of the word su-pis (going well). The word pis is
originally from the dhtu pis[] gatau (1P, to go). Thus it is not a pratyaya or
virici. In madhu-seka (that which oozes honey / nectar) and vyatise (he
excels), the s is at the beginning of a viupada. It will be explained later how

prdaya upendra-saj dhtu-yoge, te ca prk (405) indicates that the upendras


are considered separate viupadas which form samsas with dhtus. Thus, in
vyatise <acyuta t. 2.1 of vi + ati + as[a] bhuvi>, the s of the pratyaya is at the
beginning of the viupada se. The words hari (Hari) and astau (you
praised) were originally haris and astaus before applying stra 155. Here the s is
at the end of the viupada. Thus it doesnt change to , but becomes a
viusarga instead by stra 155. In agnist (to become fire) the s is of the
taddhita pratyaya st[i]. Examples of viricis that are comprised solely of sa-rma
are the sa-rma that replaces the initial a-rma of a dhtu by dhtv-de a
sa (458) and the sa-rma that replaces the ta-rma of the tad-dis by tad-des
ta sa sau (328).
171 / s$ambaAeDanae s$aubauR"s$aMa: /
171. sambodhane sur buddha-saja
sambodhanein sambodhana (the vocative case); suthe viubhakti s[u];
buddha-sajacalled buddha.
In sambodhana, s[u] is called buddha.
sambuddhi ca.
VttiThe ancients called it sambuddhi.
172 / W@AevaAmanaeByaAe bau"syaAd"zARnama, /
172. e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam
e-o-vmanebhyaafter e-rma, o-rma, or vmana; buddhasyaof buddha;
adaranamdisappearance1.
Buddha disappears after e, o, or vmana.
he ka. dvitva-bahutvayo prva-vathe kau he k. atra prathamaiva.
he-abddy-abhve pika kau k. viubhakti-hare pi tadarthvtatvn nmatvtikrama. tata ka ysi, ka bhsty-dau nmavieasya vihita trivikramdika na syt. eva rma rmau rm ity-di.
VttiThus in the vocative case singular we get he ka <8.1>. The vocative
case dual and plural are like before. Thus we get he kau <8.2> and he k
<8.3> respectively. When there is sambodhana (addressing), only the first case
endings are applied. And when there is no vocative particle like he, we get ka
1

Adarana is the same thing as hara because in vtti 41 hara was defined as adarana-mtrahetur hara.

<8.1>, kau <8.2>, and k <8.3> in the vocative singular, dual, and
plural respectively.
ka + s[u] (172) ka <8.1>.
ka + au (57) kau <8.2>.
ka + [j]as (46) ks (155) k <8.3>.

tty

kena

caturth

kya

pacam

kt

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

kasya
ke

dvivacana
kau
kau
kbhy
m
kbhy
m
kbhy
m
kayo
kayo

ka

kau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
ka
kam

bahuvacana
k
kn
kai
kebhya

kebhya

knm
keu
k

Even when there is deletion of the viubhakti, the vocative case singular, ka,
is not a nma because it is still endowed with the meaning of the viubhakti.
Therefore, in ka ysi (O Ka, You go), ka bhsi (O Ka, You shine),
and so on, the trivikrama and so on ordained in relation to a particular nma
doesnt apply. In the same way that the various forms of the word ka were
made, we similarly get rma <1.1>, rmau <1.2>, rm <1.3>, and so on:
rma + s[u] (155) rma <1.1>.
rma + au (57) rmau <1.2>.
rma + [j]as (46) rms (155) rm <1.3>.
AmtaIt will be described in the Kraka-prakaraa how only the first case
endings are applied when there is sambodhana. The hara of buddha is considered
a mahhara because buddha is not a nimitta in the form of a pratyaya (see vtti
156) since in kasya trivikramo gople (160) the nimitta is just a gopla.
Therefore, since trivikrama would be obtained in ka ysi and so on by stra
160 when the mahhara of buddha is done, Jva Gosvm speaks the siddhnta,
in order to stop the change to trivikrama, with the sentence beginning
viubhakti-hare pi. The word tad-arthvtatvt means because it is endowed
with the meaning of the viubhakti. The implied meaning is that the trivikrama

ordained in relation to a particular nma (namely ka, any nma ending in arma) is not applied because the vocative singular ka is not a nma.
BlaThe words kety asya (of the vocative singular ka) have to be
supplied in the sentence beginning viubhakti-hare pi. In nmatvtikrama,
atikrama means laghanam (transgression), which essentially means abhva
(absence), thus nmatvbhva means it is not a nma.
SaodhinIn this stra, the phrase buddhasydaranam is a pun on Buddha.
Because his philosophy is voidism, it is quite befitting that Buddha disappears, or
becomes nothing.
173 / r"Sa[%"yaeByaAe nasya NA: ,
s$avaeRr"h"yavak(vagARpavagARvyavaDaAnae'ipa , s$amaAnaivaSNAupade" ,
na tau ivaSNAupad"Antasya /
173. ra-a--dvayebhyo nasya a, sarvevara-ha-ya-va-ka-varga-pa-vargavyavadhne pi, samna-viupade, na tu viupadntasya
ra-a--dvayebhyaafter ra-rma, a-rma, or -dvaya; nasyaof na-rma; a
the replacement a-rma; sarvevara-ha-ya-va-ka-varga-pa-varga-vyavadhne
when sarvevara, ha-rma, ya-rma, va-rma, ka-varga, or pa-varga intervenes;
apieven; samna-viupadein the same viupada; nanot; tubut;
viupada-antasyaat the end of a viupada.
After r, , or -dvaya, a n situated in the same viupada as them
becomes . This is the case even when sarvevara, h, y, v, ka-varga, or
pa-varga intervenes. But n situated at the end of viupada doesnt
become .
rmn rmea ity-adi. vmana nryaa govinda vaikuha vsudevdayo py armnt ka-tuly. kurvann astty-dau dvitve prva-na-rmasya na atva
tatrkarat. a iti abdo py dy-anta-vad ekasmin iti nyyena a-rmnta. a
au ity-di. sambodhane anyatra cnityam iyata iti he a. drhvne hai-hayor
eva mahpuruatva matamhe3 a, a he3 v.
VttiThus we get rmn, rmea and so on.
rma + []as (156) rma + s (157) rm + s rm + n rmn
<2.3>1.
rma + [] (159) rma + ina (48) rmena (173) rmea <3.1>.
case
1

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

This in an example of how n situated at the end of a viupada doesnt become .

pratham
dvity

rma
rmam

rmebhya

rmasya
rme

rmau
rmau
rmbhy
m
rmbhy
m
rmbhy
m
rmayo
rmayo

tty

rmea

caturth

rmya

pacam

rmt

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

rm
rmn

rma

rmau

rm

rmai

rmebhya
rmm
rmeu

The words vmana, nryaa, govinda, vaikuha, vsudeva, and so on, which
end in a-rma, follow the same pattern as the word ka. In examples like
kurvann asti and so on, which were given back in the Dvitva-prakaraa, the first
na-rma doesnt become a-rma (by the current stra) due to the very fact that
this rule was not made back then. The word a is considered a word ending in a by
the following maxim: dy-anta-vad ekasmin (A grammatical operation should be
performed on a single vara as if it were an initial vara or final vara). Thus we
get a, au, , and so on. In the vocative case we get he a by anyatra cnityam
iyate (44). When there is calling from afar, hai and he alone are considered
mahpuruas (see stra 76). Thus we get he3 a or a he3.
AmtaExamples of when a sarvevara intervenes are: caraam, hari,
tarua, and area. Examples of when h, y, or v intervenes are: barhea,
kryea, and ravaam. Examples of when ka-varga or pa-varga intervenes are:
arkea, mrkhea, vargea, arghea, gea, sarpea, rephea, kbea 1,
darbhea, and arma. The change to a-rma takes place even when many of
them intervene at the same time. For example, paryyea and vaiamyea. And,
due to the word api in the stra, the change to a-rma takes place even if none
of them intervene. For example, ra, tis, pm, nm, and so on. As
will be explained in vtti 285, the viucakra and viusarga are also considered
sarvevaras as they are listed in between the sarvevaras and viujanas in the
vara-krama. Therefore the change to a-rma takes place even when they
intervene. For example, bhaam and urakea. Why do we say situated in the
same viupada? Consider agnir nayati. The example of na tu viupadntasya
is rmn.
In the example kurvann asti, when there is reduplication of the n by vmant aa-n dvi sarvevare (119), because the first n is not at the end of a viupada,
and because the prva-nimitta, r, is in place and only a sarvevara and v are
intervening, the change to a-rma should normally take place. However, in order
to fulfill the promise asiddha-rpam na tyjyam (43) it doesnt take place,
because it wasnt done there, in the Dvitva-prakaraa. The maxim dy-anta-vad
ekasmin is actually one of Pinis stras (Adhyy 1.1.21), it means A
1

Amta actually says arva, but this is an example of when v intervenes not when b intervenes.
Thus we have given kbea as an example instead.

grammatical operation should be performed on a single vara as if it were an


initial vara or final vara. The reason why sandhi was not done in the vocative
case, he a, is because he a is pronounced slowly (see vtti 91).
174 / zAs$aAd"yaAe yau"s$aMaA: /
174. as-dayo yadu-saj
as-dayabeginning with []as; yadu-sajcalled yadus.
The viubhaktis beginning with []as are called yadus.
AmtaYadu, the eldest son of Yayti, was a king of the moon dynasty. Lord
Ka incarnated in the family of Yadu due to the kings virtuous character.
SaodhinThe endings of the vocative case are not yadus as they are actually
pratham viubhaktis. The yadus are as follows:
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

[]

bhym

[]as
bhis

[]e

bhym

bhyas

[]as[i]

bhym

bhyas

[]as

os

[]i

os

su[p]

175 / @a paAd"d"ntamaAs$ayaUSa wtyaetaeSaAM pa"tmaAsyaUSainatyaetae


ivair"ayaAe yau"Sau vaA /
175. atra pda danta msa ya ity ete pad dat ms yan ity ete viricayo
yaduu v
atrain this connection; pda danta msa ya itithe words pda (foot),
danta (tooth), msa (month) and ya (soup); etemof these; pad dat
ms yan itipad, dat, ms, and yan; etethese; viricayaviricis
(replacements); yaduuwhen the yadus follow; voptionally.
In this connection, the words pda, danta, msa, and ya can optionally
be replaced by pad, dat, ms, and yan when a yadu follows.

yath-sakhyam anudea samnm. kryi kry ca, praktn


pratyayn ca tulya-sakhyn sat yad vidhna tad yath-sakhya syt.
prathamasya prathama dvityasya dvityam ity-di krameety artha. prayog
ca pake viujannta-vaj jey. yathpada pdn, pad pdena, padbhy
pdbhym ity-di.
atha dhtu-svarpa -rmnto vivap-abda. viva-p viva-pau vivap. viva-pm viva-pau. viva-p as
VttiA rule (anudea) involving an equal number of elements should take place
according to the order of enumeration. That is to say a rule (vidhna) that
involves an equal number of krys and kryas, or praktis and pratyayas should
act according to the order of enumeration. This means that the first krya /
pratyaya is in relation to the first kry / prakti, the second in relation to the
second, and so on, sequentially. In the case that pda is replaced by pad, danta
by dat, and so on, the declension is like that of words ending in a viujana. For
example, pada <2.3> or pdn <2.3>, pad <3.1> or pdena <3.1>,
padbhym <3.2> or pdbhym <3.2>, and so on:
pda + []as (152) pda + as (two options by 175):
1) (pda is replaced by pad) pad + as (155) pada <2.3>.
2) (pda isnt replaced by pad, 156) pda + s (157) pd + s pd + n
pdn
<2.3>.
pda + [] (two options by 175):
1) (pda is replaced by pad) pad + pad <3.1>.
2) (pda isnt replaced by pad, 159) pda + ina (48) pdena <3.1>.
pda + bhym (two options by 175):
1) (pda is replaced by pad) pad + bhym padbhym <3.2>.
2) (pda isnt replaced by pad, 160) pd + bhym pdbhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

eka-vacana
pda
pdam
pdena /
pad
pdya /
pade
pdt /
pada
pdasya /
pada
pde / padi
pda

dvi-vacana
pdau
pdau
pdbhym /
padbhym
pdbhym /
padbhym
pdbhym /
padbhym

bahu-vacana
pd
pdn / pada
pdai / padbhi
pdebhya /
padbhya
pdebhya /
padbhya

pdayo / pado

pdnm / padm

pdayo / pado

pdeu / patsu

pdau

pd

BlaFor example, here the kryas, pad and so on, are in relation to the krys,
pda and so on.
SaodhinThus ends the declension of words ending in a-rma. The
paribh yath-sakhyam anudea samnm is actually one of Pinis stras
(Adhyy 1.3.10). From now on we will no longer show extra steps like pd +
bhym in pda + bhym (160) pd + bhym pdbhym and ka + m in
ka + am (156) ka + m kam <2.1> as they are only artificial
insertions meant to aid beginners and are thus now unnecessary.
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word viva-p (protector of all, also a
name of the sun, moon, and fire) which ends in -rma, and which is essentially
a dhtu.
viva-p + s[u] (155) viva-p <1.1>.
viva-p + au (57) viva-pau <1.2>.
viva-p + [j]as (46) viva-ps (155) viva-p <1.3>.
viva-p + am (156) viva-pm <2.1>.
viva-p + au (57) viva-pau <2.2>.
Then, when we have viva-p + []as:
AmtaThe word viva-p is essentially a dhtu because it is formed from the
dhtu p rakae (2P, to protect). For example, when the kt pratyaya vi is
applied after viva + p by nmny -rmt manip kvanip vanip vi ca () and
subsequently deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (), we get the word vivap. In vtti 195 Jva Gosvm will describe how even though words whose kt
pratyayas are deleted are dhtus, they are also nmas, and therefore sv-dis are
applied after them.
176 / @Ar"Amah"r"Ae yau"s$avaeRre" , na tvaApa: /
176. -rma-haro yadu-sarvevare, na tv pa
-rma-haradeletion of -rma; yadu-sarvevarewhen a yadu beginning with
a sarvevara follows; nanot; tubut; paof [p] (see Saodhin 208).
-rma is deleted when a yadu beginning with a sarvevara follows. But
the -rma of [p] doesnt get deleted.
viva-pa. viva-p a itviva-p viva-pbhym viva-pbhi. viva-p e
a itviva-pe viva-pbhym viva-pbhya. viva-p asii-v itauviva-

pa viva-pbhym viva-pbhya. viva-p asa itviva-pa viva-po vivapm. viva-p ia itviva-pi viva-po viva-psu. sambodhane prva-vathe
viva-p ity-di. eva somap-prabhtaya. -rma-hara-vidhir v hhabjdnm iti kramadvardaya. hha hhn, abja abjn. hh abj iti kecit.
eva agre-g, udadhi-kr. i-rmnto hari-abda
Vtti viva-p + []as (176) viva-pas (155) viva-pa <2.3>.
viva-p + [] (176) viva-p <3.1>.
viva-p + bhym viva-pbhym <3.2>
viva-p + bhis (155) viva-pbhi <3.3>.
viva-p + []e (176) viva-pe <4.1>.
viva-p + bhym viva-pbhym <4.2>
viva-p + bhyas (155) viva-pbhya <4.3>.
viva-p + []as[i] (176) viva-pas (155) viva-pa <5.1>.
viva-p + bhym viva-pbhym <5.2>
viva-p + bhyas (155) viva-pbhya <5.3>.
viva-p + []as (176) viva-pas (155) viva-pa <6.1>.
viva-p + os (176) viva-pos (155) viva-po <6.2>.
viva-p + m (176) viva-pm <6.3>.
viva-p + []i (176) viva-pi <7.1>.
viva-p + os (176) viva-pos (155) viva-po <7.2>.
viva-p + su[p] viva-psu <7.3>.
In the vocative case, the forms are the same as those of the first case, thus we
get he viva-p and so on.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
viva-p
vivapm

viva-pau

bahuvacana
viva-p

viva-pau

viva-pa

dvi-vacana

viva-pa
viva-pi

vivapbhym
vivapbhym
vivapbhym
viva-po
viva-po

vivapbhi
vivapbhya
vivapbhya
viva-pm
viva-psu

viva-p

viva-pau

viva-p

tty

viva-p

caturth

viva-pe

pacam

viva-pa

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

Words like soma-p (drinker of the soma juice, soma sacrificer, or particular class
of pits) and so on are declined in the same as viva-p. According to
Kramadvara and others, the rule ordaining the deletion of -rma is optional in
regards to the words hh (name of a prominent gandharva), abj (born in
water, a pearl oyster) and so on. Thus they get hha <2.3> or hhn <2.3>,
and abja <2.3> or abjn <2.3>. Others say the forms should be hh and
abj, and they likewise make the forms agre-g and udadhi-kr.
Now we begin the declension of the word hari, which ends in i-rma.
AmtaIn accordance with the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate, which
will be mentioned in vtti 195, the word yadu-sarvevare should be understood to
mean when a pratyaya beginning with a sarvevara, which is among the sixteen
pratyayas called the yadus, follows. If this were not the case, there would be
ativypti (overinclusion) in regards to bhym and so on (since they also have
sarvevaras).
Some consider that the word hh has no etymology, Thus, in their opinion, the rma of hh is not deleted because hh is not a dhtu. Thus they get hhn
<2.3>. Others, however, accept that hh is a dhtu by deriving the word h from
the dhtu [o]h[k] tyge. Therefore they always delete the -rma of the word
hh, and thus they get hha <2.3>. For this reason Kramadvara and others,
accepting both these opinions, made the deletion of -rma optional. This is our
opinion also. The word kecit, in the vtti, refers to Vopadeva and others. In their
opinion, since the -rma in hh is related to an u-di pratyaya, it is not
deleted, but the s of []as also doesnt become n. Thus, they form hh <2.3>.
In the same way, the words abj, agre-g (one who goes in front or before), and
udadhi-kr (mariner) end in the u-di pratyaya vi. Thus they are similarly
formed.
177 / wor"AmaAntaAe h"ir"s$aMa: /
177. i-u-rmnto hari-saja
i-u-rmntaending in i-rma or u-rma; hari-sajacalled hari.

Any nma ending in i-rma or u-rma is called hari.


agnir ghi ca. hari.
VttiThe ancients called them agni or ghi.
hari + s[u] (155) hari <1.1>.
178 / h"ir"ta @AE paUvaRs$avaNAR: /
178. harita au prva-savara
haritaafter a hari; authe viubhakti au; prva-sa-varathe same vara
as the previous one;
After a hari, au becomes the same vara as the previous one.
harita iti pacamys tas-taddhita. har.
VttiThe tas in the word harita here is the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] that is
applied after a word ending in a pacam viubhakti.
hari + au (178) hari + i (46) har <1.2>.
SaodhinAu is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the
strength of the stra (see vtti 159). Usually the form would be va. The
resultant meaning of this stra is that if the nma ends in i-rma, au become irma, and if the nma ends in u-rma, au becomes u-rma.
179 / w"yasya W , o"yasya @Ae , [%"yasya @r," , la{"yasya
@lgAAeivand"s$aMa: /
179. i-dvayasya e, u-dvayasya o, -dvayasya ar, -dvayasya al govinda-saja
i-dvayasyaof i-dvaya; ethe replacement e; u-dvayasyaof u-dvaya; othe
replacement o; -dvayasyaof -dvaya; arthe replacement ar; -dvayasyaof
-dvaya; althe replacement al; govinda-sajacalled govinda.
The replacement of i-dvaya with e, u-dvaya with o, -dvaya with ar, and
-dvaya with al is called govinda.
gua-saja ca.
VttiThe ancients called it gua.

SaodhinE and o are words whose pratham viubhakti has been deleted
on the strength of the stra (see vtti 159). Usually the forms would be e and
au respectively. The etymology of the word govinda is given under stra . In a
table form, govinda translates as follows:
i/
u/
/
/

e
o
ar
al

180 / ix~taAe va{iSNAs$aMaA: /


180. ito vi-saj
-itathose that have the indicatory letter ; vi-sajcalled vis.
Sv-dis that have the indicatory letter are called vis.
AmtaThe use of the plural form ita here implies that the name vi
functions only in relation to the sv-dis. That in nirgua (379) is understood
specifically in relation to the chapter on dhtus implies the same. Vi was the
eldest son of Madhu, a king in the dynasty of Yadu.
SaodhinThe vis are []e, []as[i], []as, and []i.
181 / h"re"gAAeRivand"Ae jais$a va{iSNASau baue" ca /
181. harer govindo jasi viu buddhe ca
hareof a hari; govindagovinda; jasiwhen the viubhakti [j]as follows;
viuwhen the vis follow; buddhewhen buddha follows; caand.
A hari takes govinda when [j]as, the vis, or buddha follows.
haraya. hari har harn.
Vtti hari + [j]as (181) hare + as (63) harayas (155) haraya <1.3>.
hari + am

(156) harim <2.1>.

hari + au (178) hari + i (46) har <2.2>.


hari + []as (156) hari + s (157) hars harn <2.3>.

182 / h"ir"ta"A naA , na tau lamyaAma, /


182. harita n, na tu lakmym
haritaafter a hari; of the viubhakti []; nthe replacement n; na
not; tubut; lakmymin lakm-liga (the feminine gender).
After a hari, [] is replaced by n, but not in lakm-liga.
hari haribhym haribhi. haraye haribhym haribhya.
Vtti hari + [] (182) harin (173) hari <3.1>.
hari + bhym haribhym <3.2>.
hari + bhis (155) haribhi <3.3>.
hari + []e (181) hare + e (63) haraye <4.1>.
hari + bhym haribhym <4.2>.
hari + bhyas (155) haribhya <4.3>.
Amta is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the
strength of the stra see vtti 159). The change of [] to n is only done after
nmas ending in i-rma or u-rma that are in puruottama-liga (the masculine
gender). But it doesnt apply in lakm-liga. For example, bhakti + [] (59)
bhakty <3.1>. Another more specific rule will be given later for brahma-liga
(the neuter gender).
183 / W@AeByaAM x~is$ax~s$aAer"r"Amah"r": /
183. e-obhy asi-asor a-rma-hara
e-obhymafter e-rma and o-rma; asi-asoof the viubhaktis []as[i] and
[]as; a-rma-haradeletion of a-rma.
After e or o, the a-rma of []as[i] and []as is deleted.
hare haribhym haribhya. hare haryo harm.
Vtti hari + []as[i] (181) hare + as (183) hares (155) hare <5.1>.
hari + bhym haribhym <5.2>.
hari + bhyas (155) haribhya <5.3>.

hari + []as (181) hare + as (183) hares (155) hare <6.1>.


hari + os (59) haryos (155) haryo <6.2>.
hari + m (167) hari + n[u] + m hari + nm (169) harnm
(173) harm
<6.3>.
184 / h"ir"taAe xe~r"AEca, /
184. harito er auc
haritaafter a hari; eof the viubhakti []i; aucthe replacement au[c].
After a hari, []i is replaced by au[c].
ca-rma it. antya-sarvevardi-var sasra-saj.
VttiThe c in au[c] is an indicatory letter. The final sarvevara and any other
varas that come after it are called sasra.
AmtaThe sentence beginning antya is simply a reminder of what was
previously described in stra 75.
185 / s$aMs$aAr"sya h"r"iita /
185. sasrasya hara citi
sasrasyaof the sasra; haradeletion; c-itiwhen a pratyaya which has
the indicatory letter c follows.
The sasra is deleted when a pratyaya which has the indicatory letter c
follows.1
itti prca. harau haryo hariu. he hare. eva agni-ravi-kavi-giri-prabhtaya.
tri-abdo vcya-ligo nitya-bahu-vacanntas tasya pusitraya trn tribhi
tribhya tribhya.
VttiThe ancients said iti (when a pratyaya that has the indicatory letter
follows)2.
hari + []i (184) hari + au[c] (185) harau <7.1>.
1

This stra has a second meaning: The cycle of repeated birth and death (sasra) is destroyed
when there is spiritual knowledge (cit).
2
See Adhyy 6.4.143 and the commentaries thereupon.

hari + os (59) haryos (155) haryo <7.2>.


hari + su[p] (170) hariu <7.3>.
hari + s[u] (181) hare + s[u] (172) hare <8.1>.

tty

hari

caturth

haraye

pacam

hare

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

hare
harau

dvivacana
har
har
haribhy
m
haribhy
m
haribhy
m
haryo
haryo

hare

har

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
hari
harim

bahuvacana
haraya
harn
haribhi
haribhya
haribhya
harm
hariu
haraya

The words agni, ravi, kavi, giri, and so on follow the same pattern as the word
hari.
SaodhinThe order of application regarding hare <8.1> must be carefully
understood. A grammatical operation that takes place in the prakti is considered
antaraga (internal) whereas a grammatical operation that takes place outside
of the prakti in the pratyaya is considered bahiraga (external). But if both
grammatical operations take place in the prakti, then the one that comes earlier
in the prakti is considered antaraga and the other is considered bahiraga (see
vtti 211). Generally the order of application is that the antaraga rule is applied
first and then the bahiraga rule is applied after that if it is still applicable. Thus, in
hare <8.1>, the i of hari first undergoes govinda by harer govindo jasi viu
buddhe ca (181) and thus becomes e and only then does e-o-vmanebhyo
buddhasydaranam (172) apply. If we tried to apply e-o-vmanebhyo
buddhasydaranam (181) first since the i of hari is a vmana then s[u] would be
prematurely deleted and we would get the incorrect form hari <8.1>. This is the
fault. Similarly, in viva-pa <2.3> in vtti 176, the antaraga rule -rma-haro
yadu-sarvevare, na tv pa (176) is applied first and then davatrd am-asor
a-rma-hara (156) is no longer applicable since there is no longer a davatra
when the of viva-p is deleted. Whereas, if we had of applied davatrd amasor a-rma-hara (176) first and then -rma-haro yadu-sarvevare, na tv pa
(176) by eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat (vtti 146), we would have gotten vivaps, a most ridiculous form.

VttiNow we begin the declension of the word tri (three) in the masculine
gender. The word tri is vcya-liga (adjectival, sharing the gender of the
substantive) and is always used in bahu-vacana.
tri + [j]as (181) tre + as (63) trayas (155) traya <1.3>.
tri + []as (156) tri + s (157) trs trn <2.3>.
tri + bhis (155) tribhi <3.3>.
tri + bhyas (155) tribhya <4.3>.
tri + bhyas (155) tribhya <5.3>.
186 / aeyaAe naAima svaATaeR /
186. tres trayo nmi svrthe
treof the word tri; trayathe replacement traya; nmiwhen nm (n[u] +
m) follows; sva-artheprovided its own meaning is predominan.
The word tri is replaced by traya when nm follows, provided its own
meaning is predominant.
traym. tad-antatve pi, parama-traym. asvrthe tupriya-trm. triu.
kati-abdo pi tadvat
Vtti tri + m (167) tri + n[u] + m tri + nm (186) traya + nm
(169) traynm (173) traym <6.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

bahuvacana
traya
trn
tribhi
tribhya
tribhya
traym
triu

This stra also applies to a word that ends with tri:

parama-tri + m (167) parama-tri + n[u] + m parama-tri + nm


(186)
parama-traya + nm (169) parama-traynm (173) paramatraym <6.3>.
But when the meaning of the word tri isnt predominant:
priya-tri (167) priya-tri + n[u] + m priya-tri + nm (169) priyatrnm (173) priya-trm <6.3>.
The word kati (how many?) is like the word tri.
AmtaThe vigraha (separation of the constituent words) of the compound
word parama-tri (best three) is param ca te traya ca (they are the best and
they are three). The word priya-tri is a ptmbara-samsa (bahuvrhi-samsa)
whose vigraha is priys trayo yem (for whom three are dear). The implied
meaning is that the meaning of the word tri is not predominant here, since, in
ptmbara-samsas, the meaning of another word is predominant. When it is
said that the word kati is like the word tri, it means that it is vcya-liga
(adjectival, sharing the gender of the substantive) and always takes plural
endings.
187 / SanaAntas$aYaAta: k(tae jas$zAs$aAemaRh"Ah"r": svaATaeR /
187. a-nnta-sakhyta kate ca jas-asor mahhara svrthe
a-na-anta-sakhytaafter a numeral ending in a-rma or na-rma; kate
after the word kati (how many?); caand; jas-asoof the viubhaktis [j]as
and []as; mahharamahhara; sva-artheprovided its own meaning is
predominant.
There is mahhara of [j]as and []as when they come after a numeral
ending in or n, or after the word kati, provided the meaning of these
words is predominant.
atra tyantika-layt pratyaya-krya na govinda. kati kati katibhir ity-di. kater
iti yati-tatyor upalakaa. yati te nga-ri, tati te nga-vedan iti
prayogt. eva parama-katty-di. asvrthe tupriya-kataya. atha sakhiabda.
VttiDue to the permanent dissolution (of [j]as and []as) here, govinda, a
grammatical operation caused by a pratyaya (see stra 181), doesnt take place.
kati + [j]as (187) kati <1.3>.
kati + []as (187) kati <2.3>.

kati + bhis (155) katibhi <3.3>.


case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

bahuvacana
kati
kati
katibhi
katibhya
katibhya
katnm
katiu
kati

The word kate, in the stra, additionally implies the words yati (how many) and
tati (so many) as they are seen to follow the same pattern in the example yati
te nga-ri, tati te nga-vedan. The forms parama-kati (best how many?)
and so on are made in the same way:
parama-kati + [j]as (187) parama-kati <1.3>.
But when the meaning of the word kati isnt predominant:
priya-kati + [j]as (181) priya-kate + as (63) priya-katayas (155)
priya-kataya
<1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word sakhi (friend).
AmtaSomeone may argue, If we just ordained the hara of [j]as and []as in
this stra, then by stre pratyaya-rpa-nimittd anyasya haro pi mahhara
(vtti 156) we would naturally end up with a mahhara. What is the need,
therefore, to ordain a mahhara here? Because in stra 181, [j]as is a nimitta in
the form of a pratyaya, therefore (by vtti 156), we would end up with a hara.
Thus it would be accepted that the deleted [j]as is sthni-vat1, and govinda and so
on would be applied. Therefore the mahhara is actually the proper prescription
(as it disallows all the grammatical operations connected with [j]as).
The simple meaning of the word upalakaa, in the vtti, is sva jpayad aparam
api jpayati yat tad upalakaam (An upalakaa is that which makes itself
known and also makes another thing known). The word priya-kati is a
ptmbara-samsa for which the vigraha (separation of the constituent words of
the compound word) is priy kati yem (for whom how many are dear?).

Sthni-vat means similar in behavior to the original. The sthni is the original, and the dea is
the replacement. If the sthni here, [j]as, were to only undergo hara (mere disappearance) then
it would still be existing in the background, causing the grammatical operations related to it, such
as stra 181, to take place.

BlaSomeone may argue, In regards to kati, why is there no govinda by stra


181? In answer to that, Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning atra. In
stra 181, the nimitta is in the form of the pratyaya [j]as. Thus the hara of [j]as
wouldnt be considered a mahhara (by vtti 156). Therefore a mahhara is
ordained here.
SaodhinThe numerals ending in and n are pacan (five), a (six),
saptan (seven), aan (eight), navan (nine), and daan (ten). Naturally,
this rule also applies when daan is in rma-ka-smasa (dvandva-samsa)
with another numeral by sakhyym alpyasy ca (), as in ekdaan (eleven),
dvdaan (twelve), and so on.
188 / [%r"Amas$aiKaByaAmauzAnas$pau&dM"zAs$anaeh"is$atyaetaeBya
s$aAer"Aca, , bauM" ivanaA /
188. -rma-sakhibhym uanas purudaas anehas ity etebhya ca sor c,
buddha vin
-rma-sakhibhymafter -rma and the word sakhi (friend); uanas
purudaas anehas itithe words uanas (name of ukrcrya, the spiritual
master of the demons), purudaas (name of Indra), and anehas (time);
etebhyaafter these; caand soof the viubhakti s[u]; cthe replacement
[c]; buddhambuddha; vinexcept.
After -rma and the words sakhi, uanas, purudaas, and anehas, s[u]
is replaced by [c], with the exception of buddha, which is not replaced
by [c].
sasrasya hara. sakh.
VttiThe sasra is then deleted by stra 185, and we get sakh <1.1>.
sakhi + s[u] (188) sakhi + [c] (185) sakh <1.1>.
AmtaThe phrase after -rma really means after a word ending in -rma.
Because of the connection with buddha here, the replacement [c] is only in
relation to the first case singular ending s[u], not to the seventh case plural
ending su[p]. Why do we say buddha vin? Consider he sakhe <8.1> (sakhi +
s[u] (181) sakhe + s[u] (172) sakhe <8.1>).
189 / @"yasya @A , w"yasya We , o"yasya @AE , [%"yasya @Ar," ,
la{"yasya @Alva{SNAIn"s$aMa: , W@AesTaAnae We @AE ca /
189. a-dvayasya , i-dvayasya ai, u-dvayasya au, -dvayasya r, -dvayasya l
vndra-saja, e-o-sthne ai au ca

a-dvayasyaof a-dvaya; the replacement ; i-dvayasyaof i-dvaya; aithe


replacement ai; u-dvayasyaof u-dvaya; authe replacement au; -dvayasyaof
-dvaya; rthe replacement r; -dvayasyaof -dvaya; lthe replacement l;
vndra-sajacalled vndra; e-o-sthnein the place of e and o; aithe
replacement ai; authe replacement au; caand.
The replacement of a-dvaya with , i-dvaya with ai, u-dvaya with au, dvaya with r, -dvaya with l, e with ai, and o with au is called
vndra.
vddhi-saja ca.
VttiThe ancients called it vddhi.
AmtaThe word vndra refers to the chief among the members of the Vi
dynasty, namely Vsudeva, r Ka.
BlaThe phrase e-o-sthne ai au ca means the replacement of e with ai and o
with au is also called vndra.
SaodhinIn a table form, vndra translates as follows:
a/
i/
u/
/
/
e
o

ai
au
r
l
ai
au

190 / svaAd"ya: paa paANx"vaA: /


190. sv-daya paca pav
sv-dayasv-dis; pacafive; pavpavas.
The first five sv-dis are called pavas.
ghua sua ca.
VttiThe ancients called them ghu- or su-.
AmtaThe Pavas are the male offspring of king Pu. They are the five
brothers, Yudhihira, Bhma, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva.
SaodhinThe pavas are s[u], au, [j]as, am, and au.

191 / s$aKyauva{RSNAIn": s$auvaja< paANx"vaeSau /


191. sakhyur vndra su-varja paveu
sakhyuof the word sakhi; vndravndra; su-varjamexcept s[u];
paveuwhen the pavas follow.
The word sakhi takes vndra when any pava except s[u] follows.
ai ysakhyau sakhya. sakhyam sakhyau sakhn.
VttiAi y (64) is then applied and we get sakhyau <1.2>.
sakhi + au (191) sakhai + au (64) sakhyau <1.2>.
sakhi + [j]as (191) sakhai + as (64) sakhyas (155) sakhya
<1.3>.
sakhi + am (191) sakhai + am (64) sakhyam <2.1>.
sakhi + au

(191) sakhai + au (64) sakhyau <2.2>.

sakhi + []as (156) sakhi + s (157) sakhs sakhn <2.3>.


192 / na s$aiKahR"ir"s$aMa"Ad"AE , paitastvas$amaAs$ae /
192. na sakhir hari-saja dau, patis tv asamse
nanot; sakhithe word sakhi; hari-sajacalled hari; -dauwhen any
viubhakti from [] onwards follows; patithe word pati (master, husband);
tuonly; a-samsewhen not in a samsa.
The word sakhi is not called hari when any viubhakti from []
onwards follows, nor is the word pati, provided it is not in a samsa.
sakhy sakhibhym sakhibhi. sakhye sakhibhym sakhibhya.
Vtti sakhi + [] (59) sakhy <3.1>.
sakhi + bhym sakhibhym <3.2>.
sakhi + bhis (155) sakhibhi <3.3>.
sakhi + []e (59) sakhye <4.1>.

sakhi + bhym sakhibhym <4.2>.


sakhi + bhyas (155) sakhibhya <4.3>.
AmtaThe word sakhi is not called hari when any viubhakti from []
onwards follows, nor is the word pati, provided it is not in a samsa. But the word
pati is called hari when it is in a samsa. Here the word tu is used in the sense of
restriction (and is thus translated as only). According to Amara-koa, the word
tu has the following meanings: tu syd bhede vadhrae (the word tu is used to
express difference (bheda) and restriction (avadhraa)). Thus it is implied that
only the word pati, when not in a samsa, is not called hari, but the word sakhi
may sometimes be called hari when it is not in a samsa as there is no restrictive
word like tu placed after it. Furthermore, it should be understood that only when
not in a samsa, is the word sakhi not called hari, since it is accepted that the
word sakhi is called hari when it is in a samsa in accordance with the examples
given in the Mah-bhya and other works.
SaodhinSince, in these circumstances, the words sakhi and pati are not
called hari, they dont follow the rules specifically related to haris such as stras
182-184. Nor do they follow stra 181 when the vis follow. The information
presented in the above Amta and in vtti 194 can be summarized in a table as
follows:

sakhi
pati

not in a samsa
or at the end of
a word
usually1 not
called hari
not called hari

in a samsa or
at the end of a
word
called hari
called hari

193 / KyatyaAByaAM x~is$ax~s$aAe&s$a, /


193. khya-tybhy asi-asor us
khya-tybhymafter khi, kh, ti, and t; asi-asoof the viubhaktis []as[i]
and []as; usthe replacement us.
After (words ending in) khi, kh, ti, or t, []as[i] and []as are replaced
by us.
khi-abda-kh-abdayo ti-abda-t-abdayo kta-ya-rmdeayor ida
grahaam. sakhyu sakhibhym sakhibhya. sakhyu sakhyo sakhnm.

We say usually because we see examples where it is hari, like in sakhin vnarendrea in
Amta 194.

VttiThe word khya-tybhym includes the words khi and kh, and ti and t,
words whose final vowels have been replaced by ya-rma (by stra 59).
sakhi + []as[i] (193) sakhi + us (59) sakhyus (155) sakhyu
<5.1>.
sakhi + bhym sakhibhym <5.2>.
sakhi + bhyas (155) sakhibhya <5.3>.
sakhi + []as (193) sakhi + us (59) sakhyus (155) sakhyu <6.1>.
sakhi + os

(59) sakhyos (155) sakhyo <6.2>.

sakhi + m (167) sakhi + n[u] + m sakhi + nm (169)


sakhnm <6.3>.
AmtaThe word khya-tya is a samhra-dvandva-samsa of khya and tya, and
khya-tybhym is its fifth case dual form. In that regard the word khya-tya is an
imitation of the words khi and kh, and ti and t, words whose final vowels have
been replaced by ya-rma. In both khya and tya, the a-rma is for the sake of
pronunciation (and for causing the final vowels of khi and kh, and ti and t to
change to ya-rma by stra 59, thus enabling the same four words to be
efficiently represented in two words, khya and tya). Therefore, regarding words
like mukhya, apatya, and so on, []as[i] and []as are not replaced by us (because
these words end in khya and tya, and not in khi, kh, ti, or t).
SaodhinThis rule only applies in the masculine gender, because we see
that the feminine word sakh (a female friend) is declined in the same way as
the word gop (see vtti 218) and that feminine words made from the kt
pratyaya [k]ti like bhakti (devotional service) and so on are is declined as
bhakte <5.1> / <6.1> or bhakty <5.1> / <6.1> and so on (see vtti 215). The
only other place that Jva Gosvm mentions this stra throughout his entire work
is in vtti 199, in connection to the words ka-sukh and anant. Thus this rule
only applies to the words sakhi and pati and to words ending in kh and t that
are made by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after a nma-dhtu.
194 / s$aiKapaitaByaAM xe~r"AE /
194. sakhi-patibhy er au
sakhi-patibhymafter the words sakhi and pati; eof the viubhakti []i; au
the replacement au.
After the words sakhi and pati, []i is replaced by au.

sakhyau sakhyo sakhiu. he sakhe he sakhyau he sakhya. tad-antatve pi


bahusakhy bahusakhye bahusakhyu bahusakhyv ity hu. pacamy susakher gacchatti tu bhydau. etad-dyaiva sakhyu samse ghi-sajstti
prakriyym. samsa ity upalakaam iti ka-paita. tena prakte prvatra
bahu-pratyaye pi bahusakher ity-di. pati-abdasya pratham-dvityayor hariabda-vat, ttydau sakhi-abda-vat, samsntasya tu hari-abda-vad eva
yadu-patin yadu-pataye ity-di.
-rmnto daitya-pram-abda. daityn pramnti hinastti kvib-anto
viu-vc. daitya-pram daitya-pramyau daitya-pramya. dhtutvd atra
sarvatra sarvevare ya-rma eva vakyate, tasyaivodharaam ida vta-prambheda-jpanrtham atra likhitam. evam anyatrpi jeyam. daitya-pramyam
daitya-pramyau daitya-pramya. daitya-pramy daitya-prambhym daityaprambhi. daitya-pramye daitya-prambhym daitya-prambhya. daityapramya daitya-prambhym daitya-prambhya. daitya-pramya daityapramyo daitya-pramym. daitya-pramyi daitya-pramyo daitya-pramu.
sambodhane prva-vat.
eva vta-pram-abda -pratyayntatvt am-as-iu viea iti kecit.
vta-pramm. yvat sambhavas tvad vidhi iti nyyena davatrasyeti
trivikrame kte tasmt so na. vta-pramn. au vta-pram. vta-pram-hhprabhter dhtutva v ity anyevta-pramyam vta-pramm, hhvam hhm.
u-rmnto viu-abda. hari-strair eva sdhanam. viu vi
viava. vium vi vin. viun viubhym viubhi. viave
viubhym viubhya. vio viubhym viubhya. vio vivo
vinm. viau vivo viuu. he vio.
clan tita-u pumn ity amara. praktau sandhi vinaiva siddho yam
udv iti prakty-agayor na sandhi. tita-u tita- tita-ava ity-di. ka-r
Vtti sakhi + []i (194) sakhi + au (59) sakhyau <7.1>.
sakhi + os

(59) sakhyos (155) sakhyo <7.2>.

sakhi + su[p] (170) sakhiu <7.3>.


sakhi + s[u] (181) sakhe + s[u] (172) sakhe <8.1>
sakhi + au

(191) sakhai + au (64) sakhyau <8.2>.

sakhi + [j]as (191) sakhai + as (64) sakhyas (155) sakhya


<8.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty

ekavacana
sakh
sakhya
m
sakhy

dvivacana
sakhyau

bahuvacana
sakhya

sakhyau

sakhn

sakhibhy

sakhibhi

caturth

sakhye

pacam

sakhyu

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

sakhyu
sakhyau

m
sakhibhy
m
sakhibhy
m
sakhyo
sakhyo

sakhe

sakhyau

sakhibhya

sakhibhya

sakhnm
sakhiu
sakhya

Some say tad-antatve pi bahusakhy bahusakhye bahusakhyu bahusakhyau


(even when a word ends in sakhi, as, for example, bahusakhy <3.1>,
bahusakhye <4.1>, bahusakhyu <5.1> / <6.1>, and bahusakhyau <7.1>). But
in the Mah-bhya and other works we find the following example in the fifth
case: su-sakher gacchati. Due to this very consideration, it was said in Prakriykaumud (7.3.118) that sakhyu samse ghi-sajsti (when in a samsa, the
word sakhi is called ghi (hari)). And Ka-paita, a commentator on Prakriykaumud, has said samsa ity upalakaam (the word samse, in Prakriykaumud (7.3.118), is an upalakaa). Thus (the word sakhi is called ghi (hari))
even when the taddhita pratyaya bahu is applied before the prakti, as in
bahusakhe <5.1> / <6.1> and so on, for example. The word pati is declined like
the word hari in the first and second cases, but it is declined like the word sakhi
from the third case onwards. When the word pati is at the end of a samsa,
however, it is declined like the word hari from the third case onwards, as in yadupatin <3.1>, yadu-pataye <4.1>, and so on, for example.
AmtaThe phrase tad-antatve pi means a word ending in sakhi is declined in
the same way as the word sakhi itself. The words bahusakhy (by one who is
almost a friend) <3.1> and so on are formed by applying the taddhita pratyaya
bahu by svdy-antt prg bahur v kalprthe (). These words are not samsas as
the case when sakhi is in a samsa is described later in this vtti. The word susakhe is the fifth case singular form of the word su-sakhi (a good friend). And
one should not fear that the taddhita pratyaya a (keav-rma) has been applied
here by rjha-sakhibhya (), as that is prohibited by sv-atibhy na tau
pratyayau pjym ()
The word di in bhydau refers to works like Nysa, a commentary on Kik
written by Jinendra-buddhi. In their opinion, the word sakhi is called hari in
accordance with the maxim grahaavat prtipadikena tad-anta-vidhir nsti
(Paribhendu-ekhara, pariccheda 31). Specifically, the author of Nysa says:
yath hiiha dvi-vidh ghi-saj avayavray samudyray ca. tatra
yvayavray (kevala-sakhy-ray) s pratiidhyate, y puna samudyray
(samsray) s ca bhavaty eva, tasy apratiedht (For instance, In this
regard, the term ghi (hari) is of two kinds, avayavray (in relation to a certain
portion) and samudyray (in relation to the whole). In that connection, the
term ghi (hari) which is avayavray (in relation only to the word sakhi) is
prohibited. But the term ghi (hari) which is samudyray (in relation to the
samsa) is certainly applicable as it is not prohibited). Therefore, since there is

no prohibition, the word sakhi is certainly called hari when it is situated in a


samsa. Thus the statement of Prakriy-kaumud is quite valid. By saying that
the word samse is an upalakaa, Ka-paita means that it includes both the
case when the word sakhi is in a samsa and the case when it is not. Therefore we
also see such usage as sakhin vnarendrea and kasya sakhir arjuna.
BlaIn regards to the words bahusakhy and so on, a ptmbara-samsa
(bahuvrhi-samsa) should be made. The words etad-dyaiva mean taking into
consideration the opinion of the Mah-bhya and so on.
SaodhinBlas explanation that the forms bahusakhy and so on are made
from the ptmbara-samsa bahu-sakhi (one who has many friends) is certainly
false as Jva Gosvm personally makes it clear, with the word bahu-pratyaye in
the vtti, that these forms are made with the taddhita pratyaya bahu. Amtas
explanation in this regard is the correct one.
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word daitya-pram (demon-slayer),
a word ending in -rma. The word daitya-pram ends in the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p]
and refers to Lord Viu. It means He slays (pramnti) the demons (daityas).
daitya-pram + s[u] (155) daitya-pram <1.1>.
daitya-pram + au (196) daitya-pramyau <1.2>.
daitya-pram + [j]as (196) daitya-pramyas (155) daitya-pramya
<1.3>.
In this connection, it will be described in stra 196 that since the word daityapram is a dhtu, its final vowel always becomes ya-rma when a sarvevara
follows. This example, which actually pertains to stra 196, is written here just to
show the difference in the declension of the words daitya-pram and vta-pram
(a kind of antelope).
daitya-pram + am (196) daitya-pramyam <2.1>.
daitya-pram + au (196) daitya-pramyau <2.2>.
daitya-pram + []as (196) daitya-pramyas (155) daitya-pramya
<2.3>.
daitya-pram + [] (196) daitya-pramy <3.1>.
daitya-pram + bhym daitya-prambhym <3.2>.
daitya-pram + bhis daitya-prambhis (155) daitya-prambhi
<3.3>.

daitya-pram + []e (196) daitya-pramye <4.1>.


daitya-pram + bhym daitya-prambhym <4.2>.
daitya-pram + bhis daitya-prambhis (155) daitya-prambhi
<4.3>.
daitya-pram + []as[i] (196) daitya-pramyas (155) daitya-pramya
<5.1>.
daitya-pram + bhym daitya-prambhym <5.2>.
daitya-pram + bhis daitya-prambhis (155) daitya-prambhi
<5.3>.
daitya-pram + []as (196) daitya-pramyas (155) daitya-pramya
<6.1>.
daitya-pram + os (196) daitya-pramyos (155) daitya-pramyo
<6.2>.
daitya-pram + m (196) daitya-pramym <6.3>.
daitya-pram + []i (196) daitya-pramyi <7.1>.
daitya-pram + os (196) daitya-pramyos (155) daitya-pramyo
<7.2>.
daitya-pram + su[p] (170) daitya-pramu <7.3>.
In the vocative case, the forms are the same as those of the first case.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
daityapram
daityapramyam
daityapramy
daityapramye
daityapramya
daityapramya
daitya-

dvi-vacana

bahu-vacana

daitya-pramyau

daitya-pramya

daitya-pramyau

daitya-pramya

daityaprambhym
daityaprambhym
daityaprambhym

daityaprambhi
daityaprambhya
daityaprambhya
daityapramym
daitya-pramu

daitya-pramyo
daitya-pramyo

sambodh
ana

pramyi
daityapram

daitya-pramyau

daitya-pramya

AmtaThe word dhtutvt (due to being a dhtu) refers to the fact that a
word whose kt pratyaya is deleted is considered both a nma and dhtu (see
vtti 195). The word atra here means daitya-pram-abde, and the phrase yarma eva vakyate refers to the stra sahajneka-sarvevarasya kvib-antasya
kevala-dhtv-akarasya sat-sagspayor d-tor ya-vau (196)
BlaThe words tasyaiva (tasya + eva) mean ya-rma-vidhna-strasyaiva (of
the stra ordaining ya-rma).
VttiSome say that since the word vta-pram ends in the pratyaya , it acts
differently when am, []as and []i follow. Thus vta-pram + am (156) vtapramm <2.1>. When trivikrama is made by davatrasya trivikramo asi (156),
in accordance with the maxim yvat sambhavas tvad vidhi (A rule is applied as
long as there is a possibility of its application), then s becomes n. Thus vtapram + []as (156) vta-prams (157) vta-pramn <2.3>. And, when []i
follows: vta-pram + []i (46) vta-pram <7.1>. Others say that words like
vta-pram and hh (name of a prominent gandharva) are optionally dhtus.
Thus they make vta-pramyam <2.1> or vta-pramm <2.1>, and hhvam
<2.1> or hhm <2.1>.
AmtaThe word vta-pram (a kind of antelope) is formed by applying the
u-di pratyaya after the dhtu m[] mne in the sense of vta pramimte (it
measures the wind (it moves with the speed of wind)). The word kecit here refers
to Pini and others. It should be known that the word vta-pram is a dhtu only
when it ends with [k]vi[p] and means one who acts like a vta-pram. The word
hh has no etymology. Just like the word vta-pram, the word hh is a dhtu
only when it ends with [k]vi[p] and means one who acts like Hh
BlaSomeone may say, What is the need for the word vta-pram to become
trivikrama when []as follows (as it is already ends in a trivikrama)? Jva
Gosvm answers that with the maxim beginning yvad. When the words vtapram and hh are considered dhtus, the forms vta-pramyam <2.1> and
hhvam <2.1> are made respectively.
SaodhinAlthough the words daitya-pram and vta-pram both end with
pram, they are actually derived from different dhtus. The pram in daityapram is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu m[]
hisym, while the pram in vta-pram is formed by applying the u-di
pratyaya after the dhtu m[] mne. Thus the difference in their meanings and
declension. To further elaborate on Amtas point, the words vta-pram and
hh become dhtus by the following process: [k]vi[p] is applied after the forms
vta-pramm <2.1> and hhm <2.1> by kvacit kyaa kvip (). Then antaragasvder mahhara eka-padatvrambhe () and kevalasya pratyaya ver hara () are
applied and we get the dhtus vta-pram and hh. After these dhtus the kt

pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied, then kevalasya pratyaya ver hara () is applied, and
we get the kdantas vta-pram and hh, after which the sv-dis can be applied.
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word viu, a word ending in u-rma.
The word viu is declined by the same hari-stras (stras 177-185).
viu + s[u] (155) viu <1.1>.
viu + au (178) viu + u (46) vi <1.2>.
viu + [j]as (181) vio + as (65) viavas (155) viava
<1.3>.
viu + am (156) vium <2.1>.
viu + au (178) viu + u (46) vi <2.2>.
viu + []as (156) viu + s (157) vis vin <2.3>.
viu + [] (182) viun <3.1>.
viu + bhym viubhym <3.2>.
viu + bhis (155) viubhi <3.3>.
viu + []e (181) vio + e (65) viave <4.1>.
viu + bhym viubhym <4.2>.
viu + bhyas (155) viubhya <4.3>.
viu + []as[i] (181) vio + as (183) vios (155) vio
<5.1>.
viu + bhym viubhym <5.2>.
viu + bhyas (155) viubhya <5.3>.
viu + []as (181) vio + as (183) vios (155) vio <6.1>.
viu + os (60) vivos (155) vivo <6.2>.
viu + m (167) viu + n[u] + m viu + nm (169)
vinm <6.3>.
viu + []i (184) viu + au[c] (185) viau <7.1>.

viu + os (60) vivos (155) vivo <7.2>.


viu + su[p] (170) viuu <7.3>.
viu + s[u] (181) vio + s[u] (172) vio <8.1>.

pratham
dvity

ekavacana
viu
vium

tty

viun

caturth

viave

pacam

vio

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

vio
viau

dvivacana
vi
vi
viubhy
m
viubhy
m
viubhy
m
vivo
vivo

vio

vi

case

bahuvacana
viava
vin
viubhi
viubhya

viubhya

vinm
viuu
viava

VttiAmara-koa says that the word tita-u is masculine and means a sieve
(clan). Since the word tita-u is formed by an u-di pratyaya without sandhi in
the prakti, there is no sandhi of the parts of the prakti. Thus we get tita-u
<1.1>, tita- <1.2>, tita-ava <1.3> and so on. Now we begin the declension of
the word ka-r (one who takes shelter of Ka.
ka-r + s[u] (155) ka-r <1.1>.
BlaSince the word tita-u is formed by an u-di pratyaya without the normal
sandhi in the prakti stage, there is no sandhi of the parts of the prakti, namely
a and u, even at the time of making a declined word (viupada).
SaodhinThe word tita-u is not a samsa as the hyphen may seem to
indicate. Rather it is one of the few words in the Sanskrit language that contain
two vowels side by side. The hyphen in tita-u, written in Devangar as itatao, is to
differentiate it from titau, written in Devangar as itataAE.
195 / DaAtaAer"IU"taAeir"yauvaAE s$avaeRre" ba"lama, /
195. dhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare bahulam

dhtoof a dhtu; t-to1of -rma and -rma; iy-uvauthe replacements


iy and uv; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; bahulamvariously applied
(see explanation below).2
The or of a dhtu changes to iy or uv when a viubhakti beginning
with a sarvevara follows. But this rule is bahula.
-rmasya iy, -rmasya uv. pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate. tata
sarvevardau viubhaktv ity artha. evam anyatrpi. etad-vidha-strasya
nma-prakarae pht lupta-kt-pratyayasya dhtutve pi nmatvam. tata
pratyay caka-riya. paratvd am-asor apika-riyam ity-di. bhve
kvipibh bhuvau bhuva. bhulyt na sarvatra. yathoktam
kvacit pravtti kvacid apravtti
kvacid vibh kvacid anyad eva
vidher vidhna bahudh samkya
catur-vidha bhulaka vadanti.
tena
Vtti-rma becomes iy, and -rma becomes uv. Pratyaya-varena tad-dir
ghyate (the pratyaya-vara (vara of a pratyaya) really refers to that which
begins with the pratyaya-vara). Thus the word sarvevare in this stra really
means sarvevardau viubhaktau (when a viubhakti beginning with a
sarvevara follows). Such is the case elsewhere also. Because this kind of stra is
listed in the Nma-prakaraa, it is inferred that even though a word whose kt
pratyaya has been deleted is a dhtu, it is also a nma, and therefore the sv-di
pratyayas are applied after it.
ka-r + [j]as (195) ka-riyas (155) ka-riya <1.3>.
Because this stra is a later stra than stra 156, it overrules stra 156, and thus,
when am and []as follow, we get ka-riyam <2.1> and so on.
ka-r + am (195) ka-riyam <2.1>.
ka-r + []as (195) ka-riyas (155) ka-riya <2.3>.
Similarly, when the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied in bhve prayoga, we get the
following forms:
bh + s[u] (155) bh <1.1>.
bh + au (195) bhuvau <1.2>.
1

The word t-to here is formed by the Pinian method of adding t to designate a single vara.
This was described in vtti 37.
2
Another, more literal, way of translating words like bahulam, bhulyena, and bhulyt is for the
most part, generally

bh + [j]as (195) bhuvas (155) bhuva <1.3>.


Because this rule is bahula, it is not always applied. As it is stated by the previous
authorities:
AmtaSomeone may argue, Why is this stra, which is in relation to dhtus,
put here in the Nma-prakaraa? And if words like ka-r and so on are dhtus
then how can the sv-di pratyayas be applied after them? To answer this doubt,
Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning etad-vidha. This sentence means
that the very creation of a stra like this indicates that a word whose kt pratyaya
has been deleted, that is to say a word ending in the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p], is both
a dhtu and a nma. Someone may further argue, Why wasnt davatrd amasor a-rma-hara (156) applied in ka-riyam <2.1> and ka-riya
<2.3>? In answer to this, Jva Gosvm says paratvt, meaning that, in
accordance with the maxim prva-parayo para-vidhir balavn (vtti 59), only the
change to iy takes place, blocking the deletion of a-rma (by stra 156). In the
phrase yathoktam the word prvcryai (by the previous authorities) has to be
supplied.
SaodhinRegarding Amtas comment that a word whose kt pratyaya has
been deleted is both a dhtu and a nma, it is not that only words ending in the
kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] fall into this category because the kt pratyayas []vi and vi
are also deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). Thus words ending in the kt
pratyayas []vi and vi are also both dhtus and nmas. Actually it will be
described in the Kdanta-prakaraa that all kdantas (words ending in a kt
pratyaya) are simultaneously both dhtus and nmas, but in the stras of the
Nma-prakaraa the word dhtu only refers to those words whose kt pratyaya
has been deleted, namely words ending in the kt pratyayas [k]vi[p], []vi, and vi.
Examples of each type of word are ka-r (see Saodhin below), ka-vh
(see Saodhin 291), and viva-p (see Amta 175) respectively. Dhtor d-tor
iy-uvau sarvevare bahulam (195) is applicable to the word ka-r because it
comes from the dhtu ri[] sevym (1U, to serve, worship, dwell, depend on).
When the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied to ka + ri[], the i of ri[] becomes
trivikrama by pracchdn trivikramo, na ca sakaraa () and [k]vi[p] is
deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). Thus we get the word ka-r.
Similarly, when the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied to the dhtu bh sattym (1P,
to be, become, exist), and then deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (), we
get the word bh (the act of existing, existence). This word bh is feminine and
it is in bhve prayoga because it is formed by the stra sampad-de kvip-kt
bhve lakmym (1656).
VttiSometimes the rule (vidhi) is applied, sometimes it is not applied,
sometimes it is optional, and sometimes something else is applied instead. Thus,
observing the rule (vidhna) to be variously applied, the previous authorities have
said that bhulaka (bahula) is of four kinds.
Therefore we get the following rule [which is an example of kvacid anyad eva
(sometimes something else is applied instead)]:

BlaThe words anyad eva mean aprvam vidhnam (a rule prescribing


something not prescribed before). The word bhulaka means bahula since
bhulaka is formed by applying the taddhita pratyaya ka after the word bahula in
the sense of the original word. The word prvcry (previous authorities) has
to be supplied here. The etymology of the word bahula is bahn arthn lti
dadtti bahulam (it is called bahula because it gives (lti) many (bahn)
meanings).
196 / s$ah"jaAnaek(s$avaeRr"sya i(bantasya
ke(valaDaAtvaar"s$ats$aAs$pa{"yaAer"IU"taAeyaRvaAE /
196. sahajneka-sarvevarasya kvib-antasya kevala-dhtv-akara-satsagspayor d-tor ya-vau
sahaja-aneka-sarvevarasyain which there is more than one (aneka) innate
(sahaja) sarvevara; kvip-antasyaof a word ending in the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p];
kevala-dhtu-akarabelonging exclusively (kevala) to the dhtus syllable
(akara); sat-saga-a-spayonot touched by the sat-saga; t-toof rma and -rma; ya-vauthe replacements ya-rma and va-rma.
The or of a word ending in [k]vi[p], in which there is more than one
innate sarvevara, become y and v respectively, provided they are not
connected with a sat-saga that belongs exclusively to the syllable of the
dhtu.
tatra kt-samseviva-n viva-nyau viva-nya ity-di. ah-bahutve
viva-nym
VttiIn that regard, when there is a kt-samsa (in this case the word viva-n
(leader of the universe)), we get viva-n, viva-nyau, viva-nya, and so on.
In the sixth case plural we get viva-nym.
viva-n + s[u] (155) viva-n <1.1>.
viva-n + au (196) viva-nyau <1.2>.
viva-n + [j]as (196) viva-nyas (155) viva-nya <1.3>.
viva-n + m (196) viva-nym <6.3>.
AmtaThe word sahajneka-sarvevarasya is a ptmbara-samsa meaning in
which there is more than one innate sarvevara. The word aspayo means
ayuktayo (not connected). Kt-samsas are formed by upendrory-di-vy-antjanta-prva-padni kdantena samasyante (). The previous grammarians divided
the kt-samsas into three sub-categories: The samsa of a kdanta with the

upendras or ry-dis is called gati-samsa, and the samsa of a kdanta with a


prva-pada is called kraka-samsa or upapada-samsa. In the Kdantaprakaraa, it will be explained how the kraka-samsa is actually included in the
category of upapada-samsa. An example of a gati-samsa is viva-n.1 An
example of a kraka-samsa is vka-bh, and an example of an upapada-samsa
is ka-seva.2 The paribh given for these types of samsas is gatikrakopapadn kdbhi saha samsa-vacana prk sub-utpatte (The samsa
of a gati, kraka, or upapada with a kt (kdanta) is done prior to the application
of the sv-dis). And therefore the samsa which is ordained right at the time of
applying the kt pratyaya after the dhtu is called a kt-smasa. But the
compound made after the sv-dis have been applied to the kdanta is not called a
kt-samsa. Therefore in the next vtti it is shown that, when there is pacdyoga, the quality of sahaja is lacking in samsas like viva-n and so on.
SaodhinEven though the term kt most properly refers to a kt pratyaya, it
is frequentely used by grammarians to refer to the nma formed by the
application of the kt pratyaya, namely the kdanta. The application of this stra
over stra 195 is an example of the fourth scenario described in the previous
vtti, namely kvacid anyad eva, which Bla glosses as kvacid aprva vidhnam.
197 / naIr"ADaAByaAM xe~r"Ama, /
197. n-rdhbhy er m
n-rdhbhymafter the word n and after a rdh (feminine nma ending in
[p]); eof the viubhakti []i; mthe replacement m.
After the word n or after a rdh, []i is replaced by m.
viva-nym viva-nyo viva-nu. eva praka dhyyatti kvipi niptt,
pradh pradhyau. kevala-kvib-ante mlyattiml mlyau. aumlyi.
sahajeti kim? pacd-yoge tu na syt. vivasya nviva-n viva-niyau vivaniya. mi au ca viva-niym. aneketi kim? n niyau niya. dhtv-akara-satsagspayor iti kim? ka-pr ka-priyau. ka-paa-pr ka-paapruvau. kevaleti kim? iha tu syd evaunn unnyau unnya.
Vtti viva-n + []i (197) viva-n + m (196) viva-nym <7.1>.
viva-n + os (196) viva-nyos (155) viva-nyo <7.2>.
viva-n + su[p] (170) viva-nu <7.3>.
1

Actually viva-n is not a gati-samsa, it is an upapada samsa formed by nmni sad-s-dviadruha-duha-yujlbhrtha-vida-bhida-chida-ji-n-rjibhya kvip (1472). In this regard, since the
kt-samsa viva-n means viva nayati (one who lead the universe), the word viva here is an
upapada which is a karma, it is not a gati. A valid example of a gati-samsa is pradh (see Amta
197). For further details regarding these different kinds of samsas, see Saodhin 1274.
2
These two samsas are analyzed as vkd bibheti (one who is afraid of a wolf) and ka
sevate (one who serves Ka) respectively.

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
viva-n
vivanyam

viva-nyau

bahuvacana
viva-nya

viva-nyau

viva-nya

vivanya
vivanya
vivanym

vivanbhym
vivanbhym
vivanbhym

vivanbhi
vivanbhya
vivanbhya

viva-nyo

viva-nym

viva-nyo

viva-nu

viva-n

viva-nyau

viva-nya

tty

viva-ny

caturth

viva-nye

pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

dvi-vacana

Similarly, when the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after pra + dhyai cintym (1P,
to think, meditate) and the nipta1 pradh, which means praka dhyyati
(one who thinks well), is made by stra, we get pradh <1.1>, pradhyau
<1.2> and so on. When there is only a word ending in [k]vi[p], as in the case of
the word ml, which means mlyati (one who wants a garland), we get ml
<1.1>, mlyau <1.2>, and so on. When the viubhakti []i is applied, we get
mlyi <7.1>. Why do we say sahaja? Because stra 196 is not applicable when
there is pacd-yoga (compounding (yoga) two words together after (pact) the
sv-dis have been applied). An example of pacd-yoga is the compounding of
vivasya + n to form viva-n. In this case stra 196 is not applied and we
instead get viva-n <1.1>, viva-niyau <1.2>, viva-niya <1.3>, and so on.
When the viubhaktis m and []i are applied, we get viva-niym <6.3> /
<7.1>.
Why do we say aneka? Consider n <1.1>, niyau <1.2>, niya <1.3>, and so
on. Why do we say dhtv-akara-sat-sagspayo? Consider ka-pr
<1.1>, ka-priyau <1.2>, and so on, and ka-paa-pr <1.1>, kapaa-pruvau <1.2>, and so on. Why do we say kevala? In the following cases
stra 196 should certainly be applied: unn <1.1>, unnyau <1.2>, unnya
<1.3> and so on.
AmtaThe word pradh is a gati-samsa. It will be described late that prdn
kriy-yoge gati-saj prcm (the previous grammarians called the
compounding of the upasargas headed by pra with a kriy (kdanta) gatisamsa). The word ml is derived from the dhtu mlya in the following way:
The pratyaya [k]ya[n] is applied after the form mlm <2.1> in the sense of
mlm icchati (he desires a garland). The stras antaraga-svder mahhara
1

See the definition of a nipta given in vtti 257.

eka-padatvrambhe () and a-dvayasya kyani () are then applied and we get


the dhtu mlya. When [k]vi[p] is applied after this dhtu, the stras a-rmaharo rma-dhtuke (511), ya-vayor haro vale (848), and kevalasya pratyaya-ver
hara () are applied and we end up with the wordml.
The reason why stra 196 is not applied when there is pacd-yoga is because the
samsa thus formed is not a kt-samsa. The truth in this regard is that a ktsamsa is formed prior to the application of the sv-dis, in accordance with the
paribh gati-krakopapadn kdbhi saha samsa-vacana prk subutpatte (see Amta 196). But in vivasya + n, n is compounded with the
sixth case word vivasya after the application of the sv-dis (since n is formed
first by n + s[u] before the compounding takes place). Thus there is not more
than one innate sarvevara in the word ending in [k]vi[p] (n). In unn, the is
not connected with a sat-saga exlusively belonging to the syllable of the dhtu.
Rather it is connected with a sat-saga that mutually belongs to the syllable of the
upendra (ud, which becomes un here by sandhi) and the syllable of the dhtu
(n). Therefore stra 196 certainly applies here.
SaodhinThere may be more than one sarvevara once the pacd-yoga has
taken place to form viva-n, a ah-tat-purua, which by extension ends in
[k]vi[p] because it ends in n, but the sarvevaras in viva are not innate in the
real word ending in [k]vi[p], namely n. Similarly, in vivasya + niyau, first there
is application of the svd au after the kdanta n and we get niyau by stra 195,
then there is pacd-yoga and we get viva-niyau <1.2>. To sum up the point, all
the sarvevaras of a kt-samsa are considered as innate in the kdanta because
the kt-samsa is formed before a sv-di is applied to the kdanta. But, when
there is pacd-yoga, all the sarvevaras of the samsa thus formed are not
considered as innate in the kdanta because a sv-di had already been applied to
the kdanta before making the samsa. In all the counterexamples above, when
stra 196 is not applied, stra 195 is applied by default.
The word ml, in the vtti, is an example of when the kdanta is not
compounded with a gati, kraka, or upapada. Still, because ml has more than
one innate sarvevara, stra 196 is applied. The counterexamples ka-pr
<1.1>, ka-priyau <1.2>, and so on are forms of the word ka-pr (one who
loves Ka), and the counterexamples ka-paa-p <1.1>, ka-paapruvau <1.2>, and so on are forms of the word ka-paa-pr (one who weaves
black cloth).
198 / s$auDaIBauvaAeir"yauvaAvaeva /
198. sudh-bhuvor iy-uvv eva
sudh-bhuvoof the words sudh and bh; iy-uvauthe replacements iy and
uv; evaonly.

The and of the words su-dh and bh1 only become iy and uv
respectively.
suhu dhyyatti kvipi niptantsudh sudhiyau sudhiya. ka-bh
ka-bhuvau ka-bhuva.
VttiWhen the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after su + dhyai cintym (1P,
to think, meditate) and the nipta2 sudh, which means suhu dhyyati (one
who thinks best), is made by stra, we get sudh <1.1>, sudhiyau <1.2>,
sudhiya <1.3>, and so on.
sudh + s[u] (155) sudh <1.1>.
sudh + au (198) sudhiyau <1.2>.
sudh + [j]as (198) sudhiyas (155) sudhiya <1.3>.
ka-bh + s[u] (155) ka-bh <1.1>.
ka-bh + au (198) ka-bhuvau <1.2>.
ka-bh + [j]as (198) ka-bhuvas (155) ka-bhuva <1.3>.
AmtaThe word eva in this stra implies the following restriction: prva-strea
na tu ya-vau (but the words sudh and bh dont become y and v respectively by
stra 196)
SaodhinAccording to Amta 238, the word ka-bh means the place
where Ka takes birth.
199 / vaSaARpauna{R"nk(r"k(Ar"k(Ar"AByaAe BauvaAe va Wva /
199. var-punar-dn-kara-kra-krbhyo bhuvo va eva
var-punar-dn-kara-kra-krbhyaafter the words var (the rainy
season), punar (again), dn (to kill), kara (hand), kra (hand), and kr
(a prison); bhuvaof the word bh; vathe replacement va-rma; evaonly.
When the word bh comes after the words var, punar, dn, kara, kra,
or kr, its 3 only becomes v.
kara eva kra, so pi ghyate iti vistard ubhayor updnam. var-bh
var-bhvau var-bhva. dn-bh dnbhvau. eva khalap-prabhtaya.
1
2
3

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).
See the definition of a nipta given in vtti 257.
In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

ka sukhyatti, ka-skh ka-sukhyau ka-sukhya. anantyatti


anant anantyau anantya. khya-tybhym iti trivikrama-grahat asi-asor us
ka-sukhyu anantyu. na-rmdeasya ta-rma-sthni-vattvtlnyu.
ka-sukhya ity-dy eke.
atha -rmnt. tatra pit-abda. -rma-sakhibhym ity-di pit.
VttiBoth the words kara and kra are included here as Vardhamna Miras
Ktantra-vistara says kara eva kra, so pi ghyate (kara is the same thing as
kra. So kara is also included).
var-bh + s[u] (155) var-bh <1.1>.
var-bh+ au (199) var-bhvau <1.2>.
var-bh + [j]as (199) var-bhvas (155) var-bhva <1.3>.
dn-bh + s[u] (155) dn-bh <1.1>.
dn + au (199) dn-bhvau <1.2>.
Words like khala-p (sweeper) follow the same pattern. The word ka-sukh
means ka sukhyati (one who desires Kas pleasure).
ka-sukh + s[u] (155) ka-sukh <1.1>.
ka-sukh + au (196) ka-sukhyau <1.2>.
ka-sukh + [j]as (196) ka-sukhyas (155) ka-sukhya
<1.3>.
The word anant means anantyati (one who desires Ananta).
anant + s[u] (155) anant <1.1>.
anant + au (1961) anantyau <1.2>.
anant + [j]as (196) anantyas (155) anantya <1.3>.
Because of the inclusion of the trivikramas (kh and t) in the stra beginning
khya-tybhym (193), []as[i] and []as are replaced by us.
1

Even though, technically, in the word anant, which ends in [k]vi[p], the is connected with a
kevala-dhtv-akara-sat-saga, somehow stra 196 must still be applied here as Jva Gosvm has
listed the forms as anantyau <1.2> and anantya <1.3>. The only other way to accomplish these
forms would be to say that stra 195 also doesnt apply by the second case scenario of the word
bahula, kvacid apravtti, and thus stra 59 is applied instead. But this is a little far-fetched.

ka-sukh + []as[i] (193) ka-sukh + us (196) ka-sukhyus


(155)
ka-sukhyu <5.1>.
ka-sukh + []as (193) ka-sukh + us (196) ka-sukhyus
(155)
ka-sukhyu <6.1>.
anant + []as[i] (193) anant + us (196) anantyus (155)
anantyu <5.1>.
anant + []as (193) anant + us (196) anantyus (155) anantyu
<6.1>.
Because the dea, na-rma, is considered like the original, ta-rma, we also get
lnyu <5.1> / <6.1>:
lni + []as[i] (193) ln + us (196) lnyus (155) lnyu <5.1>.
lni + []as (193) ln + us (196) lnyus (155) lnyu <6.1>.
Some say the forms should be ka-sukhya and so on (instead of kasukhyu and so on). Now be begin the declension of words ending in -rma.
Among the words in -rma is the word pit (father). By the stras -rmasakhibhym (188) and so on we get pit <1.1>.
pit + s[u] (188) pit + [c] (185) pit <1.1>.
AmtaThe word eva in this stra implies the following restriction: prva-strea
na tv (but the word bh doesnt become uv by stra 198). The word var-bh
(literally: born in the rainy season) means a frog or the indragopa insect. The
word punar-bh (literally: born again) means remarriage (MW says it means a
virgin widow remarried). The word dn-bh (literally: born to kill) means a
snake or thunderbolt. The words kara-bh and kra-bh (literally: produced from
the hands) mean a fingernail. And the word kr-bh (literally born in prison)
means Vsudeva, Lord r Ka, because He took birth in the prison house of
Kasa.
The word ka-sukh is derived from the dhtu ka-sukhya in the following
way: The pratyaya [k]ya[n] is applied after the form ka-sukham <2.1> in the
sense of ka-sukham icchati. The stras antaraga-svder mahhara ekapadatvrambhe () and a-dvayasya kyani () are then applied and we get the
dhtu ka-sukhya. When [k]vi[p] is applied after this dhtu, the stras a-rmaharo rma-dhtuke (511), ya-vayor haro vale (848), and kevalasya pratyaya-ver
hara () are applied and we end up with the word ka-sukh. (The word anant
is formed in the same way).
The form lnyu <5.1> / <6.1> is made by the following steps: First the kt
pratyaya [k]ta is applied after the dhtu l[] chedane (9U, to cut, destroy).

