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Flow Correlations

- 5492c86a0cf2302e1d074110
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- Ch - 5 Gas Well Testing
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o Source

o Correlation

o Friction and Holdup Factors

Horizontal Flow (Multiphase)

o Source

o Correlation

o Friction and Holdup Factors

Vertical-Horizontal Correlation Swap Angle

Single phase

Related topics

Suggested flow correlation

Flow Correlation matching

Flow regimes

User Defined flow correlation

Shell flow correlations

Flow correlations are selected from the <Setup/Flow Correlations...> menu. Make the

following selections for vertical and horizontal correlation from either those supplied as

standard or from a User Defined correlation;

Source: This defines the source of the correlation for either the vertical or

horizontal correlation. Options are;

o bja: The code for the correlation has been developed by Schlumberger and

has been extensively tested. (default)

o tulsa: The code for the correlation was developed by the University of

Tulsa, USA. The code is usually of academic quality and may give errors.

o Shell SRTCA: Various versions of correlations developed by and for use

by Shell.

o OLGA-S 2000 2-phase. The OLGAS-2000 steady-state model. Only

available if the OLGAS option has been purchased.

o OLGA-S 2000 3-phase. The OLGAS-2000 steady-state model. Only

available if the OLGAS option has been purchased. An additional license

needs to be obtained from Scandpower for this option.

o Shell SIEP. Correlations developed by and for use by Shell.

o Segregated Flow - GRE. A model from BP. Available for general use.

o See also User Defined flow correlation

selected.

The operation Flow Correlation matching has been specifically developed to assist with

this task of determining the most suitable flow correlation from well test data.

Suggested correlations

If no production data is available then Schlumberger have found the following to give

satisfactory results in the past:

Single phase system - Moody

Vertical oil well - Hagedorn & Brown

Highly deviated oil well - Hagedorn & Brown or Duns & Ros or OLGA-S

Gas/condensate well - Hagedorn & Brown

Oil pipelines - Oliemans

Gas/condensate pipelines - BJA Correlation

Vertical &

Highly

Predominantly Deviated

Vertical Oil Wells Oil Wells

Duns & Ros yes

yes

Orkiszewski yes

x

Hagedorn &

yes

x

Brown

Beggs & Brill

yes

yes

Revised

Beggs & Brill

yes

yes

Original

Mukherjee &

yes

yes

Brill

Govier,

Aziz&

yes

yes

Forgasi

NoSlip

yes

yes

OLGAS

yes

yes

Ansari

yes

x

BJA for

x

x

Condensates

Correlation

Vertical

Gas/Condenstae

Wells

yes

yes

Oil

Gas/Condensate

Pipelines Pipelines

yes

x

yes

x

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

x

yes

yes

x

yes

yes

AGA &

Flanigan

Oliemans

Gray

Gray

Modified

Xiao

yes

x

x

x

x

x

yes

yes

x

yes

x

yes

yes

yes

See also:Selecting correlations

Pressure change in single phase sections is given by the equation:(dp/dl) = (dp/dl)elev.+ (dp/dl)fric.+ (dp/dl) acc.

= -(r g sin )/gc (elevational) + -rn 2/2gcd (frictional) + -rn /gc x dn /dl (accelerational)

where

= friction factor

r = fluid density

n = fluid velocity

g = gravitational constant at current altitude

gc = universal gravitational constant

= flow angle

d = pipe diameter

Throughout, the accelerational term for single phase flow is negligible and is assumed to

be zero. There are a number of different methods available for calculating the friction

factor as follows:

Reynolds number (Re) is given by:Re = - rn d/m

For turbulent flow (Re 2000):- -0.5 = 1.74 - 2log((2e /d) + (18.7/Re 0.5))

where m = fluid viscosity e = pipe roughness

For laminar flow (Re < 1000):- = 64/Re For turbulent flow:- (0.25)-0.5 = 4log10(3.7d/e)

For transition flow:- (0.25)-0.5 = 4log10(Re/(0.25)-0.5) - 0.6 The boundary between

transition and turbulent flow is a function of Reynolds number and friction factor.

(0.25)-0.5 = 6.872Re0.07305

(0.25)-0.5 = 16.49Re0.01961

= (1/192)(150/nm)0.15d-0.17 (in Engineering units)

(0.25) = 0.00272d-1/3 (in SI units)

Uses the Moody friction factor & applicable only to single-phase gas flow in wells or

pipelines.

