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cira barbaqaZe

ipove
Seni metafora

gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi 2015

wigni gamosacemad moamzada


ilias saxelmwifo universitetis
semiotikis kvleviTma centrma.

vuZRvni Cems studentebs

redaqtorebi
prof. gia joxaZe
prof. daviT andriaZe
nato ingoroyva (Jurnal `maswavleblis~
mTavari redaqtori)

statiebi gamoqveynebulia internet-gamocema


mastsavlebeli.ge-ze

c. barbaqaZe, 2015
gamomcemloba `universali~, 2015
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30
Email: universal@internet.ge

ISBN 978-9941-22-500-0

redaqtorisagan
kavSiri gulTa Soris
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtoris, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis
profesoris, poet cira barbaqaZis Semoqmedebas aqamde ori Janruli TaviseburebiT gamovarCevdiT. is aqveynebda
poetur krebulebs an samecniero lingvistur naSromebs.
amieridan mis saidentifikaciod kidev erTi matricis momarjveba dagvWirdeba: avtori rTul samecniero sakiTxTa
ise gadmocemas dauflebia, Zalauneburad, ilia WavWavaZis aRmzrdeli, yvarlis Toma mociqulis saxelobis taZris
mTavardiakvani nikoloz sefaSvili gagaxsendeba: gviambobda adamianurad,
CvenTvis gasagebi eniTao, dasZens droiTi distanciis Semdeg ilia WavWavaZe, da
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moZRvrisadmi gamoxatul pietets `patara da tanad mrgvali iliasi, romelsac


`daagorebdnen taxtze muTaqasaviT, dasdebdnen maszed wigns da kiTxulobdnen",
mxolod im balRis sixaruli Tu Seedreba, romelic dedis danaxvisTanave cis
gaxsnis msgavsi RimiliT mSvenierdeba!
cirac ase ubralod da martivad esaubreba mowafeebsa da maswavleblebs, (es statiebic xom internetgazeT mastsavlebeli.geze ibeWdeboda da specialurad maTTvisaa dawerili) SesaZloa, yvelaze rTul
sakiTxebze: tvinis marcxena Tu marjvena
naxevarsferoebsa da maTTvis niSandobliv aqtivobaze, metaforebsa da maTi
meSveobiT swavlebaze, abduqciur azrovnebaze (hipoTezaTa miRebis SemecnebiT procesze), aracnobieris gacnobierebaze, Tanamedrove ganaTlebis sistemis usistemobasa da dezorientaciaze,
stereotipebis ukugdebaze, `antigonesa
da `sakuTari Janris moZiebaze, `vefxistyaosnis fantastikurobasa da fentezize...
cira barbaqaZis amgvari samecniero
strategia anareklia amerikeli fsiqiatris, milton eriksonis (1901-1980) fsiqoTerapiuli modelisa, romelsac daefuZna neirolingvisturi programireba, da
sanam miseul hipnozs daemorCilebodeT,
yuri daugdeT mis xmas, romelic, `SesaZloa, iqces bgerad, romlis gagonebac
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gsurs, frTosnis galobad, qaris qrolvad, foTolTa SariSurad, CanCqeris


grgvinvad... Tqvens xmas Tu ZaluZs
msgavsad transformireba?
adamianTa Soris komunikacia sul ufro rTuldeba. is, rac adre SizofrenikTa azrovnebas axasiaTebda, dRes sayovelTao paternad qceula. miT ufro saSuria britanel-amerikeli mecnieris,
bunebismetyvelisa da anTropologis,
gregori beitsonis (1904-1980) SemoqmedebiTi refleqsiis gaxseneba da miseul meTodTa momarjveba. magaliTad, rogor
aRviqvaT winaaRmdegobrivi miTiTeba an
emociuri gzavnili komunikaciis gansxvavebul doneebze (sityviT siyvaruls
gamoxataven, araverbalurad ki siZulvils; bavSvs Tavisuflad laparakisaken
mouwodeben, magram rogorc ki xmas amoiRebs aCumeben)? Cvenc xom ar vqceulvarT yovelive amis msxverplad? gifiqriaT amaze?
ganaTlebis sistemis usistemobas cira barbaqaZe robert kiiosakis (d. 1947)
miliarderisa da pedagogis mosazrebebs upirispirebs da ase qmnis `Rich Dadis (mdidari mama) qarTul metaforas: Tu
siRaribes mxolod finansebis araswori
gankargva iwvevs, fuls sworad unda movepyraT, da es saswavlo disciplinadac
vaqcioT. sxvaTa Soris, kiiosakis mama filosofiis doqtori da aSS-s erT-erTi
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Statis havaiis ganaTlebis ministri