Then, by the stra beginning harimitra-yuk (), the t of [k]ta is replaced by n, and
we get the word lna (chopped off). Then [k]ya[n] is applied after the form
lnam <2.1> in the sense of lnam icchati (one who desires something that is
chopped off), and the stras antaraga-svder mahhara eka-padatvrambhe ()
and a-dvayasya kyani () are also applied. Thus we get the dhtu lnya. When
[k]vi[p] is applied after this dhtu, the stras a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (511),
ya-vayor haro vale (848), and kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara () areapplied and we
end up with the word ln. When []as[i] or []as is applied after the word ln, the
n of ln is considered like the original t of k[ta] by the maxim dea sthni-vad
kvacit (sometimes the replacement is considered like the original). Thus ln is
considered as if it were lt and the stra khya-tybhy asi-asor us (193) is
applied. Thus ends the declension of the words ending in -rma and -rma.
200 / [%r"Amasya gAAeivand": paANx"vaeSau x~AE ca /
200. -rmasya govinda paveu au ca
-rmasyaof -rma; govindagovinda; paveuwhen the pavas
follows; auwhen the viubhakti []i follows; caand.
-rma takes govinda when the pavas or []i follows.
pitarau pitara. pitaram pitarau pitn. pitr pitbhym pitbhi. pitre pitbhym
pitbhya.
Vtti pit + au (200) pitarau <1.2>.
pit + [j]as (200) pitaras (155) pitara <1.3>.
pit + am (200) pitaram <2.1>.
pit + au (200) pitarau <2.2>.
pit + []as (156) pit + s (157) pits pitn <2.3>.
pit + [] (61) pitr <3.1>.
pit + bhym pitbhym <3.2>.
pit + bhis (155) pitbhi <3.3>.
pit + []e (61) pitre <4.1>.
pit + bhym pitbhym <4.2>.

pit + bhyas (155) pitbhya <4.3>.


201 / [%r"AmataAe x~is$ax~s$aAer"sya oca, /
201. -rmato asi-asor asya uc
-rmataafter -rma; asi-asoof the viubhaktis []as[i] and []as; asya
of the a-rma; ucthe replacement u[c].
After -rma, the a of []as[i] and []as is replaced by u[c].
pitu pitbhym pitbhya. pitu pitro pitm. pitari pitro pitu. buddhe
govinda,
Vtti pit + []as[i] (201) pit + u[c] + s (185) pitus (155) pitu
<5.1>.
pit + bhym pitbhym <5.2>.
pit + bhyas (155) pitbhya <5.3>.
pit + []as (201) pit + u[c] + s (185) pitus (155) pitu <6.1>.
pit + os (61) pitros (155) pitro <6.2>.
pit + m (167) pit + n[u] + m pit + nm (169) pitnm
(173) pitm
<6.3>.
pit + []i (200) pitari <7.1>.
pit + os (61) pitros (155) pitro <7.2>.
pit + su[p] pitsu (170) pitu <7.3>.
When buddha follows, the word pit takes govinda.
BlaThe words -rmasyety-din (by the stra beginning -rmasya (200))
have to be supplied in the phrase buddhe govinda.
AmtaThe inclusion of the phrase buddhe govinda which is a representation of
the stra -rmasya govinda paveu au ca (200), is for jogging the memory.
SaodhinAll the printed editions of Hari-nmmta, except the Kadsa
edition, which is based on Amta, lists the phrase buddhe govinda as a separate
stra. However this is unnecessary as words ending in -rma already undergo

govinda when buddha follows by stra 200, as there was no prohibition, like
buddha vin, given to stop this.
202 / r"ADaAivaSNAujanaAByaAmaIpa iaiva(maAts$aAehR"r": /
202. rdh-viujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor hara
rdh-viujanbhymafter a rdh (feminine nma ending in [p]) or a
viujana; paafter a word ending in the taddhita pratyaya [p]; caand;
trivikramttrivikrama; soof the viubhakti s[u]; haradeletion.
S[u] is deleted when it comes after a rdh, a viujana, or a word
ending in an [p] which is trivikrama.
he pita. eva jmt-prabhtaya. n-abda, n narau nara. naram narau
nn. nr nbhym nbhi. n-abdasya tu vnm nm. kart-abdasya
bheda. kart
Vtti pit + s[u] (200) pitar + s[u] (202) pitar (155) pita <8.1>.

tty

pitr

caturth

pitre

pacam

pitu

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

pitu
pitari

dvivacana
pitarau
pitarau
pitbhy
m
pitbhy
m
pitbhy
m
pitro
pitro

pita

pitarau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
pit
pitaram

bahuvacana
pitara
pitn
pitbhi
pitbhya
pitbhya
pitm
pitu
pitara

The words jmt (son-in-law) and so on follow the same pattern. Now we begin
the declension of the word n (a man):
n + s[u] (188) n + [c] (185) n <1.1>.
n + au (200) narau <1.2>.
n + [j]as (200) naras (155) nara <1.3>.
n + am (200) naram <2.1>.

n + au (200) narau <2.2>.


n + []as (156) n + s (157) ns nn <2.3>.
n + [] (61) nr <3.1>.
n + bhym nbhym <3.2>.
n + bhis (155) nbhi <3.3>.
n + m (167) n + n[u] + m n + nm (169) nnm or
nnm (173) nm <6.3> or nm <6.3>.
ekavacana
n
naram
nr
nre
nu

dvivacana
narau
narau
nbhym
nbhym
nbhym

ah

nu

nro

saptam
sambodh
ana

nari

nro

bahuvacana
nara
nn
nbhi
nbhya
nbhya
nm /
nm
nu

na

narau

nara

case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam

The declension of the word kart (doer) is different.


kart + s[u] (188) kart + [c] (185) kart <1.1>.
AmtaThe word pa (after the taddhita pratyaya [p]) really means bantt (after a word ending in the taddhita pratyaya [p]), and the word
trivikramt is an adjective modifying the word pa. Because of the word
trivikramt, s[u] is not deleted when it comes after a word ending in an [p] which
is vmana. Examples of this are ati-stri (he who surpasses a woman) <1.1>
and so on.
BlaThe word kart is different in that it takes vndra when any pava
except s[u] follows (in accordance with the following stra).
SaodhinWhen feminine words ending in the taddhita pratyaya [p] are
used in the masculine gender as in the case of ati-stri and so on, the of [p]
becomes vmana by gor pa pa a cntasypradhnasya vmana (). In such
cases, even though s[u] comes after a word ending in [p], it is not deleted
because the [p] is not a trivikrama [p].

203 / svas$a{ta{lta{natyayaAntaAnaAM va{SNAIn": s$auvaja< paANx"vaeSau


/
203. svas-tl-tn-pratyayntn vndra su-varja paveu
svasof the word svas (sister); tl-tn-pratyayntnmand of words ending
in the kt pratyayas t[l] and t[n]; vndravndra; su-varjamexcept
the viubhakti s[u]; paveuwhen the pavas follow.
Both the word svas and words ending in the kt pratyayas t[l] or t[n]
undergo vndra when any pava except s[u] follows.
kartrau kartra. kartram kartrau. yaduu pit-vat. he karta. lele
lerau lera. leram lerau. harimitrdir evyam. harivev-dis tv
apapha.
le-tva-t-abdnts tl-tnn-ant budhair mat.
pit-mt-bhrt-yt-jmt-duhitr vin.
Vtti kart + au (203) kartrau <1.2>.
kart + [j]as (203) kartras (155) kartra <1.3>.
kart + am (203) kartram <2.1>.
kart + au (203) kartrau <2.2>.
The word kart follows the same pattern as the word pit when the yadus follow.
kart + s[u] (200) kartar + s[u] (202) kartar (155) karta <8.1>.

tty

kartr

caturth

kartre

pacam

kartu

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

kartu
kartari

dvivacana
kartrau
kartrau
kartbhy
m
kartbhy
m
kartbhy
m
kartro
kartro

karta

kartrau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
kart
kartram

Now we begin the declension of the word le.

bahuvacana
kartra
kartn
kartbhi
kartbhya
kartbhya
kartm
kartu
kartra

le + s[u] (188) le + [c] (185) le <1.1>.


le + au (203) lerau <1.2>.
le + [j]as (203) leras (155) lera <1.3>.
le + am (203) leram <2.1>.
le + au (203) lerau <2.2>.
This word (le) actually begins with a harimitra. The word beginning with a
hariveu (ne) is an incorrect reading.
AmtaThe word su-varjam really means buddha-varjam (since in other cases
s[u] becomes [c] by stra 188). The word svas is mentioned separately as it
doesnt end in t[l] or t[n]. Even though there is no difference in the forms of
words ending in t[l] or t[n], still, because these words are used differently, they
are mentioned separately in this stra. The object syntactically connected with
t[l] takes ah, while the object syntactically connected with t[n] takes
dvitya. This will become clear in the Kraka-prakaraa. The word harimitrdi
means la-rmdi (beginning with la-rma), and the word harivev-di means
ta-vargntdi (beginning with the final vara of ta-varga, namely na-rma).
SaodhinDespite my best efforts I am unable to find a source for Jva
Gosvms claim that the word ne is an incorrect reading and that the word
le is the correct reading. I have scoured the Adhyy, Siddhnta-kaumud,
Mah-bhya, and Kik, as well as the Supadma, Sakipta-sra, Mugdhabodha, Ktantra, Srasvata, and Prakriy-kaumud grammars and their
commentaries, and they all list the word as ne. Indeed, the word le is not
to be found anywhere, neither in such all-inclusive dictionaries as abda-kalpadruma and Vcaspatyam nor in the word indexes for the Vedas and Upaniads. On
the contrary, however, the word ne can be found in all these places. For
example, in Pinis stra ap-tn-tc-svas-napt-ne-tva-kit-hot-potprastm (Adhyy 6.4.11), which is equivalent to the current stra, the
word is listed as ne. Furthermore, Ktyyanas Vrttika for Adhyy
3.2.135 confirms this by supplying the etymology of the word ne as follows:
nayate uk ca (the kt pratyaya t[n] is applied after the dhtu [] prpae
(1U, to lead) and the gama [uk] is inserted. Thus we get the word ne).
Finally its usage can be seen in the following example wherein it appears in the
vocative singular form nea: abhiyaja ghi no gnvo nea piba tun
(g-veda 1.15.3). Thus, even if the word was originally supposed to be le and
not ne, the reading ne is now so firmly established that le is nowhere
to be found. Thus students are recommended to treat the word as ne (the
priest, in a soma sacrifice, who leads forward the wife of the sacrificer and
prepares the sur).

VttiThe words le (ne) and tva (chariot-maker or name of


Vivakarma, the engineer of the demigods, or name of the father of Viva-rpa)
and words ending with t, except the words pit (father), mt (mother),
bhrt (brother), yt (husbands brothers wife), jmt (son-in-law), and
duhit (daughter), are considered by learned persons as ending in t[l] or t[n].
204 / (Ae]"zAbd"sya paANx"vaeSau ta{latyayaAntasyaEva &paM , bauM"
ivanaA , q%Aid"s$avaeRre" tau ivak(lpa: /
204. krou-abdasya paveu tl-pratyayntasyaiva rpa, buddha vin,
di-sarvevare tu vikalpa
krou-abdasyathe word krou (jackal); paveuwhen the pavas
follow; tl-pratyaya-antasyaof a word ending in the kt pratyaya t[l]; eva
only; rpamform; buddhambuddha; vinexcept; -di-sarvevarewhen
any viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara1, from [] onwards, follows; tubut;
vikalpaoptionally.
The word krou takes the form of a word ending in the kt pratyaya
t[l] when any pava except buddha follows. But it does so optionally
when any viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara, from [] onwards,
follows.
kro krorau krora. kroram krorau kron. kror kroun
kroubhym kroubhi. krore kroave ity-di. kte py akte ya syt sa
nitya, nityasya balavattvt prva tv mi nu eva, kronm. krom ity
eke. he kroo. lakmy tu kror. ai-rmnta ka-rai-abda
Vtti krou + s[u] (204) kro + s[u] (188) kro + [c] (185)
kro <1.1>.
krou + s[u] (204) kro + au (203) krorau <1.2>.
krou + s[u] (204) kro + [j]as (203) kroras (155)
krora <1.3>.
krou + s[u] (204) kro + am (203) kroram <2.1>.
krou + s[u] (204) kro + au (203) krorau <2.2>.
krou + []as (156) krou + s (157) kros kron <2.3>.
krou + [] (two options by 204):
1) (krou becomes kro) kro + [] (61) kror <3.1>.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 195).

2) (krou doesnt become kro, 182) kroun <3.1>.


krou + bhym kroubhym <3.2>.
krou + bhis (155) kroubhi <3.3>.
krou + []e (two options by 204):
1) (krou becomes kro) kro + []e (61) krore <4.1>.
2) (krou doesnt become kro, 181) kroo + e (65) kroave
<4.1>.
Something that is applied both when the other thing is applied and when the
other rule is not applied is called nitya (constant). Because the constant thing is
stronger (by nitynityayor nitya (vtti 59)), when m follows, n[u] is certainly
applied before the word krou can take the form of a word ending in the kt
pratyaya t[l], thus we get kronm <6.3>. Some, however, list the form as
krom.
krou + m (167) krou + n[u] + m krou + nm (169)
kronm <6.3>.
krou + s[u] (181) kroo + s[u] (172) kroo <8.1>.
case

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

pratham
dvity

kro
kroram
kror /
kroun
krore /
kroave
krou /
kroo
krou /
kroo
kroari /
kroau

krorau
krorau

bahuvacana
krora
kron

kroubhym

kroubhi

tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

kroo

kroubhym
kroubhym
kroro /
krovo
kroro /
krovo
krorau

kroubhy
a
kroubhy
a
krom
krouu
krora

But, in the feminine gender, the word krou becomes kror. Now we begin the
declension of the word ka-rai (the opulence of Ka), a word ending in airma.
AmtaSomeone may argue, In the case that the word krou takes the form of
a word ending in the kt pratyaya t[l], the form should be krom <6.3>. In
answer to that, Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning kte pi. Even if the

word krou took the form of a word ending in the kt pratyaya t[l], the gama
n[u] would still be applied by stra 167. Therefore n[u] is stronger because it is
nitya. Thus the meaning is that the change to -rma (in krou kro) cannot
take place as there is no sarvevara following, since n[u] is applied prior to this
change. Thus ends the declension of words ending in -rma.
Now we begin the declension of words ending in -rma. When there is imitation
of the dhtus k, t, and so on, by the atidea prakti-vad anukaraam (the
imitative word is like the original) the forms are as follows:
k + s[u] (155) k <1.1>.
k + au (61) krau <1.2>.
k + [j]as (61) kras (155) kra <1.3>.
k + am (156) km <2.1>.
k + au (61) krau <2.2>.
k + []as (156) ks (157) kn <2.3>.
k + [] (61) kr <3.1>.
k + []e (61) kre <4.1>.
Now we begin the declension of words ending in -rma. When there is imitation
of the dhtus gam[] and ak[], the forms are as follows and so on:
gam + s[u] (155) gam <1.1>.
gam + au (62) gamlau <1.2>.
gam + [j]as (62) gamlas (155) gamla <1.3>.
gam + am (156) gamm <2.1>.
gam + au (62) gamlau <2.2>.
gam + []as (156) gams (157) gam n <2.3>.
gam + [] (62) gaml <3.1>.
gam + []e (62) gamle <4.1>.

Now we begin the declension of words ending in e-rma. When the kt pratyaya
[k]vi[p] is applied after the dhtus dev[] and sev[], the forms are as follows and
so on:
de + s[u] (155) de <1.1>.
de + au (63) dayau <1.2>.
de + [j]as (63) dayas (155) daya <1.3>.
de + []as[i] (183) des (155) de <5.1>.
de + []as (183) des (155) de <6.1>.
SaodhinIn this way Amta supplies the missing declensions. Apart from the
monosyllabic word , there are no words ending in -rma, thus that declension
is not shown. Generally -rma only occurs when -rma becomes trivikrama.
205 / r"Aya @A s$aBaAe: /
205. rya sa-bho
ryaof the word rai (opulence); the replacement -rma; sa-bhowhen
sa-rma or bha-rma follows.
The ai of the word rai1 becomes -rma when any viubhakti beginning
with sa-rma or bha-rma follows2.
ka-r ka-ryau ka-rya. ka-ryam ity-di. eva rai-abda ca.
nehataddhite raitvam, kyani raiyati, pinye pi ryo hali ity atra
viubhakty-anuvtte. o-rmnto go-abdo balvarddiu pu-liga
Vtti ka-rai + s[u] (205) ka-rs (155) ka-r <1.1>.
ka-rai + au (64) ka-ryau <1.2>.
ka-rai + [j]as (64) ka-ryas (155) ka-rya <1.3>.
ka-rai + am (64) ka-ryam <2.1>.
case
pratham
1

ekavacana
ka-r

dvi-vacana
ka-ryau

bahuvacana
ka-

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).
In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 195).

dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

karyam
kary
karye
karya
karya
ka-ryi
ka-r

ka-ryau
karbhym
karbhym
karbhym
ka-ryo
ka-ryo
ka-ryau

rya
karya
karbhi
karbhya
karbhya
karym
ka-rsu
karya

The word rai is declined in the same way. But this rule doesnt apply when the
taddhita pratyaya tva is applied to form the word raitvam, nor when [k]ya[n] is
applied to form raiyati. This is the case in Pinis grammar also, because the
word vibhaktau is carried forward in the stra ryo hali1 (Adhyy 7.2.85).
Now we begin the declension of the word go, a word ending in o-rma declined in
the masculine gender when referring to a bull (balvarda2) and so on.3
AmtaBy showing the opinion of the previous authority with the sentence
pinye pi, Jva Gosvm strengthen his own opinion. Because viubhakti is
carried forward, the word hali in Pinis stra means when a viubhakti
beginning with a viujana follows. Thus only sa-rma and bha-rma can follow,
since there are no viubhaktis (sv-dis) that begin with any other viujana.
(Therefore Jva Gosvm says sa-bho in his stra).
206 / @Ae @AE paANx"vaeSau /
206. o au paveu
oof o-rma; authe replacement au-rma; paveuwhen the pavas
follow.
O-rma becomes au-rma when the pavas follow.
gau gvau gva.
Vtti go + s[u] (206) gaus (155) gau <1.1>.
go + au (206) gau + au (66) gvau <1.2>.
1

Thus the stra means the ai of theword rai becomes when a vibhakti (viubhakti) beginning
with a hal (viujana) follows.
2
Also spelled balivarda.
3
The extra meanings covered by the words and so on here are described in Amta 1582.

go + [j]as (206) gau + as (66) gvas (155) gva <1.3>.


207 / @Ae @A @mzAs$aAer," , na ca s$aAe na: /
207. o am-asor, na ca so na
oof o-rma; the replacement -rma; am-asowhen the viubhaktis am
and []as follow; nanot; caand; sasa-rma; nana-rma.
O-rma becomes -rma when am or []as follows, and the s of []as
doesnt become n.
anyath vta-pramn iti-vat g ity atra so na syt. gm gvau g. gav
gobhym gobhi. gave gobhym gobhya. e-obhy asi asor ity-din a-rmaharago gobhym gobhya. go gavo gavm ity-di. sarva-vidhibhyo haro,
hart sarvevardeo balavn. antaragety-di ca vidhna-smarthyt na sor
harahe gau. au-rmnto glau-abdaglau glvau glva ity-di. iti
sarvevarnt puruottama-lig.
VttiOtherwise, after making g, the s of []as would become n, as was done in
the case of vta-pramn <2.3> (see vtti 194).
go + am (207) g + am (156) gm <2.1>.
go + au (206) gau + au (66) gvau <2.2>.
go + []as (207) g + as (156) gs (155) g <2.3>.
go + [] (65) gav <3.1>.
go + bhym gobhym <3.2>.
go + bhis (155) gobhi <3.3>.
go + []e (65) gave <4.1>.
go + bhym gobhym <4.2>.
go + bhyas (155) gobhya <4.3>.
go + []as[i] (183) gos (155) go <5.1>.
go + bhym gobhym <5.2>.

go + bhyas (155) gobhya <5.3>.


go + []as (183) gos (155) go <6.1>.
go + os (65) gavos (155) gavo <6.2>.
go + m (65) gavm <6.3>.
Sarva-vidhibhyo haro, hart sarvevardeo balavn (a hara is stronger than all
the rules (vidhis), but the substitution of a sarvevara is stronger than a hara).
Because of this paribh and also because of the paribh antaragabahiragayor antaraga-vidhir balavn (vtti 59), the viubhakti s[u] is not
deleted by stra 172 in the vocative case
go + s[u] (206) gaus (155) gau <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

ekavacana
gau
gm
gav
gave
go
go
gavi

dvivacana
gvau
gvau
gobhym
gobhym
gobhym
gavo
gavo

bahuvacana
gva
g
gobhi
gobhya
gobhya
gavm
gou

gau

gvau

gva

Now we begin the declension of the word glau (the moon), a word ending in aurma.
glau + s[u] (155) glau <1.1>.
glau + au (66) glvau <1.2>.
glau + [j]as (66) glvas (155) glva <1.3>.
Thus ends the declension of masculine words ending in a sarvevara.
AmtaThe word anyath here means without the prohibition na ca so na.
Thus the implied meaning is that without the prohibition na ca so na, after the
trivikrama is made (by stra 157) in accordance with the maxim yvat
sambhavas tvad vidhi (vtti 194), the s of []as would become n.
O au paveu (206) is an antaraga rule because it applies to the prakti.
However, e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (172) is a bahiraga rule because
it applies to the pratyaya.

Thus, by the paribh antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga-vidhir balavn (vtti 59),


stra 206 is applied instead of stra 172 and thus the viubhakti s[u] is not
deleted.

Atha sarvevarnt lakm-lig


Now we begin the declension of feminine words ending in a sarvevara.
208 / taaAbantalamaI r"ADaAs$aMaA /
208. tatrb-anta-lakm rdh-saj
tatraamong the feminine words ending in a sarvevara; p-anta-lakma
feminine word ending in [p]; rdh-sajcalled rdh.
Among the feminine words ending in a sarvevara, a feminine word
ending in [p] is called rdh.
raddh-saj ca. tatra rdh-abda. rdh-viujanbhym itirdh.
VttiThe ancients called it raddh. Among the rdhs (feminine words ending
in [p]) is the word rdh. By applying rdh-viujanbhym pa ca
trivikramt sor hara (202) we get rdh <1.1>.
rdh + s[u] (202) rdh <1.1>.
AmtaThe etymology of the word rdh is as follows: rdhayati sarvath
prayati ka-vchm iti rdh (Rdh is so named because she completely
fulfills (rdhayati) Kas desires).
SaodhinThe [p] mentioned here can refer to the taddhita pratyaya [p]
(see stra), the kt pratyaya [][p] (see stra), or the gama [p] (see stra
215). It can also refer to the [p] which is part of the taddhita pratyaya t[p] (see
stra) or to the [p] which is part of the gama sy[p] (see stra 358), and thus
words which end in the taddhita pratyaya t[p] like sdhut (saintliness) and
words which end in the gama sy[p] like sarvasy are also rdhs. The difference
though is that words which end in the gamas [p] and sy[p] are only lkaika
rdhs, and thus it will be explained in vtti 215 how such words dont follow
stra 211 but only follow stra 197. The word rdh is formed in the following
way: First the kt pratyaya a[t] is applied after the dhtu rdh[a] sasiddhau (4P
or 5P, to succeed, accomplish) by pac-der at () to form the word rdha. Then
the taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied after rdha by kd p () and the a of
rdha is deleted by a-i-dvayasya hara (). Thus we get the feminine word rdh.
209 / r"ADaAaByaAmaAE wR /

209. rdh-brahmabhym au
rdh-brahmabhymafter a rdh or brahma (neuter word); auof the
viubhakti au; the replacement .
After a rdh or brahma, au is replaced by .
a-dvayam i-dvaye erdhe rdh. rdhm rdhe rdh.
VttiA-dvayam i-dvaye e (48) is then applied, and we get rdhe <1.2>:
rdh + au (209) rdh + (48) rdhe <1.2>.
rdh + [j]as (46) rdhs (155) rdh <1.3>.
rdh + am (156) rdh + m rdhm <2.1>.
rdh + au (209) rdh + (48) rdhe <2.2>.
rdh + []as (156) rdh + s (155) rdh <2.3>.
AmtaEven though the benefit of ordaining the trivikrama (instead of the
vmana i) is not seen here, in rdhe <1.2>, it will be seen in dadhin <1.2>,
madhun <1.2>, and so on.
SaodhinAu is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the
strength of the stra (see vtti 159). Usually the form would be va. Similarly, e
in the next stra is a word whose pratham viubhakti has been deleted on the
strength of the stra. Usually the form would be e.
210 / r"ADaAyaA W q%AEs$aAebauRe" ca /
210. rdhy e ausor buddhe ca
rdhyof a rdh; ethe replacement e-rma; -osowhen the
viubhaktis [] and os follow; buddhewhen buddha follows; caand.
The final of a rdh1 becomes e when [], os or buddha follows.
e ayrdhay rdhbhym rdhbhi.
VttiE ay (63) is then applied, and we get rdhay <3.1>:
rdh + [] (210) rdhe + [] (63) rdhay <3.1>.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

rdh + bhym rdhbhym <3.2>.


rdh + bhis (155) rdhbhi <3.3>.
211 / r"ADaAtaAe yaApva{iSNASau /
211. rdhto yp viu
rdhtaafter a rdh; ypthe gama y[p]; viuwhen the vis follow.
When the vis follow, y[p] is inserted after a rdh.
e-dvaye airdhyai rdhbhym rdhbhya. rdhy rdhbhym
rdhbhya. rdhy rdhayo rdhnm. er m, lkaika-pratipadoktayo
pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam iti na nurdhym rdhayo rdhsu.
sambodhaneprakty-rita, praktv api prva-prvam antaraga, prakter
bahir-rita bahiraga, sv-alpritam antaraga, bahv-rita bahiragam.
antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga-vidhir balavn iti nyyena prathamam etve
kte e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam iti he rdhe. eva ram-rmraddh-mldaya, ambdaya ca. lakm-grahan neha rdh-saj, samse
vmano vakyatepriya-rdhya kya.
VttiE-dvaye ai (55) is then applied, and we get rdhyai <4.1>:
rdh + []e (211) rdh + y[p] + []e (55) rdhyai <4.1>.
rdh + bhym rdhbhym <4.2>.
rdh + bhyas (155) rdhbhya <4.3>.
rdh + []as[i] (211) rdh + y[p] + []as[i] (46) rdhy <5.1>.
rdh + bhym rdhbhym <5.2>.
rdh + bhyas (155) rdhbhya <5.3>.
rdh + []as (211) rdh + y[p] + []as (46) rdhy <6.1>.
rdh + os (210) rdhe + os (63) rdhayos (155) rdhayo
<6.2>.
rdh + m (167) rdh + n[u] + m rdhnm <6.3>.

[]i is replaced by m by stra 197, but n[u] is not inserted in accordance with
the maxim lkaika-pratipadoktayo pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam (vtti 70).
rdh + []i (211) rdh + y[p] + []i (197) rdhy + m (46)
rdhym <7.1>.
rdh + os (210) rdhe + os (63) rdhayos (155) rdhayo
<7.2>.
rdh + su[p] rdhsu <7.3>.
In the vocative case, when the change to e-rma (by stra 210) is done in
accordance with the following nyya, e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (172)
is applied and we get he rdhe <8.1>: prakty-rita praktv api prva-prvam
antaraga, prakter bahir-rita bahiraga, sv-alpritam antaraga, bahvrita bahiragam. antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga-vidhir balavn (A rule that
applies to the prakti is called antaraga. Even among such rules, a rule that
applies earlier in the prakti is called antaraga. A rule that applies to something
outside of the prakti is called bahiraga. A rule that applies in less cases is called
antaraga, and a rule that applies in more cases is called bahiraga. Out of an
antaraga rule and a bahiraga rule, the antaraga rule is stronger).
rdh + s[u] (210) rdhe + s[u] (172) rdhe <8.1>.

pratham
dvity

ekavacana
rdh
rdhm

tty

rdhay

caturth

rdhyai

pacam

rdhy

ah

rdhy
rdhy
m

case

saptam
sambodh
ana

rdhe

dvivacana
rdhe
rdhe
rdhbhy
m
rdhbhy
m
rdhbhy
m
rdhayo

bahuvacana
rdh
rdh
rdhbhya

rdhbhya

rdhnm

rdhayo

rdhsu

rdhe

rdh

rdhbhi

The words ram (the goddess of fortune), rm (a beautiful woman), raddh


(faith), ml (garland), and so on are declined in the same way as the word
rdh, as are the words headed by amb (mother). Due to the mention of the
word lakm (in stra 208) the term rdh doesnt apply in priya-rdhya
kya. The change to vmana that occurs when there is a samsa will be
described later.

AmtaThe p in y[p] is an indicatory letter by antya-viujana ca (vtti 152).


Someone may argue, In the seventh case singular, when the change to m is
made by n-rdhbhy er m (197), why isnt n[u] applied by vmana-goprdhbhyo nu mi (167)? In answer to this, Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence
beginning lkaika. In this case n[u] is not applied because m is not primary
(pratipadokta) but secondary (lkaika) as it is ordained in the place of []i.
Someone may argue, S[u] is deleted regardless of whether the word rdh
becomes e when buddha follows (by stra 210) or not. Therefore, because the
deletion of s[u] is nitya (constant), it should take place first by rdhviujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor hara (202) (and not later by e-ovmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (172)). Why then is s[u] deleted only after
applying stra 210? The answer to this is as follows: mt-vat paribh hi
nea virudhyate (because a paribh is like a mother, it doesnt obstruct the
desired form). Therefore Jva Gosvm supplies another kind of paribh
favorable for achieving the desired form with the sentences beginning praktyritam. A rule that applies to something outside the prakti means a rule that
applies to a pratyaya or viu. The case of praktv api prva-prvam
antaragam will be examined later
Because the meaning of the word rdh is not predominant in the ptmbarasamsa priya-rdhya (unto Him for whom Rdh is dear), the change to
vmana takes place by gor pa pa a cntasypradhnasya vmana ().
Though it contains within it a word ending in [p], the word priya-rdha expresses
a masculine entity. Therefore it cannot be called a rdh because it is not
feminine.
BlaThe word vidhnam (rule) is the vieya (substantive) which the
modifiers prakty-ritam and so on modify. Here stra 210 is antaraga because
it applies to the prakti and because it applies to less things. It applies in less
cases because only a rdh becomes e. Stra 202, however, is bahiraga because
it applies to something outside the prakti (in this case the pratyaya s[u]) and
because it applies to many things. It applies in many cases because s[u] is
deleted after a rdh and so on.
SaodhinIn this stra the word yp doesnt undergo sandhi in accordance
with anitya stra-nirdee (44). The paribh obstructing the desired form rdhe
<8.1> is kte py akte ya syt sa nitya (vtti 204), which in turn triggers the
paribh nitynityayor nitya (vtti 59). In this vtti, however, Jva Gosvm
speaks the paribh antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga-vidhir balavn which
overrules nitynityayor nitya since an antaraga rule is stronger than a nitya rule
in accordance with the phrase teu cottarottara (vtti 59).
212 / @mbaAd"InaAM gAAepyaA vaAmanaAe baue" /
212. ambdn gopy ca vmano buddhe

amb-dnmof the words headed by amb (namely amb, akk, all, app,
and abb, which all mean mother); gopyof a gop (feminine word ending in
or ); caand; vmanathe change to vmana; buddhewhen buddha
follows.
Both the final vara of the ambdis and the final vara of a gop1
become vmana when buddha follows.
he amba he akka he alla he appa he abba. eta evmbdaya. neha, he ambe
he amble he ambike ity-di. atha jar
Vtti amb + s[u] (212) amba + s[u] (172) amba <8.1>.
akk + s[u] (212) akka + s[u] (172) akka <8.1>.
all + s[u] (212) alla + s[u] (172) alla <8.1>.
app + s[u] (212) appa + s[u] (172) appa <8.1>.
abb + s[u] (212) abba + s[u] (172) abba <8.1>.
These are the ambdis. But this rule doesnt apply in regards to the words
amb, ambl, and ambik. Thus we get the forms ambe <8.1>, amble
<8.1>, and ambike <8.1> respectively. Now we begin the declension of the word
jar (old age).
213 / jar"AyaA jar"svaA s$avaeRre" /
213. jary jaras v sarvevare
jaryof the word jar; jarasthe replacement jaras; voptionally;
sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows.
The word jar is optionally replaced by jaras when a viubhakti
beginning with a sarvevara follows2.
jar, jarasau jare, jaras iti kecit. jarasa jar. jarasam jarm ity-di. evam armnta-nirjara-abdasypi jareti bhgasya vikalpendeo jeya; varena
vidhau tad-antasya krya syn nmn tu kvacid iti nirdiyamnnm deinm
de iti. eka-dea-viktam ananya-vad iti ca nyyebhya. nirjarasau nirjarau,
nirjarasa nirjar ity-di. nirjarea nirjaras, nirjarasina ity eke. nirjarai
nirjarasai. nirjart nirjarasa. nirjarasd iti kecit. viva-p puruottama-vivapabda-vat.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).
In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 195).

Vtti jar + s[u] (202) jar <1.1>.


jar + au (two options by 213):
1) (jar is replaced by jaras) jarasau <1.2>.
2) (jar isnt replaced by jaras, 209) jar + (48) jare <1.2>.
Some say the form should be jaras <1.2>.
jar + [j]as (two options by 213):
1) (jar is replaced by jaras) jarasas (155) jarasa <1.3>.
2) (jar isnt replaced by jaras, 46) jars (155) jar <1.3>.
jar + am (two options by 213):
1) (jar is replaced by jaras) jarasam <2.1>.
2) (jar isnt replaced by jaras, 156) jarm <2.1>.
case

eka-vacana

pratham

jar

dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

jarm /
jarasam
jaray /
jaras
jaryai /
jarase
jary /
jarasa
jary /
jarasa
jarym /
jarasi
jare

dvi-vacana
jare / jarasau /
jaras
jare / jarasau /
jaras

bahu-vacana

jarbhym

jarbhi

jarbhym

jarbhya

jarbhym

jarbhya

jarayo / jaraso

jarm /
jarasm

jarayo / jaraso

jarsu

jare / jarasau /
jaras

jar / jarasa

jar / jarasa
jar / jarasa

In the same way, one should know that the jara portion of the word nirjara
(demigod), a masculine word ending in a-rma, is also optionally replaced by
jaras in accordance with the following maxims: varena vidhau tad-antasya
krya syn nmn tu kvacit (in a vidhi-stra, a grammatical operation
prescribed in referenc to a particular vara also applies to something ending in
that vara, but a grammatical operation prescribed in reference to a particular
nma only sometimes applies to something ending in that nma),
nirdiyamnnm deinm de (substitutes only replace originals that are
directly mentioned), and eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat (that which is deficien in
one place is not considered a different thing).
nirjara + au (two options by 213):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjarasau <1.2>.

2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 57) nirjarau <1.2>.


nirjara + [j]as (two options by 213):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjarasas (155) nirjarasa <1.3>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 46) nirjars (155) nirjar <1.3>.
nirjara + [] (two options by 213):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjaras <3.1>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 159) nirjara + ina (48) nirjarena (173)
nirjarea
<3.1>.
Some say the form should be nirjarasina <3.1>.
nirjara + bhis (161) nirjara + ais (55) nirjarais (155) nirjarai
<3.3>.
Some say the form should be nirjarasai <3.3>.
nirjara + []as[i] (two options by 213):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjarasas (155) nirjarasa <5.1>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 164) nirjara + t (46) nirjart <5.1>.
Some say the form should be nirjarast <5.1>. The feminine word viva-p is
declined in the same way as the masculine word viva-p.
AmtaIn the opinion of those who say the form should be jaras <1.2>, the
grammatical operation appropriate for the gender (namely rdh-brahmabhym
au (209)) should take place first, and then jar should be replaced by jaras. The
masculine word nirjara is mentioned here in the section dealing with feminine
words in order to show that it undergoes the same replacement. In the paribh
beginning varena, Jva Gosvm explains the reason why it takes the same
replacement. The word tad-antasya means tad-varntasypi. The result of the
word kvacit (sometimes) will be shown later. An example of when a grammatical
operation prescribed in reference to a particular vara also applies to something
ending in that vara is the stra e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (172).
Here buddha disappears after something ending in e, o, or a vmana and thus we
get he hare <8.1>, he vio <8.1>, and he ka <8.1>. An example of when a
grammatical operation prescribed in reference to a particular nma also applies to
something ending in that nma is how the replacement jaras ordained in relation
to the word jar also applies to the word nirjara, a word ending in jar.
In that regard, when the replacement jaras would usually replace the entire word
nirjara, Jva Gosvm speaks the second paribh beginning nirdiyamnnm.
In essence this means that the substitute replaces as much of an atidiyamna

word (a word to which a rule applies by extended application) as is directly


mentioned, but it doesnt replace the entire atidiyamna word. Here the directly
mentioned original word is jar. Therefore the replacement jaras only replaces the
jara portion of the atidiyamna word nirjara, and not the entire word. In reply to
the doubt why is the replacement of the word jar, a word ending in -rma,
employed in connection with the word nirjara, a word ending in a-rma? Jva
Gosvm speaks the third paribh beginning eka-dea.
SaodhinSiddhnta-kaumud 227 sheds some light on the alternative forms
mentioned in this vtti: vtti-kt tu prva-vipratiedhena into ktayo
sannipta-paribhy anityatvam ritya jarasi kte nirjarasina nirjarasd iti
rpe na tu nirjaras nirjarasa iti kecid uktam, tath bhisi nirjarasair iti rpntaram
uktam. tad-anusribhi ca ahy-eka-vacane nirjarasyety eva rpa svktam.
etac ca bhya-viruddham (The authors of the Kik-vtti, Jayditya and
Vmana, state that others say when the replacements ina and t are made by
prva-vipratiedha1, and when the replacement jaras is made, since the
sannipta-paribh2 is not universally applicable, the forms will be nirjarasina
<3.1> and nirjarast <5.1>, and not nirjaras <3.1> and nirjarasa <5.1>. The
authors of the Kik-vtti also say when there is bhis the form thus made will be
nirjarasai <3.3>. Those who follow this opinion accept that the only valid sixth
case singular form is nirjarasya. However, all this is against the opinion of the
Mah-bhya.
214 / @a inazAAnaAis$ak(yaAeinaRas$aAvaAde"zAAE yau"Sau vaA vaAcyaAE /
214. atra ni-nsikayor ni-nasv deau yaduu v vcyau
atrain this connection; ni-nsikayoof the words ni (night) and nsik
(nose); ni-nasauni and nas; deauthe replacements; yaduuwhen the
yadus follow; voptionally; vcyaushould be stated.
In this connection, the words ni and nsik are optionally replaced by
ni and nas respectively when the yadus follow.
prayog ca pake viujannta-vaj jey. yathnia ni nijbhym ity-di. irmnto bhakti-abda. tasya paveu hari-abda-vat. asibhakt. pusti
viean na-rmo na syt. na tu lakmym iti na ndeabhakty
bhaktibhym bhaktibhi.
VttiIn that case the declension is the same as that of a word ending in a
viujana. For example:
ni + []as (214) nias (155) nia <2.3>.
1

Conflict of two rules where the earlier rule supercedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct
form requires it.
2
See footnote under Amta 169 for explanation.

ni + [] (214) ni <3.1>.
ni + bhym (214) ni + bhym (246, asya jo mantavya (vtti
258)) nijbhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

ekavacana
ni
nim
niay /
ni
niyai /
nie
niy /
nia
niy /
nia
niym /
nii
nie
eka-vacana
nsik
nsikm
nsikay /
nas
nsikyai /
nase
nsiky /
nasa
nsiky /
nasa
nsikym /
nasi
nsike

dvi-vacana
nie
nie
nibhym /
nijbhym
nibhym /
nijbhym
nibhym /
nijbhym

bahu-vacana
ni
ni / nia
nibhi / nijbhi
nibhya /
nijbhya
nibhya /
nijbhya

niayo / nio

ninm / nim

niayo / nio

nisu / nicu /
nicch

nie

ni

dvi-vacana
nsike
nsike
nsikbhym /
nobhym
nsikbhym /
nobhym
nsikbhym /
nobhym

bahu-vacana
nsik
nsik / nasa
nsikbhi / nobhi
nsikbhya /
nobhya
nsikbhya /
nobhya

nsikayo / naso

nsiknm / nasm

nsikayo / naso

nsiksu / nasu

nsike

nsik

Now we begin the declension of the word bhakti (devotion), a word ending in irma. The word bhakti is declined like the word hari when the pavas follow.
When []as is applied, we get bhakt <2.3>. Due to the specific mention of the
word pusi in stra 157, the change to na-rma doesnt take place here.
bhakti + []as (156) bhakti + s (157) bhakts (155) bhakt
<2.3>.

And due to the phrase na tu lakmym in stra 182, the substitute n is not
applied here:
bhakti + [] (59) bhakty <3.1>
bhakti + bhym bhaktibhym <3.2>.
bhakti + bhis (155) bhaktibhi <3.3>.
215 / h"ir"ta @ApvaA va{iSNASau lamyaAM , inatyaM gAAepyaA: /
215. harita p v viu lakmy, nitya gopy
haritaafter a hari; p[p]; voptionally; viuwhen the vis follow;
lakmymin the feminine gender; nityamalways; gopyafter a gop.
[p] is optionally applied after a hari in the feminine gender when the
vis follow, but it is always applied after a gop when the vis
follow.
vi-nimittpo na ypbhaktyai bhaktaye bhaktibhym bhaktibhya. bhakty
bhakte bhaktibhym bhaktibhya. bhakty bhakte bhaktyo bhaktnm. bante pi n-rdhbhy er mbhaktym bhaktau bhaktyo bhaktiu. he bhakte.
eva buddhi-mati-bhti-kti-dhti-ruci-prabhtaya. atha dhenu-abdadhenu
dhen dhenava. dhenum dhen dhen ity-di. viu dhenvai dhenave,
dhenv dheno. dhenvm dhenau. aany-dn lakmtve pake pi evam eva
jeyam. atra hare sva-bhva-lakmtve saty eveti vcyam. tena nehapriyaharaye priya-viave riyai. eva priya-tri. mati-vad ayam iti tu tasy
bhrama. asipriya-har. ndeas tu napriya-hary. pau-prabhtnm tu
vikalpa iti kecit. paave pavai. tri-abdasya lakmym
VttiY[p] is not applied after the [p] caused by a vi.
bhakti + []e (two options by 215):
1) ([p] is applied) bhakti + [p] + []e (59) bhakty + e (55) bhaktyai
<4.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 181) bhakte + e (63) bhaktaye <4.1>.
bhakti + bhym bhaktibhym <4.2>.
bhakti + bhyas (155) bhaktibhya <4.3>.
bhakti + []as[i] (two options by 215):
1) ([p] is applied) bhakti + [p] + []as[i] (59) bhakty + as (46)
bhaktys (155)
bhakty <5.1>

2) ([p] isnt applied, 181) bhakte + as (183) bhaktes (155) bhakte


<5.1>.
bhakti + bhym bhaktibhym <5.2>.
bhakti + bhyas (155) bhaktibhya <5.3>.
bhakti + []as (two options by 215):
1) ([p] is applied) bhakti + [p] + []as (59) bhakty + as (46)
bhaktys (155)
bhakty <6.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 181) bhakte + as (183) bhaktes (155) bhakte
<6.1>.
bhakti + os (59) bhaktyos (155) bhaktyo <6.2>.
bhakti + m (167) bhakti + n[u] + m bhakti + nm (169)
bhaktnm <6.3>.
N-rdhbhy er m (197) is also applied in connection with a word ending in
the [p] caused by a vi:
bhakti + []i (two options by 215):
1) ([p] is applied) bhakti + [p] + []i (59) bhakty + []i (197)
bhakty + m (46) bhaktym <7.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 184) bhakti + au[c] (185) bhaktau <7.1>.
bhakti + os (59) bhaktyos (155) bhaktyo <7.2>.
bhakti + su[p] (170) bhaktiu <7.3>.
bhakti + s[u] (181) bhakte + s[u] (172) bhakte <8.1>.
case

eka-vacana

pratham
dvity

bhakti
bhaktim

tty

bhakty

caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

bhaktaye /
bhaktyai
bhakte /
bhakty
bhakte /
bhakty
bhaktau /
bhaktym

dvivacana
bhakt
bhakt
bhaktibhy
m
bhaktibhy
m
bhaktibhy
m

bahuvacana
bhaktaya
bhakt
bhaktibhya

bhaktibhya

bhaktyo

bhaktnm

bhaktyo

bhaktiu

bhaktibhi

sambodh
ana

bhakte

bhakt

bhaktaya

The words buddhi (intelligence), mati (mind), bhti (existence), kti


(activity), dhti (satisfaction), ruci (taste), and so on are declined in the
same way as the word bhakti. Now we begin the declension of the word dhenu
(cow).
dhenu + s[u] (155) dhenu <1.1>.
dhenu + au (178) dhenu + u (46) dhen <1.2>.
dhenu + [j]as (181) dheno + as (65) dhenavas (155) dhenava
<1.3>.
dhenu + am (156) dhenum <2.1>.
dhenu + au (178) dhenu + u (46) dhen <1.2>.
dhenu + []as (156) dhenu + s (157) dhens (155) dhen
<1.3>.
When the vis follow:
dhenu + []e (two options by 215):
1) ([p] is applied) dhenu + [p] + []e (60) dhenv + e (55) dhenvai
<4.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 181) dheno + e (65) dhenave <4.1>.
dhenu + []as[i] (two options by 215):
1) ([p] is applied) dhenu + [p] + []as[i] (60) dhenv + as (46)
dhenvs (155) dhenv <5.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 181) dheno + as (183) dhenos (155) dheno
<5.1>.
dhenu + []as (two options by 215):
1) ([p] is applied) dhenu + [p] + []as (60) dhenv + as (46)
dhenvs (155) dhenv <6.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 181) dheno + as (183) dhenos (155) dheno
<6.1>.
dhenu + []i (two options by 215):
1) ([p] is applied) dhenu + [p] + []i (60) dhenv + []i (197) dhenv
+ m
(46) dhenvm <7.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 184) dhenu + au[c] (185) dhenau <7.1>.

case

eka-vacana

pratham
dvity

dhenu
dhenum

tty

dhenv

caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

dhenave /
dhenvai
dheno /
dhenv
dheno /
dhenv
dhenau /
dhenvm
dheno

dvivacana
dhen
dhen
dhenubhy
m
dhenubhy
m
dhenubhy
m

bahuvacana
dhenava
dhen
dhenubhya

dhenubhya

dhenvo

dhennm

dhenvo

dhenuu

dhen

dhenava

dhenubhi

The words aani (thunderbolt) and so on are declined in the same way when
they appear in the feminine gender. In this regard, the current stra is applied
only when a hari is naturally in the feminine gender. Thus it is not applied in priyaharaye riyai <4.1> or priya-viave riyai <4.1>. It is also not applied to the
word priya-tri. The following statement of Prakriy-kaumud is a bhrama: mativad ayam (this word, priya-tri, is declined like the word mati). When []as is
applied we get priya-har <2.3>. The replacement n is also not applied and
thus we get priya-hary <3.1>. Some say that the words headed by pau
(pungent, cunning) are optionally considered to be naturally feminine. Thus
paave <4.1> or pavai <4.1>. In the feminine gender, the word tri undergoes
the following changes:
AmtaY[p] is not applied after the [p] caused by a vi because a word
ending in that [p] is lkaika (see vtti 70), and therefore it cannot be called
rdh. Someone may argue, In the seventh case singular m is ordained in the
place of []i by accepting that a word ending in the [p] caused by a vi is called
rdh. But why isnt such a word lkaika there also? The answer is that in that
case the m ordained by n-rdhbhym er m (197) is a virici, but in this case
y[p] is a viu because it is ordained in between the prakti and pratyaya.
Although, in the seventh case singular, the word ending in the [p] caused by a
vi is lkaika, there is no fault in replacing []i with m because the following
maxim allows it: viricir lkaikatva sahate kvacin na viu (A virici may
sometimes defy the rule of lkaika. But a viu may not).
It is learnt from dictionaries that the word aani (thunderbolt) is both masculine
and feminine. By the word di, the words iu (arrow), mai (jewel), tithi
(lunar day), reu (dust), and so on are also included. The sentence beginning
pau-prabhtnm meas when these words are used as modifiers describing a
feminine thing they are considered naturally feminine. By the word prabhti, the

words mdu (soft), laghu (light), guru (heavy), pthu (broad) and so on
are included.
SaodhinWords like priya-hari, priya-viu, priya-tri and so on are not
considered naturally feminine because they only assume the feminine gender
when used in ptmbara-samsas. In such cases the emphasis of meaning is on
another word as was demonstrated by Jva Gosvm with the examples priyaharaye riyai (unto the goddess of fortune for whom Hari is dear) and priyaviave riyai (unto the goddess of fortune for whom Viu is dear).
216 / lamaIsTayaAeicataur"Aeistas$a{catas$a{ ivaSNAuBa(AE /
216. lakm-sthayos tri-caturos tis-catas viubhaktau
lakm-sthayooccuring in the feminine gender; tri-caturoof the words tri
(three) and catur (four); tis-catasthe replacements tis and catas;
viubhaktauwhen a viubhakti follows.
When the words tri and catur are used in the feminine gender, they are
replaced by tis and catas respectively, provided a viubhakti follows.
AmtaIn this stra, the word tis-catas is a samhra-dvandva-samsa, thus it
is neuter and singular. Why do we say provided a viubhakti follows? Consider
tritvam and catuayam. Due to the modifier lakm-sthayo, when we have the
vigraha (separation of the constituent words of a compound word) priys tisro
yasya (for whom three (feminine) are dear), the replacement certainly takes
place even though the samsa is in the masculine gender. Thus we get priya-tis
<1.1>, priya-tisrau <1.2>, priya-tisra <1.3>, priya-tisr <3.1>, priya-tisre
<4.1>, priya-tisra <5.1>, and so on.1
217 / itas$a{cataaAe r": s$avaeRre" /
217. tis-catasro ra sarvevare
tis-catasroof the words tis and catas; rathe replacement ra-rma;
sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows.
The of the words tis and catas2 becomes r when a viubhakti
beginning with a sarvevara follows3.

In these forms the of tis changes to r by the next stra. In this regard, the next vtti explains
that the change to r blocks the govinda, trivikrama, and change to u that would normally take
place by the previous rules.
2
In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).
3
In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 195).

govinda-trivikramo-rmm apavda. atve kevala-sa-rmo viricir ghta.


tisra tisra tisbhi tisbhya tisbhya. mi tu na tis-catasror iti jpakt nu
evatism tisu. -rmnto gop-abda; b iti lakm-vihita-pratyaya
VttiThis stra is an apavda of the govinda, trivikrama, and u-rma. Regarding
the change to a-rma (by stra 170), only a virici comprised solely of sa-rma is
accepted.
tri + [j]as (216) tis + as (217) tisras (155) tisra <1.3>.
tri + []as (216) tis + as (217) tisras (155) tisra <2.3>.
tri + bhis (216) tis + bhis (155) tisbhi <3.3>.
tri + bhyas (216) tis + bhyas (155) tisbhya <4.3>.
tri + bhyas (216) tis + bhyas (155) tisbhya <5.3>.
But, when m follows, n[u] is certainly applied because of the jpaka1 na tiscatasro (in stra 169):
tri + m (216) tis + m (167) tis + n[u] + m tisnm
(173) tism <6.3>.
tri + su[p] (216) tis + su (170) tisu <7.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

bahuvacana
tisra
tisra
tisbhi
tisbhya
tisbhya
tism
tisu

Now we begin the declension of the word gop (a cowherd woman), a word
ending in -rma. [p] is a taddhita pratyaya that is ordained in the feminine
gender.

Indicator; An expression or rule that implies something more than what is directly said by the rule
itself.

AmtaGovinda would usually be applied by -rmasya govinda paveu au


ca (200), trivikrama would usually be applied by davatrasya trivikramo asi
(157), and the change to u-rma would usually be applied by -rmato asi-asor
asya uc (201). However the current stra blocks all of these. In the stra ordaining
the change to a-rma, only a virici comprised solely of sa-rma is accepted by
the phrase pratyaya-virici-sasya a. Therefore the s of the viricis tis and
catas doesnt become because of the presence of other varas besides s.
Someone may argue, Because of the general statement when a sarvevara
follows, in the sixth case plural the words tis and catas should definitely
become r. In answer to that Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning mi
tu. In the stra beginning vmanasya trivikramo nmi, the phrase na tiscatasro, which prohibits trivikrama, is a jpaka of n[u], since only when there is
nm can the trivikrama that is normally applicable when nm follows be
prohibited. If n[u] were not applied then there would be no question of nm nor
any possibility of prohibitions in relation to nm. Therefore, in accordance with the
maxim viricito viur balavn (A viu is stronger than a virici), n[u] is applied
before the substitution of r takes place, and when n[u] is applied there is no
chance for the substitution of r to even take place because there is no longer a
sarvevara following. This is the implied meaning.
218 / wROlamaIgAAeRpaIs$aMaA /
218. --lakmr gop-saj
--lakma feminine word ending in -rma or -rma; gop-sajcalled
gop.
A feminine word ending in or is called gop.
nad-saj ca. gop gopyau gopya. gopm gopyau gop. gopy gopbhym
gopbhi. gopyai gopbhym gopbhya. gopy gopbhym gopbhya.
gopy gopyo gopnm. gopym gopyo gopu. he gopi. atra vidhnasmarthyn na govinda. eva nad-mah-prabhtaya, sakh casakh
sakhyau. atra nmno grahae liga-viiasypi grahaam iti paribh neyate.
ausakhym. eva su-pathty atra ntvam. trivikramd iti viean neha sor
hara, ati-gopi. pusi viu ati-gopaye ity-di, lakmymati-gopyai atigopaye ity-di.
VttiThe ancients called it nad.
gop + s[u] (202) gop <1.1>.
gop + au (59) gopyau <1.2>.
gop + [j]as (59) gopyas (155) gopya <1.3>.

gop + am (156) gopm <2.1>.


gop + au (59) gopyau <2.2>.
gop + []as (156) gops (155) gop <2.3>.
gop + [] (59) gopy <3.1>.
gop + bhym gopbhym <3.2>.
gop + bhis (155) gopbhi <3.3>.
gop + []e (215) gop + [p] + e (59) gopy + e (55) gopyai
<4.1>.
gop + bhym gopbhym <4.2>.
gop + bhyas (155) gopbhya <4.3>.
gop + []as[i] (215) gop + [p] + as (59) gopy + as (46)
gopys (155) gopy <5.1>.
gop + bhym gopbhym <5.2>.
gop + bhyas (155) gopbhya <5.3>.
gop + []as (215) gop + [p] + as (59) gopy + as (46) gopys
(155)
gopy <6.1>.
gop + os (59) gopyos (155) gopyo <6.2>.
gop + m (167) gop + n[u] + m gopnm <6.3>.
gop + []i (215) gop + [p] + []i (59) gopy + []i (197) gopy
+ m
(46) gopym <7.1>.
gop + os (59) gopyos (155) gopyo <7.2>.
gop + su[p] (170) gopu <7.3>.
gop + s[u] (212) gopi + s[u] (172) gopi <8.1>.
In he gopi <8.1> there is no govinda due to the strength of the rule (stra 212).
case

eka-

dvi-

bahu-

tty

gopy

caturth

gopyai

pacam

gopy

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

gopy
gopym

vacana
gopyau
gopyau
gopbhy
m
gopbhy
m
gopbhy
m
gopyo
gopyo

gopi

gopyau

pratham
dvity

vacana
gop
gopm

vacana
gopya
gop
gopbhi
gopbhya
gopbhya
gopnm
gopu
gopya

Words like nad (river), mah (the earth), and so on are declined in the same
way, as is the word sakh (female friend):
sakh + s[u] (202) sakh <1.1>.
sakh + au (59) sakhyau <1.2>.
The paribh nmno grahae liga-viiasypi grahaam (vtti 56) is not
applicable in this case. When []i is applied we get sakhym <7.1>:
sakh + []i (215) sakh + [p] + []i (59) sakhy + []i (197)
sakhy + m (46) sakhym <7.1>.
Similarly, the change to -rma (by stra 264) doesnt take place in regards to the
word su-path (having good roads). Because of the modifier trivikramt (in
stra 202) the deletion of s[u] doesnt take place in the case of ati-gopi <1.1>.
In the masculine gender, when the vis follow, the forms are ati-gopaye <4.1>
and so on. In the feminine gender they are ati-gopyai <4.1> or ati-gopaye <4.1>,
and so on.
AmtaThe word --lakm means a feminine word ending in -rma or rma. The etymology of the word gopa (cowherd) is as follows: g pti
rakatti gopa (A gopa is so named because he tends (pti) the cows (g)).
Or else the etymology is gopyati rakati uddha-bhakti-rasa tadadhihnatvd iti gopa (A gopa is so named because he keeps (gopyati) the
tastes of pure devotion as he is their resting place). More specifically a gopa
refers to the particular class of cowherds that reside in Vraja. The word gopa is
formed either by applying the kt pratyaya [k]a after go + p rakae or by
applying the kt pratyaya a[l] after gup[] rakae. Then [p] is applied in the
feminine gender by a-rmnta-jte () and we get the word gop (cowherd
woman).

Someone may ask, In he gopi <8.1>, why isnt there govinda by harer govindo
jasi viu buddhe ca (181)? Jva Gosvm answers this with the sentence
beginning atra. If govinda were applicable in this case then the rule ordaining
vmana when buddha follows (stra 212) would not have been made as it would
be only a meaningless concoction, rather a stra like gopy govindo buddhe (a
gop takes govinda when buddha follows) would have been made.
Someone may argue, In regards to sakh <1.1>, sakhyau <1.2> and so on, why
arent the aforesaid grammatical operations like [c] and vndra applied by
the maxim nmno grahae liga-viiasypi grahaam? Jva Gosvm answers
this doubt with the sentence beginning atra. The paribh is not applicable
because of the following prohibition found in Ktyyanas Vrttika: vibhaktau ligaviigrahaam (the rule of liga-viia is not employed when the viaya is a
vibhakti (viubhakti)). The paribh applies when sandhi and so on, or
taddhita pratyayas and so on are the viaya, but not when a vibhakti is the
viaya. Similarly, because the rule of liga-viia is not applicable, the word supath doesnt undergo the change to -rma by pathy-dnm i-rmasyrma
kasthne (264). The word su-path is formed by applying the taddhita
pratyaya a at the end of the samsa su-pathi by k-pathi-purapa () and by
subsequently applying [p].
The modifier trivikramt (in stra 202) informs us that [p] can also exist in a
vmana form. The vigraha of the word ati-gopi is gopm atikrnta (he who
surpasses a gop). The word ati-gopi is a ka-purua-samsa formed by atydayo dvityay (), which becomes vmana by gor pa pa a
cntasypradhnasya vmana (). In the feminine gender, the vigraha of the
word ati-gopi is gopm atikrnt (she who surpasses a gop).
219 / @vaItanaItar"IlamaI"IDaIaINAAmauNAAid"naA /
zAbd"AnaAM tau BavatyaeSaAM s$aulaAepaAe na k(d"Acana //
219.
av-tantr-tar-lakmhr-dh-rm udin
abdn tu bhavaty e
su-lopo na kadcana
av-tantr-tar-lakm-hr-dh-rmof av (a woman in her courses),
tantr (the string of a v), tar (a boat), lakm (prosperity, beauty, the
goddess of fortune), hr (shyness), dh (intelligence), and r (prosperity,
beauty, the goddess of fortune); u-dincharacterized as udis; abdnm
of the words; tubut; bhavatiis; emof these; su-lopadeletion of s[u]; na
not; kadcanaever.
But the udi words av, tantr, tar, lakm, hr, dh, and r never
undergo deletion of s[u].

lakm lakmyau lakmya ity-di gop-vat. tantr vym iti tu tantrayater


a-antatvd pi siddh. gaurditvt str-abda b-anta. tata sor harastr.
Vtti lakm + s[u] (219) lakms (155) lakm <1.1>.
The forms lakmyau <1.2>, lakmya <1.3>, and so on are made in the same
way as the word gop. But the form tantr <1.1> as seen in the dictionary
definition tantr vym (the word tantr means a vi) is valid when [p] is
applied after the pratyaya a[] which has been applied after the y-anta-dhtu
tantri (tatr[i] vistrae + []i). The word str (woman) ends in [p] because it is
counted among the gaurdis. Thus s[u] is deleted and we get str <1.1>.
AmtaIn the word udin, the third case ending has been used in the sense of
upalakaa1 (characteristic), thus udin means udinopalakitnm
(characterized as udis). Among these words hr, dh, and r are words
ending in [k]vi[p] which are counted among the udis, the rest of the words end
in the udi pratyaya .
SaodhinThe udi pratyayas are a set of pratyayas that are applied after
dhtus to form proper names (saj-abdas). They are treated in detail in the five
chaptered grammatical treatise called the Udi-stras. Basically the udi
pratyayas are the missing kt pratyayas that are supplied to support the theory
that all nmas are derived from dhtus. Words that are made from udi
pratyayas are called udi words. For further details, see Saodhin 1573.
220 / IauvaAeir"yauvaAE s$avaeRre" , iyaA @mzAs$aAevaAR
220. str-bhruvor iy-uvau sarvevare, striy am-asor v
str-bhruvoof the words str (woman) and bhr (eyebrow); iy-uvauthe
replacements iy and uv; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; striyof the
word str; am-asowhen the viubhaktis am or []as follow; voptionally.
The and of the words str and bhr2 become iy and uv respectively
when a viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara follows3, but this
change is optional for the word str when the viubhaktis am or []as
follow.
striyau striya. striyam strm striyau striya str. striy strbhym strbhi.
nitya gopystriyai strbhym strbhya. striy strbhym strbhya.
striy striyo. viricito viur balavn, strm. striym striyo stru. he
stri. gauatve pusi tu ati-stri; nmn tu kvacid iti tad-anta-vidhi. atra kvacid1

This use of the third case is described in viea-lakat tty (1020), a stra which other
grammarians previously formulated as upalakae tty.
2
In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).
3
In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 195).

grahad govinda-n-nu-auj-varja striy iy-dea iti vistara. matntara tu na


bhydi-matam iti ca. ati-striyau ati-straya. ati-striyam ati-strim, ati-striyau, atistriya ati-strn. ati-stri, ati-straye, ati-stre, ati-striyo, ati-strm, ati-strau.
lakmym as--paratveati-striya ati-str, ati-striy. viu pakeatistriyai ati-straye ati-striy ati-striym. r-abdar. dhtor d-tor iti riyau
riya ity-di.
Vtti str + au (220) striyau <1.2>.
str + [j]as (220) striyas (155) striya <1.3>.
str + am (two options by 220):
1) (the change to iy is done) striyam <2.1>.
2) (the change to iy isnt done, 156) strm <2.1>.
str + au (220) striyau <2.2>.
str + []as (two options by 220):
1) (the change to iy is done) striyas (155) striya <2.3>.
2) (the change to iy isnt done, 156) strs (155) str <2.3>.
str + [] (220) striy <3.1>.
str + bhym strbhym <3.2>.
str + bhis (155) strbhi <3.3>.
[p] is always applied after a gop (see stra 215):
str + []e (215) str + [p] + []e (220) striy + e (55) striyai
<4.1>.
str + bhym strbhym <4.2>.
str + bhyas (155) strbhya <4.3>.
str + []as[i] (215) str + [p] + []as[i] (220) striy + as (46)
striys (155) striy <5.1>.
str + bhym strbhym <5.2>.
str + bhyas (155) strbhya <5.3>.
str + []as (215) str + [p] + []as (220) striy + as (46) striys
(155)
striy <6.1>.

str + os (220) striyos (155) striyo <6.2>.


A viu is stronger than a virici:
str + m (167) str + n[u] + m strnm (173) strm
<6.3>.
str + []i (215) str + [p] + []e (220) striy + []i (197) striy +
m (46) striym <7.1>.
str + os (220) striyos (155) striyo <7.2>.
str + su[p] (170) stru <7.3>.
str + s[u] (212) stri + s[u] (172) stri <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
str
striyam /
strm

dvivacana
striyau
striyau

tty

striy

caturth

striyai

pacam

striy

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

striy
striym

strbhy
m
strbhy
m
strbhy
m
striyo
striyo

stri

striyau

bahuvacana
striya
striya /
str
strbhi
strbhya
strbhya
strm
stru
striya

But in the masculine gender, when the word str takes a secondary role, we get
ati-stri <1.1>:
ati-stri + s[u] (155) ati-stri <1.1>.
The rule of tad-anta1 includes the phrase nmn tu kvacit. In this regard,
Ktantra-vistara says due to the usage of the word kvacit, the of the word str
is replaced by iy, except when govinda, n, n[u], or au[c] are applicable. It also
says but the other opinion (not quoted here) is not in line with the Mah-bhya
and so on.
1

The rule of tad-anta as given in vtti 213 is varena vidhau tad-antasya krya syn nmn tu
kvacit (in a vidhi-stra, a grammatical operation prescribed in reference to a particular vara also
applies to something ending in that vara, but a grammatical operation prescribed in reference to
a particular nma only sometimes applies to something ending in that nma).

ati-stri + au (220) ati-striyau <1.2>.


ati-stri + [j]as (181) ati-stre + as (63) ati-strayas (155) atistraya <1.3>.
ati-stri + am (two options by 220):
1) (the change to iy is done) ati-striyam <2.1>.
2) (the change to iy isnt done, 156) ati-strim <2.1>.
ati-stri + au (220) ati-striyau <1.2>.
ati-stri + []as (two options by 220):
1) (the change to iy is done) ati-striyas (155) ati-striya <2.3>.
2) (the change to iy isnt done, 156) ati-stris (157) ati-strs ati-strn
<2.3>.
ati-stri + [] (182) ati-strin (173) ati-stri <3.1>.
ati-stri + []e (181) ati-stre + e (63) ati-straye <4.1>.
ati-stri + []as (181) ati-stre + as (183) ati-stres (155) ati-stre
<6.1>.
ati-stri + os (220) ati-striyos (155) ati-striyo <6.2>.
ati-stri + m (167) ati-stri + n[u] + m (169) ati-strnm (173)
ati-strm
<6.3>.
ati-stri + []i (184) ati-stri + au[c] (185) ati-strau <7.1>.
In the feminine gender, when []as and [] follow, the forms are ati-striya
<2.3> or ati-str <2.3>, and ati-striy <3.1>. When the vis follow, we get
ati-striyai <4.1> in the case that [p] is applied by stra 215, otherwise we get
ati-straye <4.1>. Similarly, (in the case that [p] is applied) we get ati-striy
<5.1> / <6.1> and ati-striym <7.1>. Now we begin the declension of the word
r (prosperity, beauty, the goddess of fortune):
r + s[u] (219) rs (155) r <1.1>.
By dhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare bahulam (195) we get the forms riyau
<1.2>, riya <1.3>, and so on:
r + au (195) riyau <1.2>.
r + [j]as (195) riyas (155) riya <1.3>.

AmtaSomeone may wonder In the sixth case plural, when m follows, should
the change to iy be applied or should n[u] be inserted? To reconcile the conflict
between these two rules, Jva Gosvm speaks the maxim beginning viricita.
The vigraha of the word ati-stri is ati-krnta striyam (he who surpasses a
woman). The replacement of the of the word str with iy also applies to a word
ending with str, such as ati-stri, except when govinda, n, n[u], or au[c] are
applicable. It should be known that the opinion of the Ktantra-vistara is also the
opinion of Jva Gosvm because it is corroborated by the Mah-bhya. The
vigraha of the word ati-stri in the feminine gender is ati-krnt striyam (she who
surpasses a woman). The word pake here means in the case that [p] is
applied. In the other case the forms are like those of the masculine gender when
the vis follow.
SaodhinDhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare bahulam (195) is applicable to
the word r because it comes from the dhtu ri[] sevym (1U, to serve,
worship, dwell, depend on). When [k]vi[p] is applied to the dhtu ri[], the dhtu
becomes trivikrama by pracchdn trivikramo, na ca sakaraa () and
[k]vi[p] is deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). Thus we get the word r.
Similarly, the dh of the word pradh in the next vtti is irregularly formed by
applying [k]vi[p] to the dhtu dhyai cintym (1P, to think, meditate). Thus the
rule dhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare bahulam (195) also applies there.
221 / naeyauvsTaAnaM gAAepaI , iyaM ivanaA , va{iSNASvaAima ca vaA /
221. ney-uv-sthna gop, striya vin, viv mi ca v
nanot; iy-uv-sthnama word in which there is occasion for (the change to) iy
or uv; gopgop; striyamthe word str; vinexcept; viuwhen the
vis follow; miwhen m follows; caand; voptionally.
Any word ending in or , except str, which is liable to undergo a
change to iy or uv is not called gop. But when the vis follow or when
m follows, such a word is optionally called gop.
riyai riye, rbhym rbhya. riy riya. riy riya, riyo, rm
riym. riym riyi, riyo ru. he r. eva dh-prabhtaya bhrprabhtaya ca. bhr bhruvau bhruva. eva su-bhr. buddhe vmana iti kecit

kaa bata h citra / h mtar daivatni dhik


h pita kvsi he su-bhru / bahv eva vilalpa sa. iti bhai (6.11).
pact-pra-abda-yoge prak dhpra-dh pradhiyau pradhiya. e
pradhiyai pradhiye. atra ydeas tasy bhrama, gati-kraka-prvatvbhvt.
prdn kriy-yoge eva hi tan-mate eva gati-sajeti. kevalvyaya-prvatve pti
tv apinyam. punar-bh-abdasya punar-vyh-vcakasya nitya-strtvehe
punar-bhu. kvacid bhinna-padatve pi atva vcyampunar-bhm. vadhprabhtn lakm-abda-vatvadh vadhvau vadhva. he vadhu.

ki ca, aniy-uv pact-pustve pi gop-sajm hu. tato bahu-preyasabda asa vin pusy api gop-abda-vat. evam ati-lakm lakm-abdavat. avayava-str-viayatvt siddham iti bhyam. -pratyaynta-vta-pramvat iti tu prakriy-kra. bahu-preyasr iti gauatvn na sor hara. viu
gop-sajatva ca na iti vistara. idam apinyam. tath gopm icchatti
kyann-antt kvipi gop ka. sau gop-vat, as-paryanta dhtu-vat, punar
gop-vat. vmanatve tu gop-sajatva necchanti. sakhm atikrntasya
atisakher iti bhyam. aniyuvm iti kim? ati-riye gop-saghya. kacit tv
atrpcchati. --rmayor asvbhvika-lakmtve goptva na; viva-nye riyai.
mt-abda pit-vat. mt mtarau mtara. asi tu mt. svas-abda
kart-vat. svas svasrau svasra. asi tu svas. rai-abda striym apty eke
iti kra-svm. tena prva-vat. go-abda prva-vat. dyo-abdo go-vat. naur
glau-vat. iti sarvevarnt lakm-lig.
Vtti r + []e (two options by 221):
1) (r is a gop, 215) r + [p] + []e (195) riy + e (55) riyai
<4.1>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 195) riy + e riye <4.1>.
r + bhym rbhym <4.2>.
r + bhyas (155) rbhya <4.3>.
r + []as[i] (two options by 221):
1) (r is a gop, 215) r + [p] + []as[i] (195) riy + as (46) riys
(155) riy
<5.1>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 195) riyas (155) riya <5.1>.
r + []as (two options by 221):
1) (r is a gop, 215) r + [p] + []as (195) riy + as (46) riys
(155) riy
<6.1>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 195) riyas (155) riya <6.1>.
r + os (195) riyos (155) riyo <6.2>.
r + m (two options by 221):
1) (r is a gop, 167) r + n[u] + m rnm (173) rm <6.3>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 195) riym <6.3>.
r + []i (two options by 221):
1) (r is a gop, 215) r + [p] + []i (195) riy + []i (197) riy +
m (46) riym <7.1>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 195) riyi <7.1>.
r + os (195) riyos (155) riyo <7.2>.

r + su[p] (170) ru <7.3>.


r + s[u] (221, 219) rs (155) r <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

ekavacana
r
riyam
riy
riyai /
riye
riy /
riya
riy /
riya
riym /
riyi
r

dvivacana
riyau
riyau
rbhy
m
rbhy
m
rbhy
m

bahuvacana
riya
riya
rbhi
rbhya
rbhya

riyo

rm /
riym

riyo

ru

riyau

riya

Words like dh and bhr are declined in the same way:


bhr + s[u] (155) bhr <1.1>.
bhr + au (220) bhruvau <1.2>.
bhr + [j]as (220) bhruvas (155) bhruva <1.3>.
case

eka-vacana

pratham
dvity

bhr
bhruvam

tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

bhruv
bhruvai /
bhruve
bhruv /
bhruva
bhruv /
bhruva
bhruvm /
bhruvi
bhr

dvivacana
bhruvau
bhruvau
bhrbhy
m
bhrbhy
m
bhrbhy
m

bahu-vacana
bhruva
bhruva
bhrbhi
bhrbhya
bhrbhya

bhruvo

bhrm /
bhruvm

bhruvo

bhru

bhruvau

bhruva

In the same way we get su-bhr <1.1>. Some say that the word su-bhr (one
who has nice eyebrows) becomes vmana when buddha follows. An example of
this is Bhai-kvya 6.11:
kaa bata h citra
h mtar daivatni dhik.
h pita kvsi he su-bhru
bahv eva vilalpa sa
Alas, alas, alas, alas. How strange this is! O Mother! Fie on providence! O Father!
Where are you? O beautiful browed one! In this way he lamented greatly.
When there is pacd-yoga1 of the word pra with the word dh the vigraha is
prak dh (eminent intelligence), and the forms are pra-dh <1.1>,
pradhiyau <1.2>, and pradhiya <1.3>:
pra-dh + s[u] (219) pra-dhs (155) pra-dh <1.1>.
pra-dh + au (195) pra-dhiyau <1.2>.
pra-dh + [j]as (195) pra-dhiyas (155) pra-dhiya <1.3>.
When []e is applied, the form is pradhiyai <4.1> or pradhiye <4.1>:
pra-dh + []e (two options by 221):
1) (pra-dh is a gop, 215) pra-dh + [p] + []e (195) pra-dhiy + e
(55) pra-dhiyai
<4.1>.
2) (pra-dh isnt a gop, 195) pra-dhiy + e pra-dhiye <4.1>.
In this connection, the change to y (by stra 196) prescribed in Rmacandra
caryas Prakriy-kaumud is a bhrama (see vtti 75) because there is no yoga
with a gati or kraka. In his own opinion, the words headed by pra are called gati
only when they are compounded with a kriy. But those who are not followers of
Pini say that even when there is yoga with a mere avyaya (like pra and so on),
the change to y takes place. Given that the word punar-bh, which denotes a remarried woman, is always feminine, we get the form he punar-bhu <8.1>:
punar-bh + s[u] (212) punar-bhu + s[u] (172) punar-bhu <8.1>.
It should be stated that sometimes the change to (by stra 173) takes place
even though the n is situated in a different viupada than the r, , or -dvaya:
punar-bh + m (167) punar-bh + n[u] + m punar-bhnm
(173)
punar-bhm <6.3>.
1

Compounding (yoga) two words together after (pact) the sv-dis have been applied.

Words like vadh (wife, woman) are declined like the word lakm:
vadh + s[u] vadhs (155) vadh <1.1>.
vadh + au (60) vadhvau <1.2>.
vadh + [j]as (60) vadhvas (155) vadhva <1.3>.
vadh + s[u] (212) vadhu + s[u] (172) vadhu <8.1>.

pratham
dvity

ekavacana
vadh
vadhm

tty

vadhv

caturth

vadhvai

pacam

vadhv

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

vadhv
vadhvm

dvivacana
vadhvau
vadhvau
vadhbhy
m
vadhbhy
m
vadhbhy
m
vadhvo
vadhvo

vadhu

vadhvau

case

bahuvacana
vadhva
vadh
vadhbhi
vadhbhya

vadhbhya

vadhnm
vadhu
vadhva

AmtaThe word iy-uv-sthnam is understood as follows: iya uvo v sthna


sthitir yatra tad iy-uv-sthnam (iy-uv-sthnam is that in which there is occasion
for (the change to) iy or uv). In regards to he r <8.1>, ambdn gopy ca
vmano buddhe (212) doesnt apply because the word r is not a gop (as it
undergoes a change to iy by stra 195). The verse of Bhai expresses Lord
Rmacandras words of distress due to the pain of separation He felt after St
had been taken away. Klidsa also has vimnat subhru pitur ghe kuta.
However, Bhaoji-dkita says ia-prayogo py anupapanna (the usage of
the learned is impossible to explain. It is inconsistent).
The change to y prescribed in Prakriy-kaumud in regards to the word pradh
which is a pact-samsa is a bhrama (see vtti 75) because the word pradh is
not sahajneka-sarvevara (see stra 196). Jva Gosvm explains this with the
phrase gati-kraka-prvatvbhvt. In the very same way, Ktyyanas Vrttika
says gati-karaketara-prvapadasya yan neyate. Then, quoting Rmacandra
cryas own opinion, he exposes the faultiness of the change to y with the
sentence beginning prdnm. In accordance with the maxim gatikrakopapadn kdbhi saha samsa-vacana prk sub-utpatte (see Amta
196), kt pratyayas are ordained right at the time of forming the compound with a
gati, kraka or upapada, and only after that are the sv-dis applied. Therefore
when pra and so on are later compounded with a kdanta, they are not
considered a gati or kraka and the pact-smasa thus formed is not

sahajneka-sarvevara. Thus, even in his own opinion, the change to y is


improper here.
VttiFurthermore, authorities say that words ending in or that dont undergo
a change to iy or uv are called gop even when they later appear in the masculine
gender. Thus, even in the masculine gender, the word bahu-preyas (he who has
many lovers, name of Ka) is declined like the word gop, except for when
[]as follows. Similarly, the word ati-lakm (he who surpasses lakm) is
declined like the word lakm. The Mah-bhya states that because a part
(preyas) of it is in the feminine gender, the word bahu-preyas is called nad
(gop). Rmacandra crya, the author of Prakriy-kaumud, says it is declined
like the word vta-pram, which ends in the pratyaya . Ktantra-vistara says that
in the case of bahu-preyas <1.1>, there is no deletion of s[u] because the word
preyas only plays a secondary role in the word bahu-preyas. It also says that
the word bahu-preyas is not called gop when the vis follow. However this is
not accepted by the followers of Pini. Similarly, when [k]vi[p] is applied after the
kyan-anta-dhtu gop which means he desires a gop, we get the example
gop ka (Ka desires a gop). When s[u] follows, this word gop is
declined like the word gop, then up til and including []as it is declined like a
dhtu (by stra 196), after which it is again declined like the word gop.
But the ancients dont consider that words ending in or that dont undergo a
change to iy or uv are called gop when they later become vmana in the
masculine gender. Thus the Mah-bhya says sakhm atikrntasya atisakhe
(the word ati-sakhe <6.1> which means of he who surpasses a sakh). Why
do we say words ending in or that dont undergo a change to iy or uv?
Consider ati-riye gop-saghya (unto the assembly of gops who surpass the
goddess of fortune). But some consider that even words ending in or that
undergo a change to iy or uv are called gop. A word that ends in or but is not
naturally feminine is not called gop. Thus viva-nye riyai (unto the goddess of
fortune, the leader of the universe). The word mt is declined like the word pit:
mt + s[u] (188) mt + [c] (185) mt <1.1>.
mt + au (200) mtarau <1.2>.
mt + [j]as (200) mtaras (155) mtara <1.3>.
But when []as follows, we get the form mt <2.3>:
mt + []as (156) mt + s (157) mt + s (155) mt <2.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty

ekavacana
mt
mtaram
mtr

dvivacana
mtarau
mtarau
mtbhy

bahuvacana
mtara
mt
mtbhi

caturth

mtre

pacam

mtu

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

mtu
mtari

m
mtbhy
m
mtbhy
m
mtro
mtro

mta

mtarau

mtbhya
mtbhya
mtm
mtu
mtara

The word svas is declined like the word kart:


svas + s[u] (188) svas + [c] (185) svas <1.1>.
svas + au (203) svasrau <1.2>.
svas + [j]as (203) svasras (155) svasra <1.3>.
But when []as follows, we get the form svas <2.3>:
svas + []as (156) svas + s (156) svas <2.3>.

tty

svasr

caturth

svasre

pacam

svasu

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

svasu
svasari

dvivacana
svasrau
svasrau
svasbhy
m
svasbhy
m
svasbhy
m
svasro
svasro

svasa

svasrau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
svas
svasram

bahuvacana
svasra
svas
svasbhi
svasbhya

svasbhya

svasm
svasu
svasra

Kra Svm says that some say the word rai is also used in the feminine gender.
In that case the declension is the same as before. Similarly, when the word go is
used in the feminine gender the declension is the same as before. The feminine
word dyo (heaven, the sky) is declined like the word go, and the feminine word
nau (boat) is declined like the word glau. Thus ends the declension of feminine
words ending in a sarvevara.
AmtaThe stra na ceyasy ptmbare () prohibits the word bahu-preyas
from becoming vmana. We say except for when []as follows because since the
word bahu-preyas is masculine, the davatra becomes trivikrama and the s

becomes n in accordance with the maxim yvat sambhavas tvad vidhi (vtti
194). Because the word ati-lakm doesnt end in [p] (see Amta 219) it doesnt
become vmana by gor pa pa a cntasypradhnasya vmana (). The
sentence beginning vmanatve tu means but the ancients dont consider that
words ending in or that dont undergo a change to iy or uv are called gop
when they later become vmana in the masculine gender. The sakh in the word
ati-sakhi (from the Mah-bhyas example ati-sakhe <6.1>) has become
vmana by gor pa pa a cntasypradhnasya vmana (). The pratyaya
[]a, which is applied at the end of samsa, is prohibited by sv-atibhym (). The
word ati-sakhi is declined like the word hari, not like the word sakhi, because the
rule of liga-viia is not applicable here. The word r undergoes a change to iy
by dhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare (195) therefore it is not called gop. The
word viva-n is vcya-liga (adjectival, sharing the gender of the substantive).
Thus since it is not naturally feminine it is not called gop, and therefore it
undergoes the change to y by stra 196

Atha sarvevarnt brahma-lig


Now we begin the declension of neuter words ending in a sarvevara.
tatra a-rmnto gokula-abda.
Among them is the word gokula (Gokula, the place where Ka spent his
childhood) , a word ending in a-rma.
222 / ak{(SNAAts$aAer"ma, /
222. brahma-kt sor am
brahma-ktafter a brahma-ka (a neuter word ending in a-rma); so
of the viubhakti s[u]; amthe replacement am.
After a brahma-ka, s[u] is replaced by am.
davatrd am-asor a-rma-haragokulam. rdh-brahmabhym au
gokule.
VttiThen davatrd am-asor a-rma-hara (156) is applied and we get
gokulam <1.1>:
gokula + s[u] (222) gokula + am (156) gokulam <1.1>.
When au follows, rdh-brahmabhym au (209) is applied and we get gokule
<1.2>:
gokula + au (209) gokula + (48) gokule <1.2>.

223 / ataAe jas$zAs$aAe: izA: /


223. brahmato jas-aso i
brahmataafter a brahma (neuter word); jas-asoof the viubhaktis [j]as
and []as; ithe replacement []i.
After a brahma, [j]as and []as are replaced by []i.
a it. eka-varatvd ante prpte it sarvasyeti id-dea sarvasya bhavati.
VttiThe in []i is an indicatory letter. Where the replacement would normally
be applied at the end since it is comprised of a single vara, a replacement whose
indicatory letter is replaces everything in accordance with the maxim it
sarvasya (that which has the indicatory letter replaces everything).
AmtaWhere []i would usually replace only the s of [j]as and []as by the
maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160), that is removed by making
[]i with the indicatory letter , since the rule is that a replacement with the
indicatory letter replaces the entire original. Thus here the replacement []i
replaces the entire as of [j]as and []as.
224 / s$avaeRr"vaESNAvaAntayaAenau< zAAE /
224. sarvevara-vaiavntayor nu au
sarvevara-vaiava-antayoof words ending in a sarvevara or vaiava; num
the gama n[um]; auwhen []i follows.
Words ending in a sarvevara or vaiava take the gama n[um] when
[]i follows.
u-mv itau.
VttiThe u and m are indicatory letters.
225 / @ntyas$avaeRr"AtparM" imata: sTaAnama, /
225. antya-sarvevart para mita sthnam
antya-sarvevartthe final sarvevara; paramafter; mitaof anything that
has the indicatory letter m; sthnamthe place.

The place of insertion for anything that has the indicatory letter m is
after the final sarvevara.
226 / @ntyaAtpaUvaRvaNAR: o"vas$aMa: /
226. antyt prva-vara uddhava-saja
antytthan the last vara; prva-varathe previous vara; uddhava-saja
called uddhava.
The vara which comes before the last vara is called uddhava.
upadh iti prca.
VttiThe ancients called it upadh.
AmtaThe word uddhava is formed by applying the kt pratyaya a[l] after ud +
hu vahnau dne. The rimad-bhgavatam (10.46.1) described Uddhava as
follows:
r-uka uvca
vn pravaro mantr
kasya dayita sakh
iyo bhaspate skd
uddhavo buddhi-sattama
ukadeva Gosvm said: The supremely intelligent Uddhava was the best
counselor of the Vi dynasty, a beloved friend of Lord r Ka and a direct
disciple of Bhaspati.
227 / @apaANx"vaA: izA k{(SNAsTaAnas$aMaA: /
227. abrahma-pav i ca ka-sthna-saj
a-brahma-pavthe pavas, except when they are in brahma-liga; i
[]i; caand; ka-sthna-sajcalled kasthna.
The pavas, except when they are in brahma-liga, and []i are called
kasthna.
ghu-saj ity eke, sarvanma-sthna-saj ity anye.
VttiSome called it ghu and other called it sarvanma-sthna.
AmtaIn effect the word abrahma-pav means the pavas when used
in the masculine and feminine genders. Those pavas as well as []i, which

belongs to the neuter gender, are called kasthna. The word anye refers to
Pini and others. The word sthna means dhma (abode). Thus the word
kasthna refers to Kas holy abode, Vndvana.
228 / naAntaDaAtauvaijaRtas$aAntas$ats$amah"d"paAmau"vasya iaiva(ma:
k{(SNAsTaAnae , bauM" ivanaA /
228. nnta-dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-saga-mahad-apm uddhavasya trivikrama
kasthne, buddha vin
na-antaof a word ending in na-rma; dhtu-varjita-sa-anta-sat-sagaof a word,
except a dhtu, in which there is a sat-saga ending in sa-rma; mahatof the
word mahat[u] (great); apmof the word ap (water); uddhavasyaof the
uddhava; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; kasthnewhen a
kasthna follows; buddhambuddha; vinexcept.
The uddhava of words ending in na-rma and words, except for dhtus1,
in which there is a sat-saga ending in sa-rma, as well as the uddhava
of the words mahat[u] and ap becomes trivikrama when any
kasthna except buddha follows.
nntasya dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-sagasya mahata apa ceti viccheda. gokulni.
eva dvityym. ttydau puruottama-vat. buddha-sthnyatvd am api
buddha-sajahe gokula. eva kula-phala-mldaya.
VttiThe breaku of the samsa nnta-dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-saga-mahadapm is nntasya dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-sagasya mahata apa ca.
gokula + [j]as (223) gokula + []i (224) gokula + n[um] + i (225)
gokulan + i
(228) gokuln + i gokulni <1.3>.
The declension is the same for the second case. From the third case onwards the
declension is the same as that of a masculine word. Because am occupies the
place of buddha, it is also called buddha:
gokula + s[u] (222) gokula + am (172) gokula <8.1>.

pratham
dvity

ekavacana
gokulam
gokulam

tty

gokulena

case

dvivacana
gokule
gokule
gokulbhy
m

bahuvacana
gokulni
gokulni
gokulai

In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.

caturth

gokulya

pacam

gokult

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

gokulasy
a
gokule
gokula

gokulbhy
m
gokulbhy
m

gokulebhy
a
gokulebhy
a

gokulayo

gokulnm

gokulayo

gokuleu

gokule

gokulni

Words like kula (family), phala (fruit, result), and mla (root, origin) are
declined in the same way.
AmtaBecause of the general mention of a word ending in na-rma, both the
na-rma that is naturally present in a nma as well as the na-rma which belongs
to a viu but is inside a nma are accepted by the word na. The na-rma which
belongs to a virici is also accepted provided it is inside the nma since it is
accepted that the replacement of a nma, dhtu, pratyaya, or viupada is also
counted as a nma, dhtu, pratyaya, or viupada respectively. An example of a
natural na-rma is rjnau <1.2>. Because by stra 225 the gama n[um] is
inserted into a nma after its last sarvevara, a nma thus supplemented (as, for
example, gokulan) is accepted as a word ending in na-rma. Thus we get gokulni
<1.3>. An example of a word that is a virici and ends in na-rma is ri
<2.3>. Why do we say except for a dhtu? Consider kasa-hin <1.1> (see vtti
285).
229 / $d"yasya $u"Sau vaA , zAISaRsya zAISaRna, vaetyaeke( /
229. hdayasya hd yaduu v, rasya ran vety eke
hdayasyaof the word hdaya (heart); hdthe replacement hd; yaduu
when the yadus follow; voptionally; rasyaof the word ra (head);
ranthe replacement ran; voptionally; itithus; ekesome.
The word hdaya is optionally replaced by hd when the yadus follow.
And some say the word ra is optionally replaced by ran when the
yadus follow.
prayog ca pake viujannta-vaj jey. yathhndi hdayni, hd
hdayena. ubhayatrpi ri. jary jaras v sarvevarenirjaram nirjarasam,
nirjare nirjaras. numa prva jaras-dea manyante.
VttiIn the case when the replacement is made, the declension is like that of a
word ending in a viujana. For example:
hdaya + []as (223) hdaya + []i (two options by 229):

1) (hdaya is replaced by hd) hd + []i (224, 225) h + n[um] + d +


[]i (230)1
hdi (114, 273) hndi <2.3>.
2) (hdaya isnt replaced by hd, 224, 225) hdaya + n[um] + []i
hdayan + i (228)
hdayni <2.3>.
hdaya + [] (two options by 229):
1) (hdaya is replaced by hd) hd <3.1>.
2) (hdaya isnt replaced by hd, 159) hdaya + ina (48) hdayena
<3.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

eka-vacana
hdayam
hdayam
hdayena /
hd
hdayya /
hde
hdayt /
hda
hdayasya /
hda
hdaye / hdi

dvi-vacana
hdaye
hdaye
hdaybhym /
hdbhym
hdaybhym /
hdbhym
hdaybhym /
hdbhym

bahu-vacana
hdayni
hdayni / hndi
hdayai / hdbhi
hdayebhya /
hdbhya
hdayebhya /
hdbhya

hdayayo / hdo

hdaynm / hdm

hdayayo / hdo

hdayeu / htsu

hdaye

hdayni

hdaya

In both cases we get ri <2.3>:


ra + []as (223) ra + []i (two options by 229):
1) (ra is replaced by ran) ran + []i (228) rni (173)
rsi <2.3>.
2) (ra isnt replaced by ran, 224, 225) ra + n[um] + []i ran
+ i (228)
rni (173) rsi <2.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth

eka-vacana
ram
ram
rea /
r
rya /
re

pacam

rt / ra

ah

rasya /

dvi-vacana
re
re
rbhym /
rabhym
rbhym /
rabhym
rbhym /
rabhym
rayo / ro

bahu-vacana
ri
ri
rai / rabhi
rebhya /
rabhya
rebhya /
rabhya
rm /

The change to viucakra by stra 230 is done instead of the change to by stra 173, because
stra 230 is a later rule. Jva Gosvm will personally say this in vtti 537.

saptam
sambodh
ana

ra
re / ri /
rai
ra

irm
rayo / ro

reu / rasu

re

ri

By jary jaras v sarvevare (213) the jara portion of the neuter word nirjara
(nectar) is optionally replaced by jaras1 when a viubhakti beginning with a
sarvevara follows:
nirjara + s[u] (222) nirjara + am (two options by 213):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjarasam <1.1>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 156) nirjaram <1.1>.
nirjara + au (two options by 213):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjaras + au (209) nirjaras <1.2>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 209) nirjara + (48) nirjare <1.2>.
It is considered that the substitution of jaras takes place before the application of
n[um].
AmtaThe words ubhayatrpi mean in the case that the replacement is made
and in the case when the replacement is not made. In the case that the
replacement is made, n[um] is not applied because the word nirjaras doesnt end
in a sarvevara or a vaiava. Someone may argue, When we have nirjara + []i,
n[um] will be applied regardless of whether the replacement is or isnt made.
Thus, because n[um] is nitya, it should be applied first (before the replacement).
This faulty understanding is dispelled by Kik as follows: numo vidhnj jarasdeo bhavati vipratiedhena (because there is conflict of two rules, the
substitution of jaras is done before the application of n[um]). If n[um] were
applied first, the substitution of jaras wouldnt be possible as n[um] would be
interrupting. Therefore, by the maxim viricito viur balavn, viuta sarvavirici (a viu is stronger than a virici, but a sarva-virici (the replacement of a
whole word) is stronger than a viu), the substitution of jaras should be done
first. Thus there is no contradiction.
230 / @ivaSNAupad"Antasya nasya masya ca ivaSNAucaM( vaESNAvae /
230. aviupadntasya nasya masya ca viucakra vaiave
a-viupada-antasyanot at the end of a viupada; nasyaof na-rma; masya
of ma-rma; caand; viucakramthe replacement viucakra; vaiave
when a vaiava follows.

In this regard, one should recall the explanation given in vtti 213.

Na-rma or ma-rma not at the end of a viupada become viucakra


when a vaiava follows.
nirjari nirjarsi. punas tadvat. buddhehe nirjara. he nirjarasam ity api kecit.
i-rmnto dadhi-abda.
Vtti
nirjara + [j]as (223) nirjara + []i (two options by 213):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjaras + []i (224, 225) nirjara + n[um] + s
+ []i
nirjarans + i (228) nirjarns + i (230) nirjarsi <1.3>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 224, 225) nirjara + n[um] + []i nirjaran +
i (228) nirjarni (173) nirjari <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case. When buddha follows the
form is he nirjara <8.1>. Some say the form is he nirjarasam <8.1>. Now we
begin the declension of the word dadhi (yogurt), a word ending in i-rma.
AmtaWhy do we say not at the end of a viupada? Consider sambhavati
and kra jayati. Why do we say when a vaiava follows? Consider manyate
and gamyate. From the third case onward the declension of nirjara is like that of a
masculine word, and that was already shown in vtti 213. In the opinion of those
who say the form should be he nirjarasam <8.1>, s[u] alone is called buddha, and
am which occupies the place of s[u] is not called buddha. Therefore, because am
doesnt disappear by e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (172), the subsitution
of jaras takes place and we get he nirjarasam <8.1>.
SaodhinRegarding nirjarsi <1.3>, it will be explained in Amta 286 that
the sat-saga referred to in vtti 228 with the phrase dhtu-varjita-snta-satsagasya is treated as if it were a single vara, otherwise the sarvevara coming
before it wouldnt be the uddhava and thus there would be the fault of
asambhava (impossibility) since a viujana cannot take trivikrama. Thus, when
we have nirjarans + []i, the sat-saga ns is treated as a single vara and thus arma is the uddhava. It should be understood, however, that this unusual
treatment of the sat-saga as a single vara only happens in relation to stra 228.
231 / ata: svamaAemaRh"Ah"r": /
231. brahmata sv-amor mahhara
brahmataafter a brahma; su-amoof the viubhaktis s[u] and am;
mahharamahhara.
After a brahma, the viubhaktis s[u] and am undergo mahhara.
dadhi. katha gokula? tatrkarat.

Vtti
dadhi + s[u] (231) dadhi <1.1>.
Well, how can there be gokulam <2.1>? Due to the very fact that this rule was
not made back then.
AmtaPractically this stra means after any brahma except one ending in arma, the viubhaktis s[u] and am undergo mahhara. Since the deleted am is
not sthni-vat because it undergoes mahhara, the insertion of n[uk] ordained in
the next stra cannot be applied. Regarding the phrase katha gokulam in the
vtti, only the second case singular is doubtful, because in the first case singular
the mahhara doesnt take place due to the ordainment of stra 222. The
meaning of the phrase tatrkarat is as follows: If, after a neuter word ending in
a-rma, am was supposed to undergo mahhara, then this rule should have been
made previously to comply with the promise asiddha-rpa na tyjyam (43). Thus,
because it wasnt made previously, it doesnt apply there. Therefore this stra
only applies to neuter words other than those that end in a-dvaya.
232 / aezAAntaAaufs$avaeRre" , na tvaAima /
232. brahmentn nuk sarvevare, na tv mi
brahma-a-anttafter a brahma that ends in an a; nukthe gama n[uk];
sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; nanot; tubut; miwhen the
viubhakti m follows.
The gama n[uk] is inserted after a brahma that ends in an a when
any viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara, except m, follows1.
u-kv itau. dadhin dadhni. punas tadvat.
VttiThe u and k are indicatory letters.
dadhi + au (209) dadhi + (232) dadhi + n[uk] + dadhin +
dadhin
<1.2>.
dadhi + [j]as (223) dadhi + []i (232) dadhi + n[uk] + []i dadhin
+ i (228)
dadhni <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case.
AmtaThis rule only applies in relation to viubhaktis, and not elsewhere.
Thus it doesnt apply in the case of the neuter word madhu + the tasyedam
taddhita pratyaya keava []a mdhavam.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 195).

SaodhinIn this regard, one should remember the following information from
vtti 167: kid-gama prva-sambandh (an gama which has the indicatory
letter k is connected with the previous element). Thus the gama n[uk] is added
onto the prakti and becomes part of it.
233 / d"iDa@isTas$aifTa@iazAbd"AnaAimar"Amasya @nq%Aid"s$avaeRre" /
233. dadhi-asthi-sakthi-aki-abdnm i-rmasya an di-sarvevare
dadhi-asthi-sakthi-aki-abdnmof the words dadhi (yogurt), asthi (a
bone), sakthi (the thigh), and aki (the eye); i-rmasyaof the i-rma; an
the replacement an; -di-sarvevarewhen any viubhakti beginning with a
sarvevara1, from [] onwards, follows.
The i of the words dadhi, asthi, sakthi, and aki is replaced by an when
any viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara, from [] onwards,
follows.
234 / @k{(SNAsTaAnas$avaeRr"Ae BagAvats$aMa: , tai"tae ya /
234. akasthna-sarvevaro bhagavat-saja, taddhite ya ca
a-kasthna-sarvevaraa sarvevara that is not a kasthna; bhagavatsajacalled bhagavat; taddhiteamong the taddhita pratyayas; yayarma; caand.
Any sv-di that is not a kasthna and that begins with a sarvevara
is called bhagavat. Similarly, any taddhita pratyaya that begins with a
sarvevara or ya-rma is also called bhagavat.
atra pinyn prakter bha-saj.
VttiIn this regard, the followers of Pini say that the prakti is called bha.
AmtaBecause of the word ca, a taddhita pratyaya beginning with a sarvevara
is also called bhagavat. According to the followers of Pini, only that prakti after
which a bhagavat is ordained is called bha.
235 / vamas$ats$ah"InasyaAnaAe'r"Amah"r"Ae BagAvaita , na tau yae ,
wRx~YaAestau vaA /
235. va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyno -rma-haro bhagavati, na tu ye, -yos tu v

In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 195).

va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyawithout a sat-saga containing v or m; anaof the an


portion of a word ending in an; a-rma-haradeletion of a-rma; bhagavati
when a bhagavat follows; nanot; tubut; yewhen a taddhita pratyaya
beginning with ya-rma follows; -yowhen or []i follow; tubut; v
optionally.
The a of the an portion of a word ending in an is deleted when a
bhagavat follows, provided the an portion isnt preceded by sat-saga
containing v or m. However, the a of the an portion is not deleted when a
taddhita pratyaya beginning with y follows, and it is onl optionally
deleted when or []i follow.
dadhn dadhibhym dadhibhi. dadhne dadhibhym dadhibhya ity-di. au
dadhni dadhani.
Vtti
dadhi + [] (233) dadhan + (235) dadhn + dadhn <3.1>.
dadhi + bhym dadhibhym <3.2>.
dadhi + bhis (155) dadhibhi <3.3>.
dadhi + []e (233) dadhan + e (235) dadhn + e dadhne <4.1>.
dadhi + bhym dadhibhym <4.2>.
dadhi + bhyas (155) dadhibhya <4.3>.
When []i is applied we get dadhni <7.1> or dadhani <7.1>:
dadhi + []i (233) dadhan + i (two options by 235):
1) (the a of an is deleted) dadhni <7.1>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) dadhani <7.1>.
AmtaThe word ana (of an) actually means of the an portion of a word
ending in an. In the word -yo, the refers to the arrived at by rdhbrahmabhym au (209), and the []i of course refers to the seventh case
singular ending. However the can also refer to the taddhita pratyaya [p], and
thus we get rj, un, and so on. Why do we say when a bhagavat follows?
Consider rjnau <1.2>. Why do we say but not when a taddhita pratyaya
beginning with y follows? Consider rjanya.
SaodhinFor the declension of words ending in an which have a sat-saga
containing v or m, see Saodhin 260 and vtti 298.
236 / aNAAe gAAeivand"Ae vaA baue" /

236. brahmao govindo v buddhe


brahmaaof a brahma; govindagovinda; voptionally; buddhewhen
buddha follows.
A brahma optionally takes govinda when buddha follows.
he dadhe he dadhi. eva asthi-sakthi-aki. atikrnta dadhi yena yay vatidadhn goplena goply v. sva-bhvato brahmaiva dadhi-abdo ghyate. tato
dadhtti dadhi, tenadadhin. i-rmasyeti kim? padmkea. vri vri
vri. vri vri vri. vri vribhym vribhi. vrie ity-di. vrm.
madhu madhun madhni.
Vtti
dadhi + s[u] (two options by 236):
1) (govinda is done) dadhe + s[u] (172) dadhe <8.1>.
2) (govinda isnt done, 172) dadhi <8.1>.
case

eka-vacana

pratham
dvity

dadhi
dadhi

tty

dadhn

caturth

dadhne

pacam

dadhna

ah

dadhna
dadhni /
dadhani

saptam
sambodh
ana

dadhi / dadhe

dvivacana
dadhin
dadhin
dadhibhy
m
dadhibhy
m
dadhibhy
m
dadhno

bahuvacana
dadhni
dadhni
dadhibhya

dadhibhya

dadhnm

dadhno

dadhiu

dadhin

dadhni

dadhibhi

The words asthi, sakthi and aki are declined in the same way. In the masculine
gender we get ati-dadhn goplena (by a gopla who surpasses yogurt), the
vigraha of the word ati-dadhn <3.1> being atikrnta dadhi yena, and in the
feminine gender we get atidadhn goply (by a gopl who surpasses yogurt),
the vigraha of the word ati-dadhn <3.1> being atikrnta dadhi yay. The word
dadhi is accepted only when it is naturally neuter. Thus when we have the word
dadhi, a word which is naturally masculine and which means dadhti (one who
holds), we get tena dadhin (by he who holds). Why (in stra 233) do we say irmasya? Consider padmkea <3.1>. Now we begin the declension of the word
vri (water):
vri + s[u] (231) vri <1.1>.

vri + au (209) vri + (232) vri + n[uk] + vrin + vrin


(173) vri
<1.2>.
vri + [j]as (223) vri + []i (232) vri + n[uk] + i vrin + i
(228) vrni
(173) vri <1.3>.
vri + am (231) vri <2.1>.
vri + au (209) vri + (232) vri + n[uk] + vrin + vrin
(173) vri
<2.2>.
vri + []as (223) vri + []i (232) vri + n[uk] + i vrin + i
(228) vrni
(173) vri <2.3>.
vri + [] (232) vri + n[uk] + vrin (173) vri <3.1>.
vri + bhym vribhym <3.2>.
vri + bhis (155) vribhi <3.3>.
vri + []e (232) vri + n[uk] + e vrine (173) vrie <4.1>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
vri
vri

tty

vri

caturth

vrie

pacam

vria

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

vria
vrii
vri /
vre

dvivacana
vri
vri
vribhy
m
vribhy
m
vribhy
m
vrio
vrio
vri

bahuvacana
vri
vri
vribhi
vribhya
vribhya
vrm
vriu
vri

Now we begin the declension of the word madhu (honey):


madhu + s[u] (231) madhu <1.1>.
madhu + au (209) madhu + (232) madhu + n[uk] + madhun
+ madhun <1.2>.

madhu + [j]as (223) madhu + []i (232) madhu + n[uk] + i


madhun + i
(228) madhni <1.3>.
case

eka-vacana

pratham
dvity

madhu
madhu

tty

madhun

caturth

madhune

pacam

madhuna

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

madhuna
madhuni
madhu /
madho

dvivacana
madhun
madhun
madhubhy
m
madhubhy
m
madhubhy
m
madhuno
madhuno

bahuvacana
madhni
madhni
madhubhy
a
madhubhy
a
madhnm
madhuu

madhun

madhni

madhubhi

AmtaSomeone may wonder, When we have the word ati-dadhi followed by


[] in the masculine gender, why dont we get ati-dadhin <3.1> just like we got
ati-gopin <3.1> in vtti 218, and in the feminine gender why dont we get atidadhy <3.1> just like we got priya-hary <3.1> in vtti 215? Why dont the
grammatical operations prescribed for haris apply here? This is explained as
follows: Because the word brahmai (in the neuter gender) was not specifically
mentioned in stra 233, the rule thus applies to the words dadhi, asthi, sakthi,
and aki even when they are used in a gender other than the neuter gender, and
the grammatical operations prescribed for haris dont apply to them. But the
grammatical operations prescribed for haris apply to the words vri, madhu, and
so on when they are used in a gender other than the neuter gender. This is in
accordance with the phrase nmn tu kvacit in the rule of tad-anta (vtti 213).
The word dadhi which means dadhti (one who holds) is formed by applying the
kt pratyaya [k]i after the dhtu [u]dh[] dhraa-poaayo (3U, to hold,
make; to support, bestow)
by dh-k-s-jani-gami-namibhya ki (). The masculine word padmka is a
ptmbara-samsa whose vigraha is padme iva aki yasya (one whose eyes
are like lotus flowers). To form this word the taddhita pratyaya called keavrma was applied by svgbhym aki-sakthibhym () and the i of the word aki
was deleted by sasra-haro bhagavati (). Similarly, the words drga-saktha (one
who has long thighs), asaktha (one who has no thighs), and so on also dont
undergo the change to an by stra 233.
237 / aAntaiaiva(masya vaAmana: /
237. brahmnta-trivikramasya vmana

brahma-anta-trivikramasyaa trivikrama situated at the end of a brahma


(neuter word); vmanavmana.
A trivikrama at the end of a brahma becomes vmana.
viva-ni viva-nin viva-nni. gokulbhym ity-dau tu na vmana, trivikramavidher ubhayritatvena bahiragatvt kvacid antarage krye kriyame tadanimitta bahiragam asiddha syt iti vakyama-nyyena tatrkaraena v.
Vtti viva-n + s[u] (237) viva-ni + s[u] (231) viva-ni <1.1>.
viva-n + au (237) viva-ni + au (209) viva-ni + (232) vivani + n[uk] + viva-nin + viva-nin <1.2>.
viva-n + [j]as (237) viva-ni + [j]as (223) viva-ni + []i (232)
viva-ni + n[uk] + i viva-nin + i (228) viva-nni <1.3>.
But in gokulbhym <3.2> and so on, the change to vmana doesnt take place
in accordance with the future maxim kvacid antarage krye kriyame tadanimitta bahiragam asiddha syt (vtti 260) because the rule of trivikrama
(stra 160) is bahiraga due to being ubhayrita. Or else the change to vmana
by the current stra doesnt take place due to the very fact that this rule not
made back then.
AmtaIn this regard, it is explained in the text that the rule of vmana (the
current stra) is an antaraga-krya because it is prakty-rita (see vtti 211),
whereas the rule of trivikrama is bahiraga. When the change to vmana is done,
the change to trivikrama is asiddha. Who then can possibly apply the change to
vmana? Therefore because it is meaningless, the change to vmana doesnt take
place. With the phrase tatrkaraena, Jva Gosvm gives an alternative reason
for why the change to vmana doesnt take place in gokulbhym <2.3> and so
on.
SaodhinThe rule of trivikrama is considered asiddha in regard to the rule of
vmana. That is to say its application is suspended until after the rule of vmana
has its chance to be applied, and because the rule of vmana requires a neuter
word ending in a trivikrama it cannot actually apply to the word gokula. Thus at
the stage when the rule of vmana had its chance to be applied, it was not
applicable, thus when the rule of trivikrama is later applied, the rule of vmana
cannot again be applied over the top.
238 / s$amaAnaATaRtayaA pau&SaAeamataAhR"maIzAAntaM a
pau&SaAeamava"A q%Aid"s$avaeRre" /

238. samnrthatay puruottamatrham nta brahma puruottama-vad v


di-sarvevare
samna-arthataybecause it has the same meaning; puruottamat-arhamfit
for the masculine gender; a-antamending in an a; brahmaa brahma;
puruottama-vadlike a puruottama (masculine word); voptionally; -disarvevarewhen any viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara1, from []
onwards, follows.
A brahma ending in an a which is fit for the masculine gender because
it has the same meaning (in both the neuter and masculine genders) is
optionally declined like a puruottama when any viubhakti beginning
with a sarvevara, from [] onwards, follows.
viva-ny viva-nin. miviva-ny viva-nnm. atra puruottame brahmai
ca viva-prerakatvam samnam. asamnrthatve tu pusi vke yathplave
brahmai phale ca tath na, kintu kevala plune. prvatra tad-vkatvam
uttaratra taj-jtatvam ity artha-bheda. ka-rai-abdasya vmana i-rma eva;
yata,
Vtti viva-n + [] (two options by 238):
1) (declined like a puruottama, 196) viva-ny <3.1>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 237) viva-ni + [] (232) viva-ni +
n[uk] +
viva-nin + viva-nin <3.1>.
viva-n + m (two options by 238):
1) (declined like a puruottama, 196) viva-nym <6.3>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 237) viva-ni + m (167) viva-ni +
n[u] + m viva-ni + nm (169) viva-nnm <6.3>.
But not when the brahma ending in an a doesnt have the same meaning (in
both the neuter and masculine genders). For example, when, in the masculine
gender, the word plu denotes a tree, we get the form plave <4.1>. But when, in
the neuter gender, the word plu denotes a fruit, we cannot get the same form
plave <4.1>, instead we only get plune <4.1>. The difference in meaning is
that in the first instance the word plu refers to the Plu tree, while in the second
instance the word plu refers to the fruit produced from the Plu tree. In the
neuter gender, when, by stra 237, the word ka-rai becomes vmana, it
becomes i-rma only. Because:
AmtaWords which undergo a change to iy or uv also follow this rule. The
vigraha of the neuter word ka-bh is kasya bhr janma yatra tat kabh gokulam (the place where Ka takes birth, namely Gokula) and the forms
are ka-bhuv <3.1> (like the masculine form achieved by stra 198) or
ka-bhun <3.1> (the neuter form achieved by stras 237 and 232), and so on.
Similarly, the forms of the neuter word priya-r, which denotes Vndvana, are
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 195).

priya-riy <3.1> (like the masculine form achieved by stra 195) or priya-ri
(the neuter form achieved by stras 237, 232, and 173), and so on.
239 / WWesTaAnae wr"Ama: , @Ae@AEsTaAnae or"AmaAe vaAmana: syaAta, /
239. e-ai-sthne i-rma, o-au-sthne u-rmo vmana syt
e-ai-sthnein the place of e-rma and ai-rma; i-rmai-rma; o-au-sthnein
the place of o-rma and au-rma; u-rmau-rma; vmanavmana; syt
should be.
The vmana for e and ai is i-rma, and the vmana for o and au is urma.
ka-ri ka-ri ka-ri. ka-ry ka-ri. eka-dea-viktam ananyavatka-rbhym. ka-rym, sa-bhor anyatra ntvamka-rm.
mo ka-r ka-rm ity eva jumara-matam. mi tu ka-rm
ity evojjvala-datta-matam. ye viujandi-viubhakti-mtre py tva tem
api sannipta-lakaatvena ntvam iti prakriy-krea tan na ghtam.
sannipta-lakaa vakyate.
su-dyo-abdasyasu-dyu su-dyun su-dyni. dausu-dyav su-dyun.
he su-dyo he su-dyu. kartpthak-vidhnena brahma-kryasya balavattvn na
vndra, kart karti. daukartr kart. he karta he kart. eva
priya-krou priya-kroun priya-kroni. atrpi t-bhva iti tasy
bhrama. t-bhvt prva vipratiedhena num-nuau bhavata iti kik.
paratvn num kro-bhvo bdhyate iti pada-candrik. gama-vidhir
balavn iti ktantro vistara ca. priys tisro yasmin gokule tat priya-tri.
mahharatve pi tis-bhva kikdau dyatepriya-tis. yady eva tarhi
viubhaktv ity asya pratyudharaa tu tritvam iti taddhitdv eva jeyam.
priya-tis priya-tisi. priya-tisr priya-tis. asi-asopriya-tisra, ravidhnasya nityatvt. eva priya-catas. vistara-kras tu vikalpayati. tena priyatri priya-catur ity api. snv-di-abdn svata eva dvi-ligat, snune snave.
snu prastha snur astriym ity amara. madhu-abdnantaram evam ambusnv-daya iti prakriy tu cinty. iti sarvevarnt brahma-lig
Vtti ka-rai + s[u] (237, 239) ka-ri + s[u] (231) ka-ri <1.1>.
ka-rai + au (237, 239) ka-ri + au (209) ka-ri + (232)
ka-ri + n[uk] +
ka-rin + ka-rin (173) ka-ri
<1.2>.
ka-rai + [j]as (237, 239) ka-ri + [j]as (223) ka-ri + []i
(232) ka-ri + n[uk] + i ka-rin + i (228) ka-rni (173) ka-ri
<1.3>.
ka-rai + [] (237, 239) ka-ri + [] (two options by 238):

1) (declined like a puruottama, nimittpye naimittikasypy apya)


ka-rai + [] (64) ka-ry <3.1>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 232) ka-ri + n[uk] + ka-rin
+ karin (173) ka-ri <3.1>.
By the maxim eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat (vtti 146) we get ka-rbhym
<3.2>:
ka-rai + bhym (237, 239) ka-ri + bhym (205) karbhym <3.2>.
But the change to by stra 205 doesnt take place when something other than a
viubhakti beginning with sa-rma or bha-rma follows:
ka-rai + m (237, 239) ka-ri + m (two options by 238):
1) (declined like a puruottama, nimittpye naimittikasypy apya)
ka-rai + m (64) ka-rym <6.3>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 167) ka-ri + n[u] + m ka-ri
+ nm (169) ka-rnm (173) ka-rm <6.3>.
In the opinion of Jumara, the author of Rasavat, a major commentary on the
Sakipta-sra-vykaraa, the forms should only be ka-r <3.1> and
ka-rm <6.3> when [] and m follow. In the opinion of Ujjvala Datta, the
author of the Udi-stra-vtti, the form should only be ka-rm <6.3> when
m follows. Even in the opinion of those who say the change to should take
place even when a mere viubhakti beginning with a viujana follows, the
change to shouldnt take place when there is sannipta-lakaa (the quality of
causality). Therefore Rmacandra crya, the author of Prakriy-kaumud,
doesnt accept the change to in these cases. Sannipta-lakaa will be
described later in vtti 547.
AmtaThe sannipta-lakaa is described in vtti 547 as follows: ya dv
yasyotpatti sa tasya sannipta. sannipta-lakao vidhir animitta tadvightya (when upon the ascertainment of one thing there is application of
another, that second thing is in relation (sannipta) to the first thing. A rule
characterized by this causal relation doesnt cause the disappearance of the thing
upon which it is based). Here n[uk] and n[u] are applied based on the existence
of i-rma (in ka-ri). Therefore n[uk] and n[u] do not cause the disappearance
of i-rma by allowing the change to 1.
VttiThe forms of the neuter word su-dyo are as follows:
su-dyo + s[u] (237, 239) su-dyu + s[u] (231) su-dyu <1.1>.
1

One should remember that this argument is in regard to the opinion of those who say the change
to should take place even when a mere viubhakti beginning with a viujana follows. Thus
n[uk] and n[um] would be causes for the change to .

su-dyo + au (237, 239) su-dyu + au (209) su-dyu + (232) sudyu + n[uk] + su-dyun + su-dyun <1.2>.
su-dyo + [j]as (237, 239) su-dyu + [j]as (223) su-dyu + []i (232)
su-dyu + n[uk] + i su-dyun + i (228) su-dyni <1.3>.
su-dyo + [] (237, 239) su-dyu + [] (two options by 238):
1) (declined like a puruottama, nimittpye naimittikasypy apya) sudyo + []
(65) su-dyav <3.1>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 232) su-dyu + n[uk] + su-dyun +
su-dyun
<3.1>.
su-dyo + s[u] (237, 239) su-dyu + s[u] (two options by 236):
1) (govinda is done) su-dyo + s[u] (172) su-dyo <8.1>.
2) (govinda isnt done, 172) su-dyu <8.1>.
When the word kart (doer) is used in the neuter gender, its forms are as
follows:
kart + s[u] (231) kart <1.1>.
Because the brahma-krya (stra 232) is stronger since it is ordained separately,
the change to vndra by stra 203 doesnt take place:
kart + au (209) kart + (232) kart + n[uk] + kartn +
kartn (173) kart <1.2>.
kart + [j]as (223) kart + []i (232) kart + n[uk] + i kartn + i
(228)
kartni (173) karti <1.3>.
kart + [] (two options by 238):
1) (declined like a puruottama, 61) kartr <3.1>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 232) kart + n[uk] + kartn +
kartn (173) kart <3.1>.
kart + s[u] (two options by 236):
1) (govinda is done) kartar + s[u] (202) kartar (155) karta <8.1>.
2) (govinda isnt done, 172) kart <8.1>.
case

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

pratham
dvity

kart
kart
kart /
kartr

kart
kart

bahuvacana
karti
karti

kartbhym

kartbhi

tty

caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

karte /
kartre
karta /
kartu
karta /
kartu
karti /
kartari
kart / karta

kartbhym

kartbhya

kartbhym

kartbhya

karto /
kartro
karto /
kartro
kart

kartm
kartu
karti

Similarly, because the brahma-krya (stra 232) is stronger since it is ordained


separately, the change to t by stra 239 doesnt take place. Thus the forms of
the neuter word priya-krou are as follows:
priya-krou + s[u] (231) priya-krou <1.1>.
priya-krou + au (209) priya-krou + (232) priya-krou +
n[uk] +
priya-kroun + priya-kroun <1.2>.
priya-krou + [j]as (223) priya-krou + []i (232) priya-krou +
n[uk] + i
priya-kroun + i (228) priya-krotni <1.3>.
The following statement of Prakriy-kaumud is a bhrama: atrpi t-bhva (the
change to t also applies here). Kik says t-bhvt prva vipratiedhena
num-nuau bhavata (because there is conflict of two rules, n[um] and n[u] are
applied before the change to t can take place). Pada-candrik says paratvn
num kro-bhvo bdhyate (because it is a later rule, the application of n[um]
blocks the change to kro). Ktantra-vistara says gama-vidhir balavn (an
gama rule is stonger). Now we begin the declension of the neuter word priya-tri
a word whose vigraha is priys tisro yasmin gokule tat priya-tri (that place
(Gokula) in which three (feminine) are dear). It is seen in Kik and other works
that even when there is mahhara of the viubhakti (as by stra 231) the
change to tis (by stra 216) still takes place:
priya-tri + s[u] (231) priya-tri (216) priya-tis <1.1>.
If this is the case then the counterexample given for the word viubhaktau (in
stra 216), namely tritvam, should be understood in relation merely to the
taddhita pratyayas and so on.
priya-tri + au (216) priya-tis + au (209) priya-tis + (232)
priya-tis + n[uk]
+ priya-tisn + priya-tisn (173) priya-tis
<1.2>.

priya-tri + [j]as (216) priya-tis + [j]as (223) priya-tis + []i


(232)
priya-tis + n[uk] + i priya-tisn + i (228) priya-tisni (173) priyatisi <1.3>.
priya-tri + [] (216) priya-tis + [] (two options by 238):
1) (declined like a puruottama, 217) priya-tisr <3.1>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 232) priya-tis + n[uk] + priyatisn + priyatisn (173) priya-tis <3.1>.
When []as[i] or []as follow, the puruottama-vat form is priya-tisra <5.1> /
<6.1> because the rule ordaining the change to r (stra 217) is nitya:
priya-tri + []as[i] (216) priya-tis + []as[i] (two options by 238):
1) (declined like a puruottama, 217) priya-tisras (155) priya-tisra
<5.1>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 232) priya-tis + n[uk] + as priyatisn + as
priya-tisnas (173) priya-tisas (155) priya-tisa
<5.1>.
priya-tri + []as (216) priya-tis + []as (two options by 238):
1) (declined like a puruottama, 217) priya-tisras (155) priya-tisra
<6.1>.
2) (not declined like a puruottama, 232) priya-tis + n[uk] + as priyatisn + as
priya-tisnas (173) priya-tisas (155) priya-tisa
<6.1>.
Similarly, we get priya-catas <1.1>:
priya-catur + s[u] (231) priya-catur (216) priya-catas <1.1>.
Vardhamna Mira, the author of Ktantra-vistara, says that the change to tis
and catas is optional thus we also get priya-tri <1.1> and priya-catu <1.1>.
The words headed by snu (table land) are naturally declined in two genders, as
is seen in the following statement of Amara-koa: snu prastha snur astriym
(the words snu, prastha, and snu... when not in feminine gender). Thus snave
(masculine <4.1> form) or snune (neuter <4.1> form). But the statement that
Prakriy-kaumud makes after the declension of the word madhu, namely evam
ambu-snv-daya (the words ambu and snu are declined in the same way as
the word madhu) is highly questionable. Thus ends the declension of neuter
words ending a sarvevara.
AmtaThe neuter word su-nau is declined in the same way as su-dyo thus the
forms are su-nu <1.1>, su-nun <1.2>, su-nni <1.3>, su-nv <3.1>, su-nun
<3.1>, and so on. Jva Gosvm shows how the statement of Prakriy-kaumud
is a brahma by quoting the opinion of previous authorities. In the opinion of

Kik, due to Pinis stra vipratiedhe para kryam (Adhyy 1.4.2) only
n[um] and n[u] which are later operations are applied, and the change to t is
not not applied. In the opinion of Pada-candrik because n[um] is a later rule it is
applied in accordance with the maxim prva-parayo para-vidhir balavn (vtti
59). In the opinion of Ktantra-vistara, the application of n[uk] is stronger in
accordance with the maxim viricito viur balavn (vtti 220). Thus all of these
opinions prove our opinion and dismiss the opinion of Prakriy-kaumud.
In our opinion, because a grammatical operation caused by a pratyaya is not
applied when there is mahhara of that pratyaya, the form is just priya-tri <1.1> /
<2.1>. In other words, only when a viubhakti follows is it desirable that the
words tri and catur become tis and catas if they are in the feminine gender.
Even if as a part of a samsa they are in the feminine gender, the change is
desirable (for instance priys tisro yasmin gokule tat priya-tri), but not when they
are in any other gender. The missing words in the phrase asi-aso priya-tisra
are puruottama-vattva-pake (in the case that the declension is like that of a
puruottama). In the other case the form is priya-tisa. Someone may wonder,
In priya-tisra why wasnt u[c] applied by -rmato asi-asor asya uc (201)?
Jva Gosvm answers this with the phrase ra-vidhnasya nityatvt. The change
to r (by stra 217) is applied regardless of whether u[c] is applied or not.
Therefore stra 217 is nitya and thus it is stronger and is applied first (after which
there is no scope for stra 201). Someone may argue, In vtti 217 it was said
that the rule is an apavda of govinda, trivikrama, and u[c] (but not n[uk])
therefore u[c] is anyway not applied. Why then does Jva Gosvm bother
speaking the phrase ra-vidhnasya nityatvt here? The answer is that this phrase
forms the totality of the siddhnta. The word madhu is neuter while the words
headed by snu are both neuter and masculine. Therefore the statement of
Prakriy-kaumud is false.

Atha viujannt puruottama-lig.


Now we begin the declension of masculine words ending in a viujana.
tatra ca-rmnt kecana-abd vcya-lig. tatra pratyak. prati-prvd acudhto kvip-pratyaya. kvip-lopo na-lopa ca. yatva, tata pratyac-abdt svdaya.
Among the words ending in a viujana, some words ending in ca-rma are
vcya-liga (adjectival, sharing the gender of the substantive). Among such
words is the word pratyac (backward, western, inner). This word is formed by
applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after prati + ac[u] gati-pjanayo (1P, to go;
to worship). The kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is then deleted by stra and the n in ac[u]1
is deleted by stra 454. The i of prati becomes y by stra 59, and then the sv-dis
are applied after the word pratyac.
1

When, in a dhtu, a viucakra or hariveu comes before a vaiava, it is considered that the
viucakra or hariveu was originally na-rma. Thus the grammatical operations pertaining to narma are applied. For further details consult vtti 550.

240 / @catauBauRjaAnaubanDaAnaAM ca nauM k{(SNAsTaAnae /


240. aca caturbhujnubandhn ca nu kasthne
acaof the word ac (going); caturbhuja-anubandhnmof words whose
indicatory letter is a caturbhuja; caand; numthe gama n[um]; kasthne
when a kasthna follows.
When a kasthna follows, the gama n[um] is applied to words
ending in ac and words that have a caturbhuja as their indicatory letter.
rdh-viujanbhym iti sor hara.
VttiThen s[u] is deleted by rdh-viujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor
hara (202).
BlaThe word aca means of the word ac which results from applying the kt
pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu ac[u] gati-pjanayo and subsequently deleting
[k]vi[p] by kevalasya-pratyaya-ver hara () and na-rma by ani-rmet
viujanntnm uddhava-na-rma-hara kasrau (454).
AmtaThat the word ac (the kvib-anta form of the dhtu ac[u]) is mentioned
separately even though it is already included among the words that have a
caturbhuja as their indicatory letter, since it has the indicatory letter u, informs us
that the gama n[um] is applied only to those words which are not dhtus but
have a caturbhuja as their indicatory letter and that among the dhtus1 it is
applied only to ac[u] and not to any other dhtu. This will become clear later, in
vtti 286. One should not suspect, by the maxim nimittpye naimittikasypy
apya (vtti 245), that, when s[u] is deleted, n[um] disappears due to the
deletion of its nimitta in the form of a kasthna because the deleted s[u] is
sthni-vat since it only undergoes hara.
SaodhinExamples of words ending in ac are pratyac (backward, western,
inner), nyac (downward, humble), tiryac (horizontal, an animal), udac
(upward, northern), vivac (all-pervading), prc (eastern, previous), avc
(downward, southern), and so on.
Examples of words that have a caturbhuja as their indicatory letter are
bhagavat[u] (the Supreme Personality of Godhead), bhavat[u] (your good
self), aghavat[u] (sinful person), mahat[u] (great), hanumat[u] (Hanumn),
dhmat[u] (wise), vadat[] (saying), vasat[] (living), kurvat[] (doing),
and so on.
1

In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.

241 / tavagARsya cavagARvagARyaAegAe /


241. ta-vargasya ca-varga ca-varga-yoge
ta-vargasyaof ta-varga; ca-vargathe change to ca-varga; ca-varga-yoge
when there is conjuction with ca-varga.
When ta-varga is conjoined with ca-varga, ta-varga changes to ca-varga.
AmtaThis happens regardless of whether ta-varga is conjoined with ca-varga
that comes before it or ca-varga that comes after it. An example when it is
conjoined with ca-varga that comes before it is priya-paca <2.3> (see vtti
271). And in the case of pratyanc (pratyac with n[um] inserted), when ta-varga is
conjoined with ca-varga that comes after it, n changes to by the current stra
and we get pratyac.
242 / s$ats$aAntasya h"r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae /
242. sat-sagntasya haro viupadnte
sat-saga-antasyaof the last viujana of a sat-saga; haradeletion;
viupada-anteat the end of a viupada.
The final viujana in a sat-saga is deleted when it is at the end of a
viupada.
243 / cavagARsya k(vagAAeR ivaSNAupad"Antae , vaESNAvae tvas$avagAeR /
243. ca-vargasya ka-vargo viupadnte, vaiave tv asa-varge
ca-vargasyaof ca-varga; ka-vargathe change to ka-varga; viupada-ante
at the end of a viupada; vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; tubut; a-savargenot of the same varga.
Ca-varga changes to ka-varga when it is at the end of a viupada or
when a vaiava of a different varga follows.
pratya
Vtti
pratyac + s[u] (240, 225) pratya + n[um] + c + s[u] (202) pratyanc
(241)
pratyac (242) pratya (243) pratya <1.1>.
244 / ivaSNAujanasya i"tvaM vaA ivar"Amae /

244. viujanasya dvitva v virme


viujanasyaof a viujana; dvitvamreduplication; voptionally; virme
when there is virma (see explanation below).
A viujana can optionally be reduplicated when there is virma.
virmo para-vardaranam. pratya. sa-varge tupratyacau pratyaca.
pratyacam pratyacau. katha tac aure bhavagc ra? tatrkarat.
VttiVirma is the absence of subsequent varas.
pratya (244) pratya <optional 1.1 form>.
But when a vaiava of the same varga follows the change to ka-varga doesnt
take place:
pratyac + au (240, 225) pratya + n[um] + c + au (241)
<1.2>.

pratyacau

pratyac + [j]as (240, 225) pratya + n[um] + c + as (241) pratyacas


(155)
pratyaca <1.3>.
pratyac + am (240, 225) pratya + n[um] + c + am (241)
pratyacam <2.1>.
pratyac + au (240, 225) pratya + n[um] + c + au (241)
<2.2>.

pratyacau

Why doesnt the change to ka-varga by stra 243 take place in tac aure (vtti
103) and bhavagc ra (vtti 112)? Due to the very fact that that rule was not
made back then.
245 / @caAe'r"Amah"r"Ae BagAvaita , paUvaRsya iaiva(ma /
245. aco -rma-haro bhagavati, prvasya trivikrama ca
acaof the word ac (going); a-rma-haradeletion of a-rma; bhagavati
when a bhagavat follows; prvasyathe preceding vara; trivikrama
trivikrama; caand.
The a of ac is deleted when a bhagavat follows, and the preceding vara
becomes trivikrama.

nimittpye naimittikasypy apya iti nyyena ya-rmasya i-rmas tatas


trivikramapratca pratc.
VttiBy the maxim nimittpye naimittikasypy apya (when the cause
disappears, the effect also disappears) ya-rma reverts back to i-rma which
then becomes trivikrama.
pratyac + []as (245) pratic + as pratcas (155) pratca <2.3>.
pratyac + [] (245) pratic + pratc <3.1>.
SaodhinHere the cause (nimitta) is a-rma and the effect (naimittika) is yarma. The a of ac previously caused the i-rma of prati to become ya-rma, but
that is undone when a is deleted.
246 / paUvaRsya ivaSNAupad"vavaM svaAid"tai"tayaAer"yas$avaeRr"AAe: /
246. prvasya viupada-vattva svdi-taddhitayor aya-sarvevardyo
prvasyaof the prakti (see stra 149); viupada-vattvamtreatment like a
viupada; sv-di-taddhitayowhen a sv-di or taddhita pratyaya follows; a-yasarvevara-dyothat doesnt begin with ya-rma or a sarvevara.
When a sv-di or taddhita pratyaya that doesnt begin with y or
sarvevara follows, the prakti is treated as if it were a viupada.
pratyagbhym ity-di. ca-vargasyety-dau vaiava-grahaa kevala-dhtvartham, anyem api str tat-paryanta-vypter jpakam. eva prc. tath
pitrac ity asya asipitca. anantasyaiva trivikrama iti tasy bhrama, tadadhikra-nivtte. tiryactirya tiryacau tiryaca. tiryacam tiryacau.
Vtti pratyac + bhym (246, 243) pratyak + bhym (246, 96)
pratyagbhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
pratya
pratyaca
m

tty

pratc

caturth

pratce

pacam

pratca

ah

pratca

dvivacana
pratyacau

bahuvacana
pratyaca

pratyacau

pratca

pratyagbhy
m
pratyagbhy
m
pratyagbhy
m
pratco

pratyagbhi

pratyagbhy
a
pratyagbhy
a
pratcm

saptam
sambodh
ana

pratci

pratco

pratyaku

pratya

pratyacau

pratyaca

In the stra beginning ca-vargasya (stra 243) the mention of a vaiava is solely
for the sake of dhtus and it suggests that other stras also apply to dhtus. The
word prc (eastern, previous) is declined in the same way as pratyac. When
[]as follows, the word pitrac (bending towards the father) becomes pitca
<2.3> by stra 245:
pitrac + []as (245) pitc + as pitcas (155) pitca <2.3>.
The following statement of Prakriy-kaumud is a brahma because the adhikra
(carrying forward) of the word ananta has already ceased: anantasyaiva
trivikrama (only an ananta becomes trivikrama)1. Now we begin the declension
of the word tiryac (horizontal, an animal):
tiryac + s[u] (240, 225) tirya + n[um] + c + s[u] (202) tiryanc
(241)
tiryac (242) tirya (243) tirya <1.1>.
tiryac + au (240, 225) tirya + n[um] + c + au (241) tiryacau
<1.2>.
tiryac + [j]as (240, 225) tirya + n[um] + c + as (241) tiryacas
(155) tiryaca
<1.3>.
tiryac + am (240, 225) tirya + n[um] + c + am (241) tiryacam
<2.1>.
tiryac + au (240, 225) tirya + n[um] + c + au (241) tiryacau
<2.2>.
AmtaSomeone may argue, In pratyagbhym <3.2> there is already a
vaiava following. When the desired form can be achieved through that alone,
there is no point in ordaining that the prakti be treated like a viupada here. In
answer to that Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning ca-vargasya. The
meaning of this is as follows: The para-nimitta vaiave mentioned in stra 243
is only in relation to dhtus, and this mention of a vaiava suggests that other
stras in the Nma-prakaraa also apply to dhtus. The word pitrac, which means
pitaram acati (one who bends towards the father), is formed by applying the
kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after pit + the dhtu ac[u] gati-pjanayo.
SaodhinThis stra is an atidea because it ordains that the prakti should
be treated like a viupada. In this way it has ordained similarity to another and
1

If this were true then we could not make the form pitca <2.3>, rather we would only get
pitca <2.3> because -rma is not an ananta. Therefore, in showing the correct form, Jva
Gosvm is compelled to point out this fault.

thus fulfilled the definition anya-tulyatva-vidhnam atidea (see vtti 54).


Generally one can recognize an atidea-stra by the presence of the word vat
(like). One should not make the mistake of treating the prakti like a viupada
when s[u] follows because s[u] always gets deleted by rdh-viujanbhym
pa ca trivikramt sor hara (202) and then the viaya is naturally
viupadnta. Indeed Jva Gosvm himself makes this clear by first making
pratya <1.1> in vtti 243 and then only later introducing this stra to make
pratyagbhym <3.2>. If this stra were to be applied when s[u] follows, then he
should have given it back then.
247 / itayaRcaistar"i&d"ca od"IicaBaRgAvaita /
247. tiryacas tiracir udaca udcir bhagavati
tiryacaof the word tiryac; tiracithe replacement tirac[i]; udacaof the
word udac; udcithe replacement udc[i]; bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat
follows.
When a bhagavat follows, the word tiryac is replaced by tirac[i], and
the word udac is replaced by udc[i].
i-rma it. tiraca. tirac tiryagbhym tiryagbhi. eva udacuda udacam
udacau udca udc ity-di. kruc. kru krucau kruca. krucam krucau kruca.
kruc krubhym kruu. evam acu-pjrthe pratyaca prca. ovrasc
chedane dhtur dantya-madhya. o--rmv itau.
VttiThe i-rma is an indicatory letter.
tiryac + []as (247) tirac[i] + as (155) tiraca <2.3>.
tiryac + [] (247) tirac[i] + tirac <3.1>.
tiryac + bhym (246, 243) tiryak + bhym (246, 96) tiryagbhym
<3.2>.
tiryac + bhis (246, 243) tiryak + bhis (246, 96) tiryagbhis (155)
tiryagbhi <3.3>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
tirya
tiryacam

tty

tirac

caturth

tirace

dvivacana
tiryacau
tiryacau
tiryagbhy
m
tiryagbhy
m

bahuvacana
tiryaca
tiraca
tiryagbhi
tiryagbhya

tiraca
tiraci

tiryagbhy
m
tiraco
tiraco

tiryagbhya

tiracm
tiryaku

tirya

tiryacau

tiryaca

pacam

tiraca

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

The word udac (upward, northern) is declined in the same way:


udac + s[u] (240, 225) uda + n[um] + c + s[u] (202) udanc (241)
udac
(242) uda (243) uda <1.1>.
udac + am (240, 225) uda + n[um] + c + am (241) udacam <2.1>.
udac + au (240, 225) uda + n[um] + c + au (241) udacau <2.2>.
udac + []as (247) udc[i] + as (155) udca <2.3>.
udac + [] (247) udc[i] + udc <3.1>.

tty

udc

caturth

udce

pacam

udca

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

udca
udci

dvivacana
udacau
udacau
udagbhy
m
udagbhy
m
udagbhy
m
udco
udco

uda

udacau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
uda
udacam

bahuvacana
udaca
udca
udagbhi
udagbhya
udagbhya
udcm
udaku
udaca

Now be begin the declension of the word kruc (a kind of snipe):


kruc + s[u] (202) kruc (242) kru (243) kru <1.1>.
kruc + au krucau <1.2>.
kruc + [j]as (155) kruca <1.3>.
kruc + am krucam <2.1>.
kruc + au krucau <2.2>.

kruc + []as (155) kruca <2.3>.


kruc + [] kruc <3.1>.
kruc + bhym (246, 242) kru + bhym (246, 243) krubhym
<3.2>.
kruc + su[p] (246, 242) kru + su (246, 243) krusu (170) kruu
<7.3>.

tty

kruc

caturth

kruce

pacam

kruca

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

kruca
kruci

dvivacana
krucau
krucau
krubhy
m
krubhy
m
krubhy
m
kruco
kruco

kru

krucau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
kru
krucam

bahuvacana
kruca
kruca
krubhi
krubhya
krubhya
krucm
kruu
kruca

Similarly, when the dhtu ac[u] gati-pjanayo (1P, to go; to worship) is used in
the sense of pj (worship), we get pratyaca <2.3> and prca <2.3>:
pratyac + []as pratyacas (155) pratyaca <2.3>.
prc + []as prcas (155) prca <2.3>.
The dhtu [o]vrasc[] chedane (6P, to cut) has a dental vara in its midsection
(sa-rma in this case). The o and are indicatory letters.
AmtaThe word kruc is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the
dhtu kruc[a] kauilylp-bhvayo (1P, to be crooked, make crooked; to
become small, make small) with the irregularity that na-rma is not deleted by
stra 454. Regarding pratyaca <2.3>, the deletion of na-rma is prohibited by
ace pjy na-lopbhva (489). In this case neither n[um] nor the deletion of
the a of ac is applied since in stras 240 and 245 only the word ac, which is the
form of the dhtu ac[u] which has undergone deletion of na-rma, was used.
248 / s$asya zAvagARyaAegAe /

248. sasya a ca-varga-yoge


sasyaof sa-rma; athe replacement a-rma; ca-varga-yogewhen there is
conjuction with ca-varga.
When sa-rma is conjoined with ca-varga, sa-rma changes to a-rma.
tato vrac iti sthite tasya daitya-abda-prvasya kvip-pratyaya-lope ra-rmasya rmadaitya-vc. sor hara.
VttiThen, when (by applying the current stra) we have vrac, the kt
pratyaya [k]vi[p] which is applied after daitya + vrac is deleted by stra, the ra
of vrac becomes by stra 626, and we end up with the word daitya-vc
(demon-slasher). Then s[u] is deleted by stra 202.
AmtaThis happens regardless of whether sa-rma is conjoined with ca-varga
that comes before it or ca-varga that comes after it. In this case there is
conjuction with ca-varga that comes after sa-rma. An example when it is
conjoined with ca-varga that comes before sa-rma is acu (see vtti 252). The
ra-rma of vrac becomes -rma by grahi-jy-vayi-vyadhi-vai-vyaci-vracipracchi-bhrasjn sakaraa kasrau (624).
249 / C$zAAe r"AjyajaAjpair"aAjs$a{jma{jas$jaAM ca SaAe
ivaSNAupad"Antae vaESNAvae ca /
249. cha-o rj-yaj-bhrj-parivrj-sj-mj-bhrasj-vrac ca o viupadnte
vaiave ca
cha-oof cha-rma and a-rma; rj-yaj-bhrj-parivrj-sj-mj-bhrasj-vracm
of the dhtus rj[] dptau (1U, to shine, rule over), yaj[a] deva-pja-sagatikaraa-dneu (1U, to worship, sacrifice; to meet; to give), [u]bhrj[] dptau
(1A, to shine), parivrj (see explanation below), sj[a] visarge (4A or 6P, to
create, let loose), mj[] uddhau (2P, to clean, purify), bhrasj[a] pke (6U,
to roast, fry), and [o]vrac[] chedane (6P, to cut); caand; athe
replacement a-rma; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta;
vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; caand.
The final ch and of a dhtu1, and the final vara2 of the dhtus rj, yaj,
bhrj, parivrj, sj, mj, bhrasj, and vrac change to when the viaya is
viupadnta or when a vaiava follows.
atha naimittikpye dantya-madhya eva.
1

In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.
2
In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 105).

VttiThen, when the naimittika disappears, it again has a dental vara in its
midsection.
AmtaIn this regard, even though cha-rma becomes a-rma by chasya o
vasya h hariveau kvau kasri-vaiave ca (779), the further mention of charma in the current stra is for obtaining the forms pra (<1.1> form of
pracch[a] jpsym + t[l] or t[n]), praum (pracch[a] jpsym + tum[u]),
and so on. On the other hand the mention of the nimitta kasri-vaiave in
stra 779 is for obtaining the forms pa (<1.1> form of pracch[a] jpsym +
[k]ta), pavn (<1.1> form of pracch[a] jpsym + [k]tavat[u]), and so on.
Therefore the change to a-rma prescribed here only takes place when a
vaiava that is not a kasri follows.
Only the cha-rma and a-rma of a dhtu is taken by the mention of cha-o in
this stra. In the same way, in this stra the dhtu forms of the eight words
headed by rj are used. Examples sequentially are: pr1 <1.1> (one who
inquires), from the dhtu pracch[a] jpsym (6P, to ask, question), via-vi2
<1.1>(one who enters the lotus fibres), from the dhtu vi[a] praveane (6P,
to enter), samr <1.1> (emperor), deve <1.1> (one who worships the
gods), parivr <1.1> (one who wanders around as a religious mendicant),
viva-s <1.1> (creator of the world), mandira-m <1.1> (one who cleanses
the temple), dhn-bh <1.1> (one who roasts corn), and daitya-v <1.1>
(demon-slasher). Here the naimittika is a-rma, and the nimitta is ca-rma.
The mention of a vaiava here is also for the sake of dhtus (see vtti 246). Why
do we say when the viaya is viupadnta? Consider daitya-vcau <1.2>.
Why do way when a vaiava follows? Consider vcati <acyuta 1.1 of
[o]vrac[] chedane>.
SaodhinAll the dhtus mentioned here refer both to the dhtus proper and
to their kvib-anta forms (the nma formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p]
after the particular dhtu). This is because the kvib-anta forms are also
considered dhtus in accordance with vtti 195. Thus viupadnte is for the
kvib-anta forms rj and so on, while vaiave is for the proper dhtus rj[] and
so on. The only exception to this is parivrj which is formed by applying the kt
pratyaya []vi after pari + vraj[a] gatau (1P, to go) by tursh jalsh
phavh parivrj ity ete ca sdhava (). Parivrj is also considered a dhtu, but
pari + vraj[a], the dhtu proper, cannot undergo the change to a-rma
prescribed here because there is no possibility of a vaiava following since the
dhtu vraj[a] always takes i[]. This is also the case with the dhtus rj[] and
[u]bhrj[], since they also always take i[]. As confirmed by Amta, in this
stra, rj and so on are listed in their dhtu forms and not their kvib-anta forms as
the kvib-anta form of yaj[a] is ij, the kvib-anta form of bhrasj[a] is bhjj, and the
kvib-anta form of [o]vrac[] is vc. Again the exception here is parivrj which is
listed in its form ending with []vi.