<Setup/Flow Correlations>

See also:Flow regimes, Selecting correlations, Suggested flow correlation The following

vertical multiphase flow correlations are available:

The Duns & Ros correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup with flow regime

determination by either the Duns & Ros or the Taitel Dukler correlations. The Duns &

Ros correlation was developed for vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells.

Equations were developed for each of three flow regions, (I) bubble, plug and part of

froth flow regimes, (II) remainder of froth flow and slug flow regimes, (III) mist flow

regime. These regions have low, intermediate and high gas throughputs respectively.

Each flow region has a different holdup correlation. The equations were based on

extensive experimental work using oil and air mixtures.

ORIGNIAL: The Original Beggs & Brill correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup.

Flow regime is determined by either the Beggs & Brill or Taitel Dukler correlation. The

Beggs & Brill correlation was developed following a study of two-phase flow in

horizontal and inclined pipes. The correlation is based upon a flow regime map which is

first determined as if the flow was horizontal. A horizontal holdup is then calculated by

correlations, and this holdup is corrected for the angle of inclination. The test system

included two 90 ft long acrylic pipes, winched to a variable elevation in the middle, so as

to model incline flow both upwards and downwards at angles of up to 90.

REVISED: As above except that the revised version of the Beggs & Brill correlation is

used, with rough pipe friction factors, holdup limiters and corrective constants as

proposed by Palmer and Payne. The following enhancements to the original method are

used; (1) an extra flow regime of froth flow is considered which assumes a no-slip

holdup, (2) the friction factor is changed from the standard smooth pipe model, to utilise

a single phase friction factor based on the average fluid velocity.

Orkiszewski:

The Orkiszewski correlation is used for pressure loss, holdup, and flow regime. The

Orkiszewski correlation was developed for the prediction of two phase pressure drops in

vertical pipe. Four flow regimes were considered, bubble, slug, annular-slug transition,

and annular mist. The method can accurately predict, to within 10%, the two phase

pressure drops in naturally flowing and gas lifted production wells over a wide range of

well conditions. The precision of the method was verified when its predicted values were

compared against 148 measured pressure drops. Unlike most other methods, liquid

holdup is derived from observed physical phenomena, and is adjusted for angle of

deviation.

The correlation of Aziz, Govier, and Forgasi is used for pressure loss, holdup, and flow

regime. The Govier, Aziz & Fogarasi correlation was developed following a study of

pressure drop in wells producing gas and condensate. Actual field pressure drop v.

flowrate data from 102 wells with gas-liquid ratios ranging from 3,900 to 1,170,000

scf/bbl were analysed in detail. The phase conditions in the well bore were determined by

standard flash calculations. Pressure-gradient data for flow under single-phase conditions

were compared with conventional predictions, and found generally to confirm them. For

the test in which two-phase conditions were predicted throughout the well bore, the field

data were compared with several wholly empirical prediction methods, with a previously

proposed method, and with a new prediction method partly based on the mechanics of

flow. The new prediction method incorporates an empirical estimate of the distribution of

the liquid phase between that flowing as a film on the wall and that entrained in the gas

core. It employs separate momentum equations for the gas-liquid mixture in the core and

for the total contents of the pipe.

The correlation of Hagedorn & Brown is used for pressure loss and holdup. While the

Hagedorn & Brown correlation does not predict flow pattern, the flow pattern as

predicted by Beggs & Brill is reported. The Duns & Ros flow pattern prediction can also

be reported. Neither of these flow pattern prediction methods affects any of the

calculations. The Hagedorn and Brown correlation was developed following an

experimental study of pressure gradients occurring during continuous two-phase flow in

small diameter vertical conduits. A 1,500 ft experimental well was used to study flow

through 1 in., 1.25 in., and 1.5 in. nominal size tubing. Air was the gas phase and four

different liquids were used: water and crude oils with viscosities of about 10, 30 and 110

cp. Liquid holdup was not directly measured, rather a pseudo liquid-holdup value was

determined that matched measured pressure gradients.

Further work by Brill and Hagedorn have led to two modifications: (1) If the Griffith and

Wallis criteria predicted the occurrence of bubble flow, the Griffith bubble-flow method

should be used to predict pressure gradient, and (2) If the predicted liquid holdup is less

than the no-slip liquid holdup, then the no-slip liquid holdup is used.

All of the correlations involve only dimensionless groups, which is a condition usually

sought for in similarity analysis but not always achieved.

BJA Correlation:

Schlumberger have developed a correlation for two phase flow in gas-condensate

pipelines with a no-slip liquid volume fraction of lower than 0.1. This model represents

no major advance in theory, but rather a consolidation of various existing mechanistic

models, combined with a modest amount of theoretical development and field data

testing. The model uses the Taitel Dukler flow regime map and a modified set of the

Taitel Dukler momentum balance to predict liquid holdup. The pressure loss calculation

procedure is similar in approach to that proposed by Oliemans, but accounts for the

increased interfacial shear resulting from the liquid surface roughness. The BJA

correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup with flow regime determined by the Taitel

Dukler correlation. The BJA correlation has been developed by Schlumberger specifically

for applications involving low liquid/gas ratios, e.g. gas/condensate pipelines.

The BJA correlation is not recommended for systems having a non-slip liquid volume

fraction greater than 0.1. Users should note that while quite extensive testing of the

correlation against operating data has been undertaken for horizontal and inclined flow,

the test data for vertical flow is not so comprehensive. Full details of the BJA correlations

were first published in May 1987 at the 3rd International Conference on Multi-Phase

Flow, and copies of the paper can be obtained from BJA

The Mukerjee & Brill correlation is used for Pressure loss, Holdup and flow map. Note:

selection of alternative flow maps and/or holdups will cause unpredictable results. The

Mukherjee & Brill correlation was developed following a study of pressure drop

behaviour in two-phase inclined flow. For bubble and slug flow, a no-slip friction factor

calculated from the Moody diagram was found adequate for friction head loss

calculations. In downhill stratified flow, the friction pressure gradient is calculated based

on a momentum balance equation for either phase assuming a smooth gas-liquid

interface. For annular-mist flow, a friction factor correlation was presented that is a

function of holdup ratio and no-slip Moody friction factor. Results agreed well with the

experimental data and correlations were further verified with Prudhoe Bay and North Sea

data.

The Brill & Minami Holdup correlations can be used with any flow map correlations

except Mukerjee & Brill and No Slip.

NOSLIP Correlation:

The NOSLIP correlation assumes homogeneous flow with no slip between the phases.

Fluid properties are taken as the average of the gas and liquid phases and friction factors

are calculated using the single phase MOODY correlation. Note: selection of alternative

flow maps and/or holdups will cause unpredictable results.

OLGAS is based in larger part on data from the SINTEF two-phase flow laboratory near

Trondheim, Norway. The test facilities were designed to operate at conditions that

approximated field conditions. The test loop was 800 m long and 8 inches in diameter.

Operating pressures between 20 and 90 barg were studied. Gas superficial velocities of

up to 13 m/s, and liquid superficial velocities of up to 4 m/s were obtained. In order to

simulate the range of viscosities and surface tensions experienced in field applications,

different hydrocarbon liquids were used (naptha, diesel, and lube oil). Nitrogen was used

as the gas. Pipeline inclination angles between 1 were studied in addition to flow up or

down a hill section ahead of a 50m high vertical riser. Over 10,000 experiments were run

on this test loop during an eight year period. The facility was run in both steady state and

transient modes. OLGAS considers four flow regimes, stratified, annular, slug and

dispersed bubble flow and uses a unique minimum slip criteria to predict flow regime

transitions. This correlation is available to all members of the SINTEF syndicate, and to

non-members on payment of the appropriate royalty fees

Gray

The Gray Vertical Flow correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup. This correlation

was developed by H E Gray of Shell Oil Company for vertical flow in gas and

condensate systems which are predominantly gas phase. Flow is treated as single phase,

and dropped out water or condensate is assumed to adhere to the pipe wall. It is

considered applicable for vertical flow cases where the velocity is below 50 ft/s, the tube

size is below 31/2-in, the condensate ratio is below 50 bbl/mmscf, and the water ratio is

below 5 bbl/mmscf.

Gray Modified:

As above, but with the following modifications: (1) Actual Reynolds number used (Gray

Original assumed Reynolds number to always be 1 million), and (2) Pseudo-roughness is

constrained to be less than the pipe radius.

Ansari:

The Ansari mechanistic model was developed as part of the Tulsa University Fluid Flow

Projects (TUFFP) research program. A comprehensive model was formulated to predict

flow patterns and the flow characteristics of the predicted flow patterns for upward twophase flow. The comprehensive mechanistic model is composed of a model for flow

pattern prediction and a set of independent models for predicting holdup and pressure

drop in bubble, slug, and annular flows. The model was evaluated by using the TUFFP

well databank that is composed of 1775 well cases, with 371 of them from Prudhoe Bay

data.