gaxldaT. da Tu swored is iyo `Raribi
mamis prototipi, misi rekomendaciebi,
albaT, Zalian waagavda Cveni mamebisa Tu
babuebis rCevebs, romlebic, vTqvaT simarTle, finansuri keTildReobis sawindrad ver gamodga! droa, Cvens SviliSvilebs mainc vuTxraT simarTle keTildReobis araburJuaziulobaze!
rogor mivakvlioT sakuTar mowodebas, yvelafris Sesacvlelad rom gamoviyenebT?! am pirwmindad `amerikuli `sareklamo saxelisaTvis qarTveli mecnieri sakuTar `pirmSos iSviaTad Tu gawiravs arada, swored ase hqvia SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis britaneli metris, ser
ken robinsonis (d. 1950) erT-erT bestselers, romlis (sxva Tu araferi!) wakiTxvisken mainc gvibiZgebs cira barbaqaZis
gamowveva...
xandaxan adamianuri sixarbe da simsunage veRar kmayofildeba mxolod Tavisive msgavsiT da aseTebs irgvliv daeZebs
sisxlnaynosi zvigeniviT: inteleqtualTa pirveli sakbilo yovelTvis wignia
xolme, da rac ufro metad ggavT igi
Tqven, `Tqveni zvigeni miT ufro xSirad
da Smagad gaenTeba misken.
de, amgvar `msxverplad araerTxel
aRmoCeniliyos ciras wigni.
me ar vicnob ufro did kavSirs, vidre
aris `kavSiri gulTa Soris! (avtori mkiTxveli) mas, sxva kavSir(eb)iviT dro
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iSviaTad amarcxebs. da Tu cira barbaqaZis axali wigni `gulTa Soris kavSiris


aRsadgenad daiwera, mis ara mxolod samecniero Rirsebaze mogviwevs saubari.
konteqsti, romelsac es wigni ayalibebs, poetis sityvebsac sxvagvarad aRgvaqmevinebs, aqamde rom lamis ideologizebul formulad migvaCnda: `marad sicocxles udga da istoriis mdoris amfeTqebeli iyo kavSiri gulTa Soris!

gia joxaZe

metafora da nlp
ra aris nlp neiro-lingvisturi
programireba?
minda, gesaubroT neiro-lingvistur programirebaze rogorc mecnierebi uwodeben adamianTa qcevisa
da komunikaciis axal modelze.
SemovliT gzebs avirCev aqamde misasvlelad.
ra aris neiro-lingvisturi programireba?
mecnierebis es axali dargi SeiZleba ganimartos nevrologiis, lingvistikisa da kibernetikis urTierTkavSirad. yvelaferi, rac adamianis
cxovrebaSi xdeba, iwereba mis nervul qsovilebSi, vlindeba metyvelebiT da eqvemdebareba programirebas.
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vfiqrob, Zalian martivad ganvmarte,


SemeZlo rTuladac damewyo.
kidev ufro gavamartiveb:
Cven vuyurebT erTsa da imave samyaros... erTi SexedviT, erTsa da imaves... Tumca, TiToeuli Cvenganis aRqma gansxvavebulia... maSasadame, Cven
unikalur samyaroebSi vcxovrobT.
amis gasacnobiereblad neirolingvistebi (hari olderi da beril xeTeri) gvTavazoben Zalian martiv gakveTils:
aiReT raime sagani, moaTavseT
Tqven win magidaze da koncentrirdiT am saganze. nu SeakavebT azrebs,
saSualeba mieciT nebismier asociacias, gamovlindes. sagnis ferma SeiZleba dagabrunoT bavSvobaSi, formam
ki gamoiwvios warmosaxvaTa TamaSi,
iseTive, TiTqos Rrublebs an cecxls
uyurebdeT. rogorc ki SewyvetT sagnis obieqtur ganxilvas da saSualebas miscemT aracnobiers, ganmartos
danaxuli, warmoiqmneba garkveuli
Sinaarsebi.
sagnis Wvretisas TavSi Cndeba
axali azrebi. daxuWeT Tvalebi da
warmoidgineT es sagani. erT SemTxvevaSi aRmoaCenT kavSirs sagansa da im
azrebs Soris, romelTac es sagani iw9

vevs; logikuri axsna moeZebneba


warmoqmnil asociaciebs, rogori
bundovanic unda iyos da, sxva SemTxvevaSi, TavSi gaelvebuli azri SeiZleba, sruliad aralogikuri mogeCvenoT, Tumca, udavoa, rom mas auxsneli kavSiri aqvs am saganTan.
kiTxva aseTia: ra moxdeba, Tu 100
adamiani amgvarad Sexedavs erTsa da
imave sagans.
am gamocdilebis Tanaxmad, isini
dainaxaven 100 gansxvavebul Sinaarss, daeuflebaT sruliad gansxvavebuli grZnobebi. es adasturebs
imas, ramdenad subieqturia egreT
wodebuli obieqturi, materialuri
samyaros aRqma, rodesac raimes vxedavT, gvesmis an SevigrZnobT.
es azria gamoxatuli muxran maWavarianis leqsSi:
`sxvas rom ar esmis Seni leqsi,
Sen rogorc gesmis!
sisulelea,
amis gamo ukeTu borgav:
sisulelea,
vinaidan,
aramcTu leqsi,
sityvac ki erTi
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erTnairad ar esmis or kacs.