1
2

The trivikrama here is by pracchdn trivikramo, na ca sakaraa ().


This should probably be bisa-vi as via is wrong for bisa according to MW.

One will also notice that in vtti 247 the dhtu was listed as [o]vrasc[], while in
this stra it is listed as vrac, and in the Dhtu-pha and all the commentaries it
is listed as [o]vrac[]. It is not that separate dhtus are being described here.
Rather, it is to be understood that Jva Gosvm often first mentions a dhtu in its
crudest form in a vtti when it comes time to make the forms of that dhtu, but
then, after that first mention, he later refers to the dhtu by citing its form after it
has undergone the change to ca-varga by ta-vargasya ca-varga ca-varga yoge
(241) or sasya a ca-varga-yoge (248). Indeed, with the exception of the dhtus
anj[a] sage, vanj[a] parivage, ranj[a] rg, and bhanj[o] mardane all the
dhtus are listed in the Dhtu-pha by citing their forms after they have
undergone the change to ca-varga, and one is just supposed to understand what
the crude form of the dhtus is by applying the rule na-rma-jv anusvrapacamau jhali dhtuu / sa-rma-ja a-rma ce ra-bhy us ta-varga-ja
(vtti 550). Another example of the same scenario is that in vtti 488 the dhtu is
listed as anc[u] gati-pjanayo, but later in strait is listed as ac and in the
Dhtu-pha it is listed as ac[u]. In this edition we will list the dhtu according to
how it is listed in the Dhtu-pha even though Jva Gosvm may sometimes
give the crude form of the dhtu in his vttis, for this is the method followed by
Amta and Bla.
250 / s$k(Ae: s$ats$aAAehR"r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae vaESNAvae ca /
250. s-ko sat-sagdyor haro viupadnte vaiave ca
s-koof sa-rma and ka-rma; sat-saga-dyosituated at the beginning of a
sat-saga; haradeletion; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta;
vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; caand.
An s or k at the beginning of a sat-saga is deleted when the viaya is
viupadnta or when a vaiava follows.
AmtaExamples of when a vaiava follows are abhrkt <bhtea pa. 1.1 of
bhrasj[a] pke> and amkt <bhtea pa. 1.1 of [u]masj[a] uddhau>. Why
do we say situated at the beginning of a sat-saga? Consider abhrkt (same
as above) and hista <acyuta pa. 1.2 of his[i] hisym>. Why do we say when
the viaya is viupadnta? Consider pratyaku <7.3>. Why do we say when a
vaiava follows? Consider vakyati <kalki pa. 1.1 of vac[a] paribhae> and
ikate <acyuta t. 1.1 of ik[a] vidyopdne>.
SaodhinAgain, the mention of a vaiava here is for the sake of dhtus
(see vtti 246). In Amta, abhrkt is first given as an example of when a
vaiava follows because the s of bhrasj is deleted by the current stra while the j
becomes k by stras 243 and 98, but then abhrkt is given again as a
counterexample of the phrase sat-sagdyo because, even though a vaiava
follows, k is not deleted as it is not at the beginning of the sat-saga rk.

251 / Sasya x"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae h"ir"GaAeSae ca /


251. asya o viupadnte harighoe ca
asyaof a-rma; athe replacement a-rma; viupada-antewhen the
viaya is viupadnta; harighoewhen a harighoa follows; caand.
becomes when the viaya is viupadnta or when a harighoa
follows.
SaodhinThe mention of a harighoa here is for the sake of dhtus (see vtti
246). An example of when a harighoa follows is akhvam <bhtea t. 2.3 of
k[a] vilekhane karae ca>.
252 / ivaSNAud"As$asya h"ir"k(malaM vaA ivar"Amae /
252. viudsasya harikamala v virme
viudsasyaof viudsa; harikamalamthe replacement harikamala; v
optionally; virmewhen there is virma (absence of subsequent varas).
A viudsa optionally becomes a harikamala when there is virma.
daitya-v daitya-v, daitya-vcau daitya-vca. daitya-vbhy daityavsu. jala-muc. sat-sagnta-hareaiva su-lopa-siddhau rdh-viujanbhym
ity atra viujana-grahaa-balt ntra s-kor iti harajala-muk jala-mug jalamucau jala-muca. jala-mugbhym. piny pratyhra-vcinm acabddn u-na-anukaraasya ca na ka-vargditvam. ac acau aca. acbhym.
sasya aacu. chatve, acchu. u uau ua. yadu-rj, yadu-r yadu-r yadurjau yadu-rja. bhrasj-dhto kvipi bhjjbh bh bhjjau bhjja.
Vtti
daitya-vc + s[u] (202) daitya-vc (249) daitya-vs1 (250)
daitya-v (251)
daitya-v (252) daitya-v <1.1> or daitya-v
<1.1>.
daitya-vc + au daitya-vcau <1.2>.
daitya-vc + [j]as (155) daitya-vca <1.3>.
daitya-vc + bhym (246, 249) daitya-vs + bhym (246, 250)
daitya-v +
bhym (246, 251) daitya-vbhym <3.2>.

In this regard, one should remember the maxim nimittpye naimittikasypy apya (vtti 245).
Here the nimitta is ca-rma and the naimittika is a-rma.

daitya-vc + su[p] (246, 249) daitya-vs + su (246, 250) daityav + su


(246, 251) daitya-v + su (98) daitya-vsu <7.3>.
case

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

pratham

daitya-v /
daitya-v

daitya-vcau

dvity

daitya-vcam

daitya-vcau

tty

daitya-vc

caturth

daitya-vce

pacam

daitya-vca

ah

daitya-vca

daitya-vco

daitya-vci
daitya-v /
daitya-v

daitya-vco

saptam
sambodh
ana

daityavbhym
daityavbhym
daityavbhym

daitya-vcau

bahuvacana
daityavca
daityavca
daityavbhi
daityavbhya
daityavbhya
daityavcm
daitya-vsu
daityavca

Now be begin the declension of the word jala-muc (shedding water, a cloud).
Although the deletion of s[u] could be accomplished by stra 242 alone, on the
strength of the mention of a viujana in stra 202 the deletion of s[u] takes
place by stra 202, and thus stra 250 is not applicable here.
jala-muc + s[u] (202) jala-muc (243) jala-muk (96) jala-mug
(252) jala-muk <1.1> or jala-mug <1.1>.
jala-muc + au jala-mucau <1.2>.
jala-muc + [j]as (155) jala-muca <1.3>.
jala-muc + bhym (246, 243) jala-muk + bhym (246, 96) jalamugbhym <3.2>.
The followers of Pini say that the words ac and so on which indicate pratyhra1
dont undergo the change to ka-varga and so on. Nor do the avyayas u[] and
na[], and nor do imitative words (anukaraas).
ac + s[u] (202) ac <1.1>.
ac + au acau <1.2>.
1

For definition look under the heading pratyhra-stras in Saodhin 1.

ac + [j]as (155) aca <1.3>.


ac + bhym acbhym <1.3>.
Sa-rma becomes a-rma (by stra 248):
ac + su[p] (248) acu <7.3>.
In the case that the change to cha-rma is made by stra 99:
acu <7.3> (99) acchu <7.3>.
u + s[u] (202) u <1.1>.
u + au uau <1.2>.
u + [j]as (155) ua <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word yadu-rj (king of the Yadus):
yadu-rj + s[u] (202) yadu-rj (249) yadu-r (251) yadu-r
(252) yadu-r <1.1> or yadu-r <1.1>.
yadu-rj + au yadu-rjau <1.2>.
yadu-rj + [j]as (155) yadu-rja <1.3>.
case

eka-vacana

dvity

yadu-r /
yadu-r
yadu-rjam

tty

yadu-rj

caturth

yadu-rje

pacam

yadu-rja

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

yadu-rja
yadu-rji
yadu-r /
yadu-r

pratham

dvi-vacana

bahuvacana

yadu-rjau

yadu-rja

yadu-rjau
yadurbhym
yadurbhym
yadurbhym
yadu-rjo
yadu-rjo

yadu-rja
yadurbhi
yadurbhya
yadurbhya
yadu-rjm
yadu-rsu

yadu-rjau

yadu-rja

When the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after the dhtu bhrasj[a] pke (6U, to
roast, fry) we get the word bhjj (one who fries / roasts).

bhjj + s[u] (202) bhjj (249) bhs (250) bh (251) bh


(252) bh <1.1> or bh <1.1>.
bhjj + au bhjjau <1.2>.
bhjj + [j]as (155) bhjja <1.3>.
AmtaWhy do we say viudsasya? Consider pratya <1.1>. Why do we say
virme? Consider daitya-vbhym <3.2>. Someone may wonder, When we
have jala-muc + s[u] and ca-rma becomes ka-rma by stra 243, why isnt k
deleted by stra 250 before the deletion of s[u] can take place? In answer to this,
Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning sat-sagnta. If s[u] which comes
after a viujana were deleted by sat-sagntasya haro viupadnte vaiave ca
(242) then the mention of a viujana in rdh-viujanbhym pa ca
trivikramt sor hara (202) would be pointless. Thus, on the strength of the
mention of a viujana the deletion of s[u] which comes after a viujana is done
first by stra 202, and then ka-rma is no longer in sat-saga with s[u]. Stra 242
is bahiraga because it is bahv-rita, while stra 250 is antaraga because it is svalprita1. Thus if the mention of a viujana were not made then we would get
the unwanted form jala-mu <1.1> because stra 242 would be applied as an
antaraga rule is stronger. In the word bhjj (kvib-anta form of bhrasj[a] pke), the
sakaraa takes place by grahi-jy-vayi-vyadhi-vai-vyaci-vraci-pracchibhrasjn sakaraa kasrau (624) and the s changes to j by sasya jo je na tu
vaiave (491). Therefore, in the formation of bh / bh <1.1>, when bhjj
undergoes the change to by stra 249 and the nimitta j thus disappears, the
naimittika j reverts back to s.
SaodhinThe word sva-rj (self-ruling, independent) is declined in the
same way as yadu-rj. Thus we get sva-r <1.1> in Bhgavatam 1.1.1.
253 /
aijd"z{"Za{itvajauiSNAh."d"Da{Sanaud"k(paUvaRs$pa{ztaA{"izAtyaAd"InaAM
k(Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae /
253. sraj di d tvij uih dadh anudaka-prva-sp td ity-dn ko
viupadnte
sraj di d tvij uih dadh an-udaka-prva-sp td ity-dnmof the
words sraj (garland), di (direction), d (seeing, the eye), tvij (a priest),
uih (name of a Vedic meter), dadh (bold), sp (touching) that is not in
samsa with the word udaka (water), td (like that), and so on; kathe
replacement ka-rma; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta.

In this regard, one should consult vtti 211.

The final vara1 of the words sraj, di, d, tvij, uih, dadh, sp not
in samsa with the word udaka, td, and so on changes to k when the
viaya is viupadnta.
tau yajatitvik tvig tvijau. yuja pusi.
VttiThe word tvij (tu + ij) means tau yajati (one who sacrifices at the
proper time, a priest).
tvij + s[u] (202) tvij (253) tvik (96) tvig (252) tvik <1.1>
or tvig <1.1>.
tvij + au tvijau <1.2>.

dvity

ekavacana
tvik /
tvig
tvijam

tty

tvij

caturth

tvije

pacam

tvija

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

tvija
tviji
tvik /
tvig

case
pratham

dvivacana

bahuvacana

tvijau

tvija

tvijau
tvigbhy
m
tvigbhy
m
tvigbhy
m
tvijo
tvijo

tvija

tvijau

tvigbhi
tvigbhya
tvigbhya
tvijm
tviku
tvija

Now we begin the declension of the word yuj (one who joins, a companion, a
pair) in the masculine gender:
AmtaAll these words are kvib-antas. The words d (like this), kd (like
what?), amd (like that), sad (like that), anyd (like something else),
and so on are included by the word ity-dnm. When the words ending in
mentioned in this stra would usually undergo the change to by stra 249, this
stra blocks that and instead ordains a change to k.
SaodhinSraj is irregularly formed2 by adding [k]vi[p] to the dhtu sj[a]
visarge (4A or 6P, to create, let loose), and tvij is formed by adding [k]vi[p] to
the dhtu yaj[a] deva-pja-sagati-karaa-dneu (1U, to worship, sacrifice; to
meet; to give) preceded by the word tu and then doing sakaraa by vacisvapi-yaj-dn sakaraa kapile (621) whereby the ya of yaj become i. Thus,
where sraj and tvij would usually undergo the change to by stra 249 since
1
2

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).
See kruc-dadh-sraj-uiha ca kvib-ant ()

they are made from sj and yaj, this stra blocks that and instead ordains a
change to k.
254 / yaujaAe's$amastasya nauM k{(SNAsTaAnae , na tau s$amaADaAE /
254. yujo samastasya nu kasthne, na tu samdhau
yujaof the word yuj (kvib-anta form of the dhtu yuj); a-samastasyanot in
samsa; numthe gama n[um]; kasthnewhen a kasthna follows; na
not; tubut; samdhauin the sense of samdhi (meditation).
The word yuj takes the gama n[um] when a kasthna follows,
except when it is in samsa or used in the sense of samdhi.
atra sui iti tasy bhrama. yu yujau yuja. yugbhym. samastasya
samdhy-arthasya ca na numka-yuk ka-yug ka-yujau ka-yuja.
ka-yugbhym. yuk yug yujau. rja pusi
VttiIn this regard, Prakriy-kaumud is wrong in saying sui (when a su
follows).
yuj + s[u] (254, 225) yu + n[um] + j + s[u] (241) yuj + s[u] (202)
yuj
(242) yu (243) yu <1.1>.
yuj + au (254, 225) yu + n[um] + j + au (241) yujau <1.2>.
yuj + [j]as (254, 225) yu + n[um] + j + as (241) yujas (155)
yuja <1.3>.
yuj + bhym (246, 243) yugbhym <3.2>.
But the word yuj doesnt take n[um] when it is in samsa or used in the sense of
samdhi:
ka-yuj + s[u] (202) ka-yuj (243) ka-yug (252) kayuk <1.1> or
ka-yug <1.1>.
ka-yuj + au ka-yujau <1.2>.
ka-yuj + [j]as (155) ka-yuja <1.3>.
ka-yuj + bhym (246, 243) ka-yugbhym <3.2>.
yuj + s[u] (202) yuj (243) yug (252) yuk <1.1> or yug <1.1>.

yuj + au yujau <1.2>.


Now we begin the declension of the word rj (strength) in the masculine gender:
AmtaIn Pinian terminology the pavas are called su. Thus, by Prakriykaumuds saying sui (when a su follows), n[um] would not be applied in the
neuter gender when []i follows nor would it be applied by sarvevaravaiavntayor nu au (224). Therefore, when i follows, we would get the
unwanted form yuji <1.3> / <2.3>. This is the bhrama. Because everyone else
says that n[um] should be applied in this case, the actual nimitta is sarvanmasthna (kasthna), not su. Therefore the proper form is yuji <1.3> / <2.3>.
The word rj is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu rj[a]
bala-prayor dhrae.
BlaYu (one who is attached) <1.1> is a form of the kvib-anta form of yuj[ir]
yoge (7U, to join, use), while yuk / yug (one whose mind is fixed in meditation)
<1.1> is a form of the kvib-anta form of yuj[a] samdhau (4A, to fix the mind in
meditation).
255 / r"Ats$asyaEva s$ats$aAntah"r"ivaiDa: /
255. rt sasyaiva sat-sagnta-hara-vidhi
rtafter ra-rma; sasyaof sa-rma; evaonly; sat-saga-anta-hara-vidhithe
rule of sat-sagnta-hara (stra 242).
After r the rule of sat-sagnta-hara (stra 242) is applied only to s.
niyamo yam. bahutra prptau sakocana niyama. rk rg rjau rja. vivasjviva-s viva-s viva-sjau viva-sja. atva neti kecitviva-sk.
viva-ssu. kasa-jit kasa-jitau kasa-jita kasa-jidbhym kasa-jitsu. urmnubandho mahatu. tasya pusi, nnta-dhtu-varjiteti trivikrama, aca
caturbhujeti num, sor hara, sat-sagntasya hara. atrkarat; kvacid antaraga
ity-di vakyama-nyyt. brahmentn nug ity atra jpakena sarvevarea tv
gama-na-rma-harbhvasya nmni nicayt nasya haro na sytmahn
mahntau mahnta. mahntam mahntau mahata. mahat mahadbhym. he
mahan. bhagavatu.
VttiThis is a niyama. A niyama is a restriction where a rule would otherwise
apply to many things.
rj + s[u] (202, 255) rj (243) rg (252) rk <1.1> or rg <1.1>.
rj + au rjau <1.2>.
rj + as rjas (155) rja <1.3>.

Now we begin the declension of the word viva-sj (creator of the world):
viva-sj + s[u] (202) viva-sj (249) viva-s (251) viva-s
(252) viva-s <1.1> or viva-s <1.1>.
viva-sj + au viva-sjau <1.2>.
viva-sj + [j]as (155) viva-sja <1.3>.
Some say that the change to doesnt take place, and thus they get viva-sk
<1.1>.
viva-sj + su[p] (246, 249) viva-s + su (246, 251) viva-s +
su (98) viva- ssu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word kasa-jit (the conqueror of Kasa):
kasa-jit + s[u] (202) kasa-jit (96) kasa-jid (252) kasa-jit
<1.1> or kasa-jid <1.1>.
kasa-jit + au kasa-jitau <1.2>.
kasa-jit + [j]as (155) kasa-jita <1.3>.
kasa-jit + bhym (246, 96) kasa-jidbhym <3.2>.
kasa-jit + su[p] kasa-jitsu <7.3>.
The word mahat[u] (great) has the indicatory letter u. In the masculine gender it
is declined as follows: Trivikrama is applied by stra 228, then n[um] is applied by
stra 240, then s[u] is deleted by stra 202, and then the final vara of the satsaga is deleted by stra 242. The deletion of n by stra 260 certainly doesnt take
place here because of the following three reasons: (i) due to the very fact that
that rule is not made here, (ii) because of the future maxim kvacid antarage
krye kriyame tad-animitta bahiragam asiddha syt (vtti 260), and (iii)
because the word sarvevare in stra 232 suggests that the n of an gama is not
deleted when it is in a nma.
mahat[u] + s[u] (228) maht + s[u] (240, 225) mah + n[um] + t +
s[u]
(202) mahnt (242) mahn <1.1>.
mahat[u] + au (228) maht + au (240, 225) mah + n[um] + t +
au mahntau <1.2>.

mahat[u] + [j]as (228) maht + as (240, 225) mah + n[um] + t +


as (155) mahnta <1.3>.
mahat[u] + am (228) maht + am (240, 225) mah + n[um] + t +
am
mahntam <2.1>.
mahat[u] + au (228) maht + au (240, 225) mah + n[um] + t +
au mahntau <2.2>.
mahat[u] + []as (155) mahata <2.3>.
mahat[u] + [] mahat <3.1>.
mahat[u] + bhym (246, 96) mahadbhym <3.2>.
mahat[u] + s[u] (240, 225) maha + n[um] + t + s[u] mahant + s[u]
(202)
mahant (242) mahan <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
mahn
mahnta
m

dvivacana
mahntau

bahuvacana
mahnta

mahntau

mahata

tty

mahat

caturth

mahate

pacam

mahata

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

mahata
mahati

mahadbhy
m
mahadbhy
m
mahadbhy
m
mahato
mahato

mahan

mahntau

mahadbhi
mahadbhy
a
mahadbhy
a
mahatm
mahatsu
mahnta

Now we begin the declension of the word bhagavat[u] (the Supreme Personality
of Godhead):
AmtaThis is a niyama because, where all viujanas coming after r would
usually be deleted by stra 242, the deletion is limited only to s. Thus the j in rj
is not deleted by stra 242. In regards to the statement atva na, the followers
of Ktantra-vykaraa say there should only be a change to k, while others say
this is optional. The words marut (wind), bh-bht (maintainer of the earth),
vipacit (wise, expert), bhat (big), harit (green, direction), and so on are
declined like the word kasa-jit.

The order of applying the stras to form mahn <1.1> should be properly
understood. If n[um] were applied first by stra 240, then it would prevent the
uddhava from becoming trivikrama by stra 228. Thus it is proper that the
trivikrama is done first, also because the trivikrama is antaraga as it is comes
earlier in the prakti. Someone may wonder, Why isnt n deleted by the future
stra nmntasya nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin (260)? Jva Gosvm
reconciles that doubt with the three reasons beginning with atrkart. If the n
should have been deleted here, then the rule of nmntasya nasya haro
viupadnte buddha vin (260) should have been ordained right here since the
rules proceed like the flow of the Gag. Thus, because it was not ordained here, it
doesnt apply in this case.
In regards to the second reason, here the deletion of n is antaraga because it is
sv-alprita while the deletion of the final vara of the sat-saga is bahiraga
because it is bahv-rita1. It will be described in vtti 863 that na-rmdi-haro
nsiddhas tug-di-vidher anyatra (the deletion of n and so on isnt asiddha in
regards to rules other than the rules of t[uk] and so on). It will become clear in
Amta 863 that the rules related to the sv-dis2 are included by the word di in
tug-di, and that the deletion of t and so on is included by the di in na-rmdi.
Thus n is not deleted because the deletion of t which is at the end of a sat-saga is
asiddha when it is time to apply the deletion of n.
In regards to the third reason, even if, in stra 232, n[uk] was ordained without
mentioning a para-nimitta, the forms like dadhibhym <3.2> and so on would still
be obtained because n would be deleted by stra 260, since, by stra 246, the
prakti is treated like a viupada when a viubhakti beginning with a viujana
follows. Therefore, the fact that the para-nimitta sarvevare was nonetheless
mentioned in stra 232 suggests that the n of an gama is certainly not deleted
when it is in a nma. Thus, since n[um] is an gama, n is not deleted here either.
Furthermore, the separate mention of the word mahat[u] in stra 228, when the
trivikrama could be accomplished by the mention of nnta alone, informs us that
even though a word which has undergone sat-sagnta-hara by stra 242 may
have the n of n[um] as its final vara it is still not considered nnta. Therefore,
ascertaining that, when s[u] follows, the change to trivikrama cannot take place
by stra 228, Jva Gosvm makes a separate rule (the next stra) to enable the
change to trivikrama. In he mahan <8.1>, the uddhava doesnt become
trivikrama due to the prohibition buddha vin (228).
256 / @tvas$antaAe"vasya iaiva(maAe bau"vaijaRtas$aAE , DaAtauM ivanaA /
256. atv-as-antoddhavasya trivikramo buddha-varjita-sau, dhtu vin

1
2

In this regard, one should consult vtti 211.


In other words, the rules found in the nma-prakaraa.

atu-as-anta-uddhavasyaof the uddhava of words ending in at[u] or as;


trivikramathe change to trivikrama; buddha-varjita-sauwhen s[u] follows,
with the exception of buddha; dhtuma dhtu; vinexcept.
The uddhava of words ending in at[u] or as, except dhtus1, become
trivikrama when s[u] follows, but not when buddha follows.
bhagavn bhagavantau bhagavanta. bhagavantam bhagavantau bhagavata.
bhagavat bhagavadbhym.
Vtti bhagavat[u] + s[u] (256) bhagavt + s[u] (240, 225) bhagav +
n[um] + t + s[u] (202) bhagavnt (242) bhagavn <1.1>.
bhagavat[u] + au (240, 225) bhagava + n[um] + t + au
bhagavantau
<1.2>.
bhagavat[u] + [j]as (240, 225) bhagava + n[um] + t + as (155)
bhagavanta
<1.3>.
bhagavat[u] + am (240, 225) bhagava + n[um] + t + am
bhagavantam <2.1>.
bhagavat[u] + au (240, 225) bhagava + n[um] + t + au
bhagavantau
<2.2>.
bhagavat[u] + []as (155) bhagavata <2.3>.
bhagavat[u] + [] bhagavat <3.1>.
bhagavat[u] + bhym (246, 96) bhagavadbhym <3.2>.
AmtaThe prohibition dhtu vin applies to words ending in as. In bhagavn
<1.1> also, the trivikrama by stra 256 is applied first (as was done in mahn
<1.1>) even though the application of n[um] by stra 240 is nitya. This is
because stra 228 is antaraga as it applies earlier in the prakti, and thus it is
stronger because, by the phrase teu cottarottara (vtti 59), an antaraga rule is
stronger than a nitya rule.
257 / BagAvatau@GavatauBavataUnaAM BagAAes$aGaAes$BaAeis$aita
inapaAtaA vaA baue" /
257. bhagavatu-aghavatu-bhavatn bhagos aghos bhos iti nipt v buddhe
1

In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.

bhagavatu-aghavatu-bhavatnmof the words bhagavat[u] (the Supreme


Personality of Godhead), aghavat[u] (sinful person), and bhavat[u] (your good
self); bhagos aghos bhos itibhagos, aghos, and bhos; niptthe niptas (see
explanation below); voptionally; buddhewhen buddha follows.
The words bhagavat[u], aghavat[u], and bhavat[u] are replaced by the
niptas bhagos, aghos, and bhos respectively when buddha follows.
prva-parayo sahaivdeo nipta. he bhago he bhagavan. he agho he
aghavan. he bho he bhavan. katha bho vaiav? avyayatvt. bhagavatabdt bhagavn ivcarati kya-antt kvipi bhagavat. tasmt sv-dau prakta-vad
eva rpa syt, nmvasthy caturbhujnubandhatvt bhagavn. dadat
jakat ity-di abdn tu kt-prakarae num-niedho vakyate. dadat dadatau
dadata. dadadbhym. jakat jakatau jakata. jakadbhym. -rmnubandho
bhavat, tat-pusibhavan bhavantau bhavanta. bhavadbhym. he bhavan.
mura mathnttimura-mat mura-mad mura-mathau. ka vettti ka-vid,
tat-pusi. ka-vit ka-vid ka-vidau. su-pc-chabdasyasu-pt su-pd.
VttiThe simultaneous replacement of both the prakti (prva) and the
pratyaya (para) is called a nipta.
bhagavat[u] + s[u] (two options by 257):
1) (the replacement is done) bhagos (155) bhago <8.1>.
2) (the replacement isnt done, 240, 225) bhagava + n[um] + t + s[u]
(202) bhagavant
(242) bhagavan <8.1>.
case

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

pratham
dvity

bhagavn
bhagavantam

bhagavantau
bhagavantau
bhagavadbhy
m
bhagavadbhy
m
bhagavadbhy
m
bhagavato
bhagavato

bahuvacana
bhagavanta
bhagavata
bhagavadbhi

bhagavadbh
ya
bhagavadbh
ya
bhagavatm
bhagavatsu

bhagavantau

bhagavanta

tty

bhagavat

caturth

bhagavate

pacam

bhagavata

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

bhagavata
bhagavati
bhagavan /
bhago

aghavat[u] + s[u] (two options by 257):


1) (the replacement is done) aghos (155) agho <8.1>.
2) (the replacement isnt done, 240, 225) aghava + n[um] + t + s[u]
(202) aghavant (242)
aghavan <8.1>.

bhavat[u] + s[u] (two options by 257):


1) (the replacement is done) bhos (155) bho <8.1>.
2) (the replacement isnt done, 240, 225) bhava + n[um] + t + s[u] (202)
bhavant (242) bhavan <8.1>.
How can there be bho vaiav (O Vaiavas)? Because the word bho is an
avyaya. When the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after the kya-anta-dhtu
bhagavat (bhagavat[u] + [k]ya[]) which means bhagavn ivcarati (one who
acts like the Supreme Personality of Godhead), we get the word bhagavat. When
the sv-dis are applied after this word, the forms are exactly like those of the
original word (bhagavat[u]) because the nma it is made from has a caturbhuja as
its indicatory letter:
bhagavat + s[u] (256) bhagavt + s[u] (240, 225) bhagav + n[um]
+ t + s[u] (202) bhagavnt (242) bhagavn <1.1>.
But a prohibition will be spoken in the Kdanta-prakaraa forbidding words like
dadat[] and jakat[] from taking the gama n[um].
dadat[] + s[u] (202) dadat (96) dadad (252) dadat <1.1> or
dadad <1.1>.
dadat[] + au dadatau <1.2>.
dadat[] + [j]as (155) dadata <1.3>.
dadat[] + bhym (246, 96) dadadbhym <3.2>.
jakat[] + s[u] (202) jakat (96) jakad (252) jakat <1.1> or
jakad <1.1>.
jakat[] + au jakatau <1.2>.
jakat[] + [j]as (155) jakata <1.3>.
jakat[] + bhym (246, 96) jakadbhym <3.2>.
The word bhavat[] (being, present) has the indicatory letter . In the masculine
gender it is declined as follows:
bhavat[] + s[u] (240, 225) bhava + n[um] + t + s[u] (202)
bhavant (242) bhavan <1.1>.
bhavat[] + au (240, 225) bhava + n[um] + t + au bhavantau
<1.2>.

bhavat[] + [j]as (240, 225) bhava + n[um] + t + as (155)


bhavanta <1.3>.
bhavat[] + bhym (246, 96) bhavadbhym <3.2>.
bhavat[] + s[u] (240, 225) bhava + n[um] + t + s[u] (202)
bhavant (242) bhavan <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
bhavan
bhavanta
m

dvivacana
bhavantau

bahuvacana
bhavanta

bhavantau

bhavata
bhavadbhi

bhavadbhy
a
bhavadbhy
a
bhavatm
bhavatsu
bhavanta

tty

bhavat

caturth

bhavate

pacam

bhavata

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

bhavata
bhavati

bhavadbhy
m
bhavadbhy
m
bhavadbhy
m
bhavato
bhavato

bhavan

bhavantau

Now we begin the declension of the word mura-math which means mura
mathnti (he who destroys the Mura demon):
mura-math + s[u] (202) mura-math (96) mura-mad (252) muramat <1.1> or
mura-mad <1.1>.
mura-math + au mura-mathau <1.2>.
The word ka-vid means ka vetti (one who knows Ka). In the
masculine gender it is declined as follows:
ka-vid + s[u] (202) ka-vid (252) ka-vit <1.1> or kavid <1.1>.
ka-vid + au ka-vidau <1.2>.
Now be begin the declension of the word su-pd (one who has beautiful feet):
su-pd + s[u] (202) su-pd (252) su-pt <1.1> or su-pd <1.1>.
AmtaEven though the word bhavat[u] (your good self) actually expresses
the madhyama-purua, a verb connected with it will take the prathama-purua

endings. The word bho is an avyaya which expresses sambodhana (addressing).


In this regard the Mah-bhya says
avyayam ea bho-abdo naiva bhavat-prakti (This word bho is an avyaya. It
definitely doesnt come from the word bhavat[u]). The prohibition of n[um]
mentioned here is na nryac chatur num kasthne, brahmaas tu v ().
The words suhd (well-wisher), gotra-bhid (one who destroys the family), diviad (one who dwells in heaven), tamo-nud (one who dispels darkness), and so
on are declined in the same way as ka-vid. The vigraha of the word su-pd is
obhanau pdau yasya sa (he whose two feet are beautiful). In forming this
word, the final a-rma of the word pda (foot) is deleted by sakhyspamnebhya pdasynta-hara ().
258 / paAcC$bd"sya vaAmanaAe BagAvaita /
258. pc-chabdasya vmano bhagavati
pd-abdasyaof the word pd (the word pda when it loses its final a-rma in
samsa by stra); vmanathe change to vmana; bhagavatiwhen a
bhagavat follows.
The word pd becomes vmana when a bhagavat follows.
su-pada. eva pda-abdasya pad-dee pi pada ity-di. mi nua bdhitv
viricir eva, viricito viur balavn, viuta sarva-virici iti nyyena
padm. ni-hdaya-msa-ya-do viujane viricir nsti bhyacndrdiv adhtatvt iti vardhamna. virici-sad-bhve tu asya a iti vat
asya jo mantavya. cha-o rj ity-dika ca dhtu-param evam, tato
nijbhym nicu nicchu. ka-prvasya budh-dhto ka budhyate iti kvipi
ka-budh tat-pusi,
Vtti su-pd + []as (258) su-padas (155) su-pada <2.3>.
Similarly, when, by stra 175, the word pda is replaced by pad, we also get
pada <2.3> and so on. When m follows, this virici still happens, because it
blocks the application of n[u] by stra 167, in accordance with the maxim
viricito viur balavn, viuta sarva-virici (a viu is stronger than a virici,
but a sarva-virici (the replacement of a whole word) is stronger than a viu).
Thus we get padm <6.3>1:
pda + m (175) pad + m padm <6.3>.
Vardhamna Mira, the author of Ktantra-vistara, says ni-hdaya-msa-yado viujane viricir nsti bhya-cndrdiv adhtatvt (the words ni,
hdaya, msa, ya, and dos dont take their respective viricis when a viujana
1

But in the case that the optional substitution of pad for pda is not done, we get pdnm <6.3>
as usual.

follows, for this is not supported in the Mah-bhya or Cndra-vykaraa). But


when the virici is done, it is considered that becomes j just like becomes by
stra 251. In this regard, it should be understood that the stra beginning cha-o
rj (stra 249) is applicable only to dhtus1.
ni + bhym (214) ni + bhym (246, asya jo mantavya (vtti
258)) nijbhym <3.2>.

ni + su[p] (214) ni + su (246, asya jo mantavya (vtti 258)) nij


+ su (98)
nicsu (248) nicu (99) nicu <7.3> or nicchu <7.3>.
The word ka-budh which means ka budhyate (one who understands
Ka) is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after ka + budh[a]
avagamane. In the masculine gender it is declined as follows:
AmtaVardhamna Mira suggests that the Mah-bhya says the words ni
and so on dont take their respective viricis when a viujana follows. But this is
not correct since it is accepted there that the replacements are made even when
sv-dis other than []as and so on follow. The Mah-bhya says as-prabhtiu
(when []as and so on follow), but it also says aas-prabhtiv api dyate (it is
even seen when sv-dis other than []as and so on follow). Thus because Jva
Gosvm shows the forms that arise when the virici is done, it is clear that he
doesnt agree with the opinion of Vardhamna Mira. Someone may wonder, Why
doesnt the become by stra 249? In answer to that, Jva Gosvm speaks
the sentence beginning cha-o rj.
SaodhinDue to the fact that Jva Gosvm said asya jo mantavya and
not asya go mantavya, the change to ka-varga by ca-vargasya ka-vargo
viupadnte, vaiave tv asa-varge (243) cannot take place in nijbhym <3.2>
and nicu <7.3>, because, if the change to ka-varga were applicable, there would
never be any possibility of keeping j and thus it would be pointless to say asya jo
mantavya when asya go mantavya saves us from doing the extra step.
259 / javajaRh"ir"gAd"Ade"re"k(s$avaeRr"sya
DaAtaAehR"ir"GaAeSaAntasyaAd"AE h"ir"GaAeSatvaM ivaSNAupad"Antae
s$aDvaAe /
259. ja-varja-harigadder eka-sarvevarasya dhtor harighontasydau
harighoatva viupadnte sa-dhvo ca
ja-varja-harigad-debeginning with a harigad except ja-rma; ekasarvevarasyahaving only one sarvevara; dhtoof a dhtu; harighoaantasyaending with a harighoa; dauin the beginning; harighoatvamthe
1

In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.

change to harighoa; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; sadhvowhen s or dhv follows; caand.
If a dhtu has the following three characteristics, then its initial vara
changes to a harighoa when the viaya is viupadnta or when s or
dhv follows: (i) begins with a harigad other than j, (ii) has only one
sarvevara, and (iii) ends with a harighoa.
ka-bhut ka-bhud ka-budhau ka-budha. eva tattva-budh-daya.
ja-varjeti kim? jabhjap jabhau jabha ity-di. eka-sarvevarasyeti kim? kyankvib-antasya dhtor dma-rudha, dma-rut. dhtu-padena dhtv-avayavo pi
ghyate. tena govindena bhtti ka-pratyaynto govinda-bha. tasya i-kvibantasya govinda-bhgovindha-p govinda-bhau govinda-bha. eva pura-bh
puhra-p. atra prakriy-kalpa-kik-vttayo vicry. kintu prakriyym
adhok govindha-p ca prana-pada bhavet. kalpe dma-rut jap ca. kikdau na
saaya. rjan, nnteti trivikrama, sor hara.
Vtti ka-budh + s[u] (202) ka-budh (259) ka-bhudh (96)
ka-bhud
(252) ka-bhut <1.1> or ka-bhud <1.1>.
ka-budh + au ka-budhau <1.2>.
ka-budh + [j]as (155) ka-budha <1.3>.
case
dvity

eka-vacana
ka-bhut / kabhud
ka-budham

tty

ka-budh

caturth

ka-budhe

pacam

ka-budha

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

ka-budha
ka-budhi
ka-bhut / kabhud

pratham

dvi-vacana

bahu-vacana

ka-budhau

ka-budha

ka-budhau
kabhudbhym
kabhudbhym
kabhudbhym
ka-budho
ka-budho

ka-budha
kabhudbhi
kabhudbhya
kabhudbhya
ka-budhm
ka-bhutsu

ka-budhau

ka-budha

Words like tattva-budh (one who understands the truth) are declined in the
same way. Why do we say except ja-rma? Consider the declension of the word
jabh (one who yawns):
jabh + s[u] (202) jabh (96) jab (252) jap <1.1> or jab <1.1>.
jabh + au jabhau <1.2>.

jabh + [j]as (155) jabha <1.3>.


Why do we say having only one sarvevara? Consider the declension of the
word dma-rudh, a dhtu ending in [k]ya[n] and [k]vi[p]:
dma-rudh + s[u] (202) dma-rudh (96) dma-rud (252) dmarut <1.1> or
dma-rud <1.1>.
By the word dhtu (in this stra), even a part of a dhtu is accepted. Thus the
declension of govinda-bh, which is the i-kvib-anta form of the dhtu govindabha, a dhtu formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]a after govinda + bh
dptau and which means govindena bhti (one who appears with Govinda), is as
follows:
govinda-bh + s[u] (202) govinda-bh (259) govindha-bh (96)
govindha-b
(252) govindha-p <1.1> or govindha-b <1.1>.
govinda-bh + au govinda-bhau <1.2>.
govinda-bh + [j]as govinda-bhas (155) govinda-bha <1.3>.
Pura-bh is declined in the same way as govinda-bh:
pura-bh + s[u] (202) pura-bh (259) puhra-bh (96)
puhra-b
(252)
puhra-p <1.1> or puhra-b <1.1>.
One should ponder Prakriy-kaumud, Ktantra-vykaraa (Kalpa), and the
Kik-vtti regarding this rule of changing to a harighoa. But in Prakriykaumud, adhok and govindha-p are causes of doubt, as are dma-rut and jap in
Ktantra-vykaraa (Kalpa). But there is no uncertainty in works like Kik and
so on. Now we begin the declension of the word rjan (king). Trivikrama is
applied by stra 228, then s[u] is deleted by stra 202.
AmtaThe dhtu dma-rudh mentioned here as ending in [k]ya[n] and [k]vi[p]
is formed as follows: First [k]ya[n] is applied after the word dma-rudh (one who
thwarts the rope, name of Ka) in the sense of dma-rudham icchati tam
ivcarati v (he desires Dma-rudh or he treats like Dma-rudh), then [k]vi[p] is
applied and the a-rma and ya-rma of [k]ya[n] are deleted by a-rma-haro rmadhtuke (511) and ya-vayor haro vale (848) respectively. Then [k]vi[p] is deleted
by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara ()
Govinda-bh is formed as follows: The kt pratyaya [k]a is applied after govinda +
bh dptau by akarmay -rmt ka (), and the of bh is deleted by -rmahara kasri-sarvevara-rma-dhtuke ii ui ca (541). Thus we get govinda-bha
(one who appears with Govinda). The pratyaya []i is then applied after
govinda-bha in the sense of govinda-bham cae (one who calls Govinda-bha
by anyebhyas tat karoti tad cae (), and the a of govinda-bha is deleted by

aneka-sarvevarasya sasra-hara (. Then the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied


and []i is deleted by er haro ni-dau rmadhtuke (585). After this [k]vi[p] is
deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara () and we thus get the dhtu govindabh. The dabh portion of this dhtu has the three characteristics described in this
stra thus its inital vara changes to a harighoa. The dhtu pura-bh is
similarly formed by applying []i and [k]vi[p] after pura-bha, the dhtu formed
by applying the kt pratyaya [k]a after pura + bh dptau in the sense of
purea bhti (one who appears with rdhva-pura-tilaka). The rabh portion
of pura-bh has the three characteristics described in this stra thus its inital
vara changes to a harighoa.
In Prakriy-kaumud, adhok and govindha-p are causes of doubt because
Prakriy-kaumud doesnt show the anuvtti of the words dhtv-avayava
(portion of a dhtu) and padnte (when the viaya is padnta) in the Pinian
stra ekco bao bha-jha-antasya sa-dhvor (Adhyy 8.2.37)1, and without
the including the word dhtv-avayava one cannot make govindha-p, and without
including the word padnte once cannot make adhok.
In Ktantra-vykaraa, dma-rut and jap are causes of doubt because in the stra
hacaturthntasya dhtos ttyder di-caturthatvam akta-vat (Ktantra), it is
not mentioned that the dhtu has to have only one sarvevara, and that the
harigad it begins with cannot be j. Thus one wonders why the stra wasnt
applied in the formation of dma-rut and jap. Adhok <bhtevara 1.1 / 2.1> is the
form of the dhtu duh[a] praprae when d[ip] or s[ip] follows. The dhtu duh
becomes dugh by ddes tu dhtor gha (290), and when d[ip] or s[ip] is deleted
by viujand di-syor hara (642) and the viaya is thus viupadnta, the
current stra is applied and thus the d of dugh becomes dh.
260 / naAmaAntasya nasya h"r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae bauM" ivanaA /
260. nmntasya nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin
nma-antasyasituated at the end of a nma; nasyaof na-rma; hara
deletion; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; buddhambuddha;
vinexcept.
The final n of a nma is deleted when the viaya is viupadnta, except
in the sambodhana eka-vacana.
prathamato na-lopbhva, pathin mathin ity-dau vakyama-na-lopavaiyarthytrj rjnau rjna. rjnam rjnau. va-ma-sat-saga-hnasya ity
a-rma-hara, ta-vargasya ca-varga, j-o sat-sage jarja, rj. kvacid
1

The stras of Prakriy-kaumud are the same as those composed by Pini. The only difference
is that they are arranged in a different order, according to prakaraas. In that sense Prakriykaumud served as a prototype for the Siddhnta-kaumud, a later work which achieved
popularity due to its impeccability. Being the first attempt of its kind, Prakriy-kaumud is fraught
with mistakes, and is particularly poor at clarifying the anuvtti (carrying forward of words)
between the stras of the Adhyy.

antarage krye kriyame tad-animitta bahiragam asiddha sytiti nyyena


nasya harsiddhe kasya trivikramo gopla ity-dika na prpnotty artha.
ki ca na-vayor hare ka-saj na vcyrjabhym rjabhi. rje rjabhym
rjabhya. rja rjabhym rjabhya. rja rjo rjm. -yos tu v, rji
rjani rjo rjasu. he rjan.
ya-abdasya yaduu vety-din yann-deedea sthni-vat
kvacit. nma-dhtu-pratyaya-viupadnm deasya tat-taj-jti-vad-bhva
sarvatraiva, varn tad-vyakti-vad-bhva ca yatra masyate tatraivety
artha, tena nmatve saty ano -rma-haraya y. eva yajvan
tman su-dharman ity-daya. kintu va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyeti viead arma-haro nstiyajvana yajvan. eva van yuvan maghavan. kvacid viea

VttiThe deletion of n is not done first, for, if it were, the deletion of n which will
be prescribed in the stra beginning pathin mathin (stra 263) would be pointless.
rjan + s[u] (228) rjn + s[u] (202) rjn (260) rj <1.1>.
rjan + au (228) rjnau <1.2>.
rjan + [j]as (228) rjnas (155) rjna <1.3>.
rjan + am (228) rjnam <2.1>.
rjan + au (228) rjnau <2.2>.
A-rma is deleted by va-ma-sat-saga-hnasya (stra 235), ta-varga becomes cavarga by stra 241. And when there is sat-saga of ja-rma and a-rma we get
ja1. Thus we get raja <2.3> and raj <3.1>:
rjan + []as (235) rjn + as (241) rjas (155) rja <2.3>.
rjan + [] (235) rjn + (241) rj <3.1>.
Since, by the following maxim, the deletion of n is asiddha (regarded as not
having been applied yet), stras like kasya trivikramo gople (160) are not
applicable: kvacid antarage krye kriyame tad-animitta bahiragam
asiddhasyt (Sometimes, when it comes time for an antaraga-krya to be
applied, a bahiraga-krya which isnt considered a cause of the antaraga-krya is
asiddha). Moreover, words which have undergone deletion of their final n or v are
not called ka.
rjan + bhym (246, 260) rjabhym <3.2>.
1

In the Devangar script, the special character a (ja) is used to represent the sat-saga of jarma and a-rma, just as the special character a (ka) is used to represent the sat-saga of karma and a-rma. Thus a special effort is taken to point that out here, just as was done in vtti 17
with the phrase ka-a-samyoge tu ka.

rjan + bhis (246, 260) rjabhis (155) rjabhi <3.3>.


rjan + []e (235) rjn + e (241) rje <4.1>.
rjan + bhym (246, 260) rjabhym <4.2>.
rjan + bhyas (246, 260) rjabhyas (155) rjabhya <4.3>.
rjan + []as[i] (235) rjn + as (241) rjas (155) rja <5.1>.
rjan + bhym (246, 260) rjabhym <5.2>.
rjan + bhyas (246, 260) rjabhyas (155) rjabhya <5.3>.
rjan + []as (235) rjn + as (241) rjas (155) rja <6.1>.
rjan + os (235) rjn + os (241) rjos (155) rjo <6.2>.
rjan + m (235) rjn + m (241) rjm <6.3>.
By -yos tu v (235) we get rji <7.1> or rjani <7.1>:
rjan + []i (two options by 235):
1) (the a of an is deleted) rjni (241) rji <7.1>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) rjani <7.1>.
rjan + os (235) rjn + os (241) rjos (155) rjo <7.2>.
rjan + su[p] (246, 260) rjasu <7.3>.
rjan + s[u] (202) rjan <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
rj
rjnam

tty

rj

caturth

rje

pacam

rja

ah

rja
rji /
rjani

saptam

dvivacana
rjnau
rjnau
rjabhy
m
rjabhy
m
rjabhy
m
rjo
rjo

bahuvacana
rjna
rja
rjabhi
rjabhya
rjabhya
rjm
rjasu

sambodh
ana

rjan

rjnau

rjna

AmtaThe intended meaning of the sentence beginning prathamato nalopbhva is as follows: The desired form could be achieved without applying
pathin-mathin-bhukinn ity e nasya hara sau (263). For example, by
applying pathy-dnm i-rmasy-rma, tht prva nuk ca (264), then deleting
the n by nmntasya nasya haro viupadne buddha vin (260), and making
the s viusarga by sa-ra-rmayor viusargo viupadnte (155) we get the
desired form panth <1.1>. Thus the desired form can be fully achieved without
doing the deletion of n as the first step. Still, the fact that the deletion of n is done
first by the rule pathin-mathin-bhukinn ity e nasya hara sau (263) suggests
that, among words ending in n, only the words pathin, mathin, and bhukin first
undergo the deletion of n, while other words ending in n do it later. Otherwise the
effort to make such a rule would be useless like grinding flour 1 since the desired
form could be achieved by other stras. Moreover if words like rjan and rgin
were to first undergo the deletion of n, then the deletion of s[u] by stra 202
wouldnt take place as there would be no viujana to cause it. Thus we would get
the unwanted forms rj <1.1> and rg <1.1>. This is the fault.
Someone may wonder, In regards to rjabhym <3.2> and so on, when n is
deleted, why isnt kasya trivikramo gople (160) applied? In answer to that,
Jva Gosvm speaks the nyya beginning kvacit. In this case, even though both
kryas (the change to trivikrama and the deletion of n) are prakty-rita, the
change to trivikrama is antaraga because it applies earlier in the prakti, while
the deletion of n is bahiraga because it applies later in the prakti. Thus when it
comes time to apply the rule of trivikrama (stra 160) the deletion of n which isnt
considered a cause of the trivikrama is asiddha. The understanding of this is that
there is no occasion for the trivikrama since na-rma is sthni-vat as it is asiddha.
One can come to the same conclusion by understanding what is ka-saja.
Thus, in case someone doesnt accept the first reason, Jva Gosvm speaks the
sentence beginning ki ca. Although either reason is sufficient by itself, both are
given here to encourage the students to think in various ways. The words preman
(love), gariman (heaviness), and so are declined in the way as the word rjan.
SaodhinAnother prominent masculine word ending in na-rma is the word
tman. tman is declined differently than rjan, however, in that its a-rma is not
deleted due to the phrase va-ma-sat-saga-hnasya (235). Amara-koa defines
the word tman as follows: tm yatno dhtir buddhi sva-bhvo brahma varma
ca (The word tman can mean yatna (effort), dhti (firmness), buddhi
(intelligence), sva-bhva (nature), brahman (the spirit soul or the Supreme
Spirit, the Absolute Truth) and varman (body)). On top of this, tman is often
used as a pronoun equivalent in meaning to the pronoun sva (see vttis 311 and
320). A table of tman is given below:
case
1

eka-

dvi-

bahu-

This alludes to the pia-peaa-nyya (the maxim of grinding flour) or literally (the maxim of
grinding that which has already been ground). Such grinding is a useless endeavour.

tty

tman

caturth

tmane

pacam

tmana

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

tmana
tmani

vacana
tmnau
tmnau
tmabhy
m
tmabhy
m
tmabhy
m
tmano
tmano

tman

tmnau

pratham
dvity

vacana
tm
tmnam

vacana
tmna
tmana
tmabhi
tmabhya
tmabhya
tmanm
tmasu
tmna

VttiThe replacement (dea) is sometimes treated like the original (sthni).


That is to say the replacement of a nma, dhtu, pratyaya, or viupada is
always treated like a nma, dhtu, pratyaya, or viupada respectively, but only
when the replacement of a vara is considered like that vara, is it treated like
that vara. Therefore, when the word ya is replaced by yan by stra 175, the
replacement yan is treated like a nma and the a of an is thus deleted by stra
235:
ya + []as (175) yan + as (235) ynas (173) yas
(155) ya
<2.3>.
ya + [] (175) yan + (235) yn (173) y <3.1>.
The words yajvan (sacrificer), tman (self, soul, mind, intelligence, body,
essence), su-dharman (one who maintains well, a householder), and so on are
declined like the word rjan, but, due to the modifier va-ma-sat-saga-hnasya in
stra 235, there is no deletion of a-rma:
yajvan + []as yajvanas (155) yajvana <2.3>.
yajvan + [] yajvan <3.1>.
The words van (dog), yuvan (a youth), and maghavan (name of Indra) are
declined like the word rjan. However, sometimes they differ:
AmtaJva Gosvm clarifies the word kvacit, by speaking the sentence
beginning nma. The replacement of a vara is considered like that vara only
when it serves a purpose favorable to the grammatical operation at hand.
261 / na, yauvanmaGavainatyaeSaAM vasya oBaRgAvaita /
wRbvaijaRtatai"tae tau na yauvataItyaeta"jaRma, //

261.
van yuvan maghavan ity e
vasya ur bhagavati
b-varjita-taddhite tu na
yuvatty etad-varjam
van yuvan maghavan itithe words van (dog), yuvan (a youth), and
maghavan (name of Indra); emof these; vasyaof the portion va; uthe
replacement u; bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat follows; p-varjita-taddhitewhen a
taddhita pratyaya, except [p], follows; tubut; nanot; yuvati itithe word
yuvati (a young woman); etad-varjamexcluding this.
The va of the words van, yuvan, and maghavan is replaced by u when a
bhagavat follows. But this doesnt happen when a taddhita pratyaya
other than [p] follows. Nor does it apply to the word yuvati.
vasyeti srma-nirdea. una un vabhym vabhi. yna yn yuvabhym
yuvabhi. eva maghona maghon. saumaghav. maghavn iti tu klp.
vahati svecchay vyur / udgacchati ca bhskara
havir jakiti niako / makheu maghavn asau. iti bhai (18.19).
maghavatu-abdo py asti, maghavad-vajra-lajj-nidna sa evam uktv
maghavantam ity-di-prayoga-darant. maghavn maghavantau maghavanta.
maghavadbhym. atha divasa-vc pratidivan-abdapratidiv pratidivnau
pratidivna. pratidivna pratidivnau.
VttiThe word vasya indicates va-rma along with a-rma.
van + []as (261) unas (155) una <2.3>.
van + [] (261) un <3.1>.
van + bhym (246, 260) vabhym <3.2>.
van + bhis (246, 260) vabhis (155) vabhi <3.3>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
v
vnam

tty

un

caturth

une

pacam

una

ah
saptam

una
uni

dvivacana
vnau
vnau
vabhy
m
vabhy
m
vabhy
m
uno
uno

bahuvacana
vna
una
vabhi
vabhya
vabhya
unm
vasu

sambodh
ana

van

vnau

vna

yuvan + []as (261) yu + un + as (46) ynas (155) yna <2.3>.


yuvan + [] (261) yu + un + (46) yn <3.1>.
yuvan + bhym (246, 260) yuvabhym <3.2>.
yuvan + bhis (246, 260) yuvabhis (155) yuvabhi <3.3>.

tty

yn

caturth

yne

pacam

yna

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

yna
yni

dvivacana
yuvnau
yuvnau
yuvabhy
m
yuvabhy
m
yuvabhy
m
yno
yno

yuvan

yuvnau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
yuv
yuvnam

bahuvacana
yuvna
yna
yuvabhi
yuvabhya
yuvabhya
ynm
yuvasu
yuvna

maghavan + []as (261) magha + un + as (50) maghonas (155)


maghona <2.3>.
maghavan + [] (261) magha + un + (50) maghon <3.1>.
When s[u] follows, we get maghav <1.1>:
maghavan + s[u] (228) maghavn + s[u] (202) maghavn (260)
maghav <1.1>.
case

ekavacana

dvi-vacana

bahuvacana
maghavna

pratham

maghav

maghavnau

dvity

maghavn
am

maghavnau

maghona

tty

maghon

caturth

maghone

maghavabhy
m
maghavabhy
m

maghavabhi

maghavabh
ya

pacam

maghona

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

maghona
maghoni

maghavabhy
m
maghono
maghono

maghavan

maghavnau

maghavabh
ya
maghonm
maghavasu
maghavna

But the Kalpa grammarians say the form should be maghavn <1.1>. An
example of this is Bhai-kvya (18.19):
vahati svecchay vyur
udgacchati ca bhskara
havir jakiti niako
makheu maghavn asau
The wind blows and the sun rises of its own accord. In the sacrifice, Indra
(Maghavn) fearlessly consumes the oblation.
There is also a word maghavat[u] (Name of Indra) as we see examples like
maghavad-vajra-lajj-nidnam and sa evam uktv maghavantam.
maghavat[u] + s[u] (256) maghavt + s[u] (240, 225) maghav +
n[um] + t + s[u] (202) maghavnt (242) maghavn <1.1>.
maghavat[u] + au (240, 225) maghava + n[um] + t + au
maghavantau
<1.2>.
maghavat[u] + [j]as (240, 225) maghava + n[um] + t + as (155)
maghavanta
<1.3>.
maghavat[u] + bhym (246, 96) maghavadbhym <3.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word pratidivan which means a day:
pratidivan + s[u] (228) pratidivn + s[u] (202) pratidivn (260)
pratidiv
<1.1>.
pratidivan + au (228) pratidivnau <1.2>.
pratidivan + [j]as (228) pratidivnas (155) pratidivna <1.3>.
pratidivan + am (228) pratidivnam <2.1>.
pratidivan + au (228) pratidivnau <2.2>.

AmtaThe va of the words van, yuvan, and maghavan is not replaced by u


when a taddhita pratyaya other than [p] follows. For example, aunavam,
yauvanam, and mghavna. But, among the words ending in [p], the word
yuvati is excluded because it will be described later that yno yuvati sdhu ().
Due to the word kvacit in dea sthni-vat kvacit (vtti 260), here the
replacement u-rma is not treated like the original va-rma. Thus in yna <2.3>,
trivikrama and so on are applied. But in lni and so on the replacement na-rma is
treated like the original ta-rma, and thus the a of []as[i] and []as becomes u[c]
by khya-tybhy asi-asor us (193)1.
The word tu in the sentence maghavn iti tu klp shows that the form
maghavn <1.1> is unacceptable as a form of the word maghavan. Someone
may wonder Why then is the form maghavn <1.1> seen in this example of
Bhai-kvya?. In answer to that, Jva Gosvm says maghavatu-abdo py asti.
In Bhai-kvya, maghavn <1.1> is a form of the word maghavat[u], not of the
word maghavan. In the other two examples, the forms are also forms of the word
maghavat[u], not of the word maghavan.
262 / DaAtaAe r"vaaAigAu"taAeiiva(maAe r"vataAe ivaSNAujanae , na ku(r"C]
$r"naAmaDaAtaUnaAM , na ca tai"tayae /
262. dhto ra-va-prg-id-utos trivikramo ra-vato viujane, na kura-chura-nmadhtn, na ca taddhita-ye
dhtoof a dhtu; ra-va-prkbefore ra-rma or va-rma; it-uto2of the irma and u-rma; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; ra-vataafter ra-rma
or va-rma; viujanewhen a viujana follows; nanot; kura-chura-nmadhtnmof kur (see explanation below), chur[a] chedane, or a nma-dhtu; na
not; caand; taddhita-yewhen a taddhita pratyaya beginning with ya-rma
follows.
The i or u of a dhtu3 becomes trivikrama when they come before r or v,
provided there is a viujana after the r or v. But this doesnt happen
when a taddhita pratyaya beginning with y follows. Nor also do the i or u
of kur, chur[a] or a nma-dhtu become trivikrama.
nmno jto dhtur nma-dhtur iti vakyate. atra phd viujana-varamtra ghyate, na kevala-svdaya. kurdi-niedhn nmno nyatrpi jeyam.
tata asipratidvna. pratidvn. a-rma-harasya nimittatva matvaivtra
trivikrama-vidhnam, tato nsiddhatvam. pratidivabhym. tad etat prakriy-

This has already been shown in vtti 199.


The word it-uto here is formed by the Pinian method of adding t to designate a single vara.
This was described in vtti 37.
3
In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.
2

kaumudy-dau. anye tu pratidvno nasya viusargo viupadnte iti manyante


pratidiv pratidivobhym.
VttiIt will described later that a dhtu produced from a nma is called a nmadhtu. Because the word viujana is listed in a rule related to dhtus, any vara
which is a viujana is accepted. It is not that only the sv-dis are accepted.
Because of the prohibition beginning kura, it is to be known that this rule also
applies to things other than nmas.
pratidivan + []as (235) pratidivn + as (262) pratidvnas (155)
pratidvna
<2.3>.
pratidivan + [] (235) pratidivn + (262) pratidvn <3.1>.
This rule of trivikrama is applied only by considering the deletion of a by stra 235
a cause (nimitta). Therefore the deletion of a is not asiddha.
pratidivan + bhym (246, 260) pratidivabhym <3.2>.
This very form, pratidivabhym <3.2>, is accepted in Prakriy-kaumud and so
on. But others consider that the n of the word pratidivan becomes viusarga
when the viaya is viupadnta. Thus they form pratidiv <1.1> and
pratidivobhym <3.2>.
case

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

pratham
dvity

pratidiv
pratidivnam

pratidivnau
pratidivnau
pratidivabhy
m
pratidivabhy
m
pratidivabhy
m
pratidvno

bahuvacana
pratidivna
pratidvna
pratidivabhi

pratidivabhy
a
pratidivabhy
a
pratidvnm

pratidvno

pratidivasu

pratidivnau

pratidivna

tty

pratidvn

caturth

pratidvne

pacam

pratidvna

ah

pratidvna
pratidvni /
pratidivani

saptam
sambodh
ana

pratidivan

BlaThe i or u of kur, chur[a] or a nma-dhtu doesnt become trivikrama. Thus,


in those cases, we get kurva <acyuta pa. 3.2>, kurma <acyuta pa. 3.3>,
kuryt <vidhi pa. 1.1>, and so on, churyate <acyuta karmai 1.1> and so on, and
caturyati, giryati and so on, respectively. The change to trivikrama also doesnt
take place when a taddhita pratyaya beginning with y follows. Thus, in dhuryam,
divyam and so on, there is no trivikrama. Why do we say of a dhtu? In
nirgua, caturdh, and so on, there is no trivikrama.

The sentence beginning atra means because the word viujana is listed here, in
a rule related to dhtus, any vara which is a viujana is accepted. By the
phrase nmno nyatrpi jeyam, trivikrama is applied in dvyati <acyuta 1.1 form
of div[u]> and so on. This rule of trivikrama is applied only by considering the
deletion of a by stra 235 a cause (nimitta). Therefore the deletion of a is not
asiddha by the maxim beginning kvacid antarage (vtti 260). The form pratidiv
<1.1> is made by first applying trivikrama by stra 228, then deleting s[u] by
stra 202, and finally changing the n into a viusarga.
AmtaThe deletion of a by stra 235 is considered a cause (nimitta) of the
trivikrama. Here, although both kryas are prakty-rita, the change to
trivikrama is stronger as it is antaraga since it is applied earlier in the prakti. If
the deletion of a were asiddha, the change to trivikrama wouldnt take place
because the deleted a would be intervening since it is sthni-vat (considered like
the original a that was there before the deletion). And one cannot say that, since
the deletion of a is not asiddha and thus the deleted a is not sthni-vat, chasya o
vasya h hariveau kvau kasri-vaiave ca (779) should be applied, because
the change to trivikrama is stronger as it is antaraga since it applies earlier in the
prakti than the change of v to [h].
SaodhinThe kur referred to in the phrase na kura-chura-nma-dhtnm is
formed as follows: By dhtor antasya govinda pratyaye (394), the dhtu
[u]k[] karae (8U, to do, make) takes govinda when the vikaraa u follows,
then the vikaraa u is deleted by karotes tu nitya ye ca (565), and finally the a of
kar becomes u by karoty-a-rmasya ur nirgue (758). Thus kur refers to an aspect
of the dhtu [u]k[] karae. This is confirmed by the examples given by Bla in
that kurva, kurma, and kuryt are all forms of [u]k[] karae.
The word pratidivan is formed by applying the udi pratyaya [k]an[in] after prati
+ div[u] kr-vijig-vyavahra-dyuti-stuti-knti-gatiu by kanin yu-vi-takirji-dhanvi-dyu-pratidiva (Udi-stra 1.157). The nmas referred to in the
sentence kurdi-niedhn nmno nyatrpi jeyam are kdantas as kdantas
alone are considered both nmas and dhtus. Other nmas are not considered
dhtus, and thus this rule doesnt apply to them as they are excluded by the word
dhto in this rule. The purpose of this sentence is to say that this rule also
applies to the dhtus themselves, and not only to kdantas. Thus we get dvyati,
the acyuta pa. 1.1 form of the dhtu div[u], and so on. Although the deletion of a
is bahiraga, it is not asiddha because it doesnt fit the category of tad-animittam
(not considered a cause of the antaraga-krya) as required in the maxim kvacid
antarage krye kriyame tad-animitta bahiragam asiddha syt (vtti 260).
263 / paiTanmaiTana{BauiaiatyaeSaAM nasya h"r": s$aAE /
263. pathin mathin bhukinn ity e nasya hara sau

pathin mathin bhukin itithe words pathin (a path), mathin (a churning


stick), and bhukin (name of Indra); emof these; nasyaof na-rma;
haradeletion; sauwhen s[u] follows.
The final n of the words pathin, mathin, and bhukin is deleted when
s[u] follows.
264 / paTyaAd"InaAimar"AmasyaAr"Ama: k{(SNAsTaAnae , TaAtpaUva< naufca /
264. pathy-dnm i-rmasy-rma kasthne, tht prva nuk ca
pathi-dnmof the words pathin and so on; i-rmasyaof i-rma; -rma
the replacement -rma; kasthnewhen a kasthna follows; thttharma; prvambefore; nukthe gama n[uk]; caalso.
The i-rma of the words pathin, mathin, and bhukin changes to rma when a kasthna follows, and the gama n[uk] is inserted
before the th of the words pathin and mathin.
aviupadntasyeti viucakrasya hariveur iti. atra ngara-lipv apy
aviupadnte yad viucakra tan nocitam. panth panthnau panthna.
panthna panthnau.
VttiThen aviupadntasya nasya masya ca viucakra vaiave (230) and
viucakrasya hariveur viuvarge, viupadntasya tu v (114) are applied. In
this connection, even in the Devangar writing system, a viucakra not at the
end of a viupada is considered improper.
pathin + s[u] (263) pathi + s[u] (264) path + s[u] pa + n[uk] +
th + s[u]
(230) paths (114) panths (155) panth <1.1>.
pathin + au (264) pathn + au pa + n[uk] + thn + au (230)
pathnau
(114) panthnau <1.2>.
pathin + [j]as (264) pathn + as pa + n[uk] + thn + as (230)
pathnas
(114) panthnas (155) panthna <1.3>.
pathin + am (264) pathn + am pa + n[uk] + thn + am (230)
pathnam
(114) panthnam <2.1>.
pathin + au (264) pathn + au pa + n[uk] + thn + au (230)
pathnau
(114) panthnau <2.2>.
265 / paTyaAd"InaAM s$aMs$aAr"h"r"Ae BagAvaita /

265. pathy-dn sasra-haro bhagavati


pathi-dnmof the words pathin and so on; sasra-haradeletion of the
sasra; bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat follows.
The sasra of the words pathin, mathin, and bhukin is deleted when
a bhagavat follows.
patha path. eva-kreaiva sarvatra niyamn nmntasya nasya hara. tena
pathibhym pathibhi. eva manth manthnau manthna. bhuk
bhukau bhuka. atha rgin
pathin + []as (265) pathas (155) patha <2.3>.
pathin + [] (265) path <3.1>.
Nmntasya nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin (260) is applied since a
restriction (niyama) is always made with the word eva. Thus we get pathibhym
<3.2> and pathibhi <3.3>:
pathin + bhym (246, 260) pathibhym <3.2>.
pathin + bhis (246, 260) pathibhis (155) pathibhi <3.3>.
case

ekavacana

pratham

panth

dvity

panthna
m

tty

path

caturth

pathe

pacam

patha

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

patha
pathi
panth

dvivacana
panthna
u
panthna
u
pathibhy
m
pathibhy
m
pathibhy
m
patho
patho
panthna
u

bahuvacana
panthna
patha
pathibhi
pathibhya
pathibhya
pathm
pathiu
panthna

mathin + s[u] (263) mathi + s[u] (264) math + s[u] ma + n[uk]


+ th + s[u] (230) maths (114) manths (155) manth <1.1>.
mathin + au (264) mathn + au ma + n[uk] + thn + au (230)
mathnau
(114) manthnau <1.2>.

mathin + [j]as (264) mathn + as ma + n[uk] + thn + as (230)


mathnas
(114) manthnas (155) manthna <1.3>.
bhukin + s[u] (263) bhuki + s[u] (264) bhuk + s[u] (155)
bhuk <1.1>.
bhukin + au (264) bhukn + au (173) bhukau <1.2>.
bhukin + [j]as (264) bhukn + as (173) bhukas (155)
bhuka
<1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word rgin (one who has the bow named
rga, name of Ka).
AmtaSomeone may argue, Since, when s[u] follows, the deletion of the n of
pathin and so on is accomplished by a separate rule (stra 263), on the strength
of that rule the deletion of n shouldnt be done elsewhere. In answer to this, Jva
Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning eva-krea. A restriction (niyama) is
always made with the word eva. Therefore, because the word eva is not used in
stra 263, stra 263 is not a niyama. Thus the deletion of n takes place by the
general rule (stra 260)
266 / wna, h"na, paUSanayaRmainatyaeSaAmau"vasya iaiva(ma:
s$auzyaAere"va /
266. in han pan aryaman ity em uddhavasya trivikrama su-yor eva
in han pan aryaman itiwords ending in in, and the words han (killer), pan
(sun), and aryaman (sun); emof these; uddhavasyaof the uddhava;
trivikramathe change to trivikrama; su-yowhen s[u] or []i follow; eva
only.
The uddhava of words ending in in and the uddhava of the words han,
pan, and aryaman becomes trivikrama only when s[u] or []i follow.
rg rgiau rgia. rgiam rgiau rgia. rgibhym he rgin.
eva vana-mlin halin dain. han iti han-dhtu. tata kasa-hankasa-h
kasa-hanau kasa-hana. kasa-hanam kasa-hanau. va-ma-sat-sagahnasyety a-rma-hara
Vtti
rgin + s[u] (266) rgn + s[u] (202) rgn (260) rg
<1.1>.
rgin + au (173) rgiau <1.2>.

rgin + [j]as (173) rgias (155) rgia <1.3>.


rgin + am (173) rgiam <2.1>.
rgin + au (173) rgiau <2.2>.
rgin + []as (173) rgias (155) rgia <2.3>.
rgin + bhym (246, 260) rgibhym <3.2>.
rgin + s[u] (202) rgin <8.1>.

tty

rgi

caturth

rgie

pacam

rgia

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

rgia
rgii

dvivacana
rgiau
rgiau
rgibhy
m
rgibhy
m
rgibhy
m
rgio
rgio

rgin

rgiau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
rg
rgiam

bahuvacana
rgia
rgia
rgibhi
rgibhya

rgibhya

rgim
rgiu
rgia

The words vana-mlin (one who has a garland of forest flowers, name of Ka),
halin (one who carries a plough, name of Bla rma), and dain (one who
carries a staff, a sannys) are declined in the same way. The han referred to in
this stra is the dhtu han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to go). Thus the
word kasa-han (killer of Kasa, name of Ka) is declined as follows:
kasa-han + s[u] (266) kasa-hn + s[u] (202) kasa-hn (260)
kasa-h <1.1>.
kasa-han + au kasa-hanau <1.2>.
kasa-han + [j]as (155) kasa-hana <1.3>.
kasa-han + am kasa-hanam <2.1>.
kasa-han + au kasa-hanau <2.2>.
Then (when []as follows) a is deleted by va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyno -rma-haro
bhagavati, na tu ye, -yos tu v (235).

AmtaIn this stra, in refers to a word ending in in, han refers to the kvib-anta
form of the dhtu han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to go), and pan and
aryaman refer to the sun. This is a restriction (niyama) where trivikrama would
otherwise be applicable when any kasthna follows by nnta-dhtu-varjitasnta-sat-saga-mahad-apm uddhavasya trivikrama kasthne, buddha vin
(228). The word eva is used here to point out that this stra is a niyama. Words
like guin (one who has good qualities) and sragvin (one who has a garland),
which end in the taddhita pratyayas in[i] and vin[i], are declined in the same way.
SaodhinRegarding rgin <8.1>, the uddhava doesnt become trivikrama,
even though s[u] is following, because, since this stra is just a limitation
(niyama) of the main stra nnta-dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-saga-mahad-apm
uddhavasya trivikrama kasthne, buddha vin (228), the same prohibition
buddha vin applies here also. Similarly, the deletion of n is also prohibited by
the phrase buddha vin in nmntasya nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin
(260).
267 / h"naAe h"sya GaAe iNAayaAe: /
267. hano hasya gho in-nayo
hanaof the dhtu han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to go); hasyaof
ha-rma; ghathe replacement gha-rma; it-nayowhen it (something that
has the indicatory letter ) or na-rma follows.
When it or n follow, the h of han changes to gh.
kasa-ghna. kasa-ghn kasa-habhym. aukasa-hani kasa-ghni. he kasahan. eva p paau paa. paam paau pa. pi pai, pi
cety eke. aryam aryamaau. sakhy-abd pacan-prabhtayo nitya-bahuvacannt triu sa-rp. a-nnta-sakhyta kate ceti paca paca pacabhi
pacabhya.
Vtti
kasa-han + []as (235) kasa-hn + as (267) kasa-ghn + as
(155) kasaghna <2.3>.
kasa-han + [] (235) kasa-hn + (267) kasa-ghn <3.1>.
kasa-han + bhym (246, 260) kasa-habhym <3.2>.
When []i follows, we get kasa-ghni <7.1> or kasa-hani <7.1>:
kasa-han + []i (two options by 235):
1) (the a of an is deleted) kasa-hni (267) kasa-ghni <7.1>.