<Setup/Flow Correlations>

See also:Flow regimes, Selecting correlations The following horizontal multiphase flow

correlations are available:

The Duns & Ros correlation is used for pressure loss, with a choice of either Duns & Ros

or BJA holdup. Flow regime determination is either the Duns & Ros or the Taitel Dukler

correlations. The Duns & Ros correlation was developed for vertical flow of gas and

liquid mixtures in wells. Equations were developed for each of three flow regions, (I)

bubble, plug and part of froth flow regimes, (II) remainder of froth flow and slug flow

regimes, (III) mist flow regime. These regions have low, intermediate and high gas

throughputs respectively. Each flow region has a different holdup correlation. The

equations were based on extensive experimental work using oil and air mixtures.

(a) The AGA & Flanigan correlation was developed for horizontal and inclined two phase

flow of gas-condensate gathering systems. The Taitel Dukler flow regime map is used

which considers five flow regimes, stratified smooth, stratified wavy, intermittent,

annular dispersed liquid, and dispersed bubble. The Dukler equation is used to calculate

the frictional pressure loss and holdup, and the Flanigan equation is used to calculate the

elevational pressure differential.

(b) As above but with liquid holdup calculated according to the Eaton correlation. The

Eaton liquid holdup correlation is based on a study performed on 2 in. and 4 in. steel pipe

using water and natural gas as test fluids. Test pressures ranged from 305 to 865 psia and

liquid holdup measurements ranged from .006 - 0.732.

ORIGINAL: The original Beggs & Brill correlation is used for pressure loss and either

the BBO or the BJA correlation is used to calculate holdup. Flow regime is determined by

either the Beggs & Brill or Taitel Dukler correlation. The Beggs & Brill correlation was

developed following a study of two-phase flow in horizontal and inclined pipes. The

correlation is based upon a flow regime map which is first determined as if the flow was

horizontal. A horizontal holdup is then calculated by correlations, and this holdup is

corrected for the angle of inclination. The test system included two 90 ft long acrylic

pipes, winched to a variable elevation in the middle, so as to model incline flow both

upwards and downwards at angles of up to 90.

REVISED: As above except that the revised version of the Beggs & Brill correlation is

used, with rough pipe friction factors, holdup limits and corrective constants as proposed

by Palmer and Payne. The following enhancements to the original method are used; (1)

an extra flow regime of froth flow is considered which assumes a no-slip holdup, (2) the

friction factor is changed from the standard smooth pipe model, to utilise a single phase

friction factor based on the average fluid velocity.

BJA Correlation:

Schlumberger has developed a correlation for two phase flow in gas-condensate pipelines

with a no-slip liquid volume fraction of lower than 0.1. This model represents no major

advance in theory, but rather a consolidation of various existing mechanistic models,

combined with a modest amount of theoretical development and field data testing. The

model uses the Taitel Dukler flow regime map and a modified set of the Taitel Dukler

momentum balance to predict liquid holdup. The pressure loss calculation procedure is

similar in approach to that proposed by Oliemans, but accounts for the increased

interfacial shear resulting from the liquid surface roughness. The BJA correlation is used

for pressure loss and holdup with flow regime determined by the Taitel Dukler

correlation. The BJA correlation has been developed Schlumberger specifically for

applications involving low liquid/gas ratios, e.g. gas/condensate pipelines. Note: The BJA

correlation is identical to the BPS correlation documented in PIPESIM Release 2.1 and

earlier.

The BJA correlation is not recommended for systems having a non-slip liquid volume

fraction greater than 0.1 (Ref. Appendix B for some background information on the BJA

correlation).

A revised BJA holdup correlation (BJA2) has been developed to overcome occasional

erratic behavior at low flow rates. Refer to the correlation description in Appendix B for

full details. Note full details of the BJA correlations were published in the Oil and Gas

Journal (May 1987) at the 3rd International Conference on Multi-Phase Flow, and copies

of the paper can be obtained from BJA.

Oliemans:

The Oliemans correlation was developed following the study of large diameter

condensate pipelines. The flow regime is predicted using the Taitel Dukler flow regime

map, and a simple model, which obeyed the correct single phase flow limits was

introduced to predict the pressure drop. The model was based on a limited amount of data

from a 30-in, 100-km pipeline operating at pressures of 100 barg or higher. The Oliemans

pressure loss correlation can be used with the Eaton, BJA1, BJA2, BRIMIN1 or

BRIMIN2 holdup correlations.

The Mukherjee & Brill correlation is used for Pressure loss, Holdup and Flow Map. Note:

selection of alternative flow maps and/or holdups will cause unpredictable results. The

Mukherjee & Brill correlation was developed following a study of pressure drop

behaviour in two-phase inclined flow. The test facility consisted of a U-Shaped pipe that

was inclinable +/-90. Each leg of the U section was 56 ft with 22 ft entrance lengths and

a 32 ft test sections on both sides. Fluids were air, kerosene and lube oil with liquid

viscosities ranging from .9 to 75 cp. Approximately 1000 pressure drop measurements

and 1500 liquid holdup measurements were obtained from a broad range of oil and gas

flows.

For bubble and slug flow, a no-slip friction factor calculated from the Moody diagram

was found adequate for friction head loss calculations. In downhill stratified flow, the

friction pressure gradient is calculated based on a momentum balance equation for either

phase assuming a smooth gas-liquid interface. For annular-mist flow, a friction factor

correlation was presented that is a function of holdup ratio and no-slip Moody friction

factor. Results agreed well with the experimental data and correlations were further

verified with Prudhoe Bay and North Sea data.

The Minami & Brill correlation calculates liquid holdup though does not predict flow

regime or pressure gradient. The experimental holdup data was obtained by passing

spheres through a 1,333 ft long 3 steel horizontal pipe and measuring the liquid volumes

removed. Holdup measurements ranged from .001 to .44. Fluids used in the experiment

included air, kerosene and water with the liquid viscosities ranging from .6 cp to 2 cp.

Two correlations were proposed. The first (BRIMIN1) is valid for all ranges of liquid

holdup; the second (BRIMIN2) is strictly for wet gas pipelines (holdup < .35).

The Minamii& Brill holdup correlations can be used with any correlation except

Mukherjee & Brill and No Slip. To activate the Minami & Brill correlation, enter the

appropriate engine keyword under Setup -> Engine Options (eg. hcorr holdup = brimin1)

NOSLIP Correlation:

The NOSLIP correlation assumes homogeneous flow with no slip between the phases.

Fluid properties are taken as the average of the gas and liquid phases and friction factors

are calculated using the single phase MOODY correlation. Note: selection of alternative

flow maps and/or holdups will cause unpredictable results.

The correlation of Hagedorn & Brown is used for pressure loss and holdup. There is a

choice of either Beggs & Brill, Duns & Ros, or Taitel Dukler flow regime determination.

The Hagedorn and Brown correlation was developed following an experimental study of

pressure gradients occurring during continuous two-phase flow in small diameter vertical

conduits. A 1,500 ft experimental well was used to study flow through 1-in, 11/4-in, and

11/2-in nominal size tubing. Tests were conducted for widely varying liquid flowrates,

gas-liquid ratios and liquid viscosities. All of the correlations involve only dimensionless

groups, which is a condition usually sought for in similarity analysis but not always

achieved. BJA consider the use of the original correlation unwise, as it can grossly

underestimate liquid holdup. Users are advised to use the Hagedorn & Brown Revised

correlation.

OLGAS is based in larger part on data from the SINTEF two-phase flow laboratory near

Trondheim, Norway. The test facilities were designed to operate at conditions that

approximated field conditions. The test loop was 800 m long and 8 inches in diameter.

Operating pressures between 20 and 90 barg were studied. Gas superficial velocities of

up to 13 m/s, and liquid superficial velocities of up to 4 m/s were obtained. In order to

simulate the range of viscosities and surface tensions experienced in field applications,

different hydrocarbon liquids were used (naptha, diesel, and lube oil). Nitrogen was used

as the gas. Pipeline inclination angles between 1 were studied in addition to flow up or

down a hill section ahead of a 50m high vertical riser. Over 10,000 experiments were run

on this test loop during an eight year period. The facility was run in both steady state and

transient modes. OLGAS considers four flow regimes, stratified, annular, slug and

dispersed bubble flow and uses a unique minimum slip criteria to predict flow regime

transitions. This correlation is available to all members of the SINTEF syndicate, and to

non-members on payment of the appropriate royalty fees

Xiao:

The Xiao comprehensive mechanistic model was developed as part of the TUFFP

research program. It was developed for gas-liquid two-phase flow in horizontal and near

horizontal pipelines. The model first predicts the existing flow pattern, and then

calculates flow characteristics, primarily liquid holdup and pressure drop, for the

stratified, intermittent, annular, or dispersed bubble flow patterns. The model was tested

against a pipeline data bank. The data bank included large diameter field data culled from

the AGA multiphase pipeline data bank, and laboratory data published in literature. Data

included both black oil and compositional fluid systems. A new correlation was proposed

which predicts the internal friction factor under stratified flow.