leqss Tu gansxvavebuli interpretaciebi eqneba, amis gamo did winaaRmdegobaSi ar CavcvivdebiT, radgan
xelovnebaSi gansxvavebuli aRqmebi
bunebrivia, magram rodesac saqme exeba cxovrebas... ai, aq ki xels gviSlis
gansxvavebuli gageba da aRqma.
mTavari idea aseTia:
is reaqcia, Tu ras vgrZnobT da
ganvicdiT, dominirebs Cvens qcevaze
anu imaze, rasac vakeTebT.
adamianis mier danaxuli garesamyaro unikaluri, idumali da sruliad subieqturia, rac ganapirobebs
konkretuli adamianis qcevebs.
SeiZleba, vxedavdeT erTsa da imaves, magram gansxvavebuli aRqmebis
gamo, sxvadasxvagvarad viqceodeT.
amodis, rom Cveni qceva da, maSasadame, Cveni warmateba-warumatebloba
(da ara mxolod es) ganisazRvreba
subieqturi gancdebiT.
ena adamianTa urTierTgagebinebisa da azrTa gacvla-gamocvlis wyaro
ki ara, gaugebrobaTa wyaro xdeba.
rogor iqceva am SemTxvevaSi neiro-lingvistika?
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is swavlobs da avlens azrovnebis


sametyvelo Stampebs, romlebic xels
uSlis adamians komunikaciisas... amis
gamo is Slis maT mexsierebis myari
diskidan da axal programas wers...
es winadadeba metaforaa, magram
zustad asaxavs neiro-lingvisturi
programirebis arss.
erTi sityviT, Cven vswavlobT, rogor qmnis da agebs Cveni azrovneba
Sablonebs da Stampebs da rogor SeiZleba maTi Canacvleba axali sistemiT, rac, sabolood, afarToebs Cvens
cnobierebas da Cvens cxovrebas ufro meti JangbadiT avsebs.
saintereso is aris, rom vswavlobT modelebis agebis meqanizmebs
da sakuTar azrovnebas, rogorc meqanizms da, amasobaSi, aRmovaCenT enis
magiur funqcias am procesSi, radgan
modelebis amocnoba da Canacvleba
swored metyvelebis meSveobiT xdeba.
es enas yovelTvis axasiaTebda da
dRemde asea vgulisxmobT zegavlenis funqcias.
vmetyveleb, niSnavs, vzemoqmedeb.
sxva sakiTxia, rogor zegavlenas
axdens erTi adamianis metyveleba meoreze an adamianTa jgufze, Torem
gavlena yovelTvis arsebobs!
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sanam win waviwevdeT da neiro-lingvisturi programirebis sxva aspeqtebze visaubrebdeT, gadavwvdeT warsuls.
Cemi dakvirvebiT, neiro-lingvisturi programirebis uZvelesi formebi folklorSi unda veZeboT. aseTi
magaliTia xalxuri Selocvebi.
gulo, Cadeq sagulesa...
Selocvebis ena gansakuTrebuli
semiotikuri sistemaa. enobrivi niSani aq avlens arakonvenciur xasiaTs,
rac imas niSnavs, rom sityva sagnis pirobiTi aRmniSvneli ki ar aris, aramed misi uSualo nawili. sityvis
arakonvenciuri gageba damaxasiaTebelia bavSvTa fsiqologiisaTvis
sityva igivdeba saganTan. magaliTad, pirvelklaselma SeiZleba CaTvalos, rom winadadebaSi: aq dgas ori
skami da erTi magida sul sami sityvaa, an rom sityva kanfeti tkbilia. niSnis arakonvenciuroba niSnisa
da aRasaniSnis, sityvisa da sagnis,
sagnis saxelisa da sagnis arsis igiveobriobaa. swored aseTi iyo pirvelyofili adamianis azrovneba.
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iakobsoni enis magiur funqcias


enis poetur funqciasTan anaTesavebs. Cemi azriT, poezia msmenelze Zaladautaneblad, uSualod zemoqmedebs... Selocva ki mainc erTgvari Zaladobaa fsiqikaze, adresatis Tanxmobis miuxedavad.
Selocva rwmenas unergavs adamians da am rwmenis xarjze ajanmrTelebs. es igive neiro-lingvisturi
programirebaa, oRond gacnobierebis
gareSe. aq adamians ar ainteresebs, ra
meqanizmebiT moqmedebs masze ena.
neiro-lