IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

A Review On Smart Grid Technology
Anuradha Garg1 K. D. Joshi2
Project Scholar 2Associate Professor
1,2
Department of Electrical Engineering
1,2
G. H. Raisoni college of Engineering, Nagpur, India
1

Abstract— In this paper, Smart Grid has been reviewed as
the upcoming technology. We have compared the vacant
grid with the Smart Grid technology. Systems of smart grid,
challenges with the future needs, features and applications
of smart grid have been deliberated. The role of distribution
systems in the smart grid is also painstaking here.
Key words: Smart Grid, Distribution Automation, Existing
Grid, Smart Metering
I. INTRODUCTION
Electrical network and topologies are the vigor of a country.
Since 100 years there has been no development seen in the
grid infrastructure but the experiences shown that the
previous grid structure is not well-suited with the new era
and it needs to be custom-made using smart technologies.
Smart Grid simply deals by transforming the accessible old
grid systems by means of the control devices, intelligent
systems and assembling it more economically in the current
aspects. Smart Grid can also be called as intelligent grid,
intelligrid, intergrid, or intragrid.
U.S. Canada, South Korea, China, Australia, and
European countries ongoing researching on the new aspects
in Smart grid technologies and systems [3].

Fig. 1: Long-established Power Grid example
The power transmission and distribution
framework has been urbanized over a century, from the
small ac networks at low voltage levels to the large ac
networks at high voltage levels and further to the immense
power transmission networks [1]. Just like necessity rolls on
to the invention, as per our shifting necessities from time to
time the development in the human civilization and the
economic needs has lead our electric transmission and
distribution network under uprising from time to time under
the assistance of the new and innovative technologies. The
uprising in the technologies has malformed our generation,
transmission and distribution network in a smarter and
economically stronger way, but still the challenges are on
and the renovation in the technologies and grid is going on.
Here the word grid does not pass on only to the physical
networks (transmission and distribution networks) but also
the control systems and devices used for the physical
systems. Smart Grid technologies has their wide assortment
of applications in information technology, power line
communication system, smart city planning, smart

automation and distribution and many more. A concise
assessment between on hand grid and the smart grid is given
in Table 1 [4].
Parameter
On hand Grid
Smart Grid
Relaying Scheme
Electromechanical
Digital
Communication
One way
Two way
Generation type
Centralized
Distributed
No. of Sensors
Few
More
Monitoring
Manual
Self
Restoration Property
Manual
Self healing
Control technique
Limited
Versatile
Table 1:
Research under smart grid has a vast landscape and
singular researchers have singular vision and perspectives
towards it. From the technical perspective there are three
key systems in smart grid [4]:
 Smart communications system: It is the
communication or infrastructure of the information
and energy. It chains the generation, transmission
and distribution.
 Smart administration system: In this section the
control and management work is handled.
 Smart security system: It provides smart grid
consistency analysis, malfunction defense and
precaution services.
Some of the communication technologies offered
for the smart grids are ZigBee, Power line Communication
(PLC), Wireless Mesh, Cellular Network Communication
and Digital Subscriber Lines [3].
With the advantages there are also some challenges
and needs of the future grid which has been encountered and
abridged in this paper:
a) Ecological challenges: The conventional electric power
production technique is the major cause for CO2
secretion which must be minimized for mitigating our
environment. Natural catastrophes can also destroy our
transmission lines easily. Conclusion comes that our
space is reducing dynamically.
b) Market/customer needs: Customer satisfaction ought to
be improved for the electricity consumption by
increasing the quality by price ratio.
c) Infrastructure challenges: On hand grid has hastily old
components and the load anxiety were increasing very
fast therefore the network clogging is becoming worse.
Wide area monitoring, fast online analysis tool,
advanced metering are used to get better steadfastness
of the system.
d) Innovative technologies: The innovative technologies
developed like power electronics drives and other
communication technologies are not that much
developed and also they are not well-suited with the on
hand grids.

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A Review On Smart Grid Technology
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/403)

II. FEATURES OF SMART GRID

IV. SMART GRID IN INDIA

Digitalization: The Smart Grid will endow us the
exclusive digital stand for fast and steadfast sensing,
metering, measurement, organization, safeguard and
apparition.
b) Flexibility: For the future Transmission grids litheness
has been featured in following aspects: 1) resilient in
the future, 2) assorted geographical locations and
climates should be submissive.
c) Intelligence: Self consciousness of the system state of
awareness with the tool of online time domain scrutiny.
Self-healing will be attained to augment the security of
the transmission grid.
d) Resiliency: Elegant transmission grid will be proficient
of delivering energy to the patrons securely also during
the internal or external turbulences.
e) Sustainability: It is featured as the competency,
efficiency, and environment-friendly. The energy
demand should be pleased using other renewable
resources which will increase the energy savings.

In India also the scenario of the grid is changing very fast.
Researchers have planned to implement the wide use of
renewable energy resources into generation platform in the
very next future. Several real time simulations are going on
and success has been achieved in many cases. Several works
have been carried out on the topic and many more are in
progress.

a)

V. DUTIES FOR THE DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION IN THE
SMART GRID

As the level of automation of the distribution grid is very
low, for increasing the automation level substation should be
processed to become a node on the utility IT network for all
information regarding the distribution substations and
consumers. The increase in use of intelligent devices, an
open IEC 61850 architecture, modern substation computers,
knowledge about equipment modules and local storage will
be helpful.
A. Substation Features





f)

Fig. 2: Smart Grid structural design [3]
Customization: It will gratify to the customers by
modifying the energy saving. It will also improve the
transparency to the customers and increase the rivalries
in the market.
III. RELEVANCY OF SMART GRID

a)

Power Line Communications (PLC): PLC is the transfer
of data above power cables. The power feeder line is
used by the PLC as communication media. The PLC
has been used in the transmission and distribution
networks for exchanging the information between the
end user and the utility. Advantages of PLC: 1)
deployment cost, 2) security of communication
channels. Challenges of PLC: 1) limitations for data
rate, 2) impact of power grid operations and topologies.
b) Smart Metering: It is a sophisticated meter which
identifies the power utilization by the customer in much
more facet than the predictable meter and supplies the
composed information to the efficacy for load
monitoring and billing purpose. Advantages of
managing power quality and asset management.
c) Distribution Automation: Distribution automation tells
about a way to interact with the distribution system
from a various places which needs less dependency on
line operations in the field.

Control of breakers and Meters
Relay reworked copy
Thermal Ratings of real time
Monitoring of battery and testing of load
Monitoring and controlling of Transformer
System Management of load – Voltage Control,
A/C
 Selection of Load Management circuit
 controlling of Capacitor (Bus & Line)
 Control, W/H Control, Sectionalizing of circuits
With the help new IT infrastructures a recent
advancement in SCADA is becoming more beneficial to
substations. It also allows bidirectional power flow in the
power system [17].
B. Advantages


Cost Efficiency of substation
Maintenance when conditions demand
The increased speed Restoration and Outages
should be avoided
 Security and Visual Monitoring
 Adjustable Architecture and quality level of model
To meet the above task, automation for each feeder will not
be economical hence a combined automation kit should be
manufactured which is economical which is composed of
modern intelligent equipments. It will be helpful with the
help of communication, conformation, decreased in no of
components, aids and expertness [16].
Optimal Network Reconfiguration (ONR) is
another Smart application function of Distribution Feeder. It
achieves
following
objectives:
electrical
losses
minimization, reduce load demand, load balancing [18].
Advanced Distribution Automation is a "set of
advanced technologies with the help of which control and
monitoring of system is possible even from remote
locations. Data acquisition system collects all the electrical
parameters of the system. This data collection is useful in
monitoring operations which affects the reliability and
efficiency of the system [19].

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A Review On Smart Grid Technology
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VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper a new vision of the smart grid with emphasis
on the distribution automation has been shown. From this
paper we can come to the conclusion that in the smart grid
there is active consumer participation, mature and well
integrated wholesale markets, rapid solution of issues, it
repeatedly sense and take action to troubles and hub on
obstacle, reducing impact to consumers where as in the on
hand consumers are unacquainted and do not contribute,
numerous obstacles subsist for disseminated energy
resources interconnection, restricted and scantily
incorporated wholesale markets also there are narrow
prospects for patrons, deliberate response to power eminent
concern, responds to avert more harm and hub on defending
resources following a fault.
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on Power System Technology (POWERCON 2014),
Chengdu, 20-22 Oct. 2014.

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