The TUFFP Unified 2-Phase Model (see Zhang et.al.) is a mechanistic model for the

prediction of flow pattern transitions, pressure gradient, liquid holdup and slug

characteristics in gas-liquid pipe flow. The model is valid for all inclination angles.

The principle concept underlying the model is the premise that slug flow shares transition

boundaries with all the other flow patterns. The flow pattern transition from slug flow to

stratified and/or annular flow is predicted by solving the momentum equations for slug

flow. The entire film zone is treated as the control volume and the momentum exchange

between the slug body and the film zone is introduced into the combined momentum

equation. This approach differs from traditional methods of using separate mechanistic

models and correlations for each transition. The advantage of a single hydrodynamic

model is that the flow pattern transitions, slug characteristics, liquid holdup and pressure

gradient are implicitly related.

The closure relationships included in the model are based on focused experimental

research programs at Tulsa and elsewhere. As new and improved closure relationships

become available, the TUFFP Unified Model is updated and validated. Due to the

implicit nature of the model, execution time is slow relative to other multiphase flow

models. Therefore, the TUFFP Unified Model is best suited for single branch models

and/or cases where preliminary analysis has been made using a faster and simpler

method. Furthermore, the TUFFP Unified Model v2007.1 has been observed to not

converge under certain flow conditions. The stability of the model will be improved in

future versions.

Swap Angle

The multiphase flow correlations used to predict the pressure loss and holdup are split

into two categories: vertical and horizontal. Each category lists the correlations that are

appropriate for that type of flow.

By default the selected vertical correlation is used in the situation where the tubing/pipe

is within 45 degrees of the vertical [up or down]. Outside this range the selected

horizontal correlation is used. This angle can be changed. See Diagram.

These are two factors that can be used to adjust the friction and holdup prediction of a

particular correlation. By default these factors are 1.

Setting the friction factor to 0.5, for example, will mean that the pressure drop computed

by the friction element will be halved. These factors are often used as calibration factors

when a good match to field data cannot be obtained by any other method. Changing these

factors will affect the results and should be undertaken with care.

Flow Regimes

Vertical Two Phase Flow

Horizontal Two Phase Flow

Two Phase Flow

The general problem of predicting the pressure drop for the simultaneous flow of gas and

liquid is complex.

The problem consists of being able to predict the variation of pressure with elevation

along the length of the flow string for known conditions of flow. Multiphase vertical flow

can be categorized into four different flow configurations or flow regimes, consisting of

bubble flow, slug flow, slug-mist transition flow and mist flow.

A typical example of bubble flow is the liberation of solution gas from an undersaturated

oil at and above the point in the flow string where its bubble point pressure is reached.

In slug flow, both the gas and liquid phases significantly contribute to the pressure

gradient. the gas phase exists as large bubbles almost filling the pipe and separated by

slugs of liquid. In transition flow, the liquid slugs between the gas bubbles essentially

disappear, and at some point the liquid phases becomes discontinuous and the phase

becomes continuous.

The pressure losses in transition flow are partly a result of the liquid phase, but are more

the result of the gas phase. Mist flow is characterized by a continuous gas phase with

liquid occurring as entrained droplets in the gas stream and as a liquid film wetting the

pipe walls. A typical example of mist flow is the flow of gas and condensate in a gas

condensate well

PIPESIM Vertical Flow correlations

Horizontal Two Phase Flow

Prediction of liquid holdup is less critical for pressure loss calculations in horizontal flow

than for inclined or vertical flow, although several correlations will require a holdup

value for calculating the density terms used in the friction and acceleration pressure drop

components. The acceleration pressure drop is usually minor and is often ignored in

design calculations.

As in the vertical flow, the two-phase horizontal flow can be divided into the following

flow regimes: Stratified Flow (smooth, wavy), Intermittent Flow (plug and slug) and

Distributive Flow (bubble and mist).

PIPESIM Horizontal Flow correlations

Vertical Slug Flow

Vertical Transition Flow

Stratified Flow

Smooth

Wavy

Intermittent Flow

Slug

Elongated bubble/Plug

Distributive Flow

Annular/Mist

Bubble

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