2) (the a of an isnt deleted) kasa-hani <7.1>.


kasa-han + s[u] (202) kasa-han <8.1>.
case

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

pratham
dvity

kasa-h
kasa-hanam

kasa-hanau
kasa-hanau
kasahabhym
kasahabhym
kasahabhym

bahuvacana
kasa-hana
kasa-ghna

tty

kasa-ghn

kasa-habhi

caturth

kasa-ghne

pacam

kasa-ghna

ah

kasa-ghna

kasa-ghno

saptam

kasa-ghni / kasahani

kasa-ghno

kasa-hasu

sambodh
ana

kasa-han

kasa-hanau

kasa-hana

kasahabhya
kasahabhya
kasaghnm

pan + s[u] (266) pn + s[u] (202) pn (260) p <1.1>.


pan + au (173) paau <1.2>.
pan + [j]as (173) paas (155) paa <1.3>.
pan + am (173) paam <2.1>.
pan + au (173) paau <1.2>.
pan + []as (235) pn + as (173) pas (155) pa
<2.3>.
pan + []i (two options by 235):
1) (the a of an is deleted) pni (173) pi <7.1>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) pani (173) pai <7.1>.
Some say the form should be pi <7.1>.
aryaman + s[u] (266) aryamn + s[u] (202) aryamn (260)
aryam <1.1>.
aryaman + au (173) aryamaau <1.2>.

The numerals from pacan (five) onwards are always used in bahu-vacana and
have the same form in all three genders. By applying a-nnta-sakhyta kate
ca jas-asor mahhara svrthe (187), we get the following forms:
pacan + [j]as (187) pacan (260) paca <1.3>.
pacan + []as (187) pacan (260) paca <2.3>.
pacan + bhis (246, 260) pacabhis (155) pacabhi <3.3>.
pacan + bhyas (246, 260) pacabhyas (155) pacabhya <4.3>.
AmtaBecause Jva Gosvm mentions in vtti 266 that han refers to the
dhtu han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to go), this stra doesnt apply to
words which are not dhtus. Thus in ahna <5.1 / 6.1>, a form of the word ahan
(a day), the change to gh doesnt take place. An example of when it follows is
jaghna <adhokaja pa. 1.1 of han[a] his-gatyo>. In the word hasya here, the
a is for the sake of pronunciation. Thus na-rma follows when the a of han is
deleted by stra 235. But, regarding the khytas and so on, na-rma follows only
when the uddhava disappears by gama-hana-jana-khana-ghasm
uddhavdarana kasri-sarvevare a vin (569). Therefore when a-rma
intervenes, as in hananam and so on, the change to gh doesnt take place. In the
opinion of those who say the form should be pi <7.1>, an itself is deleted, and
not just the a of an.
268 / r"SanaAntas$aYaAByaAe naux"Aima svaATaeR /
268. ra-a-nnta-sakhybhyo nu mi svrthe
ra-a-na-anta-sakhybhyaafter numerals ending in ra-rma, a-rma, or narma; nuthe gama n[u]; miwhen m follows; sva-artheprovided their
own meaning is predominant.
The gama n[u] is inserted after numerals ending in r, , or n when m
follows, provided their own meaning is predominant.
AmtaAmong the numerals, the word catur (four) ends in r, the word a
(six) ends in , and the words pacan (five), saptan (seven), aan (eight),
navan (nine), and daan (ten) end in n. Why do we say after numerals?
Consider girm <6.3> and guinm <6.3>.
269 / naAntaAe"vasya iaiva(maAe naAima /
269. nntoddhavasya trivikramo nmi

na-anta-uddhavasyaof the uddhava of a numeral ending in na-rma;


trivikramathe change to trivikrama; nmiwhen nm (n[u] + m) follows.
The uddhava of a numeral ending in n becomes trivikrama when nm
follows.
pacn pacasu. eva saptan aan navan daan.
Vtti
pacan + m (268) pacan + n[u] + m pacan + nm (269)
pacn + nm
(246, 260) pacnm <6.3>.
pacan + su[p] (246, 260) pacasu <7.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

bahuvacana
paca
paca
pacabhi
pacabhya

pacabhya

pacnm
pacasu

The words saptan (seven), aan (eight), navan (nine), and daan (ten)
are declined in the same way.
AmtaThe word sakhy (a numeral) is carried forward from the previous
stra. It is not possible that the deletion of n could take place first by nmntasya
nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin (260) and that the change to trivikrama
could then be done by vmanasya trivikramo nmi (169), for the deletion of n by
stra 260 would be asiddha (by the maxim beginning kvacid antarage). Therefore
Jva Gosvm created this rule.
270 / @"na @A ivaSNAuBai(Sau vaA /
270. aana viubhaktiu v
aanaof the word aan (eight); the replacement -rma; viubhaktiu
when any viubhakti follows; voptionally.

The final n of aan1 optionally becomes when any viubhakti follows.


271 / tasmaAtjas$zAs$aAer"AEzsvaATaeR /
271. tasmt jas-asor au svrthe
tasmtafter that -rma; jas-asoof [j]as and []as; authe replacement
au[]; sva-artheprovided its own meaning is predominant.
After that, [j]as and []as are replaced by au[], provided the meaning of
the word aan is predominant.
a it. it sarvasyeti nyyena id-dea sarvdea. aau aa, aau aa,
abhi aabhi, abhya aabhya, abhya aabhya. paka-dvaye
py anm. asu aasu. eva parama-paca paramau ity-di. asvrthe
tupriya-pac priya-pacnau priya-pacna. bhagavatipriya-paca ity-di.
mipriya-pacm. aana parrthatve py tva v, na tv aupriy 2
priyau priy. bhagavativiva-p-vad eva, priya. mipriym.
pakepriy priynau priyna. bhagavatipriyna. mi
priynm. arvanarv.
VttiThe in au[] is an indicatory letter. In accordance with the maxim it
sarvasya (vtti 223) a replacement that has the indicatory letter replaces
everything.
aan + [j]as (two options by 270):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + [j]as (46) a + [j]as (271)
a + au[] (57) aau <1.3>.
2) (the change to isnt done, 187) aan (260) aa <1.3>.
aan + []as (two options by 270):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + []as (46) a + []as (271)
a + au[] (57) aau <2.3>.
2) (the change to isnt done. 187) aan (260) aa <2.3>.
aan + bhis (two options by 270):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + bhis (46) a + bhis (155)
abhi <3.3>.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).
All the editions of Hari-nmmta list this as priy, but this cannot be correct as there is no
stra that causes the deletion of s[u], especially since this word is not a rdh. Ktyyanas
Vrttika on Aadhyy 7.1.21, however, says priyno rja-vat sarva hh-vac cpara hali
(the word priyan resembles the word rjan in all cases, except the cases beginning with a
consonant where it resembles the word hh). Since the form of hh when s[u] follows is hh
<1.1>, we must conclude that the proper form here is priy <1.1>. The correct reading
priy can be found in manuscript 554D (Serial No: 3024, Accession No: 554D) in the
Vrindavan Research Institute.
2

2) (the change to isnt done, 246, 260) aabhis (155) aabhi <3.3>.
aan + bhyas (two options by 270):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + bhyas (46) a + bhyas (155)
abhya <4.3>.
2) (the change to isnt done, 246, 260) aabhyas (155) aabhya
<4.3>.
aan + bhyas (two options by 270):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + bhyas (46) a + bhyas (155)
abhya <5.3>.
2) (the change to is done, 246, 260) aabhyas (155) aabhya
<5.3>.
In both cases we get anm <6.3>:
aan + m (268) aan + n[u] + m aan + nm (two
options by 270):
1) (the change to is done) asa + + nm (46) anm <6.3>
2) (the change to isnt done, 269) an + nm (246, 260) anm
<6.3>.
aan + su[p] (two options by 270):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + su[p] (46) asu <7.3>.
2) (the change to is done, 246, 260) aasu <7.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

bahu-vacana
aa / aau
aa / aau
aabhi /
abhi
aabhya /
abhya
aabhya /
abhya
anm
aasu / asu

Similarly, we get parama-paca <1.3>, paramau <1.3> and so on. But when
the meaning of the numeral is not predominant the forms are as follows:
priya-pacan + s[u] (228) priya-pacn + s[u] (202) priya-pacn
(260)
priya-pac <1.1>.

priya-pacan + au (228) priya-pacnau <1.2>.


priya-pacan + [j]as (228) priya-pacnas (155) priya-pacna
<1.3>.
When a bhagavat follows, the forms are priya-paca <2.3> and so on:
priya-pacan + []as (235) priya-pacn + as (241) priya-pacas
(155)
priya-paca <2.3>.
Whem m follows the form is priya-pacm <6.3>:
priya-pacan + m (235) priya-pacn + m (241) priya-pacm
<6.3>.
The optional change to by stra 270 is applicable even when the meaning of the
word aan is not predominant, but the substitution of au[] cannot be applied in
this case:
priyan + s[u] (270) priya + + s[u] (46) priys (155)
priy <1.1>.
priyan + au (270) priya + + au (46) priy + au (57)
priyau <1.2>.
priyan + [j]as (270) priya + + [j]as (46) priy + [j]as
(46) priys (155) priy <1.3>.
When a bhagavat follows, the declension is like that of the word viva-p:
priyan + []as (270) priya + + []as (46) priy + []as
(176) priy + []as priyas (155) priya <2.3>.
Whem m follows the form is priym <6.3>:
priyan + m (270) priya + + m (46) priy + m
(176) priy + m priym <6.3>.
In the case that the optional change to by stra 270 is not done, the forms are
as follows:
priyan + s[u] (228) priyn + s[u] (202) priyn (260)
priy <1.1>.

priyan + au (228) priynau <1.2>.


priyan + [j]as (228) priynas (155) priyna <1.3>.
When a bhagavat follows, the forms are priyna <2.3> and so on:
priyan + []as (235) priynas (155) priyna <2.3>.
Whem m follows the form is priynm <6.3>:
priyan + m (235) priynm <6.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word arvan (a horse):
arvan + s[u] (228) arvn + s[u] (202) arvn (260) arv <1.1>.
AmtaSomeone may argue, In the case when there is substitution by stra
270, since the change to is done first because it is nitya and antaraga, the form
should be am <6.3> as n[u] is not applied since the word no longer ends in
n. Not so, for the paribhs are applied in a different order. For example, since
the substitution of -rma by stra 270 is samasta-vypi due to the mention of
viubhaktiu, it is smnya. On the other hand, since the application of n[u]
by stra 268 is eka-dea-vypi due to the mention of mi, it is viea. And, in
accordance with the phrase teu cottarottara in vtti 59, a viea rule is
stronger than a nitya rule and an antaraga rule. Therefore, in this case, n[u] is
applied first by stra 268, and thus, when we later do the change to by stra
270, we get the form anm <6.3>.
The vigraha of the word parama-paca <1.1> is param ca te paca ca (they are
best and they are five). Because the meaning of the numeral is predominant in
this case, the rule of tad-anta is applied (see vtti 213). The vigraha of the word
priya-pac <1.1> is priy paca yasya sa (one for whom five are dear). Since
it only plays a secondary role, the meaning of the numeral is not predominant in
this case. The optional change to by stra 270 is applicable when the meaning
of the word aan is not predominant because the word svrthe was not used in
stra 270, but the substitution of au[] cannot be applied because the word
svrthe was used in stra 271. In priyna <2.3> and so on, the change to avarga by stra 280 doesnt take place even though ta-varga is conjoined with avarga, since the deletion of a by stra 235 is asiddha in accordance with the
maxim beginning kvacid antarage (vtti 260). The deletion of a is bahiraga
because it is ubhayrita, while the change to a-varga is antaraga because it is
kevala-prakty-rita.
272 / @naHpaUvaRsyaAvaRNAAe'vaRta{ s$auM ivanaA /
272. ana-prvasyrvao rvat su vin

a-na-prvasyanot in samsa with the negative particle na[]; arvaahof the


word arvan (a horse); arvatthe replacement arvat[]; sumthe viubhakti
s[u]; vinexcept.
When any viubhakti1 except s[u] follows, the word arvan is replaced
by arvat[], provided it is not in samsa with the negative particle na[].
caturbhujnubandhn num.
VttiWords that have a caturbhuja as their indicatory letter take the gama
n[um] by stra 240.
AmtaThe word pratyayeu (when any pratyaya follows) should be
understood here, and thus the replacement also takes place when a taddhita
follows. This is substantiated by the fact that Vmana, Vopadeva, and Durga Siha
unanimously appove examples like rvatam. Why do we say when any pratyaya
follows? Because the replacement doesnt happen in a samsa, as can be seen in
the example sahasra-dg arva-garva from r-haras poem Naiadha.
273 / navajaRtavagARsTasya nasya na NAtvama, /
273. na-varja-ta-varga-sthasya nasya na atvam
na-varja-ta-varga-sthasyasituated with ta-varga except na-rma; nasyaof narma; nanot; atvamthe change to a-rma (by stra 173).
Na-rma which is in sat-saga with any member of ta-varga except narma doesnt change to a-rma by stra 173.
arvantau arvanta. arvantam arvantau arvata. arvat arvadbhym, he arvan.
na-prvasya tuanarv anarvau. ka-gup, tasya pusika-gup kagub ka-gupau. mnta pram, tasya pusi
Vtti
arvan + au (272) arvat[] + au (240, 225) arva + n[um] + t + au
(273) arvantau <1.2>.
arvan + [j]as (272) arvat[] + as (240, 225) arva + n[um] + t + as
(273)
arvantas (155) arvanta <1.3>.

The word viubhaktiu is carried forward from stra 270. This is confirmed by Bla as follows:
su vin viubhaktiu parsu ana-prvasya arvan-abdasya sthne arvat bhavati (when any
viubhakti except s[u] follows, the word arvan is replaced by arvat[], provided it is not in
samsa with the negative particle na[]). Amta, however, offers the alternate explanation that
the word pratyayeu should be understood here.

arvan + am (272) arvat[] + am (240, 225) arva + n[um] + t + am


(273)
arvantam <2.1>.

arvan + au (272) arvat[] + au (240, 225) arva + n[um] + t + au


(273) arvantau <2.2>.
arvan + []as (272) arvat[] + as (155) arvata <2.3>.
arvan + [] (272) arvat[] + arvat <3.1>.
arvan + bhym (272) arvat[] + bhym (246, 96) arvadbhym
<3.2>.
arvan + s[u] (202) arvan <8.1>.

tty

arvat

caturth

arvate

pacam

arvata

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

arvata
arvati

dvivacana
arvantau
arvantau
arvadbhy
m
arvadbhy
m
arvadbhy
m
arvato
arvato

arvan

arvantau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
arv
arvantam

bahuvacana
arvanta
arvata
arvadbhi
arvadbhya

arvadbhya

arvatm
arvatsu
arvanta

But when the word arvan is in samsa with the negative particle na[], the forms
are anarv <1.1>, anarvau <1.2> and so on. Now we begin the declension of
the word ka-gup (one who protects Ka). In the masculine gender it is
declined as follows:
ka-gup + s[u] (202) ka-gup (96) ka-gub (252) kagup <1.1> or
ka-gub <1.1>.
ka-gup + au ka-gupau <1.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word pram (one who is peaceful), a word
ending in m. In the masculine gender it is declined as follows:
AmtaBut na-rma in sat-saga with another na-rma certainly changes to arma. An example of this is kuam (see vtti). The word ka-gup refers to
r Nanda and so on. The word pram is formed by apply the kt pratyaya

[k]vi[p] after the dhtu am[u] upaame (4P, to be calm, peaceful) and then
applying trivikrama by harivev-antoddhavasya trivikrama kvau kasrivaiave ca (846) and deleting [k]vi[p] by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (.
274 / DaAtaAemaAeR naAe ivaSNAupad"Antae mavayaAe /
274. dhtor mo no viupadnte ma-vayo ca
dhtoof a dhtu; maof ma-rma; nathe replacement na-rma;
viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; ma-vayowhen ma-rma or
va-rma follow; caand.
The m of a dhtu1 changes to n when the viaya is viupadnta or when
m or v follow.
atra jhali ca iti tasy bhrama, sagasyata ity-dau vidhna-baln narmasyaiva sthiti syt. pranprano nasya cdv iti jpakn nasya haro na
syt. pramau prama. pranbhym. catur nitya bahu-vacanntas tasya
pusi
VttiIn this regard, the following statement of Prakriy-kaumud is a bhrama:
jhali ca (and when a jhal (vaiava) follows), otherwise, on the strength of this
rule, there would only be na-rma in examples like sagasyate and so on.
pram + s[u] (202) pram (274) pran <1.1>
Because of the jpaka2 prano nasya cdau hariveu (108), the deletion of n
by stra 260 doesnt take place.
pram + au pramau <1.2>
pram + [j]as (155) prama <1.3>
pram + bhym (246, 274) pranbhym <3.2>
case
pratham
dvity
tty
1

ekavacana
pran
prama
m
pram

dvivacana
pramau

bahuvacana
prama

pramau

prama

pranbhy
m

pranbhi

In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.
2
Indicator; An expression or rule that implies something more than what is directly said by the rule
itself.

caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

prame
prama

prama

prami
pran

pranbhy
m
pranbhy
m

pranbhy
a
pranbhy
a

pramo

pramm

pramo

pransu

pramau

prama

The word catur (four) is always used in bahu-vacana. In the masculine gender it
is declined as follows:
AmtaWhy do we say when the viaya is viupadnta? Consider pramau
<1.2>. Examples of when m or v follow are jaganmi <acyuta intens. cakrapi
3.1 of gam[] gatau>, jaganva <acyuta intens. cakrapi 3.2 of gam[] gatau>
and, when the kt pratyaya [k]vas[u] follows, jaganvn <1.1>. Why do we say
when m or v follow? Consider pramyati. Why do we say of a dhtu?
Consider idam kim.
BlaJva Gosvm shows the fault in Prakriy-kaumuds statement with the
phrase beginning sagasyate. Sagasyate is the kalki t. 1.1 form of sam +
gam[] gatau, where the m of gam[] becomes a viucakra by
aviupadntasya nasya masya ca viucakra vaiave (230). If the change of
m to n were to apply here (since the jhal s follows), then there should be n
(instead of ), otherwise ordaining the change of m to n when a jhal follows would
be fruitless. Someone may argue, Why isnt nmntasya nasya haro
viupadnte buddha vin (260) to pran <1.1>? In answer to that Jva
Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning prano nasya. If the deletion of n by
stra 260 were applicable here, then the stra prano nasya cdau hariveu
(108) would be pointless. Thus the deletion of n is not done here.
275 / cataur"nax"]h"Aer"Amk{(SNAsTaAnae , baue" tvama, /
275. catur-anauhor m kasthne, buddhe tv am
catur-anauhoof the words catur (four) and anauh (an ox); mthe
gama [m]; kasthnewhen a kasthna follows; buddhewhen buddha
follows; tubut; amthe gama a[m].
The words catur and anauh take the gama [m] when a kasthna
follows, but when buddha follows, they take the gama a[m].
ma it. catvra catura. viusarge kte pun ra-rmacaturbhi caturbhya.
ra-a-nteti nucaturm.
VttiThe m is an indicatory letter.

catur + [j]as (275, 225) catu + [m] + r + as (60) catvras (155)


catvra
<1.3>.
catur + []as (155) catura <2.3>.
When the change to viusarga is done by stra 155, the viusarga again
becomes ra-rma by stra 144:
catur + bhis (246, 155) catubhis (144) caturbhis (155) caturbhi
<3.3>.
catur + bhyas (246, 155) catubhyas (144) caturbhyas (155)
caturbhya <4.3>.
The gama n[u] is applied by stra 268, and thus we get caturm <6.3>:
catur + m (268) catur + n[u] + m (246, 155) catunm (144)
caturnm (173) caturm <6.3>.
276 / r"r"Amasya na ivaSNAus$agAR: s$auipa /
276. ra-rmasya na viusarga supi
ra-rmasyara-rma; nanot; viusargaviusarga; supiwhen the
viubhakti su[p] follows.
Ra-rma doesnt change to viusarga by stra 155 when su[p] follows.
caturu. priya-caturpriya-catv priya-catvrau priya-catvra. asvrthd mi
na nupriya-caturm, he priya-catva. hal-abdasya supi halu. abhratti kvipi
abhr-abdt sau sat-sagnta-hareap ab. yaa pratiedho vcya iti tasy
kalpitam. daitya-vcam cae iti y-antt kvip-pratyayadaitya-v daitya-vau.
Vtti catur + su[p] (246, 276) catursu (170) caturu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word priya-catur (one for whom four are
dear):
priya-catur + s[u] (275, 225) priya-catu + [m] + r + s[u] (60)
priya-catvr + s[u]
(202) priya-catvr (155) priya-catv <1.1>.
priya-catur + au (275, 225) priya-catu + [m] + r + au (60) priyacatvrau <1.2>.

priya-catur + [j]as (275, 225) priya-catu + [m] + r + as (60) priyacatvras (155) priya-catvra <1.3>.
Because the meaning of the numeral is not predominant, n[u] is not applied by
stra 268 when
m follows:
priya-catur + m priya-caturm <6.3>.
priya-catur + s[u] (275, 225) priya-catu + a[m] + r + s[u] (60)
priya-catvar + s[u]
(202) priya-catvar (155) priya-catva <8.1>.
When su[p] follows, the form of the word hal (the Pinian pratyhra hal) is
halu <7.3>. When s[u] is applied after the word abhr, a word which is formed by
applying [k]vi[p] and which means abhrati (one who acts like a cloud), there is
deletion of the end of the sat-saga by stra 242 and we get ap <1.1> or ab
<1.1>:
abhr + s[u] (202) abhr (242) abh (96) ab (252) ap <1.1> or ab
<1.1>.
Prakriy-kaumuds opinion yaa pratiedho vcya (a prohibition should be
stated in regards to the yas (harimitras)) is a concocted idea. Now we begin the
declension of the word daitya-v, a word formed by applying the kt pratyaya
[k]vi[p] after the y-anta-dhtu (daitya-vi) meaning daitya-vcam cae (one
who calls Daitya-vc):
daitya-v + s[u] (202) daitya-v <1.1>.
daitya-v + au (202) daitya-vau <1.2>.
AmtaPrakriy-kaumuds opinion that the deletion of a ya (harimitra) at the
end of a sat-saga is prohibited is self-manufactured because such a prohibition is
not seen in any other grammatical treatise. The word abhr is formed in the
following way: First the pratyaya [k]vi[p] (the one which is equivalent to [k]ya[]) is
applied after the word abhra (cloud) in the sense of ya ivcarati. Then a-rma
haro rma-dhtuke (511) is applied and [k]vi[p] is deleted by kevalasya pratyayaver hara (). Thus we get the nma-dhtu abhr. We then apply the kt pratyaya
[k]vi[p] after this, and subsequently delete it by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara ().
Thus we get the word abhr. The word daitya-v is formed as follows: First []i is
applied after the word daitya-vc, then there is deletion of the sasra of daityavc by aneka-sarvevarasya sasra-hara . Thus we get the nma-dhtu
daitya-vi. We then apply the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] to this, at which point []i is
deleted by er haro ni-dau rmadhtuke (585). Then [k]vi[p] is deleted by
kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (), and we get the word daitya-.

277 / yavayaAeivaRSNAupad"AntayaAehR"r"Ae gAAepaAlae /


277. ya-vayor viupadntayor haro gople
ya-vayoof ya-rma and va-rma; viupada-antayosituated at the end of a
viupada; haradeletion; goplewhen a gopla follows.
A y or v at the end of viupada is deleted when a gopla follows.
na-vayor hara itidaityabhy daityabhi daitya-vu.
Due to the sentence na-vayor hare ka-saj na vcy (vtti 260) we get
daitya-bhym <3.2> and daitya-bhi <3.3>:
daitya-v + bhym (246, 277) daityabhym <3.2>.
daitya-v + bhis (246, 277) daityabhis (155) daityabhi <3.3>.
daitya-v + su[p] (170) daitya-vu <7.3>.
AmtaWhy do we say at the end of a viupada? Consider ayyate <acyuta
karmai 1.1 of ay[a] gatau> and mavyate <acyuta karmai 1.1 of mav[a]
bandhane>. The words ka-saj na vcy make up the rest of the sentence
na-vayor hare. Thus in daityabhym <3.2> and so on, there is no trivikrama by
kasya trivikramo gople (160). In daitya-vu <7.3>, the v is not deleted as
there is no gopla following.
278 / s$avaeRre" tau ivak(lpa: , h"re" s$aita paunanaR s$ainDa /
278. sarvevare tu vikalpa, hare sati punar na sandhi ca
sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; tubut; vikalpaoptionally; hare
deletion (hara); satiwhen there is; punaagain; nanot; sandhisandhi; ca
and.
But this is optional when a sarvevara follows. And, when there is
deletion, there is no further sandhi.
daitya yti daitya-v yti. pracch-dhto kvib-anta a-rmnta ka-pr
ka-pr ka-prau. ka-prcchv ity eke. eva vcher vn. hara-vidher
nityatvtvn vau va. vchv ity eke. ka-spka-spk kaspau. udaka-prvatve tu udaka-sp. a-rmnto dadh, dadhk dadhau
dadha. kasa-dviasya a iti kasa-dvi kasa-dvi kasa-dviau. a
nitya bahu-vacannta. a-nteti, a a abhi abhya. ra-a-nteti
nu, asya a

Vtti daitya-v <1.1> + yti (278) daitya <1.1> + yti or daitya-v <1.1>
+ yti.
Now we begin the declension of the word ka-pr (one who inquires about
Ka), a kvib-anta form of the dhtu pracch[a] jpsym (6P, to ask,
question) ending in a-rma.
ka-pr + s[u] (202) ka-pr (249) ka-pr (251)
ka-pr (252)
ka-pr <1.1> or ka-pr <1.1>.
ka-pr + au ka-prau <1.2>.
Some say the form should be ka-prcchau <1.2>. The word vn, formed by
applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the vch[i] icchym (1P, to desire), is
declined in a similar way. Because the rule of deletion (stra 242) is nitya we get
vn <1.1>:
vn + s[u] (202) vn (242) vn <1.1>.
vn + au (230) vau <1.2>.
vn + [j]as (230) vas (155) va <1.3>.
Some say the form should be vchau <1.2>. Now we begin the declension of the
word ka-sp (one who touches Ka):
ka-sp + s[u] (202) ka-sp (253) ka-spk (96)
ka-spg (252)
ka-spk <1.1> or ka-spg <1.1>.
ka-sp + au ka-spau <1.2>.
But when the word sp is in samsa with the word udaka, the form is udaka-sp
<1.1> or udaka-sp <1.1>:
udaka-sp + s[u] (202) udaka-sp (249) udaka-sp (251)
udaka-sp
(252) udaka-sp <1.1> or udaka-sp <1.1>.
Now we begin the declension of the word dadh (bold), a word ending in arma:
dadh + s[u] (202) dadh (253) dadhk (96) dadhg (252)
dadhk <1.1> or dadhg <1.1>.
dadh + au dadhau <1.2>.
dadh + [j]as (155) dadha <1.3>.

Now we begin the declension of the word kasa-dvi (enemy of Kasa, name of
Ka):
kasa-dvi + s[u] (202) kasa-dvi (251) kasa-dvi (252) kasadvi <1.1>
or kasa-dvi <1.1>.
kasa-dvi + au kasa-dviau <1.2>.
The word a (six) is always used in bahu-vacana and is declined as follows:
a + [j]as (187) a (251) a (252) a <1.3> or a <1.3>.
a + []as (187) a (251) a (252) a <2.3> or a <2.3>.
a + bhis (246, 251) abhis (155) abhi <3.3>.
a + bhyas (246, 251) abhyas (155) abhya <4.3>.
(When m follows), the gama n[u] is applied by ra-a-nnta-sakhybhyo nu
mi svrthe (268) and changes to by asya o viupadnte harighoe ca
(251).
AmtaA y or v at the end of viupada is optionally deleted when a sarvevara
follows. And, in the case that deletion takes place, it is prohibited to do sandhi.
The word ka-pr is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the
dhtu pracch[a] jpsym, and then applying pracchdnm trivikramo, na ca
sakaraa (), chasya o vasya h hariveau kvau kasri-vaiave ca (779),
and kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). The word vn is formed by applying the kt
pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu vch[i] icchym, and then applying i-rmeddhtor num (456), chasya o vasya h hariveau kvau kasri-vaiave ca
(779), and kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). The rule of deletion (stra 242) is
nitya because the deletion of the final vara of the sat-saga takes place
regardless of whether the change to by stra 249 is done or not.
279 / inatyaM h"ir"vaeNAuivaiDa: atyayah"ir"vaeNAAE /
279. nitya hariveu-vidhi pratyaya-hariveau
nityamalways; hariveu-vidhithe rule of hariveu; pratyaya-hariveauwhen
a hariveu that is part of pratyaya follows.
The rule of hariveu is always applied when a hariveu that is part of a
pratyaya follows.
mayay eva iti tasy bhrama.

VttiThe following statement of Prakriy-kaumud is a bhrama: mayay eva


(only when the taddhita pratyaya maya[] follows).
AmtaThis stra is for making the change to a hariveu compulsory where it
would usually only be optional in accordance with hariveau hariveur v (97).
The fault of Prakriy-kaumuds statement is that this stra would apply only
when the taddhita pratyaya maya[] follows, and thus since it wouldnt apply
when the hariveu of a sv-di follows, we would get the unwanted form am
<6.3> in the case that the optional change to hariveu by stra 97 is not done.
280 / SaAtpar"sya q%vagARyau(sya ca tavagARsya q%vagAR: , na tau
ivaSNAupad"AntaA%vagAARd"naAavaitanagAr"INAAma, /
280. t parasya a-varga-yuktasya ca ta-vargasya a-varga, na tu
viupadnt a-vargd anm-navati-nagarm
ta-rma; parasyaafter; a-varga-yuktasyaconjoined with a-varga; ca
and; ta-vargasyaof ta-varga; a-vargathe change to a-varga; nanot; tu
but; viupada-anttsituated at the end of a viupada; a-vargtafter avarga; a-nm-navati-nagarmwith the exception of nm (n[u] + m), navati
(ninety), and nagar (city).
When ta-varga comes after or is conjoined with a-varga, it changes to
a-varga. But when ta-varga comes after a-varga which is at the end of
a viupada, it doesnt change to a-varga, with the exception of nm,
navati, and nagar.
tena nma a-vargatva, am asu. navati-nagaryo a-vargatvamaavati a-avati, a-agarya a-agarya. neha, a-nara a-nara. datau para-varau ity-dni tu sandhi-mtra-subodhya pthag uktni. na tu
viupadntd ity-dau viupadnta-grahaa-phala ghair ity-dau
darayiyate. asvrthatvtpriya-aa priya-am. saju
VttiThus nm undergoes the change to a-varga:
a + m (268) a + n[u] + m a + nm (246, 251) a +
nm (279) a +
nm (246, 280) am <6.3>.
a + su[p] (246, 251) a + su (98) asu <7.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity

bahuvacana
a / a
a / a

tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

abhi
abhya
abhya
am
asu

The words navati and nagar also undergo the change to a-varga:
a-navati (251) a-navati (two options by 97):
1) (the change to hariveu is done) a-navati (280) a-avati <1.1>.
2) (the change to hariveu isnt done, 280) a-avati <1.1>.
a-nagarya (251) a-nagarya (two options by 97):
1) (the change to hariveu is done) a-nagarya (280) a-agarya
<1.3>.
2) (the change to hariveu is done, 280) a-agarya <1.3>.
But the change to a-varga doesnt take place here:
a-nara (251) a-nara (97) a-nara <1.3> or a-nara
<1.3>.
Stras like da-tau para-varau la-ca-a-vargeu nityam (102) were separately
formulated so that students may easily understand the subject matter of sandhi
alone. The result of including the word viupadnta in the phrase na tu
viupadntt (280) will be shown later in examples like ghai <1.1> and so
on. Because the meaning of the numeral is not predominant, we get the forms
priya-aa <1.3> / <2.3> and priya-am <6.3>. Now we begin the
declension of the word saju (an associate).
AmtaExamples of when ta-varga coming after changes to a-varga are
pe ka and so on. Examples of when ta-varga conjoined with a-varga
changes to a-varga are aati, kasaji kate, agni-ci na, cakri haukase
and so on. Because the words navati and nagar are not pratyayas, stra 279
doesnt apply. Rather the change to hariveu is only optionally done by stra 97.
a-nara <1.3> and a-nara <1.3> are yma-rma-samsas whose vigraha
is a ca te nara ca (they are six and they are also men). Nara <1.3> is the
word n (man) with the viubhakti [j]as. Sometimes a-nava a-nava is
listed instead of a-nara a-nara. In this case the vigraha is a-guit nava
(nine multiplied by six).
Someone may wonder, Why, in the Sandhi-prakaraa, was the same information
repeated in da-tau para-varau (102) to achieve kasaji ikate cakri haukase,
when they can be achieved by the current stra alone?. In answer to this, Jva

Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning da-tau. By the word di, a-ha-eu
a-rma (110) and prano nasya cdau hariveu (108) are included. These
three rules were first of all separately prescribed in the Sandhi-prakaraa so that
students with undeveloped intelligence may easily understand the subject matter
of sandhi alone, but actually all of them are covered by the current stra alone.
Ghai <1.1> is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]ti after the dhtu
gha[a] ceym (1A, to strive for, occur), and then the t of [k]ti which comes
after the of gha which is not at the end of a viupada changes to a-varga
since only ta-varga coming after a-varga which is at the end of a viupada is
forbidden to change to a-varga. The vigraha of priya-aa <1.3> / <2.3> is
priy a ye te (they for whom six are dear). Because the numeral a
only plays a secondary role here, there is no mahhara of [j]as or []as by stra
187, nor, when m follows, is n[u] applied by stra 268. The word saju is
formed by first applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu ju[] prtisevanayo (6A, to be pleased, to like; to serve, visit, dwell) to get the word ju
and then compounding ju with the word saha in the sense of ju saha vartate.
The word saha then becomes sa by sahasya sa () and we get saju.
SaodhinIn the example of a-avati a-avati here, the word navati is
used in the singular in accordance with viaty-dy sadaikatve anvttau (310).
The vigraha of a-avati <1.1> and a-avati <1.1> is a-guit navati
(ninety multiplied by six). Regarding prano nasya cdau hariveu (108), it
would have been sufficient to add the word apran or the phrase na tu pran in
the stra no nta ca-chayo a-rmo, viucakra-prvo viucpa-prvo v (104)
as was done in the Pinian stra na chavi apran (Adhyy 8.3.7). The
examples pra kate and pra hakkura in vtti 108 could then have been
accomplished by the current stra, while the examples pra catur-bhuja and
pra chdayati could have been accomplished by stra 241.
281 s$ajauSaAizAiSatyanayaAeir"s$aus$antaDaAtaAe r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae ,
tasya ivaSNAus$agAR s$auipa
281. saju i ity anayor is-us-anta-dhto ca ro viupadnte, tasya
viusarga ca supi
saju i itithe words saju (an associate) and i (wish, blessing);
anayoof these two; is-us-anta-dhtoof a dhtu ending in is or us; caand;
rathe replacement ra-rma; viupada-antewhen the viaya is
viupadnta; tasyathat (ra-rma); viusargaviusarga; caand; supi
when the viubhakti su[p] follows.
The final vara of the words saju and i and the final vara of dhtus1
ending in is or us2 change to r when the viaya is viupadnta, and that
1

In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.
2
In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

r changes to viusarga when su[p] follows.


dhtu-grahaa-phala samsa-krye sa-a-vidhne sarpikmyatty atra
vakyate.
VttiThe result of mentioning a dhtu in this stra will be described later in
vtti, in reference to the example sarpikmyati, which is an example of the rule,
in the Samsa-prakaraa, that changes viusarga to s or 3.
AmtaEven though saju and i are dhtus, they are mentioned separately
because they end in a mrdhanya (retroflex) vara. The phrase tasya viusarga
ca supi is an apavda of ra-rmasya na viusarga supi (276). The implied
meaning is that only a natural ra-rma is forbidden to change to viusarga when
su[p] follows as was seen in caturu <7.3>, but in this case ra-rma should
change to viusarga when su[p] follows because the ra-rma is artificially made
by the current stra. This rule is also an apavda of stra 251, where the of
saju and i would usually become by asya o viupadnte harighoe ca
(251).
Sarpikmyati is formed as follows: First the pratyaya kmya is applied after
sarpis <2.1> in the sense of sarpir icchati (one who desires ghee) and the word
icchati is excluded in accordance with the maxim uktrthnm aprayoga ().
Thus, when we have sarpis + kmya, if there were no mention of a dhtu in this
stra the s of sarpis would become r as it is at the end of a viupada. But
(because there is mention of a dhtu, and sarpis is not a dhtu), the s of sarpis
instead changes to viusarga by stra 155, and that viusarga further changes
to by kmye tu na-ra-rma-ja-viusarga vin (). Then, because things ending
in kmya are dhtus by bh-san-antdy dhtava (365), ti[p], []a[p], and so on
are applied and we get sarpikmyati <acyuta 1.1>.
SaodhinAmta 280 demonstrated how saju was a dhtu, and Jva
Gosvm will personally explain in vtti how i is formed by applying the kt
pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu [] + s[u] icchym (2A, to desire) in bhve
prayoga, at which point the stra sa i kasri-viujana-ayo (684) is
applied, thus causing the s of the dhtu [] + s[u] to be replaced by i.
282 / w&r"ntaDaAtaAe&"vasya iaiva(maAe ivaSNAupad"Antae /
282. ir-ur-anta-dhtor uddhavasya trivikramo viupadnte
ir-ur-anta-dhtoof a dhtu ending in ir or ur; uddhavasyaof the uddhava;
trivikramathe change to trivikrama; viupada-antewhen the viaya is
viupadnta.

The rule referred to here is viusargasya sa, vart tu a ka-kha-pa-pheu, tau sthni-vac ca
() in conjunction with kmye tu na-ra-rma-ja-viusarga vin ().

The uddhava of a dhtu ending in ir or ur becomes trivikrama when the


viaya is viupadnta.
saj sajuau sajrbhym saju, auritva saju. san-anta-dhto kvip
pipahi. viupadntatvn nimittatva-nivtte atvpya. pipah
pipahiau pipahia. pipahrbhym pipahu. eva viva-cikr. rt
sasyaivetiviva-cik viva-cikrau viva-cikrbhym viva-cikru.
Vtti saju + s[u] (202) saju (281) sajur (282) sajr (155) saj
<1.1>.
saju + au sajuau <1.2>.
saju + bhym (246, 281) sajur + bhym (246, 282) sajrbhym
(246, 155) sajbhym (144) sajrbhym <3.2>.
saju + su[p] (246, 281) sajur + su (246, 282) sajr + su (281)
sajsu (170) saju <7.3>.

tty

saju

caturth

sajue

pacam

sajua

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

sajua
sajui

dvivacana
sajuau
sajuau
sajrbhy
m
sajrbhy
m
sajrbhy
m
sajuo
sajuo

saj

sajuau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
saj
sajuam

bahuvacana
sajua
sajua
sajrbhi
sajrbhya
sajrbhya
sajum
saju
sajua

When the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after the san-anta-dhtu pipahia, we


get the word pipahi (one who desires to study). Because of the disappearance
of the nimitta due to being at the end of a viupada, the change to is undone,
and thus we get pipah <1.1>:
pipahi + s[u] (202) pipahis (281) pipahir (282) pipahr
(155) pipah <1.1>.
pipahi + au pipahiau <1.2>.
pipahi + [j]as (155) pipahia <1.3>.

pipahi + bhym (246) pipahis + bhym (246, 281) pipahir +


bhym
(246, 282) pipahrbhym (246, 155) pipatbhym (144)
pipahrbhym <3.2>.
pipahi + su[p] (246) pipahis + su (246, 281) pipahir + su
(246, 282) pipahr + su (281) pipahsu (170)
pipahu <7.3>.
The word viva-cikr (one who desires to create the universe) is declined in
the same way. Rt sasyaiva sat-sagnta-hara-vidhi (255) is applied and we get
viva-cik <1.1>:
viva-cikr + s[u] (202) viva-cikrs (255) viva-cikir (282)
viva-cikr (155)
viva-cik <1.1>.
viva-cikr + au viva-cikrau <1.2>.
viva-cikr + bhym (246) viva-cikrs + bhym (246, 255) vivacikir + bhym
(246, 282) viva-cikrbhym (246, 155) viva-cikbhym
(144) viva-cikrbhym
<3.2>.
viva-cikr + su[p] (246) viva-cikrs + su (246, 255) viva-cikir +
su

(246, 282) viva-cikr + su (276) viva-cikrsu (170) viva-cikru


<7.3>.
AmtaOne cannot say, The desired result of making the uddhava of ir and ur
trivikrama can be accomplished merely by dhto ra-va-prg-id-utos trivikramo ravato viujane (262), so what is the need of the current stra? Because the
viujana is mentioned as a general (smnya) nimitta, the change to trivikrama
there is valid only when the viaya is not viupadnta. Whereas the change to
trivikrama prescribed in the current stra is valid only when the viaya is
viupadnta. Thus the current stra is more specific (viea). Furthermore, when
s[u] follows, only this stra is successful in terms of accomplishing saj <1.1>,
pipah <1.1>, and so on.
When the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after the san-anta-dhtu pipahia,
which means pahitum icchati (one who desires to study), the a of pipahisa is
deleted by a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (511), then, due to not being at the end of
a viupada, the s of sa[n] becomes by stra 170. Thus, when the s of sa[n]
later finds itself at the end of a viupada, the naimittaka also disappears upon
the disappearance of its nimitta (in this case the nimitta is the not being at the
end of a viupada as required by the phrase na tu viupaddy-anta-stnm in
stra 170).
The word viva-cikr is also formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after
the san-anta-dhtu viva-cikra, at which point the a of viva-cikra is deleted

by a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (511). Here also the change to is undone due to


the being at the end of a viupada. When s[u] follows, the s of viva-cikrs is
deleted by rt sasyaiva sat-sagnta-hara-vidhi (255). Then, in accordance with
the maxim yvat sambhavas tvad vidhi (vtti 194), the trivikrama previously
made by dhto ra-va-prg-id-utos trivikramo ra-vato viujane (262) disappears
due to the disappearance of its nimitta in the form a viujana. Then again the
uddhava becomes trivikrama by the current stra, and the r changes to
viusarga by stra 155, and we thus get viva-cik <1.1>.
283 / s$ah"jasya maUDaRnyajaAtak(r"Amas$ambainDana ar"Amasya
s$ats$aAid"h"re" x": , @nyasya tau k(Ae va(vya: ,
id"izA{"izA@naud"k(paUvaRs$pa{izAjaAtasya ca /
283. sahajasya mrdhanya-jta-ka-rma-sambandhina ca ka-rmasya satsagdi-hare a, anyasya tu ko vaktavya, dii-di-anudaka-prva-spi-jtasya
ca
sahajasyanatural; mrdhanya-jta-ka-rma-sambandhinapossessed of a karma that was produced from a mrdhanya (retroflex) vara1; caand; karmasyaof ka-rma; sat-saga-di-harewhen there is deletion of the
beginning of the sat-saga (by stra 250); athe replacement a-rma;
anyasyaof another (ka-rma); tubut; kathe replacement ka-rma;
vaktavyait should be stated; dii-di-an-udaka-prva-spi-jtasyaof that
(ka-rma) which is produced from di, d or sp that is not in samsa with the
word udaka; caand.
When there is deletion of the beginning of the sat-saga of a ka-rma
that is either natural or posseses a ka-rma that was produced from a
mrdhanya vara, the remaining a-rma becomes a-rma. But when
there is deletion of the beginning of the sat-saga of any other kind of
ka-rma, or even when there is deletion of the beginning of the satsaga of the ka-rma that is produced from di, d or sp not in
samsa with the word udaka, the remaining a-rma becomes ka-rma.
tatra sahaje go-rakgo-ra go-ra go-rakau go-raka. go-rabhym go-rasu.
VttiAmong the words that have a natural ka-rma is the word go-rak (one
who protects the cows). This word is declined as follows:
go-rak + s[u] (202) go-rak (250, 283) go-ra (252) go-ra
<1.1> or go-ra <1.1>.
go-rak + au go-rakau <1.2>.
go-rak + [j]as (155) go-raka <1.3>.
1

See vtti 1 for the list of mrdhanya varas.

go-rak + bhym (246, 250, 283) go-rabhym <3.2>.


go-rak + su[p] (246, 250, 283) go-ra + su (98) go-rasu <7.3>.
AmtaWhen there is deletion of the beginning of the sat-saga of the ka-rma
that is produced from di, d or sp not in samsa with the word udaka, the
remaining a-rma would usually become a-rma because that ka-rma
posseses a ka-rma that was produced from a mrdhanya vara. Therefore di,
d and sp not in samsa with the word udaka are mentioned separately in this
stra in order that the remaining a-rma instead become ka-rma.
SaodhinThe kind of ka-rma that posseses a ka-rma produced from a
mrdhanya vara is usually arrived at by the following steps: When the final
vara of a dhtu changes to by cha-o rj-yaj-bhrj-parivrj-sj-mj-bhrasjvrac ca o viupadnte vaiave ca (249) or changes to h by hasya ha,
naho dha, ddes tu dhtor gha, druha-muha-naa-snuha-snih v
viupadnte vaiave ca (290), that of h further changes to k by a-ho ka
se (531) when the s of pratyayas like sa[n], s[i], kalki, ajita and so on follow. Then,
due to coming after k, that s changes to by stra 173, and thus we get a karma.
284 / r"aevaAR k( wita ke(icata, /
284. raker v ka iti kecit
rakeof rak, the kvib-anta form of the dhtu raki (rak[a] plane + []i); v
optionally; kaka-rma; itithus; kecitsome.
Some say that when there is deletion of the beginning of the sat-saga of
the ka-rma of rak, the remaining a-rma optionally becomes karma.
go-rak. mrdhanya-je vii-vi-dhtvo sani veum icchati vivikvivi vivi
vivikau vivika. vaha-dhtor vohum icchati vivakviva viva vivakau
vivaka. anyasya tuvaca-dhtor vivak, vivak vivag vivakau. daha-dhtor
didhakdidhak didhag didhakau didhaka. diy-dnmdidik didk pispk.
manyante ca tad ida piny. klps tu gha-kra-ca-varga-sthnikd
anyasya a-hdi-sthnikasypi kasya lopam hu. tena vivr ity hu. pisdhto sa-rmnta su-pis; tus-dhto su-tussu-p su-pisau su-pisa. su-t
su-tusau su-tusa. atva su-pu, su-tu. uru-ravasatv-asantoddhavasyeti trivikramauru-rav uru-ravasau uru-ravasa. ururavobhy uru-ravasu, he uru-rava. eva viara-ravas vedhas ity-di.
atha dos udi-pratyayntado doau doa. doam doau.
Vtti

go-rak + s[u] (202) go-rak (250, 284) go-rak (96) go-rag


(252) go-rak
<1.1> or go-rag <1.1>.
Among those that have a ka-rma which posseses a ka-rma produced from a
mrdhanya vara, are the dhtus vi[a] praveane (6P, to enter) and vi[]
vyptau (3U, to pervade). When sa[n] (and then [k]vi[p]) is applied after these
dhtus we get, in both cases, the word vivik which means veum icchati (one
who desires to enter / pervade).
vivik + s[u] (202) vivik (250, 283) vivi (252) vivi <1.1> or
vivi <1.1>.
vivik + au vivikau <1.2>.
vivik + [j]as (155) vivika <1.3>.
The word vivak which means vohum icchati (one who desires to carry) is the
san-kvib-anta form of the dhtu vah[a] prpae (1U, to bear, lead, carry).
vivak + s[u] (202) vivak (250, 283) viva (252) viva <1.1> or
viva <1.1>.
vivak + au vivakau <1.2>.
vivak + [j]as vivakas (155) vivaka <1.3>.
Among those that have a different kind of ka-rma is the word vivak (one who
desires to speak), which is the san-kvib-anta form of the dhtu vac[a]
paribhae (2P, to speak, say, tell).
vivak + s[u] (202) vivak (250, 283) vivak (96) vivag (252)
vivak <1.1> or vivag <1.1>.
vivak + au vivakau <1.2>.
The word didhak (one who desires to burn) is the san-kvib-anta form of the
dhtu dah[a] bhasm-karae (1P, to burn).
didhak + s[u] (202) didhak (250, 283) didhak (96) didhag
(252) didhak
<1.1> or didhag <1.1>.
didhak + au didhakau <1.2>.
didhak + [j]as (155) didhaka <1.3>.

The forms of the words didik (one who desires to point out), didk (one who
desires to see) and pispk (one who desires to touch), which are the san-kvibanta forms of the dhtus di[a] atisarjane (6U, to give; to order; to tell), d[ir]
prekane (1P, to see), and sp[a] saspare (6P, to touch) that is not in
samsa with the word udaka, are didik <1.1> or didig <1.1>, didk <1.1> or
didg <1.1>, and pispk <1.1> or pispg <1.1> respectively. The followers of
Pini also agree with this. But the Kalpa grammarians say that any k, other than
a k which is the replacement of gh or ca-varga, is deleted if it is the replacement
of , h, and so on. Thus they get viv <1.1>. Now we begin the declension of
the words su-pis (one who moves well) and su-tus (one who sounds well),
words ending in sa-rma which come from the dhtus pis[] gatau (1P, to go)
and tus[a] abde (1P, to sound) respectively:
su-pis + s[u] (202) su-pis (281) su-pir (282) su-pr (155) sup <1.1>.
su-pis + au su-pisau <1.2>.
su-pis + [j]as (155) su-pisa <1.3>.
su-tus + s[u] (202) su-tus (281) su-tur (282) su-tr (155) sut <1.1>.
su-tus + au su-tusau <1.2>.
su-tus + [j]as (155) su-tusa <1.3>.
The change to is applied by stra 170 and thus we get su-pu <7.3> and sutu <7.3>:
su-pis + su[p] (246, 281) su-pir + su (246, 282) su-pr + su (281)
su-psu
(170) su-pu <7.3>.
su-tus + su[p] (246, 281) su-tur + su (246, 282) su-tr + su (281)
su-tsu (170) su-tu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word uru-ravas (one whose fame is
widespread). Atv-as-antoddhavasya trivikramo buddha-varjita-sau, dhtu vin
(256) is applied and we get uru-rav <1.1>:
uru-ravas + s[u] (256) uru-ravs + s[u] (202) uru-ravs (155)
uru-rav <1.1>.
uru-ravas + au uru-ravasau <1.2>.
uru-ravas + [j]as (155) uru-ravasa <1.3>.

uru-ravas + bhym (246, 155) uru-rava + bhym (140) ururava + u + bhym


(50) uru-ravobhym <3.2>.
uru-ravas + su[p] (246, 155) uru-ravasu <7.3>.
uru-ravas + s[u] (202) uru-ravas (155) uru-rava <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

ekavacana
uru-rav
ururavasam
ururavas
ururavase
ururavasa
ururavasa
uru-ravasi
uru-rava

uru-ravasau

bahuvacana
uru-ravasa

uru-ravasau

uru-ravasa

ururavobhym
ururavobhym
ururavobhym
uru-ravaso

ururavobhi
ururavobhya
ururavobhya
ururavasm
uru-ravasu

uru-ravasau

uru-ravasa

dvi-vacana

uru-ravaso

Words like viara-ravas (one whose fame is widespread) and vedhas (the
creator, name of Lord Brahm or Lord Viu) are declined in the same way as
uru-ravas. Now we begin the declension of the word dos (arm), a word ending
in an udi pratyaya:
dos + s[u] (155) do <1.1>.
dos + au (170) doau <1.2>.
dos + [j]as (170) doas (155) doa <1.3>.
dos + am (170) doam <2.1>.
dos + au (170) doau <2.2>.
AmtaSome say that when there is deletion of the beginning of the sat-saga of
rak, the remaining a-rma optionally becomes ka-rma and that, in the other
case, the remaining a-rma becomes a-rma. The explanation of this is as
follows. When the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after the y-anta-dhtus raki
and taki, []i is deleted by er haro ni-dau rma-dhtuke (585), [k]vi[p] is
deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (), and thus we get rak and tak. At

this point some consider that s-ko sat-sagdyor haro viupadnte vaiave ca
(250)
cannot be applied as the deleted []i is considered like the original (sthni-vat).
Thus they apply stra 242 instead (and what remains is k). Others, however,
consider that, since the ka-rma in rak and tak is natural, s-ko sat-sagdyor
haro viupadnte vaiave ca (250) should certainly be applied (and thus the
remainder is which becomes by stra 251). Still others, witnessing this
difference of opinions, set forth an option, and that is what is shown in this stra.
The word vivik is formed by applying the pratyaya sa[n] after the dhtu vi[a]
praveane, doing reduplication, changing to by stra 249, then changing that
to k by a-ho ka se (531), and changing the s of s[an] to by stra 170.
Thus we get the san-anta-dhtu vivika. The kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after
this and there is a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (511), then [k]vi[p] is deleted by
kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). Thus we get the word vivik. Vivik can also be
formed by applying sa[n] after the dhtu vi[] vyptau. In this case the steps are
the same as above minus changing to by stra 249.
The word vivak is formed by applying the pratyaya sa[n] after the dhtu vah[a]
prpae, and then doing reduplication, at which point the a of the nara becomes i
by nar-rmasye-rma sani (589), changing the h of vah to h by stra 260,
then changing that h to k by a-ho ka se (531), and changing the s of s[an]
to by stra 170. Thus we get the san-anta-dhtu vivaka. The kt pratyaya
[k]vi[p] is applied after this and there is a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (511), then
[k]vi[p] is deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). Thus we get the word
vivak. Alternatively, vivak can be formed by applying sa[n] after the dhtu
vac[a] paribhae. In this case the steps are the same as above except that the
c of vac becomes k by stra 243.
The word didhak is formed by applying the pratyaya sa[n] after the dhtu dah[a]
bhasm-karae doing reduplication, at which point the a of the nara becomes i by
nar-rmasye-rma sani (589), changing the h of dah to gh by stra 290,
changing the d to dagh to dh by stra 259, then changing the gh to k by ydavamtre harikamalam (98), and changing the s of s[an] to by stra 170. Thus we
get the san-anta-dhtu didhaka. The kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after this
and there is a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (511), then [k]vi[p] is deleted by
kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). Thus we get the word didhak.
Due to the word api in the phrase a-hdi-sthnikasypi kasya, the Kalpa
grammarians also say that the k of a natural ka-rma is deleted. But, in their
opinion, when k is deleted, the remaining doesnt change to . Thus they form
viv <1.1> as follows: S[u] is applied after the san-kvib-anta form of the dhtu
vi[] vyptau, vivik, and is subsequently deleted by stra 202. Then, when the
k which is the replacement of the of vi is deleted by stra 250, the change to
by stra 170 is undone due to the disappearance of the nimitta k. Thus they get
vivis. Stras 281, 282, and 155 are then applied sequentially and they get viv
<1.1>. In do <1.1> (as well as in dorbhym <3.2> and so on), the change to
by stra 170 is undone because of the disappearance of the nimitta due to being

at the end of a viupada, thus we again get s which then changes to viusarga
by stra 155.
SaodhinThe word dos is formed by applying the udi pratyaya []os after
the dhtu dam[u] upaame (4P, to tame, subdue) by damer osi (Udi-stra
2.69). The sasra of the dhtu dam[u] is then deleted by sasrasya hara citi
(185) because the udi pratyaya []os has the indicatory letter which is the
Pinian equivalent to the indicatory letter c in our system. Thus we get the word
dos. All the printed editions of Hari-nmmta-vykaraa list the phrase atha dos
udi-pratyaynta in the vtti as atha do udi-pratyaynta, but this is
certainly false because all Sanskrit grammars and dictionaries list the word as
dos, as does the Udi stra by which it is formed. Furthermore, Jva Gosvm
has already finished the declension of masculine words ending in and is now
showing the declension of masculine words ending in s. Thus it would be out of
place to describe a word ending in here. The correct reading atha dos udipratyaynta can be found in manuscript 554D (Serial No: 3024, Accession No:
554D) in the Vrindavan Research Institute. In the next stra one should know that
the original word is dos and its optional replacement is doan. The word doa in
the stra itself is merely the sixth case singular form of the word dos, in which
sandhi has been done, as usual, by stra 170.
285 / d"AeSaAe d"AeSana, yau"Sau vaA /
285. doo doan yaduu v
doaof the word dos (arm); doanthe replacement doan; yaduuwhen
the yadus follow; voptionally.
The word dos is optionally replaced by doan when the yadus follow.
va-ma-sat-sageti a-rma-haradoa doa, do do dorbhym
doabhym ity-di. pta vaste paridadhtipta-vas. dhtu vineti
trivikrambhvapta-va pta-vasau. kasa hinastti kasa-hisantarlaphd viucakra-viusargayo sarvevaratva viujanatva cstti satsagntatvt sasya hara, nimittpyn na-rma eva, dhtu-varjiteti viean
ntra trivikramakasa-hin kasa-hisau kasa-hinbhym. atva-vidhau num
viucakram eva ghyate, tato neha atvamkasa-hinsu. vaikuha-dhvas
VttiA-rma is deleted by va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyno -rma-haro bhagavati,
na tu ye, -yos tu v (235):
dos + [j]as (two options by 285):
1) (dos is replaced by doan) doan + as (235) donas (173) doas
(155) doa
<2.3>.
2) (dos isnt replaced by doan, 170) doas (155) doa <2.3>.
dos + [] (two options by 285):

1) (dos is replaced by doan) doan + (235) don (173) do


<3.1>.
2) (dos isnt replaced by doan, 170) do <3.1>.
dos + bhym (two options by 285):
1) (dos is replaced by doan) doan + bhym (246, 260) doabhym
<3.2>.
2) (dos isnt replaced by doan, 246, 155) dobhym (144) dorbhym
<3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity

eka-vacana
do
doam

tty

do / do

caturth

doe / doe

pacam

doa / doa

ah

doa / doa
doi / doi /
doai

saptam
sambodh
ana

do

dvi-vacana
doau
doau
dorbhym /
doabhym
dorbhym /
doabhym
dorbhym /
doabhym
doo / doo

bahu-vacana
doa
doa / doa
dorbhi / doabhi
dorbhya /
doabhya
dorbhya /
doabhya
dom / dom

doo / doo

dosu / doasu

doau

doa

Now we begin the declension of the word pta-vas which means pta vaste (one
who wears yellow, name of Ka). There is no trivikrama due to the phrase
dhtu vin in stra 256.
pta-vas + s[u] (202) pta-vas (155) pta-va <1.1>.
pta-vas + au pta-vasau <1.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word kasa-his which means kasa hinasti
(one who kills Kasa, name of Ka). The viucakra and viusarga are both
sarvevaras and viujanas because in the vara-krama they are listed in
between the sarvevaras and the viujanas. Thus, since the s in kasa-his is at
the end of a sat-saga, it is deleted, and, due to the disappearance of its nimitta,
the viucakra changes back to n. Furthermore, due to the modifier dhtu-varjita
in stra 228, there is no trivikrama here:
kasa-his + s[u] (202) kasa-his (242) kasa-hin <1.1>.
kasa-his + au kasa-hisau <1.2>.
kasa-his + bhym (246, 242) kasa-hinbhym <3.2>.

In the rule causing the change to (stra 170), the word num only indicates the
viucakra, thus the change to doesnt take place in kasa-hinsu <7.3>:
kasa-his + su[p] (246, 242) kasa-hinsu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word vaikuha-dhvas (one who falls down
from Vaikuha.
AmtaVaste is the acyuta 1.1 form of the dhtu vas[a] cchdane, a dhtu in
the ad-di group. The s in kasa-his is at the end of a sat-saga because the
viucakra is considered a viujana here.
SaodhinThe word kasa-his is formed by applying the kt pratyaya
[k]vi[p] after kasa + his[i] hisym (7P, to harm, kill). The dhtu his[i] takes
the gama n[um] by i-rmed-dhtor num (456), and n[um] then becomes
viucakra by aviupadntasya nasya masya ca viucakra vaiave (230).
But when the s of his is deleted by stra 242, the viucakra changes back to n
due to the disappearance of its nimitta in the form of a vaiava. Regarding
kasa-hinsu <7.3>, when the s of his is deleted by stra 242, the viucakra
changes back to n by nimittpye naimittikasypy apya (vtti 245) as it is no
longer aviupadntasya (see stra 230) since by stra 246 the prakti is treated
like a viupada, and the n of n[um] is thus at the end of a viupada. Therefore,
since the word num in stra 170 only indicates the n[um] that has become a
viucakra by stra 230, the change to doesnt take place in kasa-hinsu <7.3>
286 / DvaMs$auaMs$auvasvanax"]h"AM d"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae /
286. dhvasu-srasu-vasv-anauh do viupadnte
dhvasu-srasu-vasu-anauhmof the dhtus dhvans[u] adha-patane (1A, to
fall down, perish) and srans[u] adha-patane (1A, to fall down, perish)1, the kt
pratyaya vas[u], and the word anauh (an ox); dathe replacement da-rma;
viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta.
The final vara of dhvans[u], srans[u], vas[u], and anauh2 changes to d
when the viaya is viupadnta.
atra jhali ca iti tasy bhrama, dhvasta ity-dau doa ca. dhvasu srasu
dht. caturbhujnubandhatva nmvasthym eva ghtam, aca updnt.
tentra na numvaikuha-dhvad vaikuha-dhvat vaikuha-dhvasau.
vaikuha-dhvadbhym. eva vaikuha-srat. atra vasu-pratyayavidvasu.
1

These dhtus are listed with viucakras in this stra because the n of the dhtus dhvans[u] and
srans[u] later becomes viucakra by aviupadntasya nasya masya ca viucakra vaiave
(230).
2
In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

udittvc caturbhujnubandhn ca num, nnteti trivikrama, sat-sagnta-hara


vidvn vidvsau vidvsa. vidvsam vidvsau.
VttiIn this regard, the following statement of Prakriy-kaumud is a bhrama:
jhali ca (and when a jhal (vaiava) follows), for there would be fault regarding
dhvasta <1.1>. Dhvans[u] and srans[u] are dhtus and thus they cannot take
n[um] since, in stra 240, due to the mention of ac, the quality of having a
caturbhuja as an indicatory letter is accepted only in relation to nmas. Now we
begin the declension of the word vaikuha-dhvas (one who falls down from
Vaikuha).
vaikuha-dhvas + s[u] (202) vaikuha-dhvas (286) vaikuhadhvad (252)
vaikuha-dhvat <1.1> or vaikuha-dhvad <1.1>.
vaikuha-dhvas + au vaikuha-dhvasau <1.2>.
vaikuha-dhvas + bhym (246, 286) vaikuha-dhvadbhym <3.2>.
The word vaikuha-sras (one who falls down from Vaikuha) is declined in the
same way, thus we get vaikuha-srat <1.1> or vaikuha-srad <1.1>. Among
the words mentioned in this stra is the kt pratyaya vas[u]. Now we will begin
the declension of the word vidvas[u] (one who knows), a word ending in the kt
pratyaya vas[u]. Because this word has the indicatory letter u it takes n[um] in
accordance with the phrase caturbhujnubandhn ca num (240). Then there is
trivikrama by stra 228 and deletion of the final vara of the sat-saga by 242:
vidvas[u] + s[u] (240, 225) vidva + n[um] + s + s[u] vidvans + s[u]
(228)
vidvns + s[u] (202) vidvns (242) vidvn <1.1>.
vidvas[u] + au (240, 225) vidva + n[um] + s + au vidvans + au
(228)
vidvns + au (230) vidvsau <1.2>.
vidvas[u] + [j]as (240, 225) vidva + n[um] + s + as vidvans + as
(228)
vidvns + as (230) vidvsas (155) vidvsa <1.3>.
vidvas[u] + am (240, 225) vidva + n[um] + s + am vidvans + am
(228)
vidvns + am (230) vidvsam <2.1>.
vidvas[u] + au (240, 225) vidva + n[um] + s + au vidvans + au
(228)
vidvns + au (230) vidvsau <2.2>.
AmtaFor dhvans, srans and vas[u] this rule is an apavda of stra 155, and for
anauh it is an apavda of stra 290. Dhvasta <1.1> is the form achieved when
the kt pratyaya [k]ta is applied after the dhtu dhvans[u] adha-patane. The
uddhava-na-rma is deleted by ani-rmet viujanntnm uddhava-na-rmahara kasrau (454), then s[u] is applied, and the s of s[u] changes to

viusarga by stra 155. The fault in Prakriy-kaumuds statement is that after


the uddhava-na-rma is deleted, the s of dhvas would become d, since the tarma of the kt pratyaya [k]ta is also a jhal (vaiava). Thus we would get the
unwanted form dhvatta <1.1>.
The dhtu ac[u] gati-pjanayo has a caturbhuja as its indicatory letter, still the
fact that in stra 240 it is mentioned separately as aca informs us that only
nmas which have a caturbhuja as their indicatory letter take n[um] and that
dhtus which have a caturbhuja as their indicatory letter dont take n[um].
Someone may argue, When s[u] comes after the word vidvas[u], n[um] is applied
and thus we get vidvans. How can the uddhava then become trivikrama by stra
228 since n[um] is in the uddhava position? True, but in this regard, the sat-saga
referred to in vtti 228 with the phrase dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-sagasya is treated
as if it were a single vara, otherwise the sarvevara coming before it wouldnt be
the uddhava and thus there would be the fault of asambhava (impossibility) in
stra 228.
SaodhinWhen the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtus dhvans[u] adhapatane and srans[u] adha-patane, the uddhava-na-rma is deleted by anirmet viujanntnm uddhava-na-rma-hara kasrau (454) and [k]vi[p] is
deleted by kevalasya pratyaya ver hara (). Thus we get dhvas and sras
respectively as seen here in the words vaikuha-dhvas and vaikuha-sras.
287 / vas$aAevaRsya oBaRgAvaita /
287. vasor vasya ur bhagavati
vasoof the kt pratyaya vas[u]; vasyaof the portion va; uthe replacement
u; bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat follows.
The va of vas[u] is replaced by u when a bhagavat follows.
vasyeti srma-nirdea. atvamvidua. vidu vidvadbhym vidvadbhi.
vidue. he vidvan. divas-prabhtaya kt-prakarae sdhayiyante. rpi
yathdivn divsau divsa. divsa divsau dua. du
divadbhym. eva jakivas. atha jagmivasjagmivn jagmivsau jagmivsa.
jagmivsa jagmivsau. tath jaganvasjaganvn jaganvsau jaganvsa.
ubhayatra bhagavatijagmua ity-di. pus
VttiThe word vasya indicates va-rma along with a-rma. The change to
takes place by stra 170 and we get vidua <2.3>:
vidvas[u] + []as (287) vidus + as (170) viduas (155) vidua
<2.3>.
vidvas[u] + [] (287) vidus + (170) vidu <3.1>.

vidvas[u] + bhym (286) vidvadbhym <3.2>.


vidvas[u] + bhis (286) vidvadbhis (155) vidvadbhi <3.3>.
vidvas[u] + []e (287) vidus + e (170) vidue <4.1>.
vidvas[u] + s[u] (240, 225) vidva + n[um] + s + s[u] vidvans + s[u]
(202)
vidvans (242) vidvan <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
vidvn
vidvsa
m

dvivacana
vidvsau

bahuvacana
vidvsa

vidvsau

vidua

tty

vidu

caturth

vidue

pacam

vidua

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

vidua
vidui

vidvadbhy
m
vidvadbhy
m
vidvadbhy
m
viduo
viduo

vidvan

vidvsau

vidvadbhi
vidvadbhy
a
vidvadbhy
a
vidum
vidvatsu
vidvsa

The words divas (one who ate) and so on will be made later in the Kdantaprakaraa, in vttis to. Their forms are as follows:
divas + s[u] (240, 225) diva + n[um] + s + s[u] divans + s[u]
(228)
divns + s[u] (202) divns (242) divn <1.1>.
divas + au (240, 225) diva + n[um] + s + au divans + au
(228)
divns + au

(230) divsau <1.2>.

divas + [j]as (240, 225) diva + n[um] + s + as divans + as


(228)
divns + as (230) divsas (155) divsa <1.3>.
divas + am (240, 225) diva + n[um] + s + am divans + am
(228)
divns + am (230) divsam <2.1>.
divas + au (240, 225) diva + n[um] + s + au divans + au
(228)
divns + au (230) divsau <2.2>.

divas + []as (287) dus + as (170) duas (155) dua


<2.3>.
divas + [] (287) dus + (170) du <3.1>.
divas + bhym (286) divadbhym <3.2>.
The words jakivas (one who ate) is declined in the same way. Now we begin
the declension of the word jagmivas (one who went):
jagmivas + s[u] (240, 225) jagmiva + n[um] + s + s[u] jagmivans +
s[u] (228)
jagmivns + s[u] (202) jagmivns (242) jagmivn <1.1>.
jagmivas + au (240, 225) jagmiva + n[um] + s + au jagmivans +
au (228)
jagmivns + au (230) jagmivsau <1.2>.
jagmivas + [j]as (240, 225) jagmiva + n[um] + s + as jagmivans +
as (228) jagmivns + as (230) jagmivsas (155) jagmivsa <1.3>.
jagmivas + am (240, 225) jagmiva + n[um] + s + am jagmivans +
am (228)
jagmivns + am (230) jagmivsam <2.1>.
jagmivas + au (240, 225) jagmiva + n[um] + s + au jagmivans +
au (228)
jagmivns + au (230) jagmivsau <2.2>.
The word jaganvas (one who went) is declined in the same way:
jaganvas + s[u] (240, 225) jaganva + n[um] + s + s[u] jaganvans +
s[u] (228)
jaganvns + s[u] (202) jaganvns (242) jaganvn <1.1>.
jaganvas + au (240, 225) jaganva + n[um] + s + au jaganvans +
au (228)
jaganvns + au (230) jaganvsau <1.2>.
jaganvas + [j]as (240, 225) jaganva + n[um] + s + as jaganvans +
as (228) jaganvns + as (230) jaganvsas (155) jaganvsa <1.3>.
jaganvas + am (240, 225) jaganva + n[um] + s + am jaganvans +
am (228)
jaganvns + am (230) jaganvsam <2.1>.
jaganvas + au (240, 225) jaganva + n[um] + s + au jaganvans +
au (228)
jaganvns + au (230) jaganvsau <2.2>.

In both cases, when a bhagavat follows, the forms are jagmua <2.3> and so
on:
jagmivas + []as (287) jagmus + as (170) jagmuas (155)
jagmua <2.3>.
jaganvas + []as (287) jagmus + as (170) jagmuas (155)
jagmua <2.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word pus (a man).
AmtaThe general mention of vaso in this stra (and of vasu in the previous
stra) is for the sake of also including [k]vas[u]. Thus it is shown here how the va
of the words divas and so on is also replaced by u. Regarding dua <2.3>, i[]
disappears when its nimitta in the form of the v of [k]vas[u] disappears. Regarding
jagmua <2.3> as a form of jagmivas, i[] disappears when its nimitta in the
form of the v of [k]vas[u] disappears. And regarding jagmua <2.3> as a form of
jaganvas, the change of the m of gam[] gatau to n by stra 274 is undone when
its nimitta in the form of the v of [k]vas[u] disappears. Then the uddhava of gam
disappears by gama-hana-jana-khana-ghasm uddhavdarana kasrisarvevare a vin (569).
288 / pauMs$a: paumas$au: k{(SNAsTaAnae /
288. pusa pumasu kasthne
pusaof the word pus (a man); pumasuthe replacement pumas[u];
kasthnewhen a kasthna follows.
The word pus is replaced by pumas[u] when a kasthna follows.
atra ca sui iti tasy bhrama, gauatve brahmai doa ca. u-rma it. pumn
pumsau pumsa. pumsam pumsau pusa. pus pubhym
pumbhym. num sarvo py anusvro lakyate iti bhga-vtti-krdaya. ata
audika-sasysya pusa ity-dau atva-niedho vcya. atra tu atvampuu.
nety anyepusu. uanasuan uanasau uanasa.
VttiAnd, in this regard, the following statement of Prakriy-kaumud is a
bhrama: sui (when a su (pava) follows), for there would be fault when the
word pus is used in a secondary role in the neuter gender. The u-rma is an
indicatory letter.
pus + s[u] (288) pumas[u] + s[u] (240, 225) puma + n[um] + s +
s[u]
pumans + s[u] (228) pumns + s[u] (202) pumns (242)
pumn <1.1>.

pus + au (288) pumas[u] + au (240, 225) puma + n[um] + s + au


pumans + au (228) pumns + au (230) pumsau <1.2>.

pus + [j]as (288) pumas[u] + [j]as (240, 225) puma + n[um] + s +


as pumans + as (228) pumns + as (230) pumsas (155) pumsa
<1.3>.
am

pus + am (288) pumas[u] + am (240, 225) puma + n[um] + s +


pumans + am (228) pumns + am (230) pumsam <2.1>.

pus + au (288) pumas[u] + au (240, 225) puma + n[um] + s + au


pumans + au (228) pumns + au (230) pumsau <2.2>.
pus + []as (155) pusa <2.3>.
pus + [] pus <3.1>.

pus + bhym (246, 242) pum + bhym (246, 113) pubhym


(246, 114) pumbhym <3.2> or pubhym <3.2>.
According to the author of Bhga-vtti and other authorities, the word num refers
to every kind of anusvra (viucakra). Therefore it should be stated that, in
pusa <2.3> and so on, the s of the udi pratyaya used to form the word pus
is prohibited to change to by stra 170. But in puu <7.3> the change to
does take place:
pus + su[p] (246, 242) pum + su (246, 113) pusu (170) puu
<7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
pumn
pumsa
m

dvi-vacana

bahu-vacana

pumsau

pumsa

pumsau

pusa

tty

pus

caturth

puse

pacam

pusa

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

pusa
pusi

pubhym /
pumbhym
pubhym
/pumbhym
pubhym /
pumbhym
puso
puso

puman

pumsau

pubhi / pumbhi
pubhya /
pumbhya
pubhya /
pumbhya
pusm
puu /pusu
pumsa

Others, however, say that it doesnt and thus they get pusu <7.3>. Now we
begin the declension of the word uanas (name of ukrcrya, the spiritual
master of the demons):
uanas + s[u] (188) uanas + [c] (185) uan <1.1>.
uanas + au uanasau <1.2>.
uanas + [j]as (155) uanasa <1.3>.
AmtaThe fault in Prakriy-kaumuds statement is that there would be avypti
(inadequate pervasion of the rule) when, in forming the neuter second case
plural, []i is applied after the word ati-pus (that which surpasses a man), and
we would get the unwanted form ati-pusi <2.3> instead of the proper form atipumsi <2.3>. According to the author of Bhga-vtti and other authorities, the
word num which appears in the phrase num-viusarga-vyavadhne pi (170)
refers to every kind of anusvra (viucakra). That is to say it refers both to the
viucakra that replaces n and to the viucakra that replaces m by
aviupadntasya nasya masya ca viucakra vaiave (230). Thus, since the
change to would usually take place in pusa <2.3>, pus <3.1>, and so on,
even though the viucakra that replaces m intervenes, the author of Bhga-vtti
and other authorities prohibit the change to with the sentence beginning
audika-sasya. However, the sa-rmas of other udi pratyayas do change to
by stra 270, otherwise there would be fault in regards to havi <1.3> and so
on. The change to does take place in puu <7.3> because it is the s of su[p]
that is changing to , not the s of the udi pratyaya. The word anye refers to
Pini , Kramadvara, and others. When the final s of the sat-sanga s is deleted
by stra 242, the viucakra changes back to m due to the disappearance of its
nimitta in the form of a vaiava, then the m again becomes a viucakra by mo
viucakra viujane (113).
SaodhinThe word pus is formed by applying the udi pratyaya
[]ums[un] after the dhtu p rakae (2P, to protect) by pter umsun (Udistra 4.177). The sasra of p is then deleted by sasrasya hara citi (185)
because the udi pratyaya []ums[un] has the indicatory letter which is the
Pinian equivalent to the indicatory letter c in our system. Thus we get pums.
The m of pums then changes to viucakra by stra 230 and we get the word
pus (a man).
289 / ozAnas$aAe naAntatvaM s$alaAeipatvaM ivaSNAus$agAARntatvaM ca
baue" /
289. uanaso nntatva sa-lopitva viusargntatva ca buddhe
uanasaof the word uanas (name of ukrcrya, the spiritual master of the
demons); na-antatvambeing one that ends in na-rma; sa-lopitvambeing

subject to the deletion of sa-rma; viusarga-antatvambeing one that ends in


a viusarga; caand; buddhewhen buddha follows.
The word uanas either becomes a word ending in n, a word that
undergoes deletion of its s, or a word ending in a viusarga when
buddha follows.
he uanan he uana he uana. eva aneh anehasau. purada puradaau.
he aneha he puradaa. vetavh-puros-ukthas-prabhtayas tu
chndas. ka-vh

1)
2)
3)

uanas + s[u] (three forms by 289):


uanas + s[u] (289) uanan + s[u] (202) uanan <8.1>.
uanas + s[u] (289) uana + s[u] (172) uana <8.1>.
uanas + s[u] (289) uana + s[u] (202) uana <8.1>.

case

eka-vacana

pratham
dvity

uan
uanasam

tty

uanas

caturth

uanase

pacam

uanasa

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

uanasa
uanasi
uanan / uana /
uana

dvivacana
uanasau
uanasau
uanobhy
m
uanobhy
m
uanobhy
m
uanaso
uanaso

bahuvacana
uanasa
uanasa
uanobhya

uanobhya

uanasm
uanasu

uanasau

uanasa

uanobhi

anehas + s[u] (188) anehas + [c] (185) aneh <1.1>.


anehas + au anehasau <1.2>.
puradaas + s[u] (188) puradaas + [c] (185) purada <1.1>.
puradaas + au puradaasau <1.2>.
anehas + s[u] (202) anehas (155) aneha <8.1>.
puradaas + s[u] (202) puradaas (155) puradaa <8.1>.
But the words veta-vh (drawn by white horses, name of Indra), puro-s (the
sacrificial rice cake), uktha-s (one who utters the Uktha hymns) are peculiar

to the Vedas. Now we begin the declension of the word ka-vh (one who
carries Ka).
BlaRegarding uana <8.1>, when the s of uanas becomes viusarga, stra
202 is applied because the viusarga is accepted as a viujana here since, in
the vara-krama, it is listed in between the sarvevaras and viujanas (see vtti
285).
290 / h"sya X#: , nah"Ae Da: , d"Ade"stau DaAtaAeGaR: ,
u"h"mauh"nazAauh"iah"AM vaA ivaSNAupad"Antae vaESNAvae ca /
290. hasya ha, naho dha, ddes tu dhtor gha, druha-muha-naa-snuhasnih v viupadnte vaiave ca
hasyaof ha-rma; hathe replacement ha-rma; nahaof the dhtu
ah[a] bandhane (4U, to bind, tie); dhathe replacement dha-rma; da-de
beginning with da-rma; tubut; dhtoof a dhtu; ghathe replacement
gha-rma; druha-muha-naa-snuha-snihmof the dhtus druh[a] jighsym
(4P, to hate, seek to harm), muh[a] vaicittye (4P, to be bewildered), a[a]
adarane (4P, to perish, disappear), uh[a] udgirae (4P, to vomit), and
ih[a] prtau (4P, to love, have affection for)1; voptionally; viupada-ante
when the viaya is viupadnta; vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; caand.
When the viaya is viupadnta or when a vaiava follows, the final h
of a dhtu2 becomes h. But the final h of the dhtu nah becomes dh, the
final h of a dhtu beginning with d becomes gh, and the final vara of
the dhtus druh, muh, na, snuh, and snih optionally becomes gh.
ete sarve pi dhtava. ka-v ka-v ka-vhau ka-vha.
VttiAll of these are dhtus.
ka-vh + s[u] (202) ka-vh (290) ka-vh (96) kav (252)
ka-v <1.1> or ka-v <1.1>.
ka-vh + au ka-vhau <1.2>.
ka-vh + [j]as (155) ka-vha <1.3>.
AmtaIn the other case the final vara of the five dhtus headed by druh[a]
becomes h and so on respectively. Where the dhtu druh[a] would normally
1

The dhtus a[a], uh[a], and ih[a] are mentioned in this stra with their initial varas
already changed to n and s by dhtv-der o na (477) and dhtv-de a sa (457)
respectively.
2
In this regard, one should remember that, in the Nma-prakaraa, a dhtu refers to a word whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word which is formed by applying the kt
pratyayas [k]vi[p] or []vi. See vtti 195 and Amta 195.

always undergo the change to gh because it begins with d, there is an optional


change to h. Where the dhtu a[a] would normally always undergo the change
to by stra 249, there is an optional change to gh. And where the rest of these
dhtus would normally always undergo the change to h by the phrase hasya
ha (290), there is an optional change to gh. Examples of the other dhtus will
be given later, but examples of a[a] (in its kvib-anta form) are as follows:
na + s[u] (202) na (two options by 290):
1) (the change to gh is done) nagh (96) nag (252) nak <1.1> or nag
<1.1>.
2) (the change to gh isnt done, 249) na (251) na (252) na <1.1>
or na <1.1>.
na + bhym (246, two options by 290):
1) (the change to gh is done) nagh + bhym (246, 96) nagbhym <3.2>.
2) (the change to gh isnt done, 249) na + bhym (246, 251) nabhym
<3.2>.
na + su[p] (246, two options by 290):
1) (the change to gh is done) nagh + su (98) naksu (170) naku
<7.3>.
2) (the change to gh isnt done, 249) na + su (246, 251) na + su
(98) nasu <7.3>.
The word ka-vh refers to Vsudeva, the father of Ka who carried him
across the Yamun river to Gokula.
SaodhinAll the dhtus mentioned here refer both to the dhtus proper and
to their kvib-anta forms (the nma formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p]
after the particular dhtu). This is because the kvib-anta forms are also
considered dhtus in accordance with vtti 195. Thus viupadnte is for the
kvib-anta forms nah, druh and so on, while vaiave is for the proper dhtus
nah[a], druh[a], and so on.
291 / vaAh"Ae vaA OQ&. BagAvaita /
291. vho v h bhagavati
vhaof the word vh (one who carries); vof the portion v; hthe
replacement [h]; bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat follows.
The v of vh is replaced by [h] when a bhagavat follows.
ha it.
VttiThe h is an indicatory letter.

BlaV is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the strength


of the stra (see vtti 159).
SaodhinThe word vh is formed by applying the kt pratyaya []vi after the
dhtu vah[a] prpae (1U, to bear, lead, carry) by vaha ca (Adhyy
3.2.64). However, vh can never stand alone, it must be preceded by a prvapada. In this regard the Mah-bhya adds the following restriction: ana-krnte
upasarge copapade vaher vir nsti ([]vi is not applied after the dhtu vah[a]
when the upendra or prva-pada doesnt end in a-rma). When []vi is applied
after the dhtu vah[a], there is vndra by uddhav-rmasya vndro
nsihe (470), then []vi is deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). In his
Kdanta-prakaraa, Jva Gosvm didnt create a separate stra ordaining []vi
because []vi is found almost exclusively in the Vedas as evidenced by the
anuvtti of the word chandasi (in the Vedas) in Adhyy 3.2.64. He did,
however, list words like pha-vh as niptas in stra . The Amta commentary
for that stra distinctly mentions that the four words given there are irregularly
forme by adding []vi and, in that very vtti, Jva Gosvm quotes the same
restriction of the Mah-bhya mentioned above, also indicating that those four
words and others are formed by adding []vi.
292 / @"yaAU"Q&Ae va{SNAIn": /
292. a-dvayd ho vndra
a-dvaydafter a-dvaya; haof the replacement [h]; vndra
vndra.
After a-dvaya, [h] takes vndra.
kauha. kauh ka-vbhym. ka-vsu. atra, kasa-dvisu ity atra
ca a-ho ka se iti na prpnoti, atrkaraena kevala-dhtu-viayatvt. tata ca
ka-v-sd bhavatty-dau kdanta-dhtos taddhite pi na syt, sammatarpatvt pinyair api samdheyam evedam. asupty uktvpi kramadvarapadmanbhbhy taddhite tu samdheyam eva. ka-paitas tv apadnta ity
uktv sarvam eva samdadhe. atha anauhcatur-anauhor m
Vtti
ka-vh + []as (291) ka + [h] + h + as (292) ka + au
+ h + as (57) kauhas (155) kauha <2.3>.
ka-vh + [] (291) ka + [h] + h + (292) ka + au +
h + (57)
kauh <3.1>.
ka-vh + bhym (290) ka-vh + bhym (246, 96) kavbhym <3.2>.

ka-vh + su[p] (290) ka-vh + su (96) ka-vsu <7.3>.


case

eka-vacana

dvity

ka-v /
ka-v
ka-vham

tty

kauh

caturth

kauhe

pacam

kauha

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

kauha
kauhi
ka-v /
ka-v

pratham

dvi-vacana

bahuvacana

ka-vhau

ka-vha

ka-vhau
kavbhym
kavbhym
kavbhym
kauho
kauho

kauha
kavbhi
kavbhya
kavbhya
kauhm
ka-vsu

ka-vhau

ka-vha

The rule a-ho ka se (531) is not applicable in ka-vsu <7.3> and kasadvisu <7.3> since it cannot be applied here as it is only in relation to kevaladhtus (pure dhtus). And thus it cannot be applied even when a taddhita
pratyaya is applied after a dhtu which is a kdanta as in the case of ka-vsd bhavati and so on. Because forms like ka-v-st and so on are accepted
by everyone, the followers of Pini also have to make adjustments to explain
them. Even though Kramadvara and Padmanbha Datta have said asupi
(which is not a sup (sv-di)), there is still need of reconciliation when a taddhita
follows. Ka-paita, a commentator on Prakriy-kaumud, however, reconciles
everthing by saying apadnte (when the viaya is not padnta (viupadnta)).
Now we begin the declension of the word anauh (an ox). First we apply caturanauhor m kasthne, buddhe tv am (275).
AmtaEven though kvib-anta forms are dhtus, because they are
simultaneously nmas they are not kevala-dhtus because they are not pure.
Ka-v-st is formed by applying the taddhita pratyaya st[i] after ka-vh
by deye dhne ca stis tr ca (), and then applying stras 246, 290 and 98.
Because in a-ho ka si (Adhyy 8.2.41) the nimitta is a mere s, there is
ativypti (over-pervasiveness of a rule) in relation to the taddhita pratyaya
st[i], the followers of Pini have to make adjustments to their rule. By saying
asupi (by which Adhyy 8.2.41 comes to mean and h become k when a
s that is not part of a sup (sv-di) follows) Kramadvara and Padmanbha Datta
have reconciled ka-vsu <7.3> and so on, but there is still ativypti in
relation to taddhitas. But, by explaining Adhyy 8.2.41 to mean a-ho ka
se padnte ( and h become k when s follows, provided the viaya is not
padnta (viupadnta)), Ka-paita has reconciled everything because
there is no chance of this change to k taking place in ka-vsu <7.3> or
ka-v-st because the viaya is viupadnta.

293 / @nax"]h"Ae nauM ca s$aAE /


293. anauho nu ca sau
anauhaof the word anauh (an ox); numthe gama n[um]; caalso; sau
when s[u] follows.
The word anauh also takes n[um] when s[u] follows.
sat-sagnta-hara, asiddhatvn na nasya haraanavn anavhau
anavha. anavham anavhau anauha. anauh anaudbhym. buddhe
tv amhe anavan. go-duhja-varja-harigadder ity-digo-dhuk go-dhug goduhau go-dhugbhym go-dhuku. ghatve dhtor ity aupadeikatvam eva
ghyate, tena dma-li ivcaratti kvib-antt kvipi dma-li. kasa-druhkasadhruk kasa-dhrug kasa-dhru kasa-dhru kasa-druhau. kasa-dhrugbhym
kasa-dhrubhym. eva ka-muh ka-snih ity-daya. kghri-lih
hasya hakghri-li kghri-li kghri-lihau. tur-sh
VttiThe final vara of the sat-saga is deleted by stra 242, but the deletion of
n doesnt take place because it is asiddha.
anauh + s[u] (275, 225) anau + [m] + h + s[u] (60) anavh +
s[u]
(293, 225) anav + n[um] + h + s[u] (202) anavnh (242) anavn
<1.1>.
anauh + au (275, 225) anau + [m] + h + au (60) anavhau
<1.2>.
anauh + [j]as (275, 225) anau + [m] + h + as (60) anavhas
(155)
anavha <1.3>.
anauh + am (275, 225) anau + [m] + h + am (60) anavham
<2.1>.
anauh + au (275, 225) anau + [m] + h + au (60) anavhau
<2.2>.
anauh + []as anauhas (155) anauha <2.3>.
anauh + [] anauh <3.1>.
anauh + bhym (246, 286) anaudbhym <3.2>.
But when buddha follows, a[m] is applied:

anauh + s[u] (275, 225) anau + a[m] + h + s[u] (60) anavah +


s[u]
(293, 225) anava + n[um] + h + s[u] (202) anavanh (242) anavan
<8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
anavn
anavha
m

dvivacana
anavhau

bahuvacana
anavha

anavhau

anauha
anaudbhi

anaudbhy
a
anaudbhy
a
anauhm
anautsu
anavha

tty

anauh

caturth

anauhe

pacam

anauha

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

anauha
anauhi

anaudbhy
m
anaudbhy
m
anaudbhy
m
anauho
anauho

anavan

anavhau

Now we begin the declension of the word go-duh (one who milks cows). The
stra beginning ja-varja-harigadde (stra 259) is applied and the forms are as
follows:
go-duh + s[u] (202) go-duh (290) go-dugh (259) go-dhugh (96)
go-dhug (252) go-dhuk <1.1> or go-dhug <1.1>.
go-duh + au go-duhau <1.2>.
go-duh + bhym (246, 290) go-dugh + bhym (246, 259) go-dhugh
+ bhym
(96) go-dhugbhym <3.2>.
go-duh + su[p] (246, 290) go-dugh + su (246, 259) go-dhugh + su
(98)
go-dhuksu (170) go-dhuku <7.3>.
In the rule that prescribes the change to gh (stra 290), the word dhto refers
only to dhtus that are originally enunciated in the Dhtu-pha. Therefore, when
the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after the kvib-anta word dma-lih which means
dma-li ivcarati (one who acts like a dma-lih) and the word dma-lih is thus
achieved, we get dma-li <1.1> (or dma-li <1.1>). Now we begin the
declension of the word kasa-druh (enemy of Kasa, name of Ka).
kasa-druh + s[u] (202) kasa-druh (two options by 290):

1) (h changes to gh) kasa-drugh (259) kasa-dhrugh (96) kasadhrug (252)


kasa-dhruk <1.1> or kasa-dhrug <1.1>.
2) (h changes to h) kasa-druh (259) kasa-dhruh (96) kasa-dhru

(252)
kasa-dhru <1.1> or kasa-dhru <1.1>.
kasa-druh + au kasa-druhau <1.2>.
kasa-druh + bhym (246, two options by 290):
1) (h changes to gh) kasa-drugh + bhym (246, 259) kasa-dhrugh +
bhym (246, 96) kasa-dhrugbhym <3.2>.
2) (h changes to h) kasa-druh + bhym (246, 259) kasa-dhruh +
bhym (246, 96) kasa-dhrubhym <3.2>.
The words ka-muh (one who bewilders Ka), ka-snih (one who loves
Ka), and so on are declined in a similar fashion. Now we begin the declension
of the word kghri-lih (one who licks Kas feet). Hasya ha (290) is
applied and the forms are as follows:
kghri-lih + s[u] (202) kghri-lih (290) kghri-lih
(96) kghri-li (252) kghri-li <1.1> or kghri-li <1.1>.
kghri-lih + au kghri-lihau <1.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word tur-sh (one who conquers quickly,
name of Indra).
AmtaThe deletion of n is asiddha in accordance with the maxim kvacid
antarage krye kriyame tad-animitta bahiragam asiddha syt (vtti 260).
Here the deletion of n by stra 260 is antaraga because it is sv-alprita, while
the deletion of the final vara of a sat-saga by stra 242 is bahiraga because it is
bahv-rita. The word ghatve means in the stra prescribing the change to gh.
First the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after dma + lih and we get the word
dma-lih (one who licks a rope). Then the pratyaya [k]vi[p] which is a substitute
for [k]ya[] by kvacit kyaa kvip () is applied after the word dma-lih in the sense
of dma-li ivcarati (one who imitates a rope-licker) and thus we get the nmadhtu dma-lih. The kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is then applied after this and we get the
word dma-lih (one who imitates a rope-licker)1
SaodhinThe nma-dhtu dma-lih is not an originally enunciated dhtu
(upadea) because it is formed by applying a pratyaya after a nma. Therefore,
since the word dhto in stra 290 refers only to dhtus that are originally
enunciated in the Dhtu-pha, the h of dma-lih doesnt become gh even though
dma-lih begins with d. The derivation of the words anauh and tur-sh will be
given under stras and respectively.
1

Everytime [k]vi[p] is applied here it is subsequently deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara ().

294 / s$aAX#: SaAq%. /


294. sha
shaof sh (the word sh after applying stra 290); the replacement
.
Sh is replaced by .
tur- tur- tur-shau tur-sha. tur-bhym. iti viujannt
puruottama-lig.
Vtti tur-sh + s[u] (202) tur-sh (290) tur-sh (294) tur-
(96) tur-
(252) tur- <1.1> or tur- <1.1>.
tur-sh + au tur-shau <1.2>.
tur-sh + [j]as (155) tur-sha <1.3>.
tur-sh + bhym (246, 290) tur-sh + bhym (294) tur- +
bhym (96)
tur-bhym <3.2>.
Thus ends the declension of masculine words ending in a viujana.
SaodhinThe word sh (tolerating, conquering) is formed by applying the
kt pratyaya []vi after the dhtu ah[a] marae (1A, to tolerate, conquer) by
chandasi saha (Adhyy 3.2.63). When []vi is applied after the dhtu
ah[a], the of ah[a] becomes s by dhtv-de a sa (458), then vndra
is applied by uddhav-rmasya vndro nsihe (470) and []vi is deleted by
kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (). The word sh, however, can never stand alone, it
must be preceded by a prva-pada. Thus Jva Gosvm shows the application of
this rule through the use of the word tur-sh (one who conquers quickly, name
of Indra). Although, in his Kdanta-prakaraa, Jva Gosvm didnt create a
separate stra ordaining []vi since []vi is found almost exclusively in the Vedas
as evidenced by the word chandasi (in the Vedas) in Adhyy 3.2.63, he did
list words like tur-sh as niptas in stra , and the Amta commentary for that
stra distinctly mentions that the four words tur-sh and so on are irregularly
formed through the application of []vi.

Atha viujannt lakm-lig.


Now we begin the declension of feminine words ending in a viujana.

tatra ca-rmnta cca-vargasyetik g cau ca. gbhym ku. eva tvac


vc. sraj di d ity-di, srak srag srajau sraja. samidhsamit samid. sman
sm smnau smna. smna. smn. -yos tu vsmni smani. ap nitya
bahu-vacannta. nnteti trivikramapa apa.
Among the feminine words ending in a viujana is the word c (the g-veda or a
sacred verse recited in praise of a deity), a word ending in ca-rma. Ca-vargasya
ka-vargo viupadnte, vaiave tv asa-varge (243) is applied and the forms are
as follows:
c + s[u] (202) c (243) k (96) g (252) k <1.1> or g
<1.1>.
c + au cau <1.2>.
c + [j]as (155) ca <1.3>.
c + bhym (246, 243) k + bhym (246, 96) gbhym <3.2>.
c + su[p] (246, 243) k + su (98) ksu (170) ku <7.3>.
The words tvac (skin, the sense of touch) and vc (speech, a word / statement,
a name of Sarasvat) are declined in the same way. Now we begin the declension
of the word sraj (a garland). Sraj di d tvij uih dadh anudaka-prva-sp
td ity-dn ko viupadnte (253) is applied and the forms are as follows:
sraj + s[u] (202) sraj (253) srak (96) srag (252) srak <1.1> or
srag <1.1>.
sraj + au srajau <1.2>.
sraj + [j]as (155) sraja <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word samidh (firewood):
samidh + s[u] (202) samidh (96) samid (252) samit <1.1> or
samid <1.1>.
Now we begin the declension of the word sman (boundary / limit):
sman + s[u] (228) smn + s[u] (202) smn (260) sm
<1.1>.
sman + au (228) smnau <1.2>.
sman + [j]as (228) smnas (155) smna <1.3>.

sman + []as (235) smnas (155) smna <2.3>.


sman + [] (235) smn <3.1>.
Due to the phrase -yos tu v (235) we get smni <7.1> or smani <7.1>:
sman + []i (235) smni <7.1> or smani <7.1>.
The word ap (water) is always used in bahu-vacana. There is trivikrama by stra
228 and thus we get pa <1.3>:
ap + [j]as (228) pas (155) pa <1.3>.
ap + []as apas (155) apa <2.3>.
AmtaThe words kut (a sneeze), tait (lightning), sarit (a river), and so
on are declinded like kasa-jit. The words upaniad (Upaniad), sampad
(success, glory wealth), samvid (knowledge), arad (the autumnal season),
dad ( a rock / mill stone), md (dirt), and so on and declined like the word
ka-vid. And the word pman (a kind of skin disease) is declined like the word
sman.
295 / @paAe d"Ae Bae /
295. apo do bhe
apaof the word ap (water); dathe replacement da-rma; bhewhen bharma follows.
The p of ap1 changes to d when bh follows.
adbhi apsu. he pa. tad-antatvt sv-adbhir ity-di. kakubhkakup kakub
kakubhau kakubbhym kakupsu. girir-ur-anta-dhtog girau gira.
grbhym gru. eva purp purau pura. caturstriy catasr-dea
catasra catasra catasbhi catasbhya catasbhya catasm catasu.
lakm-sthayor iti vieat samastasynya-ligatve pi tat-tad-dea. priys
tisro yasya sa priya-tis priya-tisrau priya-tisra. priya-catas priya-catasrau
priya-catasra. asi-asopriya-tisra priya-catasra. priya-tism. samastamtrasya lakmtve tupriya-tri priya-tr priya-traya. div
Vtti ap + bhis (295) adbhis (155) adbhi <3.3>.
ap + su[p] (98) apsu <7.3>.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

ap + [j]as (228) pas (155) pa <8.3>.


case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

bahuvacana
pa
apa
adbhi
adbhya
adbhya
apm
apsu
pa

Because the word sv-ap (having good water) ends in the word ap we get svadbhi <3.3> and so on. Now we begin the declension of the word kakubh (a
direction / region):
kakubh + s[u] (202) kakubh (96) kakub (252) kakup <1.1> or
kakub <1.1>.
kakubh + au kakubhau <1.2>.
kakubh + bhym (246, 96) kakubbhym <3.2>.
kakubh + su[p] (98) kakupsu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word gir (speech, a word / statement). Ir-uranta-dhtor uddhavasya trivikramo viupadnte (282) is applied and the forms
are as follows:
gir + s[u] (202) gir (282) gr (155) g <1.1>.
gir + au girau <1.2>.
gir + [j]as (155) gira <1.3>.
gir + bhym (246, 282) gr + bhym (246, 155) gbhym (144)
grbhym <3.2>.
gir + su[p] (246, 282) grsu (276) grsu (170) gru <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
g
giram

dvivacana
girau
girau

bahuvacana
gira
gira

tty

gir

caturth

gire

pacam

gira

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

gira
giri

grbhy
m
grbhy
m
grbhy
m
giro
giro

girau

grbhi
grbhya
grbhya
girm
gru
gira

The word pur (a town / city) is declined in the same way:


pur + s[u] (202) pur (282) pr (155) p <1.1>.
pur + au purau <1.2>.
pur + [j]as (155) pura <1.3>.

tty

pur

caturth

pure

pacam

pura

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

pura
puri

dvivacana
purau
purau
prbhy
m
prbhy
m
prbhy
m
puro
puro

purau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
p
puram

bahuvacana
pura
pura
prbhi
prbhya
prbhya
purm
pru
pura

Now we begin the declension of the word catur (four). In the feminine gender it
is replaced by catas:
catur + [j]as (216) catas + as (217) catasras (155) catasra
<1.3>
catur + []as (216) catas + as (217) catasras (155) catasra
<2.3>
catur + bhis (216) catas + bhis (155) catasbhi <3.3>
catur + bhyas (216) catas + bhyas (155) catasbhya <4.3>

catur + bhyas (216) catas + bhyas (155) catasbhya <5.3>


catur + m (216) catas + m (167) catas + n[u] + m
catasnm (173)
catasm <6.3>
catur + su[p] (216) catas + su (170) catasu <7.3>
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

bahuvacana
catasra
catasra
catasbhi
catasbhy
a
catasbhy
a
catasm
catasu

Due to the modifier lakm-sthayo in stra 216, the substitution of tis and
catas takes place even when the feminine words tri and catur are in samsa in a
different gender. For example, (in the masculine gender) we get priya-tis <1.1>
whose vigraha is priys tisro yasya sa (he for whom three (feminine) are dear):
priya-tri + s[u] (216) priya-tis + s[u] (188) priya-tis + [c]
(185) priya-tis <1.1>.
priya-tri + au (216) priya-tis + au (217) priya-tisrau <1.2>.
priya-tri + [j]as (216) priya-tis + as (217) priya-tisras (155)
priya-tisra <1.3>.
priya-catur + s[u] (216) priya-catas + s[u] (188) priya-catas +
[c] (185)
priya-catas <1.1>.
priya-catur + au (216) priya-catas + au (217) priya-catasrau
<1.2>.
priya-catur + [j]as (216) priya-catas + as (217) priya-catasras
(155) priya- catasra <1.3>.
When []as[i] or []as follow, the forms are priya-tisra <5.1> / <6.1> and priyacatasra <5.1> / <6.1>.

priya-tri + m (216) priya-tis + m (167) priya-tis + n[u] + m


priya-tisnm (173) priya-tism <6.3>
But when only the samsa is in the feminine gender (and the words tri and catur
are not feminine), the forms are as follows:
priya-tri + s[u] priya-tris (155) priya-tri <1.1>.
priya-tri + au (178) priya-tri + i (46) priya-tr <1.2>.
priya-tri + [j]as (181) priya-tre + as (63) priya-trayas (155) priyatraya <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word div (heaven, the sky).
AmtaThe vigraha of priya-catas <1.1> is priy catasro yasya sa (he for
whom four (feminine) are dear), and the vigraha of priya-tri <1.1> is priys
traya priyi tri v yasy s (she for whom three (masculine or neuter) are
dear).
SaodhinThe words gir and pur are formed by applying the kt pratyaya
[k]vi[p] after the dhtus g abde (9P, to speak, praise, call out to) and p
plana-praayo (3P or 9P, to nourish; to fill, fulfill) respectively. Then the of
g becomes ir by -rmasyer kasrau (572) and the of p becomes ur by
ohyoddhavasya ta ur kasrau (705). Finally [k]vi[p] is deleted by kevalasya
pratyaya-ver hara () and we get gir and pur respectively.
296 / id"va @AE s$aAE /
296. diva au sau
divaof the word div (heaven, the sky); authe replacement au-rma; sau
when s[u] follows.
The v of div1 changes to au when s[u] follows.
dyau divau diva. divam divau diva. div.
Vtti
div + s[u] (296) di + au + s[u] (59) dyaus (155) dyau <1.1>.
div + au divau <1.2>.
div + [j]as divas (155) diva <1.3>.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

div + am divam <2.1>.


div + au divau <2.2>.
div + [j]as divas (155) diva <2.3>.
div + [] div <3.1>.
AmtaAmara-koa offers the following definition: sura-loko dyo-divau dve
striy klbe tri-viapam (sura-loka, dyo, div and tri-viapa all refer to heaven.
The two words dyo and div are used in the feminine gender, while the word triviapa1 is used in the neuter gender).
297 / id"va oivaRSNAupad"Antae /
297. diva ur viupadnte
divaof the word div (heaven, the sky); uthe replacement u-rma;
viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta.
The v of div2 changes to u when the viaya is viupadnta..
dyubhym dyuu. didik dig diau digbhym diku. eva d. atha dvikasadvi-vat. eva vipru. athisaju ity-din ra. iau ia.
rbhym u. uihuik uig uihau. upnahnaho dhaupnat
upnad upnahau. iti viujannt lakm-lig.
Vtti
div + bhym (246, 297) di + u + bhym (59) dyubhym <3.2>.
div + su[p] (246, 297) di + u + su (59) dyusu (170) dyuu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word di (direction):
di + s[u] (202) di (253) dik (96) dig (252) dik <1.1> or dig
<1.1>.
di + au diau <1.2>.
di + bhym (246, 253) dik + bhym (246, 96) digbhym <3.2>.
di + su[p] (246, 253) dik + su (98) diksu (170) diku <7.3>.
1
2

Sometimes spelt tri-piapa.


In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

tty

div

caturth

dive

pacam

diva

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

diva
divi

dvivacana
divau
divau
dyubhy
m
dyubhy
m
dyubhy
m
divo
divo

dyau

divau

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
dyau
divam

bahuvacana
diva
diva
dyubhi
dyubhya
dyubhya
divm
dyuu
diva

The word d (seeing, the eye) is declined in the same way. The word dvi
(enemy (feminine)) is declined like kasa-dvi as is the word vipru (a drop).
Now we begin the declension of the word i (wish, blessing). The change to r
takes place by saju i ity anayor is-us-anta-dhto ca ro viupadnte, tasya
viusarga ca supi (281) and the forms are as follows:
i + s[u] (202) i (281) ir (282) r (155) <1.1>.
i + au iau <1.2>.
i + [j]as (155) ia <1.3>.
i + bhym (246, 281) ir + bhym (246, 282) r + bhym
(246, 155) + bhym (144) rbhym <3.2>.
i + su[p] (246, 281) ir + su (246, 282) r + su (281)
su (170) u <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana

iam

tty

caturth

ie

pacam

ia

ah
saptam
sambodh

ia
ii

dvivacana
iau
iau
rbhy
m
rbhy
m
rbhy
m
io
io
iau

bahuvacana
ia
ia
rbhi
rbhya
rbhya
im
u
ia

ana
Now we begin the declension of the word uih (name of a Vedic meter):
uih + s[u] (202) uih (253) uik (96) uig (252) uik
<1.1> or uig <1.1>.
uih + au uihau <1.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word upnah (a shoe / sandal). Naho dha
(290) is applied and the forms are as follows:
upnah + s[u] (202) upnah (290) upnadh (96) upnad (252)
upnat
<1.1> or upnad <1.1>.
upnah + au upnahau <1.2>.
Thus ends the declension of feminine words ending in a viujana.
AmtaFeminine words ending in sa-rma such as apsaras (heavenly nymph)
and su-manas (a flower, name of a plant) are declined like vedhas.

Atha viujannt brahma-lig


Now we begin the declension of neuter words ending in a viujana.
tatrpi pratyacpratyak pratc pratyaci. pratc pratyagbhym. eva prc.
pratyac-prc-abdayos tupratya pratyac pratyaci. au a-rma-dvaya
lekhya, kintu mita sthne na-rma-sad-bhve num na dyate. yathkasahiso brahmai kasa-histi kevala viucakra syt. tiryactiryak tirac
tiryaci. rjrk rg rj nrji.
Also among the neuter words ending in a viujana is the word pratyac
(backward, western, inner). It is declined as follows.
pratyac + s[u] (231) pratyac (243) pratyak (96) pratyag (244)
pratyak
<1.1>
or pratyag <1.1>.
pratyac + au (209) pratyac + (245) pratic + pratc <1.2>.
pratyac + [j]as (223) pratyac + []i (224, 225) pratya + n[um] + c
+ i pratyanci (241) pratyaci <1.3>.
pratyac + [] (245) pratic + pratc <3.1>.

pratyac + bhym (246, 243) pratyak + bhym (246, 96)


pratyagbhym <3.2>.
But the words pratyac and prc are declined as follows:
pratyac + s[u] (231) pratyac (242) pratya (243) pratya <1.1>.
pratyac + au (209) pratyac + pratyac <1.2>.
pratyac + [j]as (223) pratyac + []i pratyaci <1.3>.
When []i is applied after the word pratyac, two a-rmas should be written, but
when na-rma1 occupies the place of mit (something that has the indicatory
letter m), n[um] is not seen. Another example of this is kasa-hisi <1.3>, a form
of the word kasa-his in the neuter gender. Here there is only the viucakra and
no n[um]. Now we begin the declension of the word tiryac (horizontal, an
animal):
tiryac + s[u] (231) tiryac (243) tiryak (96) tiryag (242) tiryak
<1.1> or tiryag
<1.1>.
tiryac + au (209) tiryac + (247) tirac[i] + tirac <1.2>.
tiryac + [j]as (223) tiryac + []i (224, 225) tirya + n[um] + c + i
tiryanci (241) tiryaci <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word rj (strength):
rj + s[u] (231) rj (243) rg (242) rk <1.1> or rg <1.1>.
rj + au (209) rj + rj <1.2>.
rj + [j]as (223) rj + []i (224, 225) + n[um] + rj + i nrji
<1.3>.
AmtaWhen []i is applied after the words pratyac and so on which express
worship (and which therefore dont lose their n by ace pjy na-lopbhva
(489)), n[um] would normally be applied by sarvevara-vaiavntayor nu au
(224), since its application is not blocked by any other rule, and thus (after
applying stra 241) two a-rmas would be written. But n[um] cannot be applied
when there is already a na-rma in its place, that is to say when there is already a
na-rma after the final sarvevara. Jva Gosvm gives another example of this
with the sentence beginning yath. In kasa-hisi <1.3>, there is only the
1

The na-rma referred to here is the n in anc[u], the crude form of the dhtu ac[u] (see
Saodhin 249 for further details). Regarding kasa-his the na-rma occupying the place of mit
is the n[um] applied to the dhtu his[i] hisym by i-rmed-dhtor num (456) which later
becomes viucakra by stra 230.

viucakra and no n[um], and because the s is part of a dhtu it doesnt change
to by stra 170.
298 / ba"jaAeR naumaitaSaeDa: /
298. bahrjo num-pratiedha
bahrjaof the word bahrj (possessing much strength); num-pratiedha
prohibition of n[um].
The word bahrj (bahu + rj) doesnt take n[um].
bahrji. antyt prva num icchanty ekebahrjti. jagat, jagat jagat jaganti.
atha at-pratyaynto bhavatbhavat. -pratyaye num kt-prakarae vakyate
bhavant bhavanti. tudat-bht-kariyat-prabhtn vikalpatudat tudat
tudant tudanti. eva bht bht bhnt. kariyat kariyat kariyant. mahacchabdamahat mahat mahnti. brahmanbrahma. va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyeti
viead a-rma-harbhvabrahma brahmi. brahma brahmabhym.
Vtti bahrj + [j]as (223) bahrj + []i bahrji <1.3>.
Some say that n[um] is applied before the final vara and thus they get bahrji
<1.3>:
bahrj + [j]as (223) bahrj + []i (224, 225) bahr + n[um] + j + i
bahrnji
(241) bahrji <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word jagat (the world, universe):
jagat + s[u] (231) jagat (96) jagad (252) jagat <1.1> or jagad
<1.1>.
jagat + au (209) jagat + jagat <1.2>.
jagat + [j]as (223) jagat + []i (224, 225) jaga + n[um] + t + i
jaganti <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
jagat /
jagad
jagat /
jagad

tty

jagat

caturth

jagate

dvivacana

bahuvacana

jagat

jaganti

jagat

jaganti

jagadbhy
m
jagadbhy

jagadbhi
jagadbhya

pacam

jagata

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

jagata
jagati
jagat /
jagad

m
jagadbhy
m
jagato
jagato

jagadbhya

jagatm
jagatsu

jagat

jaganti

Now we begin the declension of the word bhavat[] (being, present), a word
ending in the kt pratyaya []at[]:
bhavat[] + s[u] (231) bhavat (96) bhavad (252) bhavat <1.1>
or bhavad <1.1>.
It will be described later in stra of the Kdanta-prakaraa how n[um] is applied
when the pratyaya follows:
bhavat[] + au (209) bhavat + (,225) bhava + n[um] + t +
bhavant <1.2>.
bhavat[] + [j]as (223) bhavat + []i (224, 225) bhava + n[um] + t
+ i bhavanti
<1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity

eka-vacana
bhavat /
bhavad
bhavat /
bhavad

tty

bhavat

caturth

bhavate

pacam

bhavata

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

bhavata
bhavati
bhavat /
bhavad

dvivacana

bahuvacana

bhavant

bhavanti

bhavant

bhavanti

bhavadbhy
m
bhavadbhy
m
bhavadbhy
m
bhavato
bhavato

bhavadbhi

bhavadbhy
a
bhavadbhy
a
bhavatm
bhavatsu

bhavant

bhavanti

But the words tudat[] (striking, hurting), bht[] (shining, manifesting, looking
like), kariyat[] (about to do) and so on optionally take n[um] when the
pratyaya follows:
tudat[] + s[u] (231) tudat (96) tudad (252) tudat <1.1> or
tudad <1.1>.

tudat[] + au (209) tudat + (two options by):


1) (n[um] is applied, 225) tuda + n[um] + t + tudant <1.2>.
2) (n[um] isnt applied) tudat <1.2>.
tudat[] + [j]as (223) tudat + []i (224, 225) tuda + n[um] + t + i
tudanti <1.3>.
bht[] + s[u] (231) bht (96) bhd (252) bht <1.1> or bhd
<1.1>.
bht[] + au (209) bht + (two options by):
1) (n[um] is applied, 225) bh + n[um] + t + bhnt <1.2>.
2) (n[um] isnt applied) bht <1.2>.
kariyat[] + s[u] (231) kariyat (96) kariyad (252) kariyat
<1.1> or kariyad
<1.1>.
kariyat[] + au (209) kariyat + (two options by):
1) (n[um] is applied, 225) kariya + n[um] + t + kariyant <1.2>.
2) (n[um] isnt applied) kariyat <1.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word mahat[u] (great):
mahat[u] + s[u] (231) mahat (96) mahad (252) mahat <1.1> or
mahad <1.1>.
mahat[u] + au (209) mahat + mahat <1.2>.
mahat[u] + [j]as (223) mahat + []i (228) maht + i (224, 225)
mah + n[um] + t + i mahnti <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word brahman (the Absolute Truth):
brahman + s[u] (231) brahman (260) brahma <1.1>.
Due to the modifier va-ma-sat-saga-hnasya in stra 235, a-rma is not deleted:
brahman + au (209) brahman + brahman (173) brahma
<1.2>.
brahman + [j]as (223) brahman + []i (228) brahmn + i
brahmni (173)
brahmi <1.3>.
brahman + [] brahman (173) brahma <3.1>.

brahman + bhym (246, 260) brahmabhym <3.2>.


AmtaWhere n[um] would usually be applied when []i follows in accordance
with sarvevara-vaiavntayor nu au (224), the word bahrj is forbidden to
take n[um]. The words tudat[] and so on optionally take n[um] in accordance
with the phrase e-dvayt tu v in stra.
299 / nasya h"r"Ae vaA aiNA baue" /
299. nasya haro v brahmai buddhe
nasyaof na-rma; haradeletion; voptionally; brahmaiin the neuter
gender; buddhein the sambodhana eka-vacana.
In the neuter gender, n is optionally deleted in the sambodhana ekavacana.
he brahma he brahman. eva carman varman arman. atha ahan
Vtti brahman + s[u] (231) brahman (299) brahma <8.1> or brahman
<8.1>.

tty

brahma

caturth

brahmae

pacam

brahmaa

ah

brahmaa

brahmao

brahmai
brahma /
brahman

brahmao

bahuvacana
brahmi
brahmi
brahmabhi

brahmabhy
a
brahmabhy
a
brahma
m
brahmasu

brahma

brahmi

case

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

pratham
dvity

brahma
brahma

brahma
brahma
brahmabhy
m
brahmabhy
m
brahmabhy
m

saptam
sambodh
ana

The words carman (skin), varman (armour), and arman (shelter, bliss,
surname of a brhmaa) are declined in the same way. Now we begin the
declension of the word ahan (a day).
AmtaWhere the deletion of n would normally never take place due to the
phrase buddha vin in stra 260, this rule makes the deletion of n optional. The
word nman (name) is declined as follows:

nman + s[u] (231) nman (260) nma <1.1>.


nman + au (209) nman + (two options by 235)
1) (the a of an is deleted) nmn <1.2>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) nman <1.2>.
nman + [j]as (223) nman + []i (228) nmn + i nmni
<1.3>.
eka-vacana

pratham

nma

dvity

nma

tty

nma

nmn /
nman
nmn /
nman
nmabhym

caturth

nmae

nmabhym

pacam

nmaa

nmabhym

ah

nmaa
nmni /
nmani
nma /
nman

nmao

nmabhi
nmabhya

nmabhya

nmam

nmao

nmasu

nma

nmni

saptam
sambodh
ana

dvi-vacana

bahuvacana

case

nmni
nmni

The words preman (love), dhman (abode, effulgence), vyoman (sky), and
so on are declined like the word nman, while the words janman (birth), karman
(activity), marman (mortal spot, secret), vartman (path), bhasman
(ashes), chadman (disguise), sadman (abode), and so on are declined like
the word brahman (in that they dont undergo deletion of their a-rma by stra
235 because they have a sat-saga containing m).
300 / @"Ae ivaSNAus$agAAeR ivaSNAupad"Antae , na s$amaAs$ae pauMs$aIita
vaAcyama, /
300. ahno viusargo viupadnte, na samse pusti vcyam
ahnaof the word ahan (a day); viusargaviusarga; viupada-ante
when the viaya is viupadnta; nanot; samsein samsa; pusiin the
masculine gender; itithus; vcyamit is said.
The n of ahan1 changes to viusarga when the viaya is viupadnta,
but not when ahan is in samsa in the masculine gender.
1

In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 160).

aha. -yos tu vdhtutvbhvd ghatvbhva. ahn ahan ahni. ahn.


Vtti ahan + s[u] (231) ahan (300) aha <1.1>.
The phrase -yos tu v (235) takes effect, but because ahan is not a dhtu there
is no change to gh by stra 267:
ahan + au (209) ahan + (two options by 235):
1) (the a of an is deleted) ahn <1.2>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) ahan <1.2>.
ahan + [j]as (223) ahan + []i (228) ahni <1.3>.
301 / @sya svaABaAva Wva r"ivaiDavaARcya: /
301. asya sv-dy-abhva eva ra-vidhir vcya
asyaof this viusarga; sv-dy-abhvein the absence of a sv-di; evaonly;
ra-vidhithe rule prescribing the change to r (stra 146); vcyait should be
stated.
Only in the absence of a sv-di does the viusarga formed from the n of
ahan change to r by stra 146.
ahobhym. buddhe pihe aha. samse pusi tu trivikramo, na tu viusarga
drghh nidgha. buddhe tuhe drghhan. atra atva vcyam
drghhau drghha drghha. su-pathinsu-pathi su-path supanthni. asi casu-panthni. pathy-dn sui num iti tasy bhrama.
da-rginda-rgi da-rgi da-rgi. eva da-kasa-ha
da-kasa-han da-kasa-ghn da-kasa-hni. eva da-pan
dryaman. sv-ap sv-ap. nnta-dhtu-varjiteti trivikramasv-mpi. svadbhym. vrv vr vri. anvard api ra-rma-javrbhym. atrpi catur
catvri. payaspaya payas paysi. payobhym. havishavi. audika-sarmo ya pratyaya, ata atvamhavi havi. havirbhym. viusarga,
atvamhaviu. auritvamhaviu. eva dhanus. ati-pusati-pum ati-pus
ati-pumsi. sv-anauhsv-anaut sv-anauh sv-anavhi. iti viujannt
brahma-lig. iti liga-traya daritam.
Vtti ahan + bhym (246, 300) aha + bhym (301, 140) aha + u +
bhym (50)
ahobhym <3.2>.
When buddha follows, the form is also aha:
ahan + s[u] (231) ahan (300) aha <8.1>.
case

eka-

dvi-

bahu-

vacana
pratham

aha

dvity

aha

tty

ahn

caturth

ahne

pacam

ahna

ah

ahna
ahni /
ahani

saptam
sambodh
ana

aha

vacana
ahn /
ahan
ahn /
ahan
ahobhy
m
ahobhy
m
ahobhy
m
ahno

vacana
ahni
ahni
ahobhi
ahobhya
ahobhya
ahnm

ahno

ahasu

ahn /
ahan

ahni

But when ahan is in samsa in the masculine gender, trivikrama is applied by


stra 228, and the change to viusarga by stra 300 is not done. For example,
drghh nidgha (the summer season in which the days are long):
drghhan + s[u] (228) drghhn + s[u] (202) drghhn (260)
drghh <1.1>.
But when buddha follows, the form is drghhan <8.1>:
drghhan + s[u] (202) drghhan <8.1>.
A change to is to be spoken here:
drghhan + au (228) drghhn + au (173) drghhau <1.2>.
drghhan + [j]as (228) drghhn + as (173) drghhas
(155) drghha
<1.3>.
drghhan + []as (235) drghhn + as (173) drghhas (155)
drghha
<2.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word su-pathin (that in which there is a
beautiful road, a city):
su-pathin + s[u] (231) su-pathin (260) su-pathi <1.1>.
su-pathin + au (209) su-pathin + (265) su-path <1.2>.

su-pathin + [j]as (223) su-pathin + []i (264) su-pathn + i su-pa


+ n[uk] + thn + i su-panthni <1.3>.
When []as follows the form is also su-panthni. The following statement of
Prakriy-kaumud is a bhrama: pathy-dn sui num (the words pathin and so
on take n[um] when a su (pava) follows). Now we begin the declension of
the word da-rgin (that which has seen rg (Ka, the wielder of the
rga bow)):
da-rgin + s[u] (231) da-rgin (260) da-rgi <1.1>.
da-rgin + au (209) da-rgin + (173) da-rgi
<1.2>.
da-rgin + [j]as (223) da-rgin + []i (228) da-rgn
+i
(173) da-rgi <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word da-kasa-han (that which has seen
Kasa-han (Ka, the slayer of Kasa)):
da-kasa-han + s[u] (231) da-kasa-han (260) da-kasaha <1.1>.
da-kasa-han + au (209) da-kasa-han + (two options by
235):
1) (the a of an is deleted) da-kasa-hn (267) da-kasa-ghn
<1.2>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) da-kasa-han <1.2>.
da-kasa-han + [j]as (223) da-kasa-han + []i (228) dakasa-hni <1.3>.
The words da-pan (that which has seen the sun) and dryaman (that
which has seen the sun) are declined in a similar fashion. Now we begin the
declension of the word sv-ap (that in which there is excellent water, a lake):
sv-ap + s[u] (231) sv-ap (96) sv-ab (252) sv-ap <1.1> or sv-ab
<1.1>.
sv-ap + au (209) sv-ap + sv-ap <1.2>.
There is trivikrama by stra 228 and we get sv-mpi <1.3>:
sv-ap + [j]as (223) sv-ap + []i (228) sv-p + i (224, 225) sv- +
n[um] + p + i
svnpi (230) svpi (114) svmpi <1.3>.

sv-ap + bhym (295) sv-adbhym <3.2>.


Now we begin the declension of the word vr (water):
vr + s[u] (231) vr (155) v <1.1>.
vr + au (209) vr + vr <1.2>.
vr + [j]as (223) vr + []i vri <1.3>.
Anvard api ra-rma-ja (145) is applied and we get vrbhym <3.2>:
vr + bhym (246, 155) v + bhym (145) vrbhym <3.2>.
Also among the neuter words ending in a viujana is the word catur (four).
catur + [j]as (223) catur + []i (275, 225) catu + [m] + r + i (60)
catvri <1.3> / <2.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word payas (milk):
payas + s[u] (231) payas (155) paya <1.1>.
payas + au (209) payas + payas <1.2>.
payas + [j]as (223) payas + []i (224, 225) paya + n[um] + s + i
payans + i
(228) paynsi (230) paysi <1.3>.
payas + bhym (246, 155) paya + bhym (140) paya + u +
bhym (50)
payobhym <3.2>.

pratham
dvity

ekavacana
paya
paya

tty

payas

caturth

payase

pacam

payasa

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

payasa
payasi

dvivacana
payas
payas
payobhy
m
payobhy
m
payobhy
m
payaso
payaso

paya

payas

case

bahuvacana
paysi
paysi
payobhi
payobhya
payobhya
payasm
payasu
paysi

Now we begin the declension of the word havis (ghee, an oblation):


havis + s[u] (231) havis (155) havi <1.1>.
The s in havis belongs to an udi pratyaya, and thus the change to by stra
170 takes place.
havis + au (209) havis + havis (170) havi <1.2>.
havis + [j]as (223) havis + []i (224, 225) havi + n[um] + s + i
havins + i
(228) havnsi (230) havsi (170) havi <1.3>.
havis + bhym (246, 155) havi + bhym (144) havirbhym <3.2>.
The change to viusarga by stra 155 takes place, then the change to by stra
170 takes place and we get haviu <7.3>. And when the change to a auri takes
place by auriu aurir v (138) we get haviu <7.3>:
havis + su[p] (246, 155) havisu (170) haviu (138) haviu
<7.3> or haviu
<7.3>.

tty

havi

caturth

havie

pacam

havia

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

havia
havii

dvivacana
havi
havi
havirbhy
m
havirbhy
m
havirbhy
m
havio
havio

havi

havi

case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
havi
havi

bahuvacana
havi
havi
havirbhi
havirbhya
havirbhya
havim
haviu
havi

The word dhanus is declined in the same way. Now we begin the declension of the
word ati-pus (that which surpasses a man):
ati-pus + s[u] (231) ati-pus (242) ati-pum <1.1>.
ati-pus + au (209) ati-pus + ati-pus <1.2>.

ati-pus + [j]as (223) ati-pus + []i (288) ati-pumas[u] + []i


(240, 225) atipuma + n[um] + s + i ati-pumans + i (228) ati-pumnsi
(230) ati-pumsi <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word sv-anauh (that in which the bulls are
excellent):
sv-anauh + s[u] (231) sv-anauh (286) sv-anaud (252) svanaut <1.1> or sv-anaud <1.1>.
sv-anauh + au (209) sv-anauh + sv-anauh <1.2>.
sv-anauh + [j]as (223) sv-anauh + []i (275, 225) sv-anau +
[m] + h + i (60) sv-anavh + i (224, 225) sv-anav + n[um] + h + i
sv-anavnhi (230)
sv-anavhi <1.3>.
Thus ends the declension of neuter words ending in a viujana. Thus the three
genders have been shown.
AmtaThe vigraha of drghh <1.1>, a ptmbara-samsa, is drghi ahni
yatra sa (that in which the days are long). The neuter word ahan is used in the
masculine gender here because the meaning of the word nidgha <1.1> is
predominant. The phrase atvam vcyam refers to the future stra of the
Samsa-prakaraa, prva-padn nasya a (), in conjunction with a-rmntd
ahnasya (). The vigraha of su-pathi <1.1> is sundara panth yatra tat su-pathi
nagaram (that in which there is a beautiful road, a city). By Prakriy-kaumuds
saying pathy-dn sui num (the words pathin and so on take n[um] when a
su (pava) follows), n[um] (n[uk] by stra 264 in our book) would not be
applied in the neuter gender when []i follows because []i is not a pava. This
is the fault. The vigraha of sv-ap <1.1> is suhu po yasmin tat sv-ap sara
(that in which there is excellent water, a lake).
The final s of the sat-saga s is deleted in forming ati-pum <1.1> because the
viucakra is accepted as a viujana there since, in the vara-krama, it is listed
in between the sarvevaras and viujanas (see vtti 285). Then, upon the
disappearance of its nimitta in the form of a vaiava, the viucakra changes
back to m. Regarding ati-pumsi <1.3>, one cannot say when n[um] is applied
before the application of [m] we get the same form, so what is the use of forming
ati-pumsi <1.3> in this way? because stra 240 is bahiraga as it is bahvrita, while stra 275 is antaraga as it is sv-alprita. Therefore by the maxim
antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga-vidhir balavn (vtti 59), m is applied first,
then n[um].
SaodhinThe word havis is formed by applying the udi pratyaya is[i] after
the dhtu hu vahnau dne (3P, to offer into the sacrificial fire, to sacrifice) by
arci-uci-hu-spi-chdi-chardibhya isi (Udi-stra 2.108). The dhtu hu then

takes govinda by dhtor antasya govinda pratyaye (394), and we thus get ho +
is[i]. The o then becomes av by o av (65), and we get the word havis. The word
dhanus is formed by applying the udi pratyaya us[i] after the dhtu dhan[a]
dhnye (3P, to bear fruit)1 by arti-p-vapi-yaji-tani-dhani-tapibhyo nit (Udistra 2.117).

Atha vieya-vieadi-viveka
Now we begin the discussion about vieya, vieaa, and so on.
302 / taa k{(SNAAid"zAbd"A: s$aMaAivazAeSaAd"AE
inayatapau&SaAeamaAd"ya: /
302. tatra kdi-abd saj-viedau niyata-puruottamdaya
tatrawithin those (the three genders); ka-di-abdthe words ka and
so on; saj-viea-dauused as saj-vieas (proper names) and so on;
niyataalways; puruottama-dayapuruottama (masculine) and so on.
Within the three genders, the words ka and so on are proper names
and so on and are always masculine and so on.
AmtaThe word tatra here means liga-traye (within the three genders). The
word di in kdi refers to the words rma and so on, rdh and so on, and
gokula and so on. The word di in puruottamdaya refers to lakm
(feminine) and brahma (neuter). The word saj-viedau in effect means
rhi-viee yoga-rhi-viee yaugika-viee ca (used as particular rhi
words, particular yoga-rhi words, or particular yaugika words).For instance,
yadcch-abdas (saj-abdas or proper name given randomly without any
attention to derivation or authority) like ittha (a wooden toy elephant) and
avittha (a wooden toy deer) are rhi words (words having a conventional
meaning), words like pakaja (lotus) are yoga-rhi words (words that have
both an etymological and a conventional meaning), and words like pcaka (a
cook) are yaugika words (words having an etymological meaning). This subject
will be described in greater detail in vtti.
303 / s$aYaAid"zAbd"Astau vaAcyailaA: /
303. sakhydi-abds tu vcya-lig
sakhy-di-abdwords like numerals and so on; tubut; vcya-ligvcyaliga words (words whose gender is the same as that of the vcya
(substantive)).
1

This dhtu is not listed in Jva Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but it is listed in the Pinian Dhtupha.

But words like numerals and so on share the gender of the substantive.
AmtaThe word vcya-lig means vieya-ligdi-bhja (they share the
gender and so on of the vieya (substantive)). Because words like numerals
and so on are samndhikaraa-vieaas, they share the gender and so on of
the substantive. The word di in sakhydi-abd refers to jtis, guas, and
kriys (see vtti 148).
SaodhinVcya-liga words are modifiers. The words ka and so on
described in the previous stra are substantives in that they have their own
gender and are fixed in that. Vcya-liga words, however, dont have their own
gender but rather share the gender of the substantive. The examples given in
vtti 305 show how jtis, guas, and kriys are vcya-liga.
304 / s$amaAnaAiDak(r"NAivazAeSaNA&paA
ivazAeSyailaivaSNAuBai(vacanaAina Bajantae /
304. samndhikaraa-vieaa-rp vieya-liga-viubhakti-vacanni
bhajante
samna-adhikaraawhich have the same adhikaraa (object); vieaa-rp
words that have the form of vieaas (modifiers); vieya-liga-viubhaktivacannithe liga (gender), viubhakti (case ending), and vacana
(number) of the vieya (substantive); bhajanteshare.
Samndhikaraa-vieaas share the liga, viubhakti, and vacana of
the vieya.
SaodhinThe Dictionary of Grammar gives the following definition of
samndhikaraa: Words which have got the same individual object (dravya)
referred to by means of their own sense, and which are put in the same case.
Similarly, Kik, commenting on Adhyy 1.2.42, says adhikaraa-abda
abhidheya-vc. samndhikaraa samnbhidheya (The word adhikaraa
signifies the abhidheya (that which is expressed or referred to, the object).
Having the same adhikaraa means having the same abhidheya). So, if the
qualities expressed by the two words that are the vieaa and the vieya reside
in the same object, then it is understood that the vieaa has the same
adhikaraa as the vieya and vice versa (see vtti 1688 and Saodhin 1686).
For example, while explaining ymo rma (green1 Rma) in vtti 1688, Jva
Gosvm says yatraiva ymatva tatraiva rma-sajatvam iti
tulydhikaraatvam (The condition of being tulydhikaraa (samndhikaraa) is
fulfilled because the quality of being green resides in the same object that the
quality of being one whose name is Rma resides in). Amta 926 further explains
1

In this regard, Amara-koa says triu symau harit-kau (The word syma is used in all three
genders and means harit (green) or ka (black or dark blue)). Rma here refers to Rma,
the son of Daaratha, as proven by Amta 922.

that in ymo rma (green1 Rma) there is no desire to express that the two
things are different, rather the desire is to express the nondifference that the
same person who is Rma is the same person who is green. Thus only the
relationship of vieya and vieaa that have the same adhikaraa
(samndhikaraa) is valid here. But if there were a desire to express the two
things as being different, then we would say something like rmasya ymo
vara (the green color of Rma) and the relationship of vieya and vieaa
that have a different adhikaraa (vyadhikaraa) would come into play. The
vyadhikaraa-vieaa, which doesnt share the liga, viubhakti, and vacana of
the vieya, will be further described in the Kraka-prakaraa in vttis 926 and
1019.
305 / jaAitagAuNAi(yaA"Ar"A yasya ivazAeSa: k(Tyatae tai"zAeSya: , yaena
tasya ivazAeSa: k(Tyatae tai"zAeSaNAma, /
305. jti-gua-kriy-dvr yasya viea kathyate tad vieya, yena tasya
viea kathyate tad vieaam
jti-gua-kriy-dvrby means of a jti, gua, or kriy (see vtti 148); yasya
whose; vieadistinguishing feature; kathyatedescribed; tatthat; vieya
vieya (substantive); yenaby which; tasyaof the vieya; viea
distinguishing feature; kathyatedescribed; tatthat; vieaamvieaa
(modifier).
That whose distinguishing feature is described by means of a jti, gua,
or kriy is called vieya, and that by which the distinguishing feature of
the vieya is described is called vieaa
yathgopa ka, gop rdh, kauma vasanam. yma ka, gaur
rdh, pta vasanam. vihr ka, vihri rdh, vihri gokulam ity-di.
VttiFor example, gopa ka (Ka, the cowherd boy), gop rdh
(Rdh, the cowherd girl), kauma vasanam (linen cloth), yma ka
(bluish Ka), gaur rdh (golden Rdh), pta vasanam (yellow cloth),
vihr ka (Ka, the enjoyer), vihri rdh (Rdh, the enjoyer),
vihri gokulam (Gokula, the enjoyer), and so on.
AmtaThe following information should be added: Viupadas are actually of
two kinds, sub-antas (nouns) and ti-antas (verbs).Ti-antas are called kriypadas (verbs). Recent authorities say that sub-antas are of four kinds: the
vieyas, vieaas, sarvanmas (kanmas), and avyayas. And in that regard,
1

In this regard, Amara-koa says triu symau harit-kau (The word syma is used in all three
genders and means harit (green) or ka (black or dark blue)). Rma here refers to Rma,
the son of Daaratha, as proven by Amta 1688. The proof that ka can mean black or dark
blue is Amara-koas statement ke nlsita-yma-kla-ymala-mecak (The words nla,
asita, yma, kla, ymala, and mecaka all refer to the ka color). For example, both the
peacock and Lord iva are called nla-kaha, kla-kaha, and mecaka-gala, indicating that they
are both blue-necked.

the sarvanmas (kanmas) are also considered vieaas, because, even


though they act as replacement words for the vieyas, they still share the liga,
viubhakti, and vacana of the vieya. Therefore, in vtti 310, Jva Gosvm will
personally say vieaa-abdeu ka-nmkhya-abd ucyante (the words
called kanma are said to be among the vieaa words). Among the
avyayas, the vcakas such as svar and so on are included among the vieyas,
while the dyotakas are similar to vieaas.
Now we will discuss vieaas. First of all, vieaas are of two kinds,
samndhikaraa and vyadhikaraa. The samndhikaraa-vieaas are of a
further three kinds since they can either be the vieaa of a vieya, vieaa,
or kriy. An example of when a vieaa modifies a vieya is gopa ka
(Ka, the cowherd boy), an example of when a vieaa modifies a vieaa
is ghana yma ka (dark-bluish Ka), and an example of when a
vieaa modifies a kriy is ghra ml karoti (he quickly makes a flower
garland). The gender and so on of the vieya is applied to the
samndhikaraa-vieaa, while it will be described later, in stra 1019, that
only tty is applied to the vyadhikaraa-vieaa.1
Furthermore, when the vieaa comes after the vieya, it is called vidheyavieaa, and its vieya is called uddeya or anuvda. The definition of these
terms is as follows: yad uddiya kriy pravartate arthd yad vastu prg-vijta
tad uddeyam anuvdo vocyate yac ca vidhyate tad vidheyam (that by
reference to which the kriy takes place, or, in other words, that which is already
known, is called the uddeya or anuvda, and that which is established is called
the vidheya). For example, updhyya pit-tulyo bhavet (the teacher is like a
father). Because the verb (kriy) takes place with reference to the already
known teacher (updhyya), updhyya is the subject (uddeya). It was
previously unknown to the student that the teacher is like a father (pit-tulya),
thus since this is what is established, pit-tulya is the predicate (vidheya). It is
not required that the subject and predicate have the same gender and so on.
Thus, in the example dharme ved pramam (the Vedas are the authority on
dharma), the liga and vacana of the subject ved and the predicate pramam
are different. However the rule is that the subject should always come before the
predicate. In this regard, the authorities on Alakra-stra (kvya) say
anuvdyam anuktvaiva na vidheyam udrayet (one cannot mention the
predicate without first mentioning the subject).2
1

Actually what Amta is referring to here is the vyadhikaraa kriy-vieaa. A normal


vyadhikaraa-vieaa will take a a viubhakti by sambandhe tad-rayt ah (925).
For futher details see vttis 925 and.
2
This is a stylistic rule mentioned in Sanskrit poetry textbooks, and breaking it constitutes the
fault called avima-vidheya (impure predicate). Nonetheless, in reality this rule is often
broken without any serious consequences. Examples are varo ham (I am the Lord) in
Bhagavad-gt 16.14, kim svapna etat (Is this a dream?) in Bhgavatam 10.8.40, and so on. In
these examples there is no ambiguity about what is the subject and what is the predicate because
only one possibility makes sense in the context, since it would be ridiculous to say the Lord is I,
Is a dream this?, and so on. However, in cases like kas tu bhagavn svayam (Bhgavatam
1.3.28), where both possibilities could make sense, this rule is strictly observed to avoid any
ambiguity about what is the subject and what is the predicate, since a major philosophical point is
at stake.

SaodhinAmong the examples in this vtti, the first three are examples of
when the vieaa is a jti, the next three are examples of when the vieaa is a
gua, and the last three are examples of when the vieaa is a kriy. In Sanskrit
grammar, the word vieaa sometimes refers to an adjective, sometimes to an
adverb, sometimes to a word in apposition, and sometimes to a predicate.
Therefore the best translation of the word vieaa is modifier, for this includes
all of the above categories. All the examples in this vtti are examples where the
vieaa is an adjective. The example ghra ml karoti is an example where
the vieaa (ghram in this case) is an adverb. This kind of vieaa is often
specifically called kriy-vieaa (modifier of a verb, i.e adverb). All the
examples in vtti 307 are examples where the vieaa is a word in apposition1,
and the example updhyya pit-tulyo bhavet is an example where the vieaa
is a predicate.
306 / @vyayaivazAeSaNAM a /
306. avyaya-vieaa brahma
avyaya-vieaamthe vieaa of an avyaya; brahmaneuter.
The vieaa of an avyaya is declined in the neuter gender.
yathmahat sva.
VttiFor example, mahat sva (great heaven).
SaodhinFurther examples of this rule will be given in vtti.
307 / ke(icacC$bd"A ivazAeSaNAtvae'ipa svailaM na tyajainta /
307. kecic chabd vieaatve pi sva-liga na tyajanti
kecitsome; abdwords; vieaatve apieven though they are vieaas;
sva-ligamtheir own gender; nanot; tyajantigive up.
Some words, even though vieaas, dont give up their own gender.
yathpradhna ka, pradhna rdh. gati ka, rayo rdh ity-di.
VttiFor example, pradhna ka (Ka, the Supreme), pradhna
rdh (Rdh, the Supreme), gati ka (Ka, the refuge), rayo rdh
(Rdh, the shelter), and so on.

Apposition is when one noun modifies another noun.

AmtaBecause the nature of these words is to not deviate in such ways, they
are also called ajahal-liga (words that dont give up their own gender). And it
cannot be said that the quality of samndhikaraa is lacking when there is
difference of gender, as it will be described in vtti 1688 that smndhikaray
(the condition of being samndhikaraa) is the existence of the two different
qualities in one object. For instance, in the example pradhna ka, even
though the qualities expressed by the words pradhna and ka, namely
rehatva (the quality of being the Supreme) and nanda-nandanatva (the
quality of being the son of Nanda)1, are different, they still exist in the same one
object. Thus there is smndhikaraya.
The word pradhna is formed by applying the kt pratyaya ana after pra +
[u]dh[] dhraa-poaayo in bhve prayoga. This word is declined in the
neuter gender in accordance with the phrase bhva-kd brahmai (). Although the
word pradhna is a vieaa of the masculine word ka, it doesnt become
masculine itself due to strength of the injunction bhva-kd brahmai (). Similarly,
although the word gati is a vieaa of the masculine word ka, it doesnt
become masculine itself due to the injunction ktir bhve lakmym (). In the same
way, although the word raya is a vieaa of the feminine word rdh it doesnt
become feminine itself due to the injunction gha-al-athu-kaya pusi ().
308 / Wk(sya ivazAeSaNAsya ivazAeSyamanaekM( caetatyaekM( vaA
s$amaud"Ayasya vaA s$aYaAnau&paM vacanama, /
308. ekasya vieaasya vieyam aneka cet praty-eka v samudyasya v
sakhynurpa vacanam
ekasyaone; vieaasyaof a vieaa; vieyamthe vieya; anekam
more than one; cetif; praty-ekamof each individual one; vor; samudyasya
of the aggregate; vor; sakhy-anurpamaccording to the number;
vacanamthe vacana (number).
If there is more than one vieya for any given vieaa, then the
vacana of that vieaa is established either in accordance with the
number of each individual vieya or in accordance with the number of
the aggregate of the vieyas.
crthasya samuccayetaretara-yoga-bhedena dvai-vidhyt. yathrma ka
ca sundara. rma ka ca praty-ekam ity artha sundarau v. rma ka
iti dvv ity artha. tad ida rma-ka-samse vivarayam.
VttiThis is because the word ca is used in two senses, samuccaya (conjuction,
the joining together of two or more independent things associated in idea with
some common action) and itaretara-yoga (mutual connection). For example,
rma ka ca sundara (Rma and Ka are beautiful). The meaning here
1

Actually the quality expressed by the word ka is ka-sajatva (the quality of being one
whose name is Ka). See vtti 1688.

is that Rma and Ka are each one. Or rma ka ca sundarau (Rma and
Ka are beautiful). The meaning here is that Rma and Ka are two. This
topic will be further described in the Samsa-prakaraa, in the section dealing
with rma-ka-samsas (see vtti 1792).
AmtaThe word praty-ekam here means ekaikasya (of each individual one).
In the example rma ka ca sundara, the word ca is used in the sense of
samuccaya and thus there is no possibility of samsa. But it will become clear in
the Samsa-prakaraa that samsa necessarily takes place when the word ca is
used in the sense of samhra or itaretara-yoga. In the example rma ka ca
sundarau, the word ca is used in the sense of itaretara-yoga. Thus in the case of
vigraha we get rma ka ca sundarau, while in the case of samsa we get
rma-kau. Due to the present circumstances, the word ca is only described
here as having two meanings, but in actuality it has four meanings. These four
meanings will be described in the Samsa-prakaraa.
SaodhinActually the words rma ka ca in the example rma ka
ca sundarau in the vtti are merely the vigraha of the compound rma-kau
because it will be explained in the Samsa-prakaraa that samsa necessarily
takes place when the word ca is used in the sense of itaretara-yoga. Thus in
reality we only get rma-kau sundarau (Rma and Ka are beautiful),
309 / (ica""naAM ivazAeSaNAtvae'pyaek(tvama, /
309. kvacid bahn vieaatve py ekatvam
kvacitsometimes; bahnmof many; vieaatve apieven though a
vieaa; ekatvamsingularity.
Sometimes a word is used in eka-vacana, even though it is the vieaa
of something that is in bahu-vacana.
yathdharme ved pramam ity-di.
VttiFor example, dharme ved pramam (the Vedas are the authority on
dharma) and so on.
AmtaIt is only required that the vacana of the vieya and vieaa be the
same when the gender of the vieya and vieaa are the same, but not when
their gender is different. In the example dharme ved pramam the vacana of
the vieya (ved) and vieaa (pramam) is different because their gender is
different. Further examples of this are pradhnam avatr (the predominant
avatras), rdh-kau gatir mama (Rdh and Ka are my refuge), and so
on. Because a pratyaya that is applied in bhve prayoga doesnt express a sattva
(dravya), there is no regard for a number, but eka-vacana is still used for the sake
of propriety1. Therefore the word pramam is used in eka-vacana here.
1

See stra for further details.

310 / ivaMzAtyaAA: s$adE"k(tvae @naAva{aAE /


310. viaty-dy sadaikatve anvttau
viati-dythe numerals from viati (twenty) onwards; sadalways;
ekatvein eka-vacana; anvttauwhen there is no vtti (multiplicatio).
The numerals from viati onwards are always used in eka-vacana
except when they are multiplied.
viatir vaiav. tsm evvttau tudve viat, tisro viataya. evam ekaviatir ity-di. tad-antatvd na-viati ca. atra vieaa-abdeu
kanmkhya-abd ucyante.
VttiFor example, viatir vaiav (twenty vaiavas). But when they are
multiplied we get dve viat (two twenties) and tisro viataya (three
twenties). Similarly, eka-viati (twenty one) and so on. And because it ends
in the word viati, we get na-viati (one less than twenty, nineteen). In this
regard, the words called kanma are said to be among the vieaa words.
AmtaWhen the numerals from viati onwards are multiplied, they are
definitely used in dvi-vacana and so on. In this regard there is the following
analysis: It will be described in vtti of the Samsa-prakaraa that adaaparyanta-sakhy sakhyeye vartante; tata par sakhy sakhyne ca (the
numerals up til and including adaa (eighteen) refer to the sakhyeya
(object of enumeration), while the numerals after that can refer either to the
sakhyeya or to the sakhyna (total number)). Therefore, when the numerals
from viati onwards refer to the sakhyeya and would thus normally be used in
bahu-vacana since they are vieaas of a vieya in bahu-vacana, this stra
amends that by saying they should be used in eka-vacana. But when the
numerals from viati onwards refer to the sakhyna, there is no possibility of
using bahu-vacana because the total number is only one1. An example of this is
vimatir vaiavnm, wherein viati is treated as a vieya (vaiavnm
being its vyadhikaraa-vieaa). According to Padmanbha Datta, author of the
Supadma-vykaraa, when there is multiplication, the numerals from viati
onwards refer to the sakhyna. An example of this is dve viat vaiav2.
The words called kanma are described here as being vieaas because
almost all of them are vieaas. But, among the kanmas, the words
yumad and asmad are actually vieyas. This can be proven as follows: In vtti,
1

Each numeral is considered a single unit of measurement. Thus in the example viatir
vaiavnm (a viati of vaiavas), the word viati is used in eka-vacana because the total
number (sakhyna) of viatis is only one.
2
Here vimati is multiplied by two. Thus the total number (sakhyna) of viatis is two. Since,
when there is multiplication, the numerals from viati onwards refer to the sakhyna and not the
sakhyeya, the word viati is used here in dvi-vacana, and not in bahu-vacana, which is the
vacana of the sakhyeya (vaiav).

Jva Gosvm explains uktnurpam eva purua-vacandika kriy-pade (), a


stra establishing the purua and vacana of the vieya and the kriy (verb), to
mean vivakite nmni prathama purua, yumadi madhyama, asmady
uttama (When the speaker wants to express a particular nma, prathamapurua is used in the verb. When the speaker wants to express the word yumad,
madhyama-purua is used in the verb. And when the speaker wants to express
the word asmad, uttama-purua is used in the verb.). Furthermore, in vtti, Jva
Gosvm prohibits the use of the word asmad in bahu-vacana with the phrase savieaatve na (not when the word asmad has a vieaa connected with it)
and gives the example vaiavo ha bravmi.

Atha kanma-prakaraam
Now we begin the section on kanmas.
311 / s$avaARd"Iina k{(SNAnaAmaAina /
311. sarvdni ka-nmni
sarva-dnithe words beginning with sarva; ka-nmnicalled kanmas
(pronouns).
The words sarva and so on are called kanmas.
sarva-nmnty anye. sarva viva ubha ubhaya anya anyatara tatara tatama
yatara yatama katara katama ekatara ekatama itara tvat tva nema sama sima
prva para avara dakia uttara apara adhara sva antara (tyad chndasa) tad
yad etad idam adas eka dvi yumad asmad bhavatu kim. tatra pusi, sarva
sarvau.
VttiOthers call them sarvanmas. The full list of sarvdis is as follows:
1

sarvaall

vivaall

ubhaboth

ubhayaboth

anyaother

anyataraeither (of two)

As opposed to the kanma para.

2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7

parasubsequent, superior, other


avaraprevious1, subsequent, below,
inferior
dakiasouth, right
uttaranorth, left, subsequent, higher,
superior
aparawest, subsequent, inferior, other
adharabelow, inferior

tatarathat one (of two)

tatamathat one (of many)

yatarawho / which (of two)

1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1

yatamawho / which (of


many)
katarawho? / which? (of two)
katamawho? / which? (of
many)
ekataraone (of two)
ekatamaone (of many)
itaraother
tvatother
tvaothe
nemahalf
samaall
simaall
prvaeast, previous, the
front par

2
8
2
9
3
0
3
1
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
5
3
6
3
7
3
8
3
9
4
0
4
1

svamyself, yourself, himself, herself,


itself,
my own, your own, his own, her own, its
own
antaraouter, an under garment
tyad(Vedic)

he, she, it, that

tadhe, she, it, that


yadwho, which
etadhe, she, it, this
idamhe, she, it, this
adashe, she, it, that
ekaone
dvitwo
yumadyou
asmadI
bhavat[u](honorific) you
kimwho? what? which?

In that regard, the word sarva (all) is declined as follows in the masculine
gender:
sarva + s[u] (155) sarva <1.1>.
sarva + au (57) sarvau <1.2>.
312 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAtaAe jas$a: zAI: /
1

In all the editions except Kadsa the phrase tyad chndasa is found in brackets, indicating
that it has been added later in order to make the list of sarvdis identical with the one found in
Pinian grammar. But tyad, being a Vedic pronoun, obviously wasnt included by Jva Gosvm
himself, as he formulated stra 328 with the words tad-di-saptnm whereas the equivalent
Pinian stra tyad-dnm a (Adhyy 7.2.102) included tyad in this group of words. Tyad is
declined exactly like the kanma tad. Thus the forms are sya <1.1>, tyau <1.2>, tye <1.3>,
and so on.

312. kanma-kato jasa


kanma-kataafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in arma); jasaof the viubhakti [j]as; the replacement [].
After a kanma that is a ka, [j]as is replaced by [].
a it. sarve. sarvam sarvau sarvn. sarvea sarvbhym sarvai. sarva e
VttiThe is an indicatory letter.
sarva + [j]as (312) sarva + [] (48) sarve <1.3>.
sarva + am (156) sarvam <2.1>.
sarva + au (57) sarvau <2.2>.
sarva + []as (156) sarva + s (157) sarvs sarvn <2.3>.
sarva + [] (159) sarva + ina (48) sarvena (173) sarvea <3.1>.
sarva + bhym (160) sarvbhym <3.2>.
sarva + bhis (161) sarva + ais (55) sarvais (155) sarvai <3.3>.
When we have sarva + []e, the following rule applies:
AmtaIn this regard, one cannot say there is no extra advantage in making
the replacement [] because the desired form can also be achieved by making
the replacement []i, for if []i were applied after the word sarva there would be
a doubt about whether to apply sarvevara-vaiavntayor nu au (224) or not,
since no specific gender is mentioned in that stra. Therefore, by making the
replacement [], there is no occasion for such a doubt.
313 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAtaAe xe~: smaE /
313. kanma-kato e smai
kanma-kataafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in arma); eof the viubhakti []e; smaithe replacement smai.
After a kanma that is a ka, []e is replaced by smai.
sarvasmai sarvbhym sarvebhya.
Vtti

sarva + []e (313) sarva + smai sarvasmai <4.1>.


sarva + bhym (160) sarvbhym <4.2>.
sarva + bhyas (163) sarve + bhyas (155) sarvebhya <4.3>.
314 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAtaAe x~s$ae: smaAta, /
314. kanma-kato ase smt
kanma-kataafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in arma); aseof the viubhakti []as[i]; smtthe replacement smt.
After a kanma that is a ka, []as[i] is replaced by smt.
sarvasmt. pacamys tas-pratyayas taddhitasarvata. sarvbhym
sarvebhya. sarvasya sarvayo. sarva m
Vtti
sarva + []as[i] (314) sarva + smt sarvasmt <5.1>.
The taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied after a word ending in pacam. Thus an
alternate form is sarvata.
sarva + bhym (160) sarvbhym <5.2>.
sarva + bhyas (163) sarve + bhyas (155) sarvebhya <5.3>.
sarva + []as (165) sarva + sya sarvasya <6.1>.
sarva + os
<6.2>.

(166) sarve + os (63) sarvay + os (155) sarvayo

When we have sarva + m, the following rule applies:


SaodhinThe alternate form sarvata is made by applying the taddhita
pratyaya tas[i] after the word sarvasmt by pacamtas tasi () and then applying
antaraga-sv-der mahhara eka-padatvrambhe () and sa-ra-rmayor viusargo
viupadnte (155). Amta adds that, in the same way, sarvata could also be
the alternate form of sarvbhym <5.2>, sarvebhya <5.3>, sarvasy <5.1>,
sarvbhym <5.2> or sarvbhya <5.3>1. Thus sarvata can represent the
masculine, neuter, or feminine pacam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, or bahu-vacana
form of the word sarva.
1

These last three are feminine forms of the word sarva. From tty onwards, the neuter forms are
the same as the masculine ones, thus they are not separately mentioned here.

315 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAr"ADaAByaAM s$aux"Aima /


315. kanma-ka-rdhbhy su mi
kanma-ka-rdhbhymafter a kanma that is a ka (word
ending in a-rma) or a rdh (feminine word ending in [p]); suthe gama
s[u]; miwhen the viubhakti m follows.
When m follows, s[u] is inserted after a kanma that is a ka or
rdh.
u-v itau. kasya eatva. sarvem.
VttiU and are indicatory letters. Kasya e vaiave bahutve (163) and the
change to by stra 170 are applied and we get sarvem <6.3>:
sarva + m (315) sarva + s[u] + m sarva + sm (163)
sarvesm (170) sarvem <6.3>.
AmtaThis rule is an apavda of vmana-gop-rdhbhyo nu mi (167).
316 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAtaAe xe~: ismana, /
316. kanma-kato e smin
kanma-kataafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in arma); eof the viubhakti []i; sminthe replacement smin.
After a kanma that is a ka, []i is replaced by smin.
sarvasmin sarvayo sarveu. saptamys tra-pratyayas taddhitasarvatra. he
sarva. di-abda prasiddha-gaa-viea-grhaka, tata ca
Vtti
sarva + []i (316) sarva + smin sarvasmin <7.1>.
sarva + os
<7.2>.

(166) sarve + os (63) sarvay + os (155) sarvayo

sarva + su[p] (163) sarvesu (170) sarveu <7.3>.


The taddhita pratyaya tra is applied after a word ending in saptam. Thus an
alternate form for any of these is sarvatra.
sarva + s[u] (172) sarva <8.1>.

pratham
dvity

ekavacana
sarva
sarvam

tty

sarvea

case

caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

sarvasma
i
sarvasm
t
sarvasya
sarvasmi
n
sarva

dvivacana
sarvau
sarvau
sarvbhy
m
sarvbhy
m
sarvbhy
m
sarvayo

bahuvacana
sarve
sarvn
sarvebhya

sarvebhya

sarvem

sarvayo

sarveu

sarvau

sarve

sarvai

The word di in stra 311 includes a particular well-known class of words, and
therefore:
AmtaThe word di in sarvdni kanmni (311) includes a particular wellknown class of words. Therefore Jva Gosvm will now describe them in detail.
SaodhinThe alternate form sarvatra is made by applying the taddhita
pratyaya tra after sarvasmin <7.1>, sarvayo <7.2>, sarveu <7.3>, sarvasym
<7.1>, sarvayo <7.2>, or sarvsu <7.3> by saptamtas tra () and then
applying antaraga-sv-der mahhara eka-padatvrambhe (). Thus sarvatra can
represent the masculine, neuter, or feminine saptam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, or
bahu-vacana form of the word sarva.
317 / s$avaARid": k{(SNAnaAmaAKyaAe gAAENAs$aMae ivanaA Bavaeta, /
317. sarvdi kanmkhyo gaua-saje vin bhavet
sarvdithe words beginning with sarva; kanma-khyacalled
kanmas; gaua-sajegaua (secondary usage in samsa) and saj (a
name); vinexcept; bhavetare.
The words sarva and so on are called kanmas, but not when their
meaning is secondary or when they are used as names.
tena nehasarvam atikrntyaati-sarvya. da sarvo yena tasmaidasarvya. sarvo nma kasyacit tasmaisarvya.
VttiTherefore the word sarva is not a kanma in the following examples:
1) ati-sarvya <4.1>unto he who surpasses all.

2) da-sarvya <4.1>unto he who has seen all.


3) sarvya <4.1>unto someone of the name sarva.
AmtaThere is need to prohibit gaua here because the rule of tad-anta (vtti
213) is applicable to the kanmas, a fact established by examples like
parama-sarvasmai nama and su-sarvasminn utsuka and by the jpaka1 na
kanma dvandve, jasi tu v (325). In ati-sarvya, the uttara-pada, sarva, is
gaua (secondary) since the prva-pada is predominant in accordance with atydayo dvityay (). In da-sarvya, the word sarva is gaua because, in
ptmbara-samsas, another word outside the samsa is predominant. In
sarvya, the word sarva is someones name. Now Jva Gosvm will elaborate
upon that very word di (which he mentioned in vtti 316).
318 / paUvaARid" ca vyavasTaAyaAM s$aakM( k{(SNAnaAmak(ma, /
318. prvdi ca vyavasthy saptaka kanmakam
prva-dibeginning with prva; caand; vyavasthymwhen vyavasth is
understood (see explanation below); saptakamthe seven words;
kanmakamkanmas.
The seven words beginning with prva are kanmas only when they
signify direction, part, or time.
dig-dea-kla-vibhgo tra vyavasth, tasy gamyamnym. prvasmai digantarya dedaye v. tathprvasmai klya dinya padrtha-vieya v.
anyatra tu prvya, rehya ity artha. dakiya, pravya ity artha.
gaua-saje vinety eva, aty-uttarya, uttar kurava.
VttiHere vyavasth refers to the divisions of direction, part, and time, and the
word vyavasthym in this stra means when vyavasth is understood. Thus,
for example, prvasmai <4.1> means unto the eastern direction or unto the
front part. Prvasmai <4.1> can also mean unto a previous time, unto a
previous day, or unto a certain previous thing. But when something else is
understood we get prvya <4.1> which means unto the best2 and dakiya
<4.1>3 which means unto the expert.
prva (when it is a kanma) + []e (313) prva + smai
prvasmai <4.1>.
prva (when it is not a kanma) + []e (162) prva + ya (160)
prvya <4.1>.
1

Indicator; An expression or rule that implies something more than what is directly said by the rule
itself.
2
Best meaning first in the order of superiority.
3
The word dakia is also a kanma, but Jva Gosvm only gives a counterexample of it here
and doesnt give any example of its forms as a kanma.

The phrase gaua-saje vin (317) certainly applies here too. Thus we get atyuttarya <4.1> (unto one who surpasses the upper part) and uttar kurava
(the northern Kurus).
AmtaIn padrtha-vieya (unto a certain previous thing) the division of
time is figuratively imposed upon a thing. With the two examples aty-uttarya and
uttar kurava, Jva Gosvm indicates that the phrase gaua-saje vin (317)
is carried forward up to the end of the kanma section.
BlaIn uttar kurava, the word uttara is not a kanma even though the
division of direction is understood. This is because the word kuru (a particular
country) is a name.
319 / s$amaAe'taulyae k{(SNAnaAma /
319. samo tulye kanma
samathe word sama; a-tulyewhen it does not mean tulya (equal, similar);
kanmakanma.
The word sama is a kanma when it does not mean equal.
samasmai sarvasmai ity artha. nehasamya, tulyya ity artha.
VttiFor example, samasmai <4.1> means unto all. The counterexample is
samya <4.1>, which means unto that which is equal.
sama (when it is a kanma) + []e (313) sama + smai samasmai
<4.1>.
sama (when it is not a kanma) + []e (162) sama + ya (160)
samya <4.1>.
AmtaThe meaning of this rule is that the word sama is only a kanma
when it means sarva (all).
320 / svamaaAitaDanaA"yae /
320. svam ajti-dhanhvaye
svamthe word sva; a-jti-dhana-hvayewhen the meaning is not jti
(relative) or dhana (riches);
The word sva is a kanma when it does not mean relative or
riches.

svo jtv tmani sva triv tmye svo striy dhane ity amara. svasmai
tmane tmyya vety artha. nehasvya, jtaye dhanya vety artha.
VttiAmara-koa explains the word sva as follows: svo jtv tmani sva triv
tmye svo striy dhane (the word sva is used in the masculine gender when it
refers to a relative (jti), in the neuter gender when it refers to the self (tman),
in all three genders when it refers to something belonging to the self(tmya),
and in any gender except the feminine gender when it refers to riches (dhana)).
For example, svasmai <4.1> means unto myself / yourself / himself / herself /
itself or unto my own / your own / his own / her own / its own. The
counterexample is svya <4.1> which means unto the relative or unto the
riches.
sva (when it is a kanma) + []e (313) sva + smai svasmai
<4.1>.
sva (when it is not a kanma) + []e (162) sva + ya (160) svya
<4.1>.
BlaThe meaning of this rule is that the word sva is only a kanma when it
means tman (the self) or tmya (something belonging to the self).
321 / @ntar"Ae baApair"DaAnaIyayaAenaR tvas$aAE pauir" /
321. antaro bhya-paridhnyayor, na tv asau puri
antarathe word antara; bhya-paridhnyayowhen the meaning is bhya
(outer, exterior) or paridhnya (an under garment); nanot; tubut; asau
it (the word antara); puriin reference to pur (a city).
The word antara is a kanma only when it means outer or an
under garment. But, even if the word antara means outer, it is not a
kanma if it used in reference to a city.
antarasmai bhyya ity artha. vastrntarvta-paridhnyyeti v. bhyatve pi
puri vartamnas tu naantarya purya, bhyya ity artha.
VttiFor example, antarasmai <4.1> means unto the outer or unto a cloth
covered by another cloth (in other words, an under garment). But, even if the
word antara means outer, it is not a kanma if it used in reference to a city.
For example, antarya purya1 which means unto the outer city.
antara (when it is a kanma) + []e (313) antara + smai
antarasmai <4.1>.
1

Just like the word pur, the word pura also means a city.

antara (when it is not a kanma) + []e (162) antara + ya (160)


antarya
<4.1>.
AmtaWith the phrase vastrntarvta, Jva Gosvm explains that the word
paridhnya in this context only refers to a cloth that is covered by another cloth.
Why do we say when it means outer or an under garment? Consider
grmayor antare tpasas tihati (the ascetic lives between two villages). Here
the words grmayor antare mean grma-dvayasya madhye (between two
villages).
322 / paUvaARd"Iina nava k{(SNAnaAmaAina jais$a vaA /
322. prvdni nava kanmni jasi v
prva-dnibeginning with prva; navathe nine words; kanmni
kanmas; jasiwhen the viubhakti [j]as follows; voptionally.
The nine words beginning with prva are optionally kanmas when
[j]as follows.
prve prv, sve sv, antare antar. sarva-vad vivdayo py a-rmnt.
tatra ubha-abdo nitya dvi-vacanntaubhau ubhau ubhbhym ubhbhym
ubhbhym ubhayo ubhayo. ubhasya sarvdiu pho hetv-arthe kanmno
yoge sarva-viubhakty-arthas tasya vtti-mtre pu-vad bhvrtha ca. tvattvau anya-paryyau. nemo rdha-paryya. samdaya uktrth. sima ca
sarvrtha, aktv abaddha-marydn vcti tu mata-bhed, anye tu
prasiddh.
Vtti prva + [j]as (two options by 322):
1) (prva is a kanma, 312) prva + [] (48) prve <1.3>.
2) (prva isnt a kanma, 46) prvs (155) prv <1.3>.
sva + [j]as (two options by 322):
1) (sva is a kanma, 312) sva + [] (48) sve <1.3>.
2) (sva isnt a kanma, 46) svs (155) sv <1.3>.
antara + [j]as (two options by 322):
1) (antara isnt a kanma, 312) antara + [] (48) antare <1.3>.
2) (antara isnt a kanma, 46) antars (155) antar <1.3>.
All kanmas ending in a-rma from viva to sima are declined like the word
sarva. Among them is the word ubha (both) which is always used in dvi-vacana.
ubha + au (57) ubhau <1.2>.

ubha + au (57) ubhau <2.2>.


ubha + bhym (160) ubhbhym <3.2>.
ubha + bhym (160) ubhbhym <4.2>.
ubha + bhym (160) ubhbhym <5.2>.
ubha + os
<6.2>.

(166) ubhe + os (63) ubhay + os (155) ubhayo

ubha + os
<7.2>.

(166) ubhe + os (63) ubhay + os (155) ubhayo

case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

dvivacana
ubhau
ubhau
ubhbhy
m
ubhbhy
m
ubhbhy
m
ubhayo
ubhayo
ubhau

The word ubha is listed among the sarvdis so that all the viubhaktis may be
applied to words meaning hetu (cause) when there is yoga (syntactical
connection) with a kanma (see stra) and so that the word ubha may have
its feminine forms replaced by masculine forms in samsa1 (see stra). The words
tvat and tva are synonyms of the word anya (other). The word nema is a
synonym of the word ardha (half). The meanings of the words sama and so on
have already been spoken. The word sima also means sarva (all), but there are
different opinions that sima means akta (able), avabaddha (put on), or
maryd (boundary) respectively. The rest of the words are well-known.
AmtaSomeone may argue, The kanma-kryas2 for kanmas ending
in a-rma all take place only in eka-vacana and bahu-vacana. Thus, since the
word ubha is always used in dvi-vacana, what is the point of listing it among the
sarvdis? In answer to this, Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning
ubhasya. Ubhasya is eka-vacana because it is an anukaraa (imitative word) of
1

Amta glosses vtti-mtre as eka-padatve (when there is conversion into a single word) and
further glosses eka-padatve as samse.
2
The grammatical operations specific to the kanmas such as stras 312 316.

ubha. The word ubha is listed among the sarvdis so that all the viubhaktis may
be applied by the rule kanma-yoge nimitta-kraa-hetv-arthd dvityvarja sarv viubhaktaya (), and we may thus get ubhau het, ubhbhy
hetubhym, and so on, and so that the word ubha may have its feminine forms
replaced by masculine forms in samsa by the rule kanma vtti-mtre ().
Furthermore, the word ubha is listed among the sarvdis so that the taddhita
pratyaya ak may be applied to it by avyaya-kanmnos tu sasrt prg ak ().
323 / paUvaARid"ByaAe navaBya: smaAitsmanaAE vaA /
323. prvdibhyo navabhya smt-sminau v
prva-dibhyabeginning with prva; navabhyaafter the nine words; smtsminauthe replacements smt and smin; voptionally.
After the nine words beginning with prva, smt and smin are optional.
prvasmt prvt, prvasmin prve.
Vtti prva + []as[i] (two options by 323):
1) ([]as[i] is replaced by smt) prva + smt prvasmt <5.1>.
2) ([]as[i] isnt replaced by smt, 164) prva + t (46) prvt <5.1>.
prva + []i (two options by 323):
1) ([]i is replaced by smin) prva + smin prvasmin <7.1>.
2) ([]i isnt replaced by smin, 48) prve <7.1>.
case

eka-vacana

dvivacana

pratham

prva

prvau

dvity

prvam

tty

prvea

prvau
prvbhy
m
prvbhy
m
prvbhy
m
prvayo

prvebhya

prvayo

prveu

caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

prvasmai
prvasmt /
prvt
prvasya
prvasmin /
prve

bahuvacana
prve /
prv
prvn
prvai

prvebhya
prvem

sambodh
ana

prva

prvau

prve /
prv

324 / na k{(SNAnaAma ta{taIyaAs$amaAs$ae ta"Afyae ca /


324. na kanma tty-samse tad-vkye ca
nanot; kanmakanma; tty-samsein a tty-samsa (a
compound word in which the first word ends in tty); tad-vkyein the vkya
(vigraha)1 of a ttya-smasa; caand.
The words sarva and so on are not kanmas when they appear in a
tty-samsa or in the vkya of a tty-samsa.
msena prvyeti vkyemsa-prvya. kevala-vkye tumsena prvasmai
dhana dehi.
VttiFor example, the words sarva and so on are not kanmas when they
appear in the ttya-samsa msa-prvya or in its vkya, msena prvya (for
that which is prior by a month. But when they appear in a normal vkya
(sentence), like msena prvasmai dhana dehi (give money for that which is
prior by a month), they are kanmas.
AmtaThis is a prohibition where the words sarva and so on would usually be
kanmas when they appear in any samsa in accordance with the rule of tadanta (vtti 213). Msa-prvya is a tty-samsa with the arthdis and is made
by ttyrtha-kta-gua-vacanenrthdibhi ca (). Despite the general mention of
ttya-samse in this stra, this prohibition is only in effect when the words sarva
and so on appear in a samsa with the arthdis mentioned in stra or when they
appear in the vkya of such a samsa. This is the common opinion of all the
previous authorities. Thus the words sarva are so on are certainly kanmas
when they appear in a tty-samsa formed by kart-karae kt (). In this
regard, Ksik gives the example of the tty-samsa tvakat-ktam and its
vkya, tvayak ktam (done by you).
325 / na k{(SNAnaAma "ne" , jais$a tau vaA /
325. na kanma dvandve, jasi tu v
nanot; kanmakanma; dvandvein a dvandva-samsa; jasiwhen
the viubhakti [j]as follows; tubut; voptionally.
1

Usually the word vkya refers to any phrase or sentence, but here the word vkya is being used
in its technical sense to refer to the analysis of the meaning of a samsa that takes place by
splitting the samsa into its constituent parts. This analysis is called vigraha. The fact that the
words vkya and vigraha are interchangeable terms can be verified by examing the stra samsavkya vigraha ().

The words sarva and so on are not kanmas when they appear in a
dvandva-samsa, but this is optional when [j]as follows.
prvparm, vaiavetare vaiavetar.
VttiFor example, prvparm (of the prior and subsequent), but
vaiavetare or vaiavetar (vaiavas and others).
AmtaLike the previous stra, this is a prohibition where the words sarva and
so on would usually be kanmas when they appear in any samsa in
accordance with the rule of tad-anta (vtti 213). The vigraha of prvparm is
prve ca apare ca prvpars tem. In this example the application of s[u] by
stra 315 is checked. In the next example [j]as optionally becomes [] by stra
312.
326 / aTamacar"matayaAyaAlpaADaRk(itapayanaemaA: k{(SNAnaAmaAina jais$a
vaA /
326. prathama-carama-tayylprdha-katipaya-nem kanmni jasi v
prathama-carama-taya-aya-alpa-ardha-katipaya-nemthe words prathama
(first) and carama (last), the taddhita pratyayas taya and aya, and the words
alpa (little), ardha (half), katipaya (some), and nema (half); kanmni
kanmas; jasiwhen the viubhakti [j]as follows; voptionally.
The following words are optionally kanmas when [j]as follows:
prathama, carama, words ending in the taddhita pratyayas taya and aya,
alpa, ardha, katipaya, and nema.
prathame pratham. tayyau pratyayaudvitaye dvitay, dvaye dvay.
ea ka-vat. ubhayasya dvi-vacanbhvaubhaye ubhay. ihpi jasa
krya prati vibh iti kik. ubhaya iti nitya bhym iti tu klp. neme
nem, ea sarva-vat.
Vtti prathama + [j]as (two options by 326):
1) (prathama is a kanma, 312) prathama + [] (48) prathame
<1.3>.
2) (prathama isnt a kanma, 46) prathams (155) pratham <1.3>.
Taya and aya are pratyayas.
dvitaya + [j]as (two options by 326):
1) (dvitaya is a kanma, 312) dvitaya + [] (48) dvitaye <1.3>.
2) (dvitaya isnt a kanma, 46) dvitays (155) dvitay <1.3>.

dvaya + [j]as (two options by 326):


1) (dvaya is a kanma, 312) dvaya + [] (48) dvaye <1.3>.
2) (dvaya isnt a kanma, 46) dvays (155) dvay <1.3>.
The rest of the forms are like those of the word ka. The word ubhaya (ubha +
the taddhita pratyaya aya) has no dvi-vacana.
ubhaya + [j]as (two options by 326):
1) (ubhaya is a kanma, 312) ubhaya + [] (48) ubhaye <1.3>.
2) (ubhaya isnt a kanma, 46) ubhays (155) ubhay <1.3>.
case

ekavacana

pratham

ubhaya

dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

ubhayam
ubhayena
ubhayas
mai
ubhayas
mt
ubhayasy
a
ubhayas
min
ubhaya

bahu-vacana
ubhaye /
ubhay
ubhayn
ubhayai
ubhayebhya
ubhayebhya
ubhayem
ubhayeu
ubhaye /
ubhay

Kik says ihpi jasa krya prati vibh (the grammatical operation related
to [j]as is optional here also), but the Kalpa grammarians say ubhaya iti nitya
bhym (ubhaye <1.3> is always used in common Sanskrit).
nema + [j]as (two options by 326):
1) (nema is a kanma, 312) nema + [] (48) neme <1.3>.
2) (nema isnt a kanma, 46) nems (155) nem <1.3>.
The rest of the forms of nema are like those of the word sarva.
AmtaWhere the words from prathama to katipaya usually wouldnt be
kanmas since they arent listed among the sarvdis, this rule is given so that
they may optionally be kanmas when [j]as follows. But, where the word
nema would normally always be a kanma since it is listed among the
sarvdis, this rule is given so that it will only optionally be a kanma when
[j]as follows. The word dvitaya is formed by applying taya after the word dvi
(two) by avayava-vtte sakhyy keavas taya (), the word dvaya is formed
by applying aya after the word dvi by dvi-tribhym aya ca (), and the word
ubhaya is formed by applying aya after the word ubha (both) by ubhd aya ().

The opinion of Kik is also our opinion. In the opinion of the Kalpa
grammarians the form ubhay <1.3> is found only in the Vedas.
327 / taIyasya k{(SNAnaAmataA va{iSNASau vaA /
327. tyasya kanmat viu v
tyasyathe taddhita pratyaya tya; kanmatkanma; viuwhen
the vis follow; voptionally.
Words ending in the taddhita pratyaya tya are optionally kanmas
when the vis follow.
dvityasmai dvityya, dvityasmt dvityt, dvityasmin dvitye. ea kavat. eva ttya. arthavad-grahat tu, gopajtyya. atha tad-daya
Vtti
dvitya + []e (two options by 327):
1) (dvitya is a kanma, 313) dvitya + smai (48) dvityasmai <4.1>.
2) (dvitya isnt a kanma, 162) dvitya + ya (160) dvityya <4.1>.
dvitya + []as[i] (two options by 327):
1) ([]as[i] is replaced by smt) dvitya + smt dvityasmt <5.1>.
2) ([]as[i] isnt replaced by smt, 164) dvitya + t (46) dvityt <5.1>.
dvitya + []i (two options by 327):
1) ([]i is replaced by smin) dvitya + smin dvityasmin <7.1>.
2) ([]i isnt replaced by smin, 48) dvitye <7.1>.
The rest of the forms are like those of the word ka. The word ttya is declined
in the same way. But, due to the maxim arthavad-grahae narthakasya na
grahaam (vtti 58), we get gopajtyya <4.1>. Now we begin the declension of
the tad-dis (the seven words beginning with tad).
AmtaWhere words ending in the taddhita pratyaya tya usually wouldnt be
kanmas since they arent listed among the sarvdis, this rule is given so that
they may optionally be kanmas when the vis follow. The taddhita
pratyaya tya is applied by dvitya-ttyau prae sdh (). In gopajtyya
<4.1>, it is the taddhita pratyaya jtya that has been applied by prakravati
jtya (), not the taddhita pratyaya tya.
328 / tad"Aid"s$aaAnaAM s$aMs$aAr"syaAr"Ama: svaAd"AE , d"sya ca ma: ,
tad"Ade"sta: s$a: s$aAE /

328. tad-di-saptn sasrasy-rma sv-dau, dasya ca ma, tad-des ta


sa sau
tad-di-saptnmof the seven words beginning with tad; sasrasyaof the
sasra; a-rmathe replacement a-rma; sv-dauwhen a sv-di follows;
dasyaof da-rma; caand; mathe replacement ma-rma; tad-deof the
tad-dis; taof ta-rma; sasa-rma; sauwhen the viubhakti s[u] follows.
When a sv-di follows, the sasra of the tad-dis changes to a-rma,
and their da-rma changes to ma-rma. When s[u] follows, their ta-rma
also changes to sa-rma.
sa tau te. tam tau tn. tena tbhym tai. tasmai tbhym tebhya. tasmt itydi. buddhasydarana, he sa. ta-do sa sv anantyayor iti stre kikdv apy
etad daritam. he sa he asau iti bhyodharat prakriy tu cinty. gauasajayos tu na tad-di-kryam sarvdi-gaa-tygtati-tad ati-tadau ati-tada.
taddhite pacamymtata, saptamymtatra. yadya yau ye. taddhite
pacamymyata, saptamymyatra. etadea etau ete. etam. taddhite
pacamymata, saptamymatra.
Vtti
tad + s[u] (328) ta + s[u] sa + s[u] (155) sa <1.1>.
tad + au (328) ta + au (57) tau <1.2>.
tad + [j]as (328) ta + [j]as (312) ta + [] (48) te <1.3>.
tad + am (328) ta + am (156) tam <2.1>.
tad + au (328) ta + au (57) tau <2.2>.
tad + []as (328) ta + []as (156) ta + s (157) ts tn <2.3>.
tad + [] (328) ta + [] (159) ta + ina (48) tena <3.1>.
tad + bhym (328) ta + bhym (160) tbhym <3.2>.
tad + bhis (328) ta + bhis (161) ta + ais (55) tais (155) tai
<3.3>.
tad + []e (328) ta + []e (313) ta + smai tasmai <4.1>.
tad + bhym (328) ta + bhym (160) tbhym <4.2>.
tad + bhyas (328) ta + bhyas (163) tebhyas (155) tebhya
<4.3>.

tad + []as[i] (328) ta + []as[i] (314) ta + smt tasmt <5.1>.


Buddha disappears by stra 172 and we get he sa <8.1>:
tad + s[u] (328) ta + s[u] sa + s[u] (172) sa <8.1>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

sa

tau

te

tam
tena

tau
tbhym

tn
tai

tasmai

tbhym

tebhya

tasmt

tbhym

tebhya

tasya

tayo

tem

tasmin

tayo

teu

This is also shown in Kik and other commentaries on the stra ta-do sa sv
anantyayo (Adhyy 7.2.106). Prakriy-kaumud is questionable because the
Mah-bhya gives the example he sa he asau. The grammatical operations
pertaining to the tad-dis are not applicable when the meaning of the tad-dis is
secondary or when they are used as names, for at such a time they are not
considered kanmas (see stra 317). Thus we get ati-tad <1.1>, ati-tadau
<1.2>, ati-tada <1.3>, and so on. In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya
tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate form tata. And in the seventh case, when
the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the alternate form tatra.
AmtaIn essence, this rule means that when a sv-di follows, the sasra of the
tad-dis changes to a-rma, the da-rma of idam and adas changes to ma-rma,
and, when s[u] follows, the ta-rma of tad and etad changes to sa-rma. Kik
quotes he sa <8.1> as a counterexample of the word anantyayo in Adhyy
7.2.106.1 The exact words of Kik in this regard are anantyayor iti kim? he sa.
Similarly, the Mah-bhya says yady antayo satva syd iha he sa iti e-hrasvt
sabuddhe iti sambuddhi-lopo na syt (if the final d or t of a tyad-di were to
change to s here, then the deletion of sambuddhi (buddha) by e-hrasvt
sabuddhe (Adhyy 6.1.69), which is necessary in the formation of he sa
<8.1>, wouldnt take place).

He sa <8.1> is a counterexample in the sense that if Adhyy 7.2.106 didnt say


anantyayo, the d or t of the tyad-dis would become s even if it were at the end of the word. Thus
tad would become sas when s[u] follows and we would get the unwanted form he sa <8.1>.
Therefore it is necessary to say anantyayo.

In the opinion of Prakriy-kaumud, the form he sa <8.1> doesnt exist. Thus


Prakriy-kaumud is questionable. It is the opinion of recent authorities that the
seven words beginning with tad dont have vocative forms.2
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word yad (who, which).
yad + s[u] (328) ya + s[u] (155) ya <1.1>.
yad + au (328) ya + au (57) yau <1.2>.
yad + [j]as (328) ya + [j]as (312) ya + [] (48) ye <1.3>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate
form yata. And in the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied,
we get the alternate form yatra.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

ya

yau

ye

yam
yena

yau
ybhym

yn
yai

yasmai

ybhym

yebhya

yasmt

ybhym

yebhya

yasya

yayo

yem

yasmin

yayo

yeu

SaodhinYad is a relative pronoun. It must always be used in relationship


with its correlative pronoun tad. Tad can be used alone, but yad cannot. For
example, in the sentence sa ka-mandira gacchati (He goes to the temple of
Ka) the sense is complete, but in the sentence ya ka-mandira gacchati
(who goes to the temple of Ka) the sense is not complete. It only becomes
complete when the correlative pronoun tad is used, as in ya ka-mandira
gacchati sa yama-loka na gacchati (He who goes to the temple of Ka doesnt
go to the abode of Yamarja). In English the relative pronoun and correlative
pronoun are usually placed side by side with the correlative pronoun first as in He
who..., but in Sanskrit the relative pronoun and correlative pronoun are usually
quite some distance apart from each other with the relative pronoun coming first.
In fact, in Sanskrit, the relative pronoun is used in its own clause with its own verb
and the correlative pronoun is used in its own clause with its own verb. So literally
ya ka-mandira gacchati sa yama-loka na gacchati means Who goes to
the temple of Ka, He doesnt go to the abode of Yamarja. Thus wherever one
2

Thus, in the modern textbooks on Sanskrit grammar in the English language, no vocative forms
are given for the tad-dis.

sees a form of the word yad one should understand that it is connected with its
own verb which is different than the verb to which the form of tad is connected.
Usually the form of yad and the form of tad will have the same gender and
vacana, but the viubhakti may differ. Some examples of this are given below.
ye ka payati te deha kampate (The bodies of those who see
Ka tremble, or more literally: Who see Ka, their bodies tremble)
yena sarva loka vypta sa viu (Viu is He by whom the world is
pervaded, or more literally: By whom the world is pervaded, He is Viu)
yasmin yogino ramante tasmai nama (I offer my obeisances unto Him
in whom the
yogs take pleasure, or more literally: In whom the yogs take
pleasure, to Him I offer my
obeisances)
yasya rpa sarva-saundarya-mrtis tasmd amta pravahati (Nectar
flows from Him whose form is the embodiment of all beauty, or more literally:
Whose form is the embodiment
of all beauty, from Him nectar flows).
Examples with forms of yad and tad in the feminine and neuter genders should be
understood in the same way.
The avyayas formed from yad and tad also function in a relative / correlative
relationship. This is shown in the table below:
yatas (because)
yatra (where)
yath (in which way, as)
yad (because)
yad (when)
yadi (if)
yvat (as much)

tatas (therefore)
tatra (there)
tath (in that way, so, similarly)
tad (therefore)
tad (then) or tarhi (then)
tad (then) or tarhi (then)
tvat (that much)

An example of yath / tath is found in Bhagavad-gt 2.22:


vssi jrni yath vihya navni ghti naro 'pari / tath arri
vihya jrny
anyni sayti navni deh (As a person puts on new garments, giving up
old ones, the soul
similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old
and useless ones)
An example of yadi / tarhi is found in Bhgavatam 10.8.35:
nha bhakitavn amba sarve mithybhiasina / yadi satya-giras
tarhi samaka paya
me mukham (Lord r Ka replied: My dear
mother, I have never eaten dirt.
All My friends complaining against Me are

liars. If you think they are being truthful, you


and examine it)

can directly look into My mouth

Sometimes the forms of the relative pronoun yad are doubled to give a
distributive sense, and at such times the forms of the correlative pronoun tad are
also doubled. A famous example of this is found in Bhagavad-gt 3.21:
yad yad carati rehas tat tad evetaro jana (Whatever a great man
does, other
people do, or more literally: Which various things a great man
does, those various things
other people
do).
A more complex example is seen in Bhagavad-gt 7.21:
yo yo y y tanu bhakta raddhayrcitum icchati / tasya tasycal
raddh
tm eva vidadhmy aham (As soon as one desires to worship some
demigod, I make his
faith steady. or more literally: Whoever the devotee and
whatever the form he wants to
worship with faith, I make that faith of his
steady)
But sometimes, the forms of the correlative pronoun tad are not doubled. An
example of this is found in Bhgavatam 7.9.11:
yad yaj jano bhagavate vidadhta mna tac ctmane (Whatever1
service a person may render to the Lord is actually for his own benefit)
Another example is found in Bhagavad-gt 4.7:
yad yad hi dharmasya glnir bhavati bhrata / abhyutthnam
adharmasya
tadtmna
sjmy aham (Whenever there is a decline in
religious practice, O
descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of
irreligionat that time I descend Myself)
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word etad (this).
etad + s[u] (328) eta + s[u] esa + s[u] (170) eas (155) ea
<1.1>.
etad + au (328) eta + au (57) etau <1.2>.
etad + [j]as (328) eta + [j]as (312) eta + [] (48) ete <1.3>.
etad + am (328) eta + am (156) etam <2.1>.
1

rdhara Svm says yat yat here means yam yam. This is because yat yat is an adjective of the
masculine second case singular word mnam (worship, service). The Vedic stra sup su-luk
(Adhyy 7.1.39) has been applied here so, the sv-dis have undergone mahhara. Thus we
get yat yat instead of yam yam. For further details, see Saodhin 361.

In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate
form ata. And in the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we
get the alternate form atra1.
case

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

pratha
m
dvity

ea

etau

ete

etam

etn

tty

etena

etebhya

etasya

etau
etbhy
m
etbhy
m
etbhy
m
etayo

etasmin

etayo

eteu

caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

etasmai
etasmt

etai

etebhya
etem

AmtaThe t of etad changes to s by tad-des ta sa sau (328) and, because


that s is a virici, it changes to by stra 170.
SaodhinThe following verse illustrates the subtle differences in meaning
that exist between the words idam and etad, and the words adas and tad:
idamas tu sannika
sampatara-varti caitado rpam
adasas tu vipraka
tad iti paroke vijnyt
The word idam refers to an object that is nearby, and the word etad refers to an
object that is closer still. The word adas, however, refers to an object that is
distant, and the word tad refers to an object that is out of sight. This one should
know
329 / wd"maAe'yaM s$aAE , wyaM tau lamyaAM , s$aAk(sya
tvayak(imayak(maAE /
329. idamo ya sau, iya tu lakmy, skasya tv ayakam-iyakamau

The alternate forms ata and atra are irregularly formed by etado to tra, idama ita iha, adaso
muto mutra, kima kuta kutreti tas-trbhy triv api ligeu sdhava (). As always, words
ending in the taddhita pratyayas tas[i] and tra can be used to represent the masculine, neuter,
and feminine pacam and saptam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, and bahu-vacana forms of the
particular kanma.

idamaof the word idam; ayamthe replacement ayam; sauwhen the


viubhakti s[u] follows; iyamthe replacement iyam; tubut; lakmymin the
feminine gender; sa-akasyaof the word idam with the taddhita pratyaya ak; tu
but; ayakam-iyakamauthe replacements ayakam and iyakam
When s[u] follows, idam is replaced by ayam in the masculine gender
and iyam in the feminine gender. However, idakam (idam with the
taddhita pratyaya ak) is replaced by ayakam in the masculine gender
and iyakam in the feminine gender.
ayam imau ime. imam imau imn.
Vtti
idam + s[u] (329) ayam + s[u] (202) ayam <1.1>.
idam + au (328) ida + au ima + au (57) imau <1.2>.
idam + [j]as (328) ida + [j]as ima + [j]as (312) ima + [] (48)
ime <1.3>.
idam + am (328) ida + am ima + am (156) imam <2.1>.
idam + au (328) ida + au ima + au (57) imau <2.2>.
idam + []as (328) ida + []as ima + []as (156) ima + s (157)
ims imn
<2.3>.
330 / wd"maAe'k(r"Amasya @na"AEs$aAe: /
330. idamo ka-rmasya ana auso
idamaof the word idam; aka-rmasyain which there is no ka-rma; anathe
replacement ana; -osowhen the viubhaktis [] and os follow.
Idam is replaced by ana when [] and os follow, provided it doesnt
have a ka-rma in it.
SaodhinThe word idam is said to have a ka-rma in it when the taddhita
pratyaya ak is applied to it by prg-ivyt ka, avyaya-kanmnos tu sasrt
prg ak kasya ca da, tatra svdy-antasya sasrt prg ak o-rma-sa-rma-bharmdi-varjam (). Throughout the following section, one should bear in mind that,
in accordance with the phrase svdy-antasya sasrt prg ak o-rma-sa-rmabha-rmdi-varjam in this stra, the taddhita pratyaya ak is only applied before
the sasra of the nma itself when o, s or bh follow, and the rest of the time it is
applied before the sasra of the viupada as a whole.

331 / vaESNAvae tvazA, /


331. vaiave tv a
vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; tubut; athe replacement a[].
When a vaiava follows, idam is replaced by a[], provided it doesnt
have a ka-rma in it.
332 / s$ak(r"Amasya ca k(iTataAnauk(Tanae /
332. sa-ka-rmasya ca kathitnukathane
sa-ka-rmasyawith a ka-rma; caand; kathita-anukathanewhen there is
kathitnukathana (see explanation below).
When a vaiava follows and there is kathitnukathana, idam is replaced
by a[], even if it has a ka-rma in it.
anena. it sarvasyeti sarvdeabhym. imakbhym aha ko rcita, atha
bhy rtrim api.
Vtti
idam + [] (330) ana + [] (159) ana + ina (48) anena <3.1>.
In accordance with the maxim it sarvasya (vtti 223) the replacement a[]
replaces everything:
idam + bhym (331) a[] + bhym (160) + bhym bhym
<3.2>.
An example of when there is kathitnukathana is imakbhym aha ko rcita,
atha bhy rtrim api (Ka was worshiped all day long by these two people.
(then) He was worshiped by them all night long too).
idam + bhym (328) ida + bhym ima + bhym (160) im +
bhym ()
im + ak + + bhym imak+ bhym (332) a[] + bhym (160)
bhym <3.2>.
SaodhinKathitnukathana is the repetition (anukathana) of something that
has already been mentioned (kathita). In other words, it is the re-employment of
the same word in a subsequent part of a sentence. Kathitnukathana is a
synonym of the word anvdea, a word used in stras 343 and 348, and in
Adhyy 2.4.32 (the Pinian equivalent to the current stra). In the example

of kathitnukathana here, the word idam is first used in its <3.2> form with the
taddhita pratyaya ak inserted, in the phrase imakbhym aha ko rcita, and
then it is used again in the phrase bhy rtrim api. But when it is used again
like this, the word idam together with the taddhita pratyaya ak becomes a[] by
the current stra and we get the form bhym <3.2> which looks the same as the
<3.2> form of the word idam without the taddhita pratyaya ak. The words ahan
and rtri are declined in the second case singular here in accordance with the
stra kldhvanor atyanta-vyptau dvity (). In all the examples of
kathitnukathana given by Jva Gosvm, the words atha or atho (both meaning
then) are used to indicate that at a later time the second statement is made,
wherein there is a repeated reference to the person or thing that has already been
mentioned. In the translation we have indicated this by placing the English word
then in parenthesis.
333 / wd"mad"AeByaAmak(r"AmaAByaAM naEs$a, /
333. idam-adobhym aka-rmbhy nais
idam-adobhymafter the words idam and adas; aka-rmbhymin which there
is no ka-rma; nanot; aisthe replacement ais.
After the words idam and adas which are without a ka-rma, bhis is not
replaced by ais.
ebhi. asmai bhym ebhya. asmt bhym ebhya. taddhite pacamymita.
asya anayo em. asmin anayo eu. taddhite saptamymiha. sasrt
prvam ak-pratyaye idakam-abdo bhavatiayakam imakau imake sarva-vat.
Vtti idam + bhis (331) a[] + bhis (333, 163) ebhis (155) ebhi
<3.3>.
idam + []e (328) ida + []e ima + []e (313) ima + smai (331)
a[] + smai
asmai <4.1>.
idam + bhym (331) a[] + bhym (160) + bhym bhym
<4.2>.
idam + bhyas (331) a[] + bhyas (163) ebhyas (155) ebhya
<4.3>.
idam + []as[i] (328) ida + []as[i] ima + []as[i] (314) ima + smt
(331)
a[] + smt asmt <5.1>.
idam + bhym (331) a[] + bhym (160) + bhym bhym
<5.2>.

idam + bhyas (331) a[] + bhyas (163) ebhyas (155) ebhya


<5.3>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate
form ita.
idam + []as (328) ida + []as ima + []as (165) ima + sya
(331) a[] + sya asya <6.1>.
idam + os (330) ana + os (166) ane + os (63) anay + os (155)
anayo <6.2>.
idam + m (328) ida + m ima + m (315) ima + s[u] + m
ima + sm
(331) a[] + sm (163) esm (170) em <6.3>.
idam + []i (328) ida + []i ima + []i (316) ima + smin (331)
a[] + smin asmin <7.1>.
idam + os (330) ana + os (166) ane + os (63) anay + os (155)
anayo <7.2>.
idam + su[p] (331) a[] + su (163) esu (170) eu <7.3>.
In the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the
alternate form iha1.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

ayam

imau

ime

imam
anena

imau
bhym

imn
ebhi

asmai

bhym

ebhya

asmt

bhym

ebhya

asya

anayo

em

asmin

anayo

eu

When the taddhita pratyaya ak is applied before the sasra of the word idam by
stra, we get the word idakam:
1

The alternate forms ita and iha are irregularly formed by etado to tra, idama ita iha, adaso
muto mutra, kima kuta kutreti tas-trbhy triv api ligeu sdhava (). As always, words
ending in the taddhita pratyayas tas[i] and tra can be used to represent the masculine, neuter,
and feminine pacam and saptam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, and bahu-vacana forms of the
particular kanma.

idam + s[u] () id + ak + am + s[u] idakam + s[u] (329) ayakam


+ s[u] (202)
ayakam <1.1>.
idam + au (328) ida + au ima + au (57) imau () im + ak + au
imakau <1.2>.
idam + [j]as (328) ida + [j]as ima + [j]as (312) ima + [] (48)
ime ()
im + ak + e imake <1.3>.
AmtaWhere kd bhisa ais (161) would usually be applied when the
substitution of a[] by vaiave tv a (331) is done, this rule prohibits it. When the
vis follow, the sasra changes to a-rma, and da-rma changes to ma-rma
by stra 328. When this is done, the substitution of smai and so on is done1, and
then idam changes to a[] since there is a vaiava following.
334 / Wtaid"d"maAere"na: k(iTataAnauk(Tanae i"taIyaAq%AEss$au /
334. etad-idamor ena kathitnukathane dvity-aussu
etad-idamoof the words etad and idam; enathe replacement ena; kathitaanukathanewhen there is kathitnukathana (see explanation under stra 332);
dvity--ossuwhen a dvity viubhakti follows, or when the viubhaktis
[] and os follow.
When there is kathitnukathana and dvitya, [], or os follow, etad and
idam are replaced by ena.
etam ima v dkaya, atho ena phaya. enam enau enn. enena. enayo.
enayo. adas s[u], sasrasy-rma,
VttiExamples of when there is kathitnukathana are eta dkaya, atho ena
phaya (Initiate this person. (then) Teach him) and ima dkaya, atho ena
phaya (Initiate this person. (then) Teach him).
etad or idam + am (334) ena + am (156) enam <2.1>.
etad or idam + au (334) ena + au (57) enau <2.2>.

etad or idam + []as (334) ena + []as (156) ena + s (157) ens
enn <2.3>.

Stra 238 must be applied first so that the word idam may come to end in a-rma and thus be
called ka. Otherwise the replacements smai and so on would not be applied as they are only
applied after kanmas that are kas.

etad or idam + [] (334) ena + [] (159) ena + ina (48) enena


<3.1>.
etad or idam + os (334) ena + os (166) ene + os (63) enay + os
(155) enayo <6.2>.
etad or idam + os (334) ena + os (166) ene + os (63) enay + os
(155) enayo <7.2>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

enam
enena

enau

enn

enayo
enayo

When we have adas + s[u], the sasra of adas changes to a-rma by stra 328,
and then:
SaodhinIn the examples of kathitnukathana here, the words etad and
idam are first used in their <2.1> forms, etam and imam, in the phrase etam
ima v dkaya, and then they are used again in the phrase ena phaya. But
when they are used again like this, they change to ena by the current stra and
we get the form enam <2.1> in both cases.
AmtaExamples of kathitnukathana where enena <3.1> is used are etena
rtrau harir gta, atha enena ahar api pjita (This person praised Hari with
songs at night. (then) He worshiped Hari all day long as well) and anena rtrau
harir gta, atha enena ahar api pjita (Hari was praised with songs at night by
this person. (then) He was worshiped all day long by him as well). Examples of
kathitnukathana where enayo <6.2> is used are etayor namra-sva-bhva,
atha enayo uddh prti ca (These two persons have a submissive nature.
(then) They have pure love as well) and anayor namra-sva-bhva, atha enayo
uddh prti ca (These two persons have a submissive nature. (then) They have
pure love as well).
335 / @d"s$aAe d"sya s$a: s$aAE , s$aAer"AEca, /
335. adaso dasya sa sau, sor auc

adasaof the word adas; dasyaof the da-rma; sathe replacement sarma; sauwhen the viubhakti s[u] follows; soof the viubhakti s[u]; auc
the replacement au[c].
The d of adas changes to s when s[u] follows, then s[u] becomes au[c].
asau. amau iti sthite
Vtti
adas + s[u] (328) ada + s[u] (335) asa + s[u] asa + au[c]
(185) asau <1.1>.
When we have amau the following rule applies:
AmtaThis stra is an apavda of the phrase dasya ca ma in stra 328.
336 / @d"AemaAtpar"sya s$avaeRr"sya o O yaTae"is$ai" /
336. ado-mt parasya sarvevarasya u yathea-siddhi
ada-mtthe ma-rma of the word adas; parasyacoming after; sarvevarasya
of a sarvevara; u the replacement u-rma or -rma; yath-ia-siddhi
according to the result that best fits.
A sarvevara that comes after the m of adas either becomes u or ,
depending on whether that sarvevara is a vmana or a trivikrama.
vmanasya vmana, trivikramasya trivikrama. am. jasi ame iti sthite
VttiA vmana becomes vmana and a trivikrama becomes trivikrama.
adas + au (328) ada + au ama + au (57) amau (336) am
<1.2>.
When [j]as follows and we get ame, the following rule applies:
AmtaThe word yathea-siddhi is an avyay-bhva-samsa formed by stra,
thus it is declined in the neuter gender. Its vigraha is ia-siddhim anatikramya
(according to the ia-siddhi). A sarvevara that comes after the m of adas,
which is brought about by the application of dasya ca ma (238), either becomes
u or , according to the ia-siddhi. That is to say a sarvevara that is a vmana
becomes u, while a sarvevara that is a trivikrama becomes .
337 / @d"s$a Wta wR ba"tvae , na tau k(Ata, /

337. adasa eta bahutve, na tu kt


adasaof the word adas; etaof the e-rma; the replacement -rma;
bahutvewhen the viaya is bahu-vacana (the plural); nanot; tubut; kt
after ka-rma.
In bahu-vacana, the e of adas changes to , but not when it comes after
k.
am. amum am amn. matve cotve ca kte harita namun. bhymi
kasya trivikrama, pacd ambhym ambhi. smai-prabhtau kte
pacd u-rmaamumai ambhym ambhya. amumt ambhym
ambhya. taddhite pacamymamuta. amuya. etve ay-dee ca kte
pacd u-rmaamuyo amm. amumin amuyo amu. taddhiteamutra.
cit-karaena he asv iti buddhasydarana na syt. adasa au su-lopa ca ity
atra kikdv apy asya sammati, prasde ca. ak-pratyaye asakau asuka ceti
manyante. au-prabhtau ma-rma-madhyamukau amuke. eka sarva-vat.
atha dvi-abdo nitya dvi-vacannta
Vtti adas + [j]as (328) ada + [j]as ama + [j]as (312) ama + []
(48) ame (337) am <1.3>.
adas + am (328) ada + am ama + am (156) amam (336)
amum <2.1>.
adas + au (328) ada + au ama + au (57) amau (336) am
<2.2>.
adas + []as (328) ada + []as ama + []as (156) ama + s
(157) ams
amn (336) amn <2.3>.
When the change to m by stra 328 and the change to u by stra 336 are done,
harita t n, na tu lakmym (182) is applied and we get amun <3.1>:
adas + [] (328) ada + [] ama + [] (336) amu + []
(182) amu + n
amun <3.1>.
When bhym follows, the final a of the ka first becomes trivikrama by stra
160, and then the change to takes place by stra 336:
adas + bhym (328) ada + bhym ama + bhym (160)
ambhym (336)
ambhym <3.2>.
adas + bhis (328) ada + bhis ama + bhis (333, 163) amebhis
(337) ambhis (155) ambhi <3.3>.

The change to u by stra 336 occurs only after the substitution of smai and so on
has been done:
adas + []e (328) ada + []e ama + []e (313) ama + smai
(336) amusmai (170) amumai <4.1>.
adas + bhym (328) ada + bhym ama + bhym (160)
ambhym (336)
ambhym <4.2>.
adas + bhyas (328) ada + bhyas ama + bhyas (163) amebhyas
(337)
ambhyas (155) ambhya <4.3>.
adas + []as[i] (328) ada + []as[i] ama + []as[i] (314) ama +
smt (336)
amusmt (170) amumt <5.1>.
adas + bhym (328) ada + bhym ama + bhym (160)
ambhym (336)
ambhym <5.2>.
adas + bhyas (328) ada + bhyas ama + bhyas (163) amebhyas
(337)
ambhyas (155) ambhya <5.3>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate
form amuta.
adas + []as (328) ada + []as ama + []as (165) ama + sya
(336)
amusya (170) amuya <6.1>.
The change to u by stra 336 occurs only after the change to e by stra 166 and
the substitution of ay by stra 63 have been done:
adas + os (328) ada + os ama + os (166) ame + os (63)
amayos (336) amuyos (155) amuyo <6.2>.
adas + m (328) ada + m ama + m (315) ama + s[u] + m
ama + sm
(163) amesm (337) amsm (170) amm <6.3>.
adas + []i (328) ada + []i ama + []i (316) ama + smin (336)
amusmin
(170) amumin <7.1>.
adas + os (328) ada + os ama + os (166) ame + os (63)
amayos (336) amuyos (155) amuyo <7.2>.
adas + su[p] (328) ada + su ama + su (163) amesu (337)
amsu (170) amu <7.3>.

In the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the
alternate form amutra1.
case

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

pratha
m
dvity

asau

am

am

amum

amn

tty

amun

ambhya

amuya

am
ambhy
m
ambhy
m
ambhy
m
amuyo

amumin

amuyo

amu

caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

amumai
amumt

ambhi

ambhya
amm

Buddha doesnt disappear in he asau <8.1> because the cit operation (stra 185)
takes place instead. In adasa au su-lopa ca (Adhyy 7.2.107), Kik and
others also concur on this point, and Prasda, the major commentary on Prakriykaumud, is also in agreement. When the taddhita pratyaya ak is applied,
previous authorities consider that the form can either be asakau <1.1> or asuka
<1.1>:
adas + s[u] () ad + ak + as + s[u] adakas + s[u] (328) adaka +
s[u] (335)
asaka + s[u] (two options by Ktyyanas Vrttika on
Adhyy 7.2.107) 2:
1) asaka + s[u] asaka + au[c] (185) asakau <1.1>.
2) asaka + s[u] asuka + s[u] (155) asuka <1.1>.
When au and so on follow, the form have ma-rma inside them:
adas + au (328) ada + au ama + au (57) amau () am + ak +
au (336) amukau <1.2>.
adas + [j]as (328) ada + [j]as ama + [j]as (312) ama + []
(48) ame () am + ak + e (336) amuke <1.3>.
1

The alternate forms amuta and amutra are irregularly formed by etado to tra, idama ita iha,
adaso muto mutra, kima kuta kutreti tas-trbhy triv api ligeu sdhava (). As always,
words ending in the taddhita pratyayas tas[i] and tra can be used to represent the masculine,
neuter, and feminine pacam and saptam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, and bahu-vacana forms of
the particular kanma.
2
The previous authorities referred to here are Ktyyana and others. Ktyyanas Vrttika on
Adhyy 7.2.107 says autva-pratiedha skac-kasya v vaktavya sd utva ca (when the
augment ak[ac] is added, the au substitution is optionally prohibited, and in that alternative u is
added after s, as asuka or asakau).

The word eka is declined like the word sarva. Now we begin the declension of the
word dvi, a word which is always used in dvi-vacana.
AmtaIn the plural the e of adas, which is obtained by the application of stra
163, is replaced by . But if the e comes after a k, it is not replaced by . Because
this rule is stronger it blocks the change to that would normally take place by
stra 336. Someone may argue, Just as am was deleted in he gokula <8.1>
because it occupies the place of buddha, why shouldnt au[c] also be deleted in
he asau <8.1> since it also occupies the place of buddha? In anwer to that Jva
Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning cit-karaena. When there is deletion of
the sasra because of the cit operation (stra 185), buddha cannot disappear by
stra 172 because it no longer comes after a vmana. In amuke <1.3>, the e of
adas doesnt change to because of the prohibition na tu kt.
338 / na e"maR: /
338. na dver ma
nanot; dveof the word dvi; mathe replacement ma-rma.
The d of dvi doesnt change to m.
dvau dvau dvbhym dvbhym dvbhym dvayo dvayo. yumad-asmadau
triv api samnau
Vtti
dvi + au (328, 338) dva + au (57) dvau <1.2>.
dvi + au (328, 338) dva + au (57) dvau <2.2>.
dvi + bhym (328, 338) dva + bhym (160) dvbhym <3.2>.
dvi + bhym (328, 338) dva + bhym (160) dvbhym <4.2>.
dvi + bhym (328, 338) dva + bhym (160) dvbhym <5.2>.
dvi + os (328, 338) dva + os (166) dve + os (63) dvayos (155)
dvayo <6.2>.
dvi + os (328, 338) dva + os (166) dve + os (63) dvayos (155)
dvayo <7.2>.
case
pratha

dvivacana
dvau

m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

dvau
dvbhy
m
dvbhy
m
dvbhy
m
dvayo
dvayo

The words yumad and asmad have the same forms in all three genders.
AmtaThe change to m by dasya ca ma (238) is prohibited here. Someone
may argue, It was described previously (in Amta 310) that the words yumad
and asmad are vieyas, but we see here that they have the same forms in all
three genders. How then can there be certainty regarding the gender of the words
used as their vieaas? For instance, in the example vaiavas tva bravi
(You, a Vaiava, are speaking), since the word tvam doesnt indicate any
particular gender, there is no certainty of the gender of the word vaiava which
is acting as its vieaa. True, but in spoken language a word is employed only
after the object it refers to is understood. Therefore it is up to the intelligence of
the speaker to determine the gender of the object which is expressed by the word
tvam before employing the word tvam. Then it is easy to ascertain the gender of
the vieaa of the word tvam as it shares the same gender. Thus there is no
possibility of uncertainty regarding gender here.
339 / yauSmad"smad"Aestvamah"maAd"ya: svaAid"naA s$ah" /
339. yumad-asmados tvam-aham-daya sv-din saha
yumad-asmadoof the words yumad and asmad; tvam-aham-dayathe
replacements beginning with tvam and aham; sv-din sahaalong with the svdi.
The niptas1 beginning with tvam and aham simultaneously replace
yumad and asmad and the sv-di that comes after them.
tatra yumac-chabdasyatvam yuvm yyam. tvm yuvm yumn. tvay
yuvbhym yumbhi. tubhyam yuvbhym yumabhyam. tvat yuvbhym
yumat. tava yuvayo yumkam. tvayi yuvayo yumsu. asmac-chabdasya
aham vm vayam. mm vm asmn. may vbhym asmbhi. mahyam
1

In this regard, one should remember the definition of a nipta given in vtti 257. One should also
remember the maxim yath-sakhyam anudea samnm (vtti 175) and thus understand that
the niptas tvam and so on replace yumad and the sv-di that comes after it, while the niptas
aham and so on replace asmad and the sv-di that comes after it.

vbhym asmabhyam. mat vbhym asmat. mama vayo asmkam. mayi


vayo asmsu.
VttiThe forms of the word yumad are as follows:
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

tvam

yuvm

yyam

tvm

yumn

tava

yuvm
yuvbhy
m
yuvbhy
m
yuvbhy
m
yuvayo

tvayi

yuvayo

tvay
tubhyam
tvat

bahuvacana

yumbhi
yumabhy
am
yumat
yumkam
yumsu

The forms of the word asmad are as follows:


case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

aham

vm

vayam

mm

asmn
asmabhya
m

mama

vm
vbhy
m
vbhy
m
vbhy
m
vayo

mayi

vayo

asmsu

may
mahyam
mat

bahuvacana

asmbhi

asmat
asmkam

BlaTvam, aham, and so on are given as niptas in place of yumad and


asmad and the sv-di that comes after them.
SaodhinIn the Adhyy there are more than twenty stras dealing
exclusively with the declension of the words yumad and asmad. But, not wanting
to burden the students with this, Jva Gosvm has simply given one stra and a
list of niptas for the students to memorize.
340 / @nayaAeivaRSNAupad"tvae s$atyaeva s$aMs$aAr"AtpaUvaRmafatyaya: /

340. anayor viupadatve saty eva sasrt prvam ak-pratyaya


anayoof these two (yumad and asmad); viupadatvebeing a viupada;
satiwhen there is; evaonly; sasrtthe sasra; prvambefore; akpratyayathe taddhita pratyaya ak.
Only when yumad and asmad are viupadas is the taddhita pratyaya
ak applied before the sasra.
tvakam yuvakm yyakam. kintu tri-sarvevaratve madhya-sarvevart prvam
ak. yuvakbhym yumakbhi yumakabhyam yumakkam yumaksu.
evam asmado pi, ahakam vakm vayakam. makm asmakn. mayak
vakbhym asmakbhi. mahyakam asmakabhyam. asmakat. mamaka
vakayo asmakkam. mayaki asmaksu. gauatve tvm atikrnta ity artheatitvat, yuvm atikrnta ity artheati-yuvat, yumn atikrnta ity artheatiyumat. eva mm atikrnta ity artheati-mat, vm atikrnta ity artheatyvat, asmn atikranta ity artheaty-asmat. eva pra-tvad-dayo pi.
Vtti yumad + s[u] (339) tvam <1.1> (340) tv + ak + am tvakam
<1.1>.
yumad + au (339) yuvm <1.2> (340) yuv + ak + m yuvakm
<1.2>.
yumad + [j]as (339) yyam <1.3> (340) yy + ak + am
yyakam <1.3>.
But if the viupada has three sarvevaras, the taddhita pratyaya ak is applied
before the middle sarvevara:
yumad + bhym (339) yuvbhym <3.2> (vtti 340) yuv + ak +
bhym yuvakbhym <3.2>.
yumad + bhis (339) yumbhi <3.3> (vtti 340) yum + ak +
bhi
yumakbhi <3.3>.
yumad + bhyas (339) yumabhyam <4.3> (vtti 340) yum + ak
+ abhyam
yumakabhyam <4.3>.
yumad + m (339) yumkam <6.3> (vtti 340) yum + ak +
kam
yumakkam <6.3>.

yumad + su[p] (339) yumsu <7.3> (vtti 340) yum + ak + su


yumaksu
<7.3>.

case
pratha
m
dvity

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

tvakam

yuvakm

yyakam

tvakm

yumakn
yumakbhi

yumakabhy
am

tavaka

yuvakm
yuvakbhy
m
yuvakbhy
m
yuvakbhy
m
yuvakayo

tvayaki

yuvakayo

yumaksu

tty

tvayak

caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

tubhyaka
m
tvakat

yumakat
yumkam

The forms of asmad with the taddhita pratyaya ak are made in the same way:
asmad + s[u] (339) aham <1.1> (340) ah + ak + am ahakam
<1.1>.
asmad + au (339) vm <1.2> (340) v + ak + m vakm
<1.2>.
asmad + [j]as (339) vayam <1.3> (340) vay + ak + am vayakam
<1.3>.
asmad + am (339) mm <2.1> (340) m + ak + m makm
<2.1>.
asmad + []as (339) asmn <2.3> (340) asm + ak + n
asmakn <2.3>.
asmad + [] (339) may <3.1> (340) may + ak + mayak
<3.1>.
asmad + bhym (339) vbhym <3.2> (vtti 340) v + ak +
bhym vakbhym <3.2>.

asmad + bhis (339) asmbhi <3.3> (vtti 340) asm + ak + bhi


asmakbhi
<3.3>.

asmad + []e (339) mahyam <4.1> (340) mahy + ak + am


mahyakam <4.1>.

asmad + bhyas (339) asmabhyam <4.3> (vtti 340) asm + ak +


abhyam asmakabhyam <4.3>.
asmad + bhyas (339) asmat <5.3> (340) asm + ak + at asmakat
<5.3>.
asmad + []as (339) mama <6.1> (340) mam + ak + a mamaka
<6.1>.
asmad + os (339) vayo <6.2> (vtti 340) v + ak + ayo
vakayo <6.2>.
asmad + m (339) asmkam <6.3> (vtti 340) asm + ak + kam
asmakkam
<6.3>.
asmad + []i (339) mayi <7.1> (340) may + ak + i mayaki
<7.1>.
asmad + su[p] (339) asmsu <7.3> (vtti 340) asm + ak + su
asmaksu
<7.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

ahakam

vakm

vayakam

makm

asmakn

mamaka

vakm
vakbhy
m
vakbhy
m
vakbhy
m
vakayo

mayaki

vakayo

tty

mayak

caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

mahyaka
m
makat

asmakbhi
asmakabhy
am
asmakat
asmakkam
asmaksu

But when the meaning of yumad is secondary we get the words ati-tvad, atiyuvad and ati-yumad which mean tvm atikrnta (one who surpasses you),
yuvm atikrnta (one who surpasses the two of you), and yumn atikrnta
(one who surpasses all of you) respectively. Similarly, when the meaning of
asmad is secondary we get the words ati-mad, aty-vad, and aty-asmad which
mean mm atikrnta (one who surpasses me), vm atikrnta (one who
surpasses the two of us), and asmn atikrnta (one who surpasses all of us)
respectively. In the same way, we get words like pra-tvad (in which you are
superior) and so on.

BlaThe word pra-tvad means praka tva yatra (in which you are
superior).
AmtaThe words ati-tvad and so on, which come about when there is gaua
(secondary usage), all end in da-rma. This will be shown later.
SaodhinWhen their meaning is secondary, like it is here in the words atitvad, pra-tvad, and so on, yumad and asmad change their forms to tvad and
mad, yuvad and vad, and yumad and asmad in eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, and
bahu-vacana respectively, in accordance with yumado gauasya tvad-yuvadyumada ekatvdiu, asmado mad-vad-asmada (). The current stra and the
phrase kintu tri-sarvevaratve madhya-sarvevart prvam ak found in its vtti
are given now as simplifications of the universal phrase tatra svdy-antasya
sasrt prg ak o-rma-sa-rma-bha-rmdi-varjam in stra. Usually, by this
phrase, the taddhita pratyaya ak is only applied before the sasra of the nma
itself when o, s or bh follow, and the rest of the time it is applied before the
sasra of the viupada as a whole. But, since Jva Gosvm has given the
forms of yumad and asmad as niptas, it is not possible to determine the nma
to which ak should be applied1. Therefore, with the phrase kintu tri-sarvevaratve
madhya-sarvevart prvam ak, Jva Gosvm achieves the same result achieved
by applying ak before the sasra of the nma itself when o, s or bh follow, and,
with the current stra, he replicates the phrase svdy-antasya sasrt prg ak,
making it relevant to the words yumad and asmad.
341 / taeSaAM s$avaeRSaAM tvamah"maAd"ya Wva s$aujas$xe~x~ss$au /
341. te sarve tvam-aham-daya eva su-jas-e-assu
temof these words (ati-tvad and so on, and pra-tvad and so on); sarvem
all; tvam-aham-dayathe replacements beginning with tvam and aham; eva
only; su-jas-e-assuwhen the viubhaktis s[u], [j]as, []e, and []as follow.
When s[u], [j]as, []e, or []as follow, the niptas beginning with tvam
and aham simultaneously replace the tvad, mad, and so on of all these
words and the sv-di that comes after them.
yathati-tvam ati-yyam ati-tubhyam ati-tava. evam aty-aham ity-di.
VttiFor example:
ati-tvad or ati-yuvad or ati-yumad + s[u] (341) ati-tvam <1.1>.
1

For instance, In the Pinian system the steps for forming yuvakayo <6.2> are as follows:
yumad + os yuva + os. At this point, the taddhita pratyaya ak is inserted before the sasra of
the nma yuva because o follows. Thus we get yuv + ak + a + os yuvaka + os yuvake + os
yuvakay + os yuvakayos yuvakayo <6.2>. But since we are not given stras by which
yumad becomes yuva and so on, we cannot determine the nma to which ak should be applied.

ati-tvad or ati-yuvad or ati-yumad + [j]as (341) ati-yyam <1.3>.


ati-tvad or ati-yuvad or ati-yumad + []e (341) ati-tubhyam <4.1>.
ati-tvad or ati-yuvad or ati-yumad + []as (341) ati-tava <6.1>.
Similarly, we get aty-aham <1.1> and so on:
ati-mad or aty-vad or aty-asmad + s[u] (341) aty-aham <1.1>.
BlaWhen s[u], [j]as, []e, or []as follow, tvam, aham, and so on are given as
niptas in place of the tvad and so on of the words ati-tvad and so on and pratvad and so on. Ati-tvam <1.1> can either be a form of the word ati-tvad, a form
of the word ati-yuvad, or a form of the word ati-yumad. Likewise with ati-yyam
<1.3> and so on.
342 / @nyaa vamapayaRntavajaRmaar"AiNA ak{(tapad"vatk(AyaARiNA /
342. anyatra va-ma-paryanta-varja akari prakta-pada-vat kryi
anyatrawhen any other viubhakti follows; va-ma-paryanta-varjamexcluding
the varas up til and including va-rma and ma-rma; akarithe akaras
(varas1); prakta-pada-vatlike those of the word previously described; kryi
should be made.
When any other viubhakti follows, the akaras of tvad, mad, and so
on, exclusive of those up til and including v and m, should be made like
the akaras of the previously described nipta (see vtti 339), also
exclusive of those up til and including v and m
yathati-tvad au iti sthite ad au bhgasya yuvm ity anta-sthita m-bhga
diyateati-tvm. evam amati-tvm. punar auati-tvm. asati-tvn.
ati-tvay. ati-tvbhym ati-tvbhi. ati-tvbhym ati-tvabhyam. ati-tvat atitvbhym ati-tvat. ati-tvayo ati-tvkam. ati-tvayi ati-tvayo ati-tvsu. yath ca
ati-yuvac-chabdtati-yuvm ati-yuvm ati-yuvm ati-yuvn ati-yuvay. yath ca
ati-yumac-chabdtati-yumm ati-yumm ati-yumm ati-yumn atiyumay. mi caati-tvkam ity-di. ati-tvaykam ity-di kecit. evam asmado
pi.
VttiFor example, when we have ati-tvad + au, the portion ad + au is replaced
by the m portion situated at the end of yuvm <1.2>, and thus we get ati-tvm
<1.2>:
ati-tvad + au (342) ati-tv + the m of yuvm ati-tvm <1.2>.
1

In this regard, one should remember that, in vtti 1, the word akara was given as a synonym of
the word vara.

Similarly, when he have ati-tvad + am, we get ati-tvm <2.1>:


ati-tvad + am (342) ati-tv + the m of tvm ati-tvm <1.2>.
When we again have ati-tvad + au, we get ati-tvm <2.2>:
ati-tvad + au (342) ati-tv + the m of yuvm ati-tvm <2.2>.
When we have ati-tvad + []as, we get ati-tvn <2.3>:
ati-tvad + []as (342) ati-tv + the n of yumn ati-tvn <2.3>.
When we have ati-tvad + [], we get ati-tvay <3.1>:
ati-tvad + [] (342) ati-tv + the ay of tvay ati-tvay <3.1>.
ati-tvad + bhym (342) ati-tv + the bhym of yuvbhym atitvbhym <3.2>.
ati-tvad + bhis (342) ati-tv + the bhi of yumbhi ati-tvbhi
<3.3>.
ati-tvad + bhym (342) ati-tv + the bhym of yuvbhym atitvbhym <4.2>.
ati-tvad + bhyas (342) ati-tv + the abhyam of yumabhyam atitvabhyam <4.3>.
ati-tvad + []as[i] (342) ati-tv + the at of tvat ati-tvat <5.1>.
ati-tvad + bhym (342) ati-tv + the bhym of yuvbhym atitvbhym <5.2>.
ati-tvad + []as[i] (342) ati-tv + the at of yumat ati-tvat <5.3>.
ati-tvad + os (342) ati-tv + the ayo of yuvayo ati-tvayo <6.2>.
ati-tvad + m (342) ati-tv + the kam of yumkam ati-tvkam
<6.3>.
ati-tvad + []i (342) ati-tv + the ayi of tvayi ati-tvayi <7.1>.
ati-tvad + os (342) ati-tv + the ayo of yuvayo ati-tvayo <7.2>.
ati-tvad + su[p] (342) ati-tv + the su of yumsu ati-tvsu <7.3>.

When other viubhaktis are applied after the word ati-yuvad, the forms are as
follows:
ati-yuvad + au (342) ati-yuv + the m of yuvm ati-yuvm <1.2>.
ati-yuvad + am (342) ati-yuv + the m of tvm ati-yuvm <1.2>.
ati-yuvad + au (342) ati-yuv + the m of yuvm ati-yuvm <2.2>.
ati-yuvad + []as (342) ati-yuv + the n of yumn ati-yuvn
<2.3>.
ati-yuvad + [] (342) ati-yuv + the ay of tvay ati-yuvay <3.1>.
When other viubhaktis are applied after the word ati-yumad, the forms are as
follows:
ati-yumad + au (342) ati-yum + the m of yuvm ati-yumm
<1.2>.
ati-yumad + am (342) ati-yum + the m of tvm ati-yumm
<1.2>.
ati-yumad + au (342) ati-yum + the m of yuvm ati-yumm
<2.2>.
ati-yumad + []as (342) ati-yum + the n of yumn ati-yumn
<2.3>.
ati-yumad + [] (342) ati-yum + the ay of tvay ati-yumay
<3.1>.
When m follows, the forms are ati-tvkam <6.3> and so on. But, in the opinion
of some, the forms are ati-tvaykam <6.3> and so on. The secondary usages of
asmad (ati-mad, aty-vad, aty-asmad, and so on) are declined in the same way.
BlaThe word anyatra here means su-jas-e-asbhyo nyatra ("when a
viubhakti other than s[u], [j]as, []e, or []as follows") and the word praktapada-vat means prvokta-pada-vat ("like those of the word previously
described"). The word di in the phrase ati-tvkam ity-di includes ati-yuvkam
<6.3> and ati-yumkam <6.3>, and the word di in the phrase ati-tvaykam
ity-di includes ati-yuvayakm <6.3> and ati-yumaykam <6.3>.
343 / ivaSNAupad"A"A , @nvaAde"zAe tau inatyama, /
343. viupadd v, anvdee tu nityam

viupadtafter a viupada; voptionally; anvdeewhen there is


anvdea (same as kathitnukathana, see stra 332); tubut; nityamalways.
The words viupadt v and anvdee tu nityam are to be supplied in
the subsequent stras.
adhikro yam. uttara-prakaraa-vypy adhikra. v-nau-paryant ye viricayo
vakyante te sarve viupadd vaktavy. te ca ananvdee v, anvdee tu
nityam ity artha. puna kathanam anvdea.
VttiThis is an adhikra. An adhikra pervades the following section. All the
viricis, which are just about to be described, up til and including vm and nau are
applicable only when the original comes after a viupada. These viricis are
optional when there is no anvdea, but compulsory when there is anvdea.
Anvdea means repetition.
SaodhinAn adhikra-stra is a stra that merely announces the word or
words which are to be supplied in all the stras up to a certain limit. An adhikra
is more official than ordinary anuvtti, which has to be inferred by the reader.
There are three kinds of adhikras as will be described in vtti 365: prabhu, vibhu,
and vsudeva. This is a prabhu adhikra. Jva Gosvm personally specifies the
limit of this adhikra with the phrase v-nau-paryant. Thus this adhikra
extends up to stra 347.
344 / yauSmaAna, yauSmaByaM yauSmaAk(imatyaeSaAM vas$a, ,
@smaAnasmaByamasmaAk(imatyaeSaAM nas$a, /
344. yumn yumabhya yumkam ity e vas, asmn asmabhyam
asmkam ity e nas
yumn yumabhyam yumkam itiyumn <2.3>, yumabhyam <4.3>, and
yumkam <6.3>; emof these; vasthe replacement vas; asmn
asmabhyam asmkam itiasmn <2.3>, asmabhyam <4.3>, and asmkam
<6.3>; emof these; nasthe replacement nas.
When yumn, yumabhyam, and yumkam come after a viupada,
they are optionally replaced by vas, but they are always replaced by vas
when there is anvdea. Similarly, when asmn, asmabhyam, and
asmkam come after a viupada, they are optionally replaced by nas,
but they are always replaced by nas when there is anvdea.
harir yumn avatu, harir vo vatu. harir yumabhya rocat, harir vo rocatm.
harir yumka sarva-sva, harir va sarva-svam. harir asmn avatu, harir na.
harir asmabhya rocat, harir na. harir asmka sarvasva, harir na.
anvdee tu nityamharir asmn avatu, atho nas tad-bhakt kpayantu. ity-di
sarvatra yojyam.

Vtti
harir yumn avatu or harir vo vatu (may Hari protect you all).
harir yumabhya rocatm or harir vo rocatm (May Hari please you
all).
harir yumka sarva-svam or harir va sarva-svam (Hari is your
everything).
harir asmn avatu or harir no vatu (may Hari protect us all).
harir asmabhya rocatm or harir no rocatm (May Hari please us all).
harir asmka sarva-svam or harir na sarva-svam (Hari is our
everything).
But the replacements are always made when there is anvdea:
harir asmn avatu, atho nas tad-bhakt kpayantu (may Hari protect
us all. (then)
May His devotees show us mercy).
The word ity-di should be added to all these examples.
345 / tauByaMtavayaAestae , maMmamayaAemaeR /
345. tubhya-tavayos te, mahya-mamayor me
tubhyam-tavayoof tubhyam <4.1> and tava <6.1>; tethe replacement te;
mahyam-mamayorof mahyam <4.1> and mama <6.1>; methe replacement
me.
When tubhyam and tava come after a viupada, they are optionally
replaced by te, but they are always replaced by te when there is
anvdea. Similarly, when mahyam and mama come after a viupada,
they are optionally replaced by me, but they are always replaced by me
when there is anvdea.
haris tubhya rocat, haris te. eva haris tava, haris te. haris tubhya rocatm,
atho haris te prema dadtu. harir mahya, harir me. harir mama, harir me.
Vtti
haris tubhya rocatm or haris te rocatm (May Hari please you).
haris tava or haris te (Hari is yours).

harir mahya rocatm or harir me rocatm (May Hari please me).


harir mama or harir me (Hari is mine).
An example of when there is anvdea is haris tubhya rocatm, atho haris te
prema dadtu (May Hari please you. (then) May Hari give you prema).
AmtaThe word tavayo in this stra is formed by applying the viubhakti os
after the imitative word tava. The word mamayo is likewise formed by applying
the viubhakti os after the imitative word mama.
346 / tvaAM maAM tvaA maA /
346. tv m tv m
tvmof tvm <2.1>; mmof mm <2.1>; tvthe replacement tv; mthe
replacement m.
When tvm comes after a viupada, it is optionally replaced by tv, but
it is always replaced by tv when there is anvdea. Similarly, when
mm comes after a viupada, it is optionally replaced by m, but it is
always replaced by m when there is anvdea1.
haris tv ptu, haris tv ptu. harir m ptu, harir m. haris tv ptu, atho
haris tv payatu. harir m payatu, atho harir m rakatu.
Vtti
haris tv ptu or haris tv ptu (may Hari protect you).
harir m ptu or harir m ptu (may Hari protect me).
Examples of when there is anvdea are haris tv ptu, atho haris tv payatu
(may Hari protect you. (then) May Hari see you) and harir m payatu, atho
harir m rakatu (may Hari see me. (then) May Hari protect me).
AmtaIn this stra, tvm and mm are words whose ah viubhakti has
been deleted on the strength of the stra (see vtti 159).
347 / yauSmad"smai"SNAupad"yaAevaA<naAE i"taIyaAcatauTaI=Sa"Ii"tvae ,
na tau s$amaAs$ae /
347. yumad-asmad-viupadayor v-nau dvity-caturth-ah-dvitve, na
tu samse

In this regard, one should remember the maxim yath-sakhyam anudea samnm (vtti 175).

yumad-asmad-viupadayoof the declined forms (viupadas) of the words


yumad and asmad; vm-nauthe replacements vm and nau; dvity-caturthah-dvitvein the dvi-vacana of dvity, caturth, and ah; nanot; tu
but; samsein a compound.
When the declined forms of yumad and asmad come after a viupada,
they are optionally replaced, in the dvi-vacana of dvity, caturth, or
ah, by vm and nau respectively, but they are always replaced by
vm and nau when there is anvdea. However, the viricis mentioned in
stras 344 to 347 are not applicable in compounds.
harir yuv ptu, harir vm. harir yuv rakatu, atha harir v payatu. harir
yuvbhy rocat, harir vm. harir yuvayo svm, harir vm. harir v ptu,
harir nau. harir vbhy rocat, harir nau. harir vayo svm, harir nau.
samastatve tu naharir asmat-svm.
Vtti
harir yuv ptu or harir v ptu (May Hari protect you both).
harir yuvbhy rocatm or harir v rocatm (May Hari please you
both).
harir yuvayo svm or harir v svm (Hari is your master).
harir v ptu or harir nau ptu (May Hari protect us both).
harir vbhy rocatm or harir nau rocatm (May Hari please us
both).
harir vayo svm or harir nau svm (Hari is our master).
An example of when there is anvdea is harir yuv rakatu, atho harir v
payatu (may Hari protect you both. (then) May Hari see you both).
As stated above, the replacements dont take place when yumad and asmad are
used in a compound. Thus we get harir asmat-svm (Hari is our master).
SaodhinThe vigraha of the compound asmat-svm is asmka svm
(our master). The Bla and Amta commentaries explain the phrase na tu
samse in such as way that it only applies to vm and nau. But the proof that the
phrase na tu samse prohibits the use of all the viricis in compounds and not just
vm and nau is the Pinian stra anudtta sarvam apddau (Adhyy
8.1.18) where the word anudttam (unaccented) is carried forward into all the
stras ordaining the replacements. In terms of accents, normal words are
considered unaccented whereas compounds get accents. Thus anudttam in
effect means uncompounded.

The forms of the words yumad and asmad are now listed below along with their
respective viricis:
ekavacana

dvivacana

pratha
m

tvam

yuvm

dvity

tvm

tty

tvay

case

caturth

pacam

tubhyam

tava

saptam

tvayi

yuvm

te

yuvbhy
m
yuvbhy
m
yuvbhy
m

v
m

yuvayo

v
m

te

dvivacana

pratha
m

aham

vm

dvity

mm

tty

may

caturth

pacam

mahyam

mama

saptam

mayi

yumabhy
am

va

yumkam

va

yumsu
bahuvacana
vayam

m
e

vbhy
m
vbhy
m
vbhy
m

na
u

vayo

na
u

vayo

va

yumat

vm

m
e

yumn
yumbhi

mat

ah

v
m

yuvayo

ekavacana

case

yyam

tv

tvat

ah

bahuvacana

na
u

asmn

na

asmbhi
asmabhya
m

na

asmat
asmkam

na

asmsu

348 / s$apaUvaRpad"AtaTamaAntaA"AnvaAde"zAe'ipa tae ivair"aya: /


348. sa-prva-padt prathamntd vnvdee pi te viricaya
sa-prva-padtthat has a word previous to it; pratham-anttafter a word
ending in a pratham viubhakti; voptionally; anvdee apieven when
there is anvdea; tethese; viricayaviricis.

When the origina comes after a word which ends in a pratham


viubhakti and has another word previous to it, these viricis are
optional, even when there is anvdea.
vraje ko mama sva, me v, atho vndvane ko mama sva, me v.
VttiFor example, vraje ko mama sva, me v, atho vndvane ko
mama sva, me v. (In Vraja, Ka is my ow. (then) In Vndvana, Ka is my
own).
AmtaWhere these viricis would usually always be applicable when there is
anvdea, this rule is for the sake of optionality. In the sentence beginning vraje
the optionality is achieved as before, by the phrase viupadd v, but in the
sentence beginning vndvane, the replacement me is optional, even though
there is anvdea, because the original word mama comes after the word ka
<1.1> which has the word vndvane previous to it.
349 / na tae vaAfyaAd"AE Aek(paAd"Ad"AE ca /
349. na te vkydau loka-pddau ca
nanot; tethese viricis (the viricis mentioned in stras 344 to 347); vkyadauat the beginning of a vkya (sentence)1; loka-pda-dauat the
beginning of the pda (quarter line) of a loka (verse); caand.
These viricis are not applicable at the beginning of a sentence or at the
beginning of a quarter of a verse.
he vaiava tva sukh bhava. tv hari ptu. m hari ptu. kaikaaraasysya tava hanta kuto bhayam ity-di.
Vtti
he vaiava tva sukh bhava (O Vaiava, may you become happy).
tv hari ptu (may Hari protect you).
m hari ptu (may Hari protect me).
kaika-araasysya
tava hanta kuto bhayam (where is fear for you whose only shelter is
Ka?).
.......................................
.......................................

See vtti 74 for definition.

SaodhinThe first example merely shows how tvam <1.1> is at the


beginning of the sentence since vocative words have no connection to the kriy,
for there is no virici to replace tvam <1.1> anyway. In the next two examples, the
original words tvm and mm are at the beginning of sentences, and thus the
viricis tv and m do not replace them. In the last example, the original word
tava is at the beginning of the second quarter of the verse, and thus the virici te
does not replace it.
350 / na ca caAid"iBayaAeRgAe /
350. na ca cdibhir yoge
nanot; caand; ca-dibhiwith the words ca and so on; yogewhen there is
yoga (syntactical connection).
These viricis are also not applicable when there is yoga with the words
ca, v, ha, aha, and eva.
ko mama ca saukhyya rmas tava ca armae. ca v ha aha eva.
Vtti
ko mama ca saukhyya rmas tava ca armae (Ka is for the
happiness of me and you)1.
The cdis mentioned here are ca (and), v (or), ha (indeed), aha
(wonderful!, and eva (only).
AmtaSince the word ca is used in the sense of samuccaya (conjunction), it
expresses, in this example, the yoga between the words yumad and asmad.
Thus this example is considered to mean tava mama ca saukhyya ka
(Ka is for the happiness of you and me). The rest of the words beginning
from v are used in the senses of vikalpa (optionality), sphuat (clarity),
praas (praise), and avadhraa (restriction) respectively. Examples of
when there is yoga with these words are grantha ea tubhya v dyate mahya
v (this book is given to you or me), tulas tv ha prayat (Tulas certainly
satisfies you), ko yumkam aha svam (congratulations, Ka is your
own), and prasdo yuvbhym eva dsyate (prasda will be given to you
both).
351 / par"mpar"AyaAegAe tau na inaSaeDa: /
351. parampar-yoge tu na niedha
1

In this example, Rma is another name of Ka, and arman is a synonym of saukhya. The
translation here is in accordance with Amtas explanation. The Pinian example in this regard is
haris tv m ca rakatu (may Hari protect you and me).

parampar-yogewhen there is parampar-yoga (indirect syntactical


connection); tubut; nanot; niedhaprohibition.
This prohibition is not applicable when there is parampar-yoga with the
words ca, v, ha, aha, and eva.
hari ca me svm.
VttiFor example, hari ca me svm (Hari is also my master).
AmtaThe viricis are prohibited only when the word ca directly expresses
samuccaya (conjuction) between the words yumad and asmad. But when the
word ca directly expresses samuccaya between other words, and the words
yumad and asmad are thus only indirectly connected to ca, the viricis certainly
take place. In the example hari ca me svm, the word ca expresses the
following samuccaya: rmo hari ca me svm (Rma and Hari are my master).
In this regard, Bhaoji-dkita gives the example haro hari ca me svm (Hara
and Hari are my master). In the example hari ca me svm, only the words
rma and hari are directly connected to the word ca, while the word asmad is
connected to the word hari throught the relationship of sva-svm (property and
master of the property). Therefore the word asmad is connected to the word ca
indirectly.
352 / na ca d"zARnaATaE=r"caAauSatvae /
352. na ca daranrthair ackuatve
nanot; caand; darana-arthaiwith verbs that have the sense of darana
(seeing); ackuatvewhen the perception is not by means of the eyes.
These viricis are also not applicable when there is yoga with verbs
having the sense of seeing, provided the perception is not by means of
the eyes.
cetas tvm kate vaiava.
VttiFor example, cetas tvm kate vaiava (the Vaiava perceives you
by means of the spirit).
353 / par"mpar"AyaAegAe'ipa na /
353. parampar-yoge pi na
parampar-yoge apieven when there is parampar-yoga (indirect syntactical
connection); nanot.

These viricis are not applicable even when yumad and asmad are in
parampar-yoga with verbs having the sense of seeing, provided the
perception is not by means of the eyes.
ka cetas tava rpam kate. bhaktas tava rpa dhyyati iti tu tasy
vicrya, daranrtha-dhtu-yogbhvt. ckuatve tukas tv payati.
VttiFor example, ka cetas tava rpam kate (Ka perceives your
form by means of the spirit). But the example bhaktas tava rpa dhyyati (the
devotee meditates upon your form) in Prakriy-kaumud is questionable because
there is no yoga with a verb having the sense of seeing. When, however, the
perception is by means of the eyes, the viricis do take place and we get kas
tv payati (Ka sees you) and so on.
AmtaThese viricis are not applicable even when yumad and asmad are in
parampar-yoga with verbs having the sense of seeing, provided the perception is
not by means of the eyes. In the example ka cetas tava rpam kate, the
word rpa is directly connected to the verb kate which has the sense of seeing,
while the word yumad is indirectly connected to the word rpa throught the
relationship of avayavvayav (limb and owner of the limb.
SaodhinPrakriy-kaumuds example is questionable because the meaning
of the dhtu dhyai as listed in the Dhtu-pha is cintym (thought /
meditation), whereas the meaning of the dhtus k[a] and so on is darane
(seeing).
354 / @AmainataM paUvaRmas$a"ta, /
354. mantrita prvam asad-vat
mantritama vocative word; prvamprevious; asat-vatas if not existing.
A preceding vocative is considered as if not existing.
tato nde iti kikdau ca matam. he ka tavham. he rma-kau yuvayor
aham. katham ucita racaymi devi te iti? mantritasya asattve pi tat-prvapadasya sattvt.
VttiAnd therefore the replacements dont take place according to Kik and
other authorities commenting on Adhyy 8.1.72 (the Pinian equivalent to
the current stra). For example, he ka tavham (O Ka, I am yours) and
he rma-kau yuvayor aham (O Rma and Ka, I am yours). Well, what
about the example ucita racaymi devi te (O Goddess, I will make something
nice for you)? This example is valid because, even though the vocative word devi
is not existing, the word previous to it is existing.

AmtaEven though the vocative word does exist, it is considered as if not


existing. Thus the replacements cannot take place by viupadd v (343) and so
on as there is no preceding viupada.
355 / s$aAmaAnyavacanataulyaAiDak(r"NAe @Amainatae (masTae caetpaUva<
s$ata, /
355. smnya-vacana-tulydhikarae mantrite krama-sthe cet prva sat
smnya-vacana-tulya-adhikaraesmnya-vacana (a generic ter) and
tulydhikaraa (a samndhikaraa-vieaa)1; mantritetwo vocative words;
krama-sthesituated in the order; cetif; prvamthe previous one; sat
existing.
If a smnya-vacana vocative and a samndhikaraa-vieaa vocative
are situated side by side in that order, the previous one (the smnyavacana vocative) is considered as existing.
356 / ba"vacanae cae"A /
356. bahu-vacane ced v
bahu-vacanein bahu-vacana; cetif; voptionally.
If, in bahu-vacana, a smnya-vacana vocative and a samndhikaraavieaa vocative are situated side by side in that order, the previous
one (the smnya-vacana vocative) is optionally considered as existing.
tata de. he vaiava sa-premas te ka. vaiavo tra sa-prem tadrahita ca bhavatti smnya-vacana. tau dvau tu tad-vieau. tatrnvdee
nityam de, ananvdee tu v. smnya-vacaneti kim, brahma-rta ka-ja
tava ka. brahma-rta ity ekasya nma, tato na smnya-vacanam. tata
ubhayam apy mantritam asad-vat. eva hare kplo smn phi. bahu-vacane
vaiav r-bhgavata-j va ka, yumka v. anvdee py de v.
etat pinya-mata prakriy-dhtam. matntara tu na kicit. tath hi tat-stratrayam,
mantrita prvam avidyamna-vat.
nmantrite samndhikarae smnya-vacanam.
vibhita viea-vacane bahu-vacanam
iti. mantrite ity-diu para-saptamy eya. madhyame stre smnyavacanasyvidyamnat-khaant tan-ml evde. antime tu tad-vikalpt
tad-vikalpa. bhavatu-abdo yumad-vcako bhagavatu-abda-vat. atha kimabda
1

Smnya-vacana literally means that which expresses a general idea, and tulydhikaraa is a
synonym of the word samndhikaraa found in stra 304.

VttiTherefore the replacements take place. For, example, he vaiava sapremas te ka (O Vaiava with prema, Ka is yours). In this regard, a
Vaiava may or may not have prema. Thus vaiava is a generic term, while
these two (having prema and not having prema) are vieas (distinguishing
features) of the Vaiava. In this regard, the replacements always take place
when there is anvdea, but optionally take place when there is no anvdea.
Why do we say smnya-vacana? Consider brahma-rta ka-ja tava ka
(O Brahma-rta, of knower of Ka, Ka is yours). Brahma-rta is the name
of an individual, therefore it is not smnya-vacana, and thus both vocative words
are considered as if not existing. Similarly, consider hare kplo smn phi (O
Hari, O merciful one, protect us). In bahu-vacana we get vaiav rbhgavata-j va ka or vaiav r-bhgavata-j yumka ka
(O Vaiavas, O knowers of the Bhgavatam, Ka is yours). In bahu-vacana
the replacements are optional, even when there is anvdea.
All this is the opinion of the followers of Pini and is supported by Prakriykaumud. There is no different opinion on this matter. For example, the three
equivalent stras of Pini are mantrita prvam avidyamna-vat (Adhyy
8.1.72), nmantrite samndhikarae smnya-vacanam (Adhyy 8.1.73),
and vibhita viea-vacane bahu-vacanam (Adhyy 8.1.74). In mantrite
and so on, it is only para-saptam. In the middle stra, due to the dismissal of
considering the smnya-vacana vocative as not existing, the replacements,
which are based upon the existence of the smnya-vacana vocative, take place.
But in the last stra, the replacements are optional because the smnya-vacana
vocative is optionally considered as not existing.
The word bhavat[u] expresses the second person and is declined like the word
bhagavat[u]. Now we begin the declension of the word kim.
AmtaThe word sa-preman is a samndhikaraa-vieaa of the word
vaiava. The words tau dvau here mean sa-preman apremann iti dvau. Among
the two vocative words in the example, the vocative word sa-preman, which is
situated immediately before the replacement te, is considered as not existing in
accordance with mantrita prvam asad-vat (354), while the vocative word
vaiava, which precedes the word sa-preman, is considered as existing in
accordance with smnya-vacana-tulydhikarae mantrite krama-sthe cet
prva sat (355). Thus the replacement te optionally takes place by viupadd
v (343) by considering the vocative word vaiava as a preceding viupada. In
the example hare kplo smn phi, the word hari also refers to an individual and
thus, since it is not smnya-vacana, it is not considered as existing, and
therefore the replacements do not take place.
BlaThe stra of Pini beginning nmantrite means samndhikarae
mantrite pare smnya-vacanam mantritam na avidyamna-vad bhavati
(when a samndhikaraa-vieaa vocative comes after it, a smnya-vacana
vocative is not considered as if not existing). And the stra of Pini beginning
vibhitam means viea-vacane mantrite pare bahu-vacanam mantritam
vibhitam avidyamna-vad bhavati (when a viea-vacana (samndhikaraa-

vieaa) vocative word comes after it, a plural vocative word is optionally
considered as not existing). The phrase mantrita ity-diu in the vtti means
pini-strayor mantrita ity-di-padeu. Thus the sentence reads in the words
mantrite and so on in the two stras of Pini (Adhyy 8.1.73 and 8.1.74) it
is only para-saptam.
357 / ik(ma: k(Ae ivaSNAuBa(AE s$aAk(syaAipa /
357. kima ko viubhaktau skasypi
kimaof the word kim; kathe replacement ka; viubhaktauwhen a
viubhakti follows; sa-akasyawith the taddhita pratyaya ak; apieven.
Kim is replaced by ka when a viubhakti follows, even if it contains the
taddhita pratyaya ak.
ka kau ke, kam kau kn, sarva-vat. taddhite pacamymkuta, saptamym
kva kutra. atha kanmn lakm-ligodharaam. kd p lakmym iti
vakyama-strt sarva-abdd psarv sarve ity-di rdh-vat. viv mi
ca viea. sarv e
VttiThe forms of the word kim are like those of the word sarva:
kim + s[u] (357) ka + s[u] kas (155) ka <1.1>.
kim + au (357) ka + au (57) kau <1.2>.
kim + [j]as (357) ka + [j]as (312) ka + [] (48) ke <1.3>.
kim + am (357) ka + am (156) kam <2.1>.
kim + au (357) ka + au (57) kau <2.2>.
kim + []as (357) ka + []as (156) ka + s (157) ks kn <2.3>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate
form kuta. And in the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied,
we get the alternate forms kva and kutra1.
case
pratha
1

ekavacana
ka

dvivacana
kau

bahuvacana
ke

The alternate forms kuta and kutra are irregularly formed by etado to tra, idama ita iha, adaso
muto mutra, kima kuta kutreti tas-trbhy triv api ligeu sdhava (), while the alternate
form kva is itself an alternate form of kutra by kutrasya kveti ca, itaratrpi bhavad-di-yoge
dyate ().

m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

kam
kena

kau
kbhym

kn
kai

kasmai

kbhym

kebhya

kasmt

kbhym

kebhya

kasya

kayo

kem

kasmin

kayo

keu

Now we will give examples of the kanmas in the feminine gender.


Thetaddhita pratyaya [p] is applied after the word sarva by the future stra
kd p lakmym (). Thus we get sarv <1.1>, sarve <1.2>, and so on, as in
the declension of the word rdh:
sarv + s[u] (202) sarv <1.1>.
sarv + au (209) sarv + (48) sarve <1.2>.
But the forms are different when the vis and m follow. For example, when we
have sarv + []e:
AmtaWhere the sasra of kim usually wouldnt become a-rma since kim is
not among the tad-dis mentioned in stra 328, this rule ordains that the sasra
of kim should become a-rma.
SaodhinThe taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied after the word sarva by
kd p (), a stra which comes under the adhikra nmno lakmym (). When
we thus have sarva + [p], the final a of sarva is deleted by a-i-dvayasya hara (),
a stra which comes under the adhikra sasrasya haro bhagavati (). Thus we
get the feminine nma sarv to which the sv-dis are applied. The stras kd
p () and a-i-dvayasya hara () will also be applied in forming the feminines of the
tad-dis and of the word kim, but the difference is that they will be applied only
after the sv-dis have been applied and tad-di-saptn sasrasy-rma svdau, dasya ca ma, tad-des ta sa sau (328) has been applied. Jva Gosvm
himself will establish this order of application in vtti 359.
358 / k{(SNAnaAmar"ADaAta: syaApva{iSNASau , paUvaRsya ca vaAmana: /
358. kanma-rdhta syp viu, prvasya ca vmana
kanma-rdhtaafter a kanma that is a rdh (feminine word ending
in [p]); sypthe gama sy[p]; viuwhen the vis follow; prvasyaof
the preceding vara; caand; vmanathe change to vmana.

When the vis follow, the gama sy[p] is inserted after a kanma
that is a rdh, and the preceding vara becomes vmana.
pa it. sarvasyai. asisarvasy. assarvasy. mikanma-kardhbhym iti susarvsm. in-rdhbhy er m itisarvasym. taddhite
prva-vat. eva vivdaya.
VttiThe p is an indicatory letter.
sarv + []e (358) sarv + sy[p] + e sarvasy + e (55) sarvasyai
<4.1>.
sarv + []as[i] (358) sarv + sy[p] + as sarvasy + as (46)
sarvasys (155)
sarvasy <5.1>.
sarv + []as (358) sarv + sy[p] + as sarvasy + as (46)
sarvasys (155)
sarvasy <6.1>.
When m follows, s[u] is applied by kanma-ka-rdhbhy su mi
(315) and we get sarvsm <6.3>:
sarv + m (315) sarv + s[u] + m sarvsm <6.3>.
When []i follows, n-rdhbhy er m (197) is applied and we get sarvasym
<7.1>:
sarv + []i (358) sarv + sy[p] + []i sarvasy + []i (197)
sarvasy + m
(46) sarvasym <7.1>.
When the taddhita pratyayas tas[i] and tra are applied, the forms are the same as
those described previously in vtti 314.

pratham
dvity

ekavacana
sarv
sarvm

tty

sarvay

case

caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh

sarvasyai
sarvasy

sarvasy

sarvasy
m
sarve

dvivacana
sarve
sarve
sarvbhy
m
sarvbhy
m
sarvbhy
m

bahuvacana
sarv
sarv
sarvbhya

sarvbhya

sarvayo

sarvsm

sarvayo

sarvsu

sarve

sarv

sarvbhi

ana
The words viva and so on are declined in the same way.
359 / id"gba"aIh"AE k{(SNAnaAmataA vaA /
359. dig-bahuvrhau kanmat v
dik-bahuvrhauin a bahuvrhi-samsa signifying direction; kanmatthe
being a kanma; voptionally;
The prvdis are optionally kanmas when they are in a bahuvrhisamsa signifying direction.
uttara-prvasyai uttara-prvyai. tad-di-saptn sasrasy-rme kte pacd
p, tad-des ta sa saus te t. tm te t. eva yady ye y. etade
ete et. idamiya tu lakmymiyam ime im. imm ime im. idamo karmasya ana ausoanay. vaiave tv abhym bhi. asyai asy. su,
a, pacd psm. adas-abdasya sau pu-vatasau. dasya ma, p, ado-mt
parasya u am am. amm am am. amuy ambhym ambhi. syp
prvasya ca vmana, amuyai ambhym ambhya. amuy ambhym
ambhya. amuy amuyo amm. amuym amuyo amu. eka sarvavat. dvi-abdasya dve dve dvbhym dvbhym dvbhym dvayo dvayo.
bhavatu-abdd pbhavat bhavatyau. kim-abdasyak ke k. km ke k.
sarva-vat. atha brahmai. sarvam sarve sarvi. punas tad-vat. ttydau
puruottama-vat. ubhe.
Vtti uttara-prv1 + []e (two options by 359):
1) (uttara-prv is a kanma, 358) uttara-prv + sy[p] + e uttaraprvasy + e (55) uttara-prvasyai <4.1>
2) (uttara-prv isnt a kanma, 210) uttara-prv + y[p] + []e (55)
uttaraprvyai <4.1>.
When tad-di-saptn sasrasy-rma (328) is applied, the taddhita pratyaya
[p] is applied, then tad-des ta sa sau (328) is applied, and we get s <1.1>:
tad + s[u] (328) ta + s[u] () ta + [p] + s[u] () t + s[u] (328)
s + s[u] (202) s <1.1>.
tad + au (328) ta + au () ta + [p] + au () t + au (209) t +
(48) te <1.2>.
tad + [j]as (328) ta + [j]as () ta + [p] + [j]as () t + as (46)
ts (155) t <1.3>.
1

The taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied to the word uttara-prva by kd p lakmym ()


because uttara-prva, being a bahuvrhi-samsa, is a vieaa of the feminine word vidi.

tad + am (328) ta + am () ta + [p] + am () t + am (156)


tm <2.1>.
tad + au (328) ta + au () ta + [p] + au () t + au (209) t +
(48) te <2.2>.
tad + []as (328) ta + []as () ta + [p] + []as () t + as (156)
ts (155)
t <2.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

te

tm
tay

te
tbhym

t
tbhi

tasyai

tbhym

tbhya

tasy

tbhym

tbhya

tasy

tayo

tsm

tasym

tayo

tsu

The words yad and etad are declined in the same way:
yad + s[u] (328) ya + s[u] () ya + [p] + s[u] () y + s[u] (202)
y <1.1>.
yad + au (328) ya + au () ya + [p] + au () y + au (209) y +
(48) ye
<1.2>.
yad + [j]as (328) ya + [j]as () ya + [p] + [j]as () y + as (46)
ys (155)
y <1.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

ye

ym
yay

ye
ybhym

y
ybhi

yasyai

ybhym

ybhya

yasy

ybhym

ybhya

yasy

yayo

ysm

saptam

yasym

yayo

ysu

etad + s[u] (328) eta + s[u] () eta + [p] + s[u] () et + s[u]


(328) es + s[u] (170) e + s[u] (202) e <1.1>.
etad + au (328) eta + au () eta + [p] + au () et + au (209)
et + (48)
ete <1.2>.
etad + [j]as (328) eta + [j]as () eta + [p] + [j]as () et + as
(46) ets
(155) et <1.3>.
case

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

pratha
m
dvity

ete

et

etm

et

tty

etay

etbhya

etasy

ete
etbhy
m
etbhy
m
etbhy
m
etayo

etasym

etayo

etsu

caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

etasyai
etasy

etbhi

etbhya
etsm

When we have idam + s[u], iya tu lakmym (329) is applied and we get iyam
<1.1>:
idam + s[u] (329) iyam + s[u] (202) iyam <1.1>.
idam + au (328) ida + au ima + au () ima + [p] + au () im +
au (209) im + (48) ime <1.2>.
idam + [j]as (328) ida + [j]as ima + [j]as () ima + [p] + [j]as
() im + as (46) ims (155) im <1.3>.
idam + am (328) ida + am ima + am () ima + [p] + am ()
im + am (156) imm <2.1>.
idam + au (328) ida + au ima + au () ima + [p] + au () im +
au (209) im + (48) ime <2.2>.

idam + []as (328) ida + []as ima + []as () ima + [p] + []as
() im + as (156) ims (155) im <2.3>.
By idamo ka-rmasya ana auso (330) we get anay <3.1>:
idam + [] (330) ana + [] () ana + [p] + [] () an +
(210) ane +
(63) anay <3.1>.
By vaiave tv a (331) we get bhym <3.2> and bhi <3.3>:
idam + bhym (331) a[] + bhym () a + [p] + bhym ()
bhym <3.2>.
idam + bhis (331) a[] + bhis () a + [p] + bhis () bhis (155)
bhi <3.3>.
idam + []e (328) ida + []e ima + []e () ima + [p] + []e ()
im + e (358) im + sy[p] + e ima + sy[p] + e (331) a[] + sy[p] +
e (55) asyai <4.1>.
idam + []as[i] (328) ida + []as[i] ima + []as[i] () ima + [p] +
[]as[i]
() im + as (358) im + sy[p] + as ima + sy[p] + as
(331) a[] + sy[p] + as
(46) asys (155) asy <5.1>.
When m follows, the gama s[u] is applied by stra 315, the substitution of a[]
is done by stra 331, and then the taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied. Thus we get
sm <6.3>:
idam + m (328) ida + m ima + m (315) ima + s[u] + m
ima + sm (331) a[] + sm () a + [p] + sm () sm <6.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

case

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

iyam

ime

im

imm
anay

ime
bhym

im
bhi

asyai

bhym

bhya

asy

bhym

bhya

asy

anayo

sm

asym

anayo

su

eka-

dvi-

bahu-

pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

vacana

vacana

vacana

enm
enay

ene

en

enayo
enayo

The form of the word adas is like that of the masculine gender when s[u] follows:
adas + s[u] (328) ada + s[u] () ada + [p] + s[u] () ad + s[u]
(335)
as + s[u] as + au[c] (185) asau <1.1>.
Dasya ca ma <328> is applied, then the taddhita pratyaya [p], and then adomt parasya sarvevarasya u yathea-siddhi (336):
adas + au (328) ada + au ama + au () ama + [p] + au () am
+ au (209)
am + (48) ame (336) am <1.2>.
adas + [j]as (328) ada + [j]as ama + [j]as () ama + [p] + [j]as
() am + as
(46) ams (336) ams (155) am <1.3>.
adas + am (328) ada + am ama + am () ama + [p] + am ()
am + am
(156) amm (336) amm <2.1>.
adas + au (328) ada + au ama + au () ama + [p] + au () am
+ au (209)
am + (48) ame (336) am <2.2>.
adas + []as (328) ada + []as ama + []as () ama + [p] + []as
() am + as
(156) ams (336) ams (155) am <2.3>.
adas + [] (328) ada + [] ama + [] () ama + [p] + []
() am + (210) ame + (63) amay (336) amuy <3.1>.
adas + bhym (328) ada + bhym ama + bhym () ama + [p]
+ bhym () ambhym (336) ambhym <3.2>.

()

adas + bhis (328) ada + bhis ama + bhis () ama + [p] + bhis
ambhis (336) ambhis (155) ambhi <3.3>.

By stra 358 the gama sy[p] is applied and the preceding vara becomes
vmana:
adas + []e (328) ada + []e ama + []e () ama + [p] + []e ()
am + e
(358) am + sy[p] + e amasy + e (55) amasyai (336)
amusyai (170) amuyai <4.1>.
adas + bhym (328) ada + bhym ama + bhym () ama + [p]
+ bhym ()
ambhym (336) ambhym <4.2>.
adas + bhyas (328) ada + bhyas ama + bhyas () ama + [p] +
bhyas () ambhyas (336) ambhyas (155) ambhya <4.3>.
adas + []as[i] (328) ada + []as[i] ama + []as[i] () ama + [p] +
[]as[i] () am + as (358) am + sy[p] + as amasy + as (46)
amasys (336)
amusys (170) amuys (155) amuy <5.1>.
adas + bhym (328) ada + bhym ama + bhym () ama + [p]
+ bhym ()
ambhym (336) ambhym <5.2>.
adas + bhyas (328) ada + bhyas ama + bhyas () ama + [p] +
bhyas () ambhyas (336) ambhyas (155) ambhya <5.3>.
adas + []as (328) ada + []as ama + []as () ama + [p] + []as
()
am + as (358) am + sy[p] + as amasy + as (46) amasys
(336)
amusys (170) amuys (155) amuy <6.1>.
adas + os (328) ada + os ama + os () ama + [p] + os () am
+ os (210)
ame + os (63) amayos (336) amuyos amuyo <6.2>.
adas + m (328) ada + m ama + m () ama + [p] + m ()
am + m
(315) am + s[u] + m amsm (336) amsm (170)
amm <6.3>.
adas + []i (328) ada + []i ama + []i () ama + [p] + []i ()
am + []i (358) am + sy[p] + []i amasy + []i (197) amasy + m
(46) amasym (336) amusym (170) amuym <7.1>.
adas + os (328) ada + os ama + os () ama + [p] + os () am
+ os (210) ame + os (63) amayos (336) amuyos amuyo <7.2>.

adas + su[p] (328) ada + su[p] ama + su[p] () ama + [p] +


su[p] () amsu (336) amsu (170) amu <7.3>.
case

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

pratha
m
dvity

asau

am

am

amm

am

tty

amuy

am
ambhy
m
ambhy
m
ambhy
m
amuyo

ambhya

amuyo

amu

caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

amuyai
amuy
amuy
amuy
m

ambhi

ambhya
amm

The word eka is declined like the word sarva. The forms of the word dvi are as
follows:
dvi + au (328, 338) dva + au () dva + [p] + au () dv + au
(209) dv + (48) dve <1.2>.
dvi + au (328, 338) dva + au () dva + [p] + au () dv + au
(209) dv + (48) dve <2.2>.
dvi + bhym (328, 338) dva + bhym () dva + [p] + bhym ()
dvbhym <3.2>.
dvi + bhym (328, 338) dva + bhym () dva + [p] + bhym ()
dvbhym <4.2>.
dvi + bhym (328, 338) dva + bhym () dva + [p] + bhym ()
dvbhym <5.2>.
dvi + os (328, 338) dva + os () dva + [p] + os () dv + os
(210) dve + os (63) dvayos (155) dvayo <6.2>.
dvi + os (328, 338) dva + os () dva + [p] + os () dv + os
(210) dve + os (63) dvayos (155) dvayo <7.2>.
case

dvivacana

pratha
m

dve

dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

dve
dvbhy
m
dvbhy
m
dvbhy
m
dvayo
dvayo

The taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied after the word bhavat[u], and we get
bhavat <1.1>, bhavatyau <1.2>, and so on:
bhavat + s[u] (202) bhavat <1.1>.
bhavat + au (59) bhavatyau <1.2>.
case
pratham
dvity

ekavacana
bhavat
bhavat
m

tty

bhavaty

caturth

bhavatyai

pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

bhavaty

bhavaty

bhavaty
m
bhavati

dvivacana
bhavatyau

bahuvacana
bhavatya

bhavatyau

bhavat

bhavatbhy
m
bhavatbhy
m
bhavatbhy
m

bhavatbhi

bhavatbh
ya
bhavatbh
ya
bhavatn
m

bhavatyo
bhavatyo

bhavatu

bhavatyau

bhavatya

The forms of the word kim are like those of the word sarva:
kim + s[u] (357) ka + s[u] () ka + [p] + s[u] () k + s[u] (202)
k <1.1>.
kim + au (357) ka + au () ka + [p] + au () k + au (209) k +
(48) ke
<1.2>.
kim + [j]as (357) ka + [j]as () ka + [p] + [j]as () k + as (46)
ks (155)
k <1.3>.

kim + am (357) ka + am () ka + [p] + am () k + am (156)


km <2.1>.
kim + au (357) ka + au () ka + [p] + au () k + au (209) k +
(48) ke
<2.2>.
kim + []as (357) ka + []as () ka + [p] + []as () k + as
(156) ks (155)
k <2.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

ekavacana
k
km
kay
kasyai
kasy
kasy
kasym

dvivacana
ke
ke
kbhym
kbhym
kbhym
kayo
kayo

bahuvacana
k
k
kbhi
kbhya
kbhya
ksm
ksu

ke

ke

Now we will give examples of the kanmas in the neuter gender.


sarva + s[u] (222) sarva + am (156) sarva + m sarvam <1.1>.
sarva + au (209) sarva + (48) sarve <1.2>.
sarva + [j]as (223) sarva + []i (224) sarva + n[um] + i (225)
sarvan + i
(228) sarvni (173) sarvi <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case. From the third case
onwards, the forms are the same as the masculine ones.

pratham
dvity

ekavacana
sarvam
sarvam

tty

sarvea

case

caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

sarvasma
i
sarvasm
t
sarvasya
sarvasmi

dvivacana
sarve
sarve
sarvbhy
m
sarvbhy
m
sarvbhy
m
sarvayo
sarvayo

bahuvacana
sarvi
sarvi
sarvai
sarvebhya

sarvebhya

sarvem
sarveu

n
sambodh
ana

sarva

sarve

sarvi

ubha + au (209) ubha + (48) ubhe <1.2>.


AmtaThe vigraha (separation of the constituent words) of the compound
word uttara-prvasyai <4.1> / uttara-prvyai <4.1> (unto the northeast) is
uttarasy ca prvasy ca dior yad antarla s uttara-prv vidik tasyai (the
uttara-purv vidik is the intermediate space between the northern and eastern
directions. Uttara-prvasyai <4.1> and uttara-prvyai <4.1> are its fourth case
singular forms). This is a bahuvrhi-samsa formed by dakia-prvdayas tadantarle (). In the case of anay <3.1> and bhym <3.2>, the taddhita pratyaya
[p] is applied after the replacement is done, but when the vis follow, it is
applied before the replacement is done.
SaodhinThe taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied after the word bhavat[u] by
-rmc caturbhujnubandhn na-rmd acater vha ca man-mt-pacdivarjam (). Thus we get the feminine nma bhavat to which the sv-dis are
applied.
360 / @nyaAid"ByastaufsvamaAeaRiNA /
360.anydibhyas tuk sv-amor brahmai
anya-dibhyaafter the words anya and so on; tukthe gama t[uk]; su-amo
when the viubhaktis s[u] and am follow; brahmaiin the neuter gender.
In the neuter gender, when s[u] or am follow, t[uk] is inserted after the
words anya and so on.
u-kv itau. anyat anyad anye anyni. anydaya ekdaaikatara-varjam. tat te
tni. idam ime imni.
VttiU and k are indicatory letters.
anya + s[u] (360) anya + t[uk] + s[u] anyat + s[u] (231) anyat
(96) anyad (252) anyat <1.1> or anyad <1.1>.
anya + au (209) anya + (48) anye <1.2>.
anya + [j]as (223) anya + []i (224) anya + n[um] + i (225)
anyan + i (228)
anyni <1.3>.
case

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

pratham
dvity

caturth

anyasmai

pacam

anyasmt

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

anyasya
anyasmin

anye
anye
anybhy
m
anybhy
m
anybhy
m
anyayo
anyayo

anyat

anye

tty

anyat
anyat
anyena

anyni
anyni
anyai
anyebhya

anyni

anyebhya
anyem
anyeu

The anydis are the eleven words beginning with anya, minus the word ekatara.
tad + s[u] (231) tad (252) tat <1.1> or tad <1.1>.
tad + au (328) ta + au (209) ta + (48) te <1.2>.
tad + [j]as (328) ta + [j]as (223) ta + []i (224) ta + n[um] + i
(225) tan + i
(228) tni <1.3>.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

tat / tad

te

tni

tat / tad
tena

te
tbhym

tni
tai

tasmai

tbhym

tebhya

tasmt

tbhym

tebhya

tasya

tayo

tem

tasmin

tayo

teu

idam + s[u] (231) idam <1.1>.


idam + au (328) ida + au ima + au (209) ima + (48) ime
<1.2>.
idam + [j]as (328) ida + [j]as ima + [j]as (223) ima + []i
(224) ima +
n[um] + i (225) iman + i (228) imni <1.3>.
case

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

idam

ime

imni

idam
anena

ime
bhym

imni
ebhi

asmai

bhym

ebhya

asmt

bhym

ebhya

asya

anayo

em

asmin

anayo

eu

AmtaSomeone may wonder, Because an anydi no longer ends in a-rma


when t[uk] is applied, since gamas having the indicatory letter k are connected
with the previous element, why doesnt the naimittika t[uk] disappear when its
nimitta (s[u] or am) undergoes mahhara by stra 231? The answer to this is
that although the mahhara of s[u] and am cannot be blocked by any other rule
as grammatical operations specific to the neuter gender are stronger, the fact
that t[uk] is ordained here by making s[u] and am the nimittas suggests that the
naimittika t[uk] doesnt disappear even when its nimitta (s[u] or am) undergoes
mahhara by stra 231. Therefore the rule of sannipta is applicable here.
BlaIn forming tat <1.1> / tad <1.1>, the mahhara is done first, then, since a
sv-di no longer follows, the sasra cannot change to a-rma by stra 328.
361 / i"taIyaEk(tvae k(iTataAnauk(Tanae wd"maetad"Aere"nad"Ade"zAAe aiNA
vaAcya: /
361. dvityaikatve kathitnukathane idam-etador enad-deo brahmai vcya
dvity-ekatvein the second case singular; kathita-anukathane(see
explanation under stra 332); idam-etadoof the words idam and etad; enatdeathe replacement enat; brahmaiin the neuter gender; vcyait
should be stated.
In the neuter gender, in the second case singular, the words idam and
etad are replaced by enat, provided there is kathitnukathana.
etad gacchati atho enat paya. ada. ame iti sthite pacd am amni. punas
tadvat. dve dve. bhavat bhavat bhavanti. punas tadvat. kim ke kni. punas
tadvat.
VttiAn example of when there is kathitnukathana is etad gacchati atho enat
paya (He goes to this. (then) See this).
etad or idam + am (361) enat + am (231) enat (96) enad (252)
enat <2.1> or
enad <2.1>.

case

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

ene

enni

pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

enat /
enad
enena

enayo
enayo

adas + s[u] (231) adas (155) ada <1.1>.


When we have ame, the change to is then done.
adas + au (328) ada + au ama + au (209) ama + (48) ame
(336) am
<1.2>.
adas + [j]as (328) ada + [j]as ama + [j]as (223) ama + []i
(224) ama +
n[um] + i (225) aman + i (228) amn + i amni (336)
amni <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

pacam

ah
saptam

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

ada

am

amni

ada

amni

ambhya

amuya

am
ambhy
m
ambhy
m
ambhy
m
amuyo

amumin

amuyo

amu

amun
amumai
amumt

ambhi

ambhya
amm

dvi + au (328, 338) dva + au (209) dva + (48) dve <1.2>.

dvi + au (328, 338) dva + au (209) dva + (48) dve <2.2>.


bhavat[u] + s[u] (231) bhavat (96) bhavad (252) bhavat <1.1>
or bhavad <1.1>.
bhavat[u] + au (209) bhavat + bhavat <1.2>.
bhavat[u] + [j]as (223) bhavat + []i (224) bhava + n[um] + t + i
bhavanti
<1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case.
case
pratham
dvity

eka-vacana
bhavat /
bhavad
bhavat /
bhavad

tty

bhavat

caturth

bhavate

pacam

bhavata

ah
saptam
sambodh
ana

bhavata
bhavati
bhavat /
bhavad

dvivacana

bahuvacana

bhavat

bhavanti

bhavat

bhavanti

bhavadbhy
m
bhavadbhy
m
bhavadbhy
m
bhavato
bhavato

bhavadbhi

bhavadbhy
a
bhavadbhy
a
bhavatm
bhavatsu

bhavat

bhavanti

kim + s[u] (231) kim <1.1>.


kim + au (357) ka + au (209) ka + (48) ke <1.2>.
kim + [j]as (357) ka + [j]as (223) ka + []i (224) ka + n[um] + i
(225)
kan + i (228) kn + i kni <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case.
case
pratha
m
dvity
tty
caturth

ekavacana

dvivacana

bahuvacana

kim

ke

kni

kim
kena
kasmai

ke
kbhym
kbhym

kni
kai
kebhya


pacam

ah
saptam

kasmt

kbhym

kebhya

kasya

kayo

kem

kasmin

kayo

keu

AmtaHowever, in the second case dual and plural and also when [] and os
follow, the words etad and idam are replaced by ena as previously ordained by
etad-idamor ena kathitnukathane dvity-aussu (334).
SaodhinOne has to be careful whenever one sees the words kim, tat, or yat
in a sentence, because each of these words has many possible meanings. For
example, kim could be the neuter first or second case singular form of the
kanma kim, or it could be any form of the kanma kim appearing as the
first word in a samsa, or it could be the avyaya kim. In the first scenario the svdi is deleted by brahmata sv-amor mahhara (231), in the second scenario the
sv-di is deleted by antaraga-sv-der mahhara eka-padatvrambhe (859), and
in the third scenario the sv-di is deleted by avyayt sv-der mahhara (362).
Examples of these scenarios are sa ki ktavn (What did he do?), ki-rpa
(one of which shape?), and kim svapna etat (Is this a dream?) respectively.
Similarly, tat and yat could be the neuter first or second case singular forms of the
kanmas tad and yad, or they could be any form of the kanmas tad and
yad appearing as the first word in a samsa, or they could be the avyayas tad and
yad. In these scenarios the sv-dis are deleted by the same stras mentioned
above. Examples of tat are jagma tat sthnam (He went to that place), ka
tad-bhaktn playati (Ka protects His devotees), and tad dharim rayeta
(Therefore, one should take shelter of Hari) respectively, and examples of yat
are yad rpam priyam (which form is dear), yat-dir bhaktn madayati
(Whose glance maddens the devotees), and yat ka parama-purua
(Because Ka is the Supreme Person...) respectively.
In the Vedas and in texts like the Upaniads and the Bhgavatam, which contain
traces of the Vedic language, tat and yat can also stand for any form of the
kanmas tad and yad. This is in accordance with the Pinian stra sup suluk-prva-savarc-che-y--y-yj-la (Adhyy 7.1.39), a stra that
describes, among other things, the luk (mahhara) of the sups (sv-dis)
sometimes seen in the Vedas. Thus the cryas explain that yat in Bhgavatam
1.1.1 means yasmin, that yad in Bhgavatam 1.1.14 means yato nmna, that
yat in Bhgavatam 1.8.25 means ysu vipatsu, that yat in Bhgavatam 10.31.15
means yad, and that tat in Bhgavatam 10.83.28 means tad. In the same way
yad api and tad api are sometimes used in the place of yady api (even if / even
though) and tathpi (still / nevertheless). Examples of this can be seen in
Bhgavatam 11.13.2 and Rpa Gosvms song Deva bhavanta vande.
362 / @vyayaAtsvaAde"maRh"Ah"r": /

362. avyayt sv-der mahhara


avyaytafter an avyaya; sv-deof any sv-di; mahharamahhara.
After an avyaya, all the sv-dis undergo mahhara.
363 / svar"Aid" caAid" vad"Aid"tai"ta: ftvaA maAnta k{(d"vyayama, /
363. svar-di cdi vad-di-taddhita ktv mnta ca kd avyayam
svar-dithe words svar (heaven) and so on; ca-dithe words ca (and) and
so on; vat-di-taddhitathe taddhita pratyayas vat[i] and so on; ktv[k]tv;
ma-antawhich end in ma-rma; caand; ktthe kt pratyayas; avyayam
avyayas.
The following are avyayas: (i) the words svar and so on, (ii) the words ca
and so on, (iii) words which end1 in the taddhita pratyayas vat[i] and so
on, and (iv) words which end in the kt pratyaya [k]tv or a kt pratyaya
which ends in m.
avyay khalu vcak dyotak ca. tatra vcaksvar prtar ity-daya. e
vieaasya brahmatvam eva. sundara sva, sundare sva, sundari sva itydaya. atraika-vacanam eva iti tasy bhrama, dvitvdnm anivryatvd
avyayd p supa iti su-lope virodhc ca. dyotakca v ha aha vai tu api itydaya. prdaya ca.
VttiAvyayas are actually of two kinds, vcakas (expressive words) and
dyotakas (suggestive words). In that regard, the vcakas are the words svar,
prtar, and so on. The vieaa of a vcaka avyaya can only be neuter. For
example, sundara sva (the beautiful heaven), sundare sva (the beautiful
two heavens), sundari sva (the beautiful heavens), and so on. Prakriykaumud says atraika-vacanam eva (there is only eka-vacana for the vcaka
avyayas), but this is a bhrama because there is nothing blocking dvi-vacana and
bahu-vacana and because there is contradiction when avyayd p supa
(Adhyy 2.4.82) is understood to mean that only s[u] is deleted. The
dyotakas are the words ca, v, ha, aha, vai, tu, api, and so on, as well as the
words pra and so on.
AmtaAn avyaya is that which doesnt undergo any vyaya (change), in other
words that which doesnt have a different form in the various genders,
1

We have translated vad-di-taddhita as words which end in the taddhita pratyayas vat[i] and
so on because, in vtti, Jva Gosvm says tasim rabhya sarvam etad-antam avyayam (All
words which end in one of the taddhita pratyayas from tas[i] up to now are avyayas). Siddhntakaumud, commenting on Adhyy 1.1.38-40 also explains things in the same way. For
example, commenting on ktvtosun-kasuna (Adhyy 1.1.40), it says etad-antam avyayam
syt.

viubhaktis, and vacanas. In this regard, the previous authorities have spoken
the following verse:
sada triu ligeu
sarvsu ca vibhaktiu
vacaneu ca sarveu
yan na vyeti tad avyayam
An avyaya is that which doesnt change (vyeti), but remains the same in the
three genders and in all the vibhaktis and vacanas.
By the word di in prtar ity-daya the following words are included: antar,
punar, uccais, ncais, anais, te, rt, pthak, hyas, vas, syam, mank, at,
joam, tm, addh, nika, samay, bahis, svayam, naktam, div, vth,
mudh, m, mithy, vin, nn, sahas, namas, svasti, svadh, asti, pur,
mitho, mithas, pryas, muhur, saha, skam, srdham, ajas, akasmt, adhun,
prdur, vir, samyak, prabhti, prasahya, drk, jhaiti, ahnya, diy, dhruvam,
param, jtu, kte, cirm, sakt, sapadi, alam, avayam, and so on.
The word atra in Prakriy-kaumuds statement means vcakvyayeu (among
the vcaka avyayas). The implied meaning of the phrase dvitvdnm
anivryatvd is because it is natural for them to express the number of the
object they refer to since they have the nature of vcakas. The stra avyayd p
supa means there is luk (mahhara) of [p] and sup (the sv-dis) after an
avyaya. The very ordinance of the luk of the case endings (sup) here indicates
that they must all be able to applied, for if all the case endings were not able to
be applied after an avyaya the ordinance of the luk of the case endings (sup)
would be impossible, like a head-ache without a head. Thus the implied meaning
of the phrase avyayd p supa iti su-lope virodht is that there would be fault if
we accept that only s[u] is applied and deleted after an avyaya.
By the word di in the sentence dyotakca v ha aha vai tu api ity-daya the
following words are included: eva, iva, evam, nnam, avat, yugapat, bhyas,
yadi, cet, kaccit, hanta, m, m[], msma, sma, na[], svh, khalu, kila, atho,
atha, uta, aho, tu, hi, nu, nanu, suhu, nma, iti, and so on.
SaodhinIn the printed editions of Hari-nmmta this stra appears in the
vtti. But it is actually meant to be a separate stra because it is Jva Gosvms
equivalent for the Pinian stras svar-di-niptam avyayam (Adhyy
1.1.37), taddhita csarva-vibhakti (Adhyy 1.1.38), kn m-ej-anta
(Adhyy 1.1.39), and ktvtosun-kasuna (Adhyy 1.1.40). Indeed
without this stra, there would be nothing to tell us that words which end in the
taddhita pratyayas vat[i] and so on are avyayas. Thus it is required. Ktv mnta
ca kd avyayam is listed as a separate stra in the Kraka-prakaraa of the
printed editions of Hari-nmmta, but it should be taken as vtti material
because it is just Jva Gosvm quoting a portion of the current stra.

364 / caAd"yaAe inapaAtas$aMaA: /


364. cdayo nipta-saj
ca-dayathe words ca and so on; nipta-sajcalled niptas.
The words ca and so on are called niptas.
etebhyo dyotyatay arth vidyante em ity arthavattvt svdy-utpatti. kintu
prathamaika-vacanam eva.
vad-di-taddhitahari-vat k-bhavati ity-daya. ktv mnta kt
ktv kartu kra kram ity-di ca. mahharatvd o au paveu naaho itydi jeyam. iti kanma-prakaraam iti r-hari-nmmtkhye vaiavavykarae nma-viupada-prakaraa dvityam.
VttiThe application of a sv-di takes place after these words because they are
arthavat since, through the power of suggestion, they have meanings. But only
the first case singular ending (s[u]) is applied.
AmtaThe word etebhya here means cdibhya prdibhya ca (after the
words ca and so on and after the words pra and so on). These words take only
pratham eka-vacana because they are devoid of gender and number since they
dont express a dravya (thing). Pratham is used because they express the
mere meaning of the nma (see stra 923), while eka-vacana is used simply for
the sake of propriety.1
SaodhinAs explained above, the svar-dis are vcakas whereas the cdis
are dyotakas. Siddhnta-kaumud, commenting on the Pinian stra svar-diniptam avyayam (Adhyy 1.1.37), says that both the svar-dis and cdis are
kti-gaas.2 The svar-dis are vcakas because they express a dravya whereas
the cdis are dyotakas since they dont express a dravya but merely indicate a
certain kind of relation. Examples of how the vcakas express a dravya are how
the word svar expresses a particular place, namely heaven, and how the word
prtar expresses a particular time3, namely the morning.
Regarding niptas, the Dictionary of Grammar offers the following explanation: A
nipta is a particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case
termination after which is dropped or deleted ... Pini has not given any
1

In this regard, one should remember that Mah-bhya says npada stre prayujta (That
which is not a pada (viupada) cannot be used in an authoritative work). So the pratham ekavacana is used just to make a viupada.
2
An kti-gaa is a list of specimens, an inexhaustive collection of words that follow a particular
grammatical rule. Whereas a simple gaa like the tad-dis specifies all the words that follow a
particular rule, an kti-gaa like the svar-dis only gives a few samples and leaves the group
open for other words that follow the same pattern. For example, even though they are not
specifically mentioned in the list of specimens, words like dhik (shame on, to hell with) and m
(yes) are included among the svar-dis, and words like cid and cana are included among the
cdis.
3
In the Kraka-prakaraa, Amta specifies that kla is a dravya by saying klas tu ... jaa-dravyaviea (Time is a particular inert thing).

definition of the word nipta, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with
ca at their head in the rule cdayo sattve (Adhyy 1.4.57) where the word
asattve conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two
kinds sattva and bhva, and the niptas not possessing any one of the two. The
impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Vrttika-kra
niptasynarthakasya prtipadikatvam (Vrttika 12 on Adhyy 1.2.45). Thus,
the question whether the niptas possess any sense by themselves or not,
becomes a difficult one to be answered. Although the g-prtikhya in XII.8 lays
down that the niptas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of
them do possess sense; cf. niptnm artha-van niptand anarthaknm itare
ca srthak on which Uvvaa remarks kecana nipt srthaka, kecana
nirarthak. The remark of Uvvaa appears to be a sound one as based on actual
observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciled. This is done by
Bharthari who lays down that niptas never directly convey the sense but they
indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the niptas, it is said that
the sense is never sattva or dravya or substance as remarked by Pini; it is a
certain kind of relation (sambandha) and that too is not directly expressed by
them but it is indicated ... For details see Bhartharis Vkya-padya II. 189-206.
VttiExamples of words ending in the taddhitas vat[i] and so on are hari-vat
(like Hari), k-bhavati (one who becomes black), and so on. Examples of
words ending in the kt pratyaya [k]tv or a kt pratyaya which ends in m are
ktv (having done), kartum (to do), kra kram (doing again and again),
and so on. One should know that, due to the mahhara of s[u] the dyotakas aho
and so on dont undergo the change to au by o au paeu (206). Thus ends the
section on kanmas. Thus ends the Nma-viupada-prakaraa, the second
prakaraa in the Vaiava-vykaraa entitled r-hari-nmmta.
SaodhinWhile we are on the subject of avyayas, two other important
avyayas should be mentioned. They are cid and cana. Amara-koa lists cid and
cana in the Avyaya-varga (group of avyayas) and defines them by saying
askalye tu cic cana: Cid and cana are use in the sense of askalya (nonentirety) (Amara-koa 3.4.3). The idea is not everything, something, not
everyone, someone etc. The western scholars call cid and cana indefinite
particles. Cid and cana are added after interrogative pronouns formed from the
word kim, and they change the sense from an interrogative one to an indefinite
one. For example, ka means who / which? but kacit (ka + cid) means
someone / something. The avyaya api is also added after interrogative pronouns
with the same effect. Even though the interrogative word and the indefinite
particles cid and cana are actually separate viupadas, by convention they are
written without a space between them, both in the native scripts like Devangr
and Bengal and also in the roman transliteration. Thus we get kecit (ke(icata,,), for
example, and not ke cit (ke( icata,). The avyayas cid, cana, and api can be added
after any form of the word kim, in any gender, without restriction. One simply has
to recognize the gender, viubhakti, and vacana by undoing the sandhi between
the interrogative pronoun and the indefinite particle. Thus one will recognize that
kacana is the masculine first case singular form, and so on. A few prominent
examples are given below to help the student further grasp the idea:

kacit, kacana, or kopisomeone / something (masculine)


kcit, kcana, or kpisomeone / something (feminine)
kicit, kicana, or kim apisomeone / something (neuter)

kecit, kecana, or kepisome people / some things (masculine)


kcit, kcana, or k apisome people / some things (feminine)
knicit, knicana, or kny apisome people / some things (neuter)

kenacit, kenacana, or kenpiby someone / by something


(masculine)
kaycit, kaycana, or kaypiby someone / by something (feminine)
kenacit, kenacana, or kenpiby someone / by something (neuter)

kasyacit, kasyacana, or kasypiof someone / of something


(masculine)
kasycit, kasycana, or kasy apiof someone / of something
(feminine)
kasyacit, kasyacana, or kasypiof someone / of something (neuter)

kecit, kecana, or kem apiof some people / of some things


(masculine)
kscit, kscana, or ksm apiof some people / of some things
(feminine)
kecit, kecana, or kem apiof some people / of some things
(neuter)

kasmicit, kasmicana, or kasminn apiin someone / in something


(masculine)
kasycit, kasycana, or kasym apiin someone / in something
(feminine)
kasmicit, kasmicana, or kasminn apiin someone / in something
(neuter)
In these examples the translations someone and so on are for when there is no
vieya mentioned in the sentence. Otherwise, if a vieya is mentioned, then
these words are simply translated as adjectives, i.e some / certain ... and so on.
For example, if we just have the word kacit, we will translate it as someone /
something or a certain person / a certain thing. But, if we have kacit kikara,
we will translate it as some servant or a certain servant.
When the negative particle na[] is used in conjuction with these words, the idea
shifts to not something, nothing, not someone, no one etc. For example, in
Bhagavad-gt 7.26, we find the statement m tu veda na kacana (but Me no
one knows). Moreover, when a parallel form of the word yad is used in conjuction
with these words, the idea shifts to whatever, whoever etc. For example, yat
kicit pauruam (whatever extraordinary power) in Bhgavatam 10.89.62,
santuo yena kenacit (satisfied with anything) in Bhagavad-gt 12.19, and

yasya kasypi karmaa (of any activity) in Bhad-bhgavatmta 2.4.107.


Sometimes the same idea is understood even when there is no usage of cid, cana,
or api. An example of this is yni kni ca papni ... tni tni pranayanti
(whatever sins there are, they are all destroyed). Here yni kni means yni
knicit. Jva Gosvm explains things in the same thing in his Sarva-savdin
commentary, while commenting on the words yad kad that appear in a verse in
anuccheda 82 of the Ka-sandarbha. For example, he says yad kadeti yad
kadcid evety artha (yad kad just means yad kadcit (whenever)).
The mention of kadcit here brings us to another point, namely that the avyayas
cid, cana, and api are also added after interrogative avyayas that are derived from
the word kim. These interrogative avyayas and their indefinite counterparts are
shown in the table below.
kati (how many?)
katham (how? in which
way?)
kad (at which time?)
karhi (at which time?)
kutas (from where? for
which reason?)
kutra (where?)
kva (where?)

katicit, katicana, katy api (some)


kathacit, kathacana, katham api (somehow, in
some way)
kadcit, kadcana, kadpi (at some time,
sometimes)
karhicit, karhicana, karhy api (at some time,
sometimes)
kutacit, kutacana, kutopi (from somewhere, for
some reason)
kutracit, kutracana, kutrpi (somewhere, in some
place)
kvacit, kvacana, kvpi (somewhere, in some place)

Examples of when the negative particle na[] is used in conjuction with these
words are na kathacit (in no way), na kadcana (never), na kuto pi (from
nowhere, for no reason), na kutracit (nowhere, in no place), and so on. One
should bear in mind that in most sentences the negative particle na[] is usually in
a different part of the sentence than the indefinite word, since what na[] really
negates is the verb. For example, in Bhagavad-gt 2.20, we find na jyate
mriyate v kadcit ([The soul] never takes birth or dies, or more literally: [The
soul] doesnt take birth or die at any time).
Examples of when a parallel avyaya form of the word yad is used in conjuction
with these words are yath kathacit (in any way, somehow or other) in Bhaktirasmta-sindhu 2.4.49, yad kadcit (whenever) in Bhad-bhgavatmta
2.4.119, yatra kutrpi (anywhere, wherever) in Bhad-bhgavatmta 2.1.162,
and yatra kvpi (wherever) in the following verse of Mdhavendra Pur:
sandhy-vandana bhadram astu bhavato bho snna tubhya namo
bho dev pitara ca tarpaa-vidhau nha kama kamyatm
yatra kvpi niadya ydava-kulottasasya kasa-dvia
smra smram agha harmi tad ala manye kim anyena me

"O my prayers three times a day, all glory to you. O bathing, I offer my obeisances
unto you. O demigods! O forefathers! Please excuse me for my inability to offer
you my respects. Now wherever I sit, I can remember the great descendant of the
Yadu dynasty [Ka], the enemy of Kasa, and thereby I can free myself from all
sinful bondage. I think this is sufficient for me." (from Padyval, quoted in rla
Prabhupdas purport to Bhagavad-gt 2.52).

questions for gopi:


sometimes and in the word for word, and or in the translation.
to do:
translate the major prakarana headings like atha visupada prakarana
("now we begin the section on Viupadas") or not?
find the first instance of a stra that has a ah like ya and comment
about declining y and ya/
Make my comment on unadis in 219 and comment about gaurdis
fix up sthni-vat and any wrong verb forms and samsas
make comment about viupadnte for nma, sams, and taddhitas
prakaraas, but vaiava is for akhyata and taddhita prakaraas
find some solution to govinda-kuas suggestion about the word
case in the tables
if I didnt already do it somewhere explain how each word in a samsa is
a separate viupada.
fix explanation of the word dhtu based on discussion of nava-kisora e.g
dhtv-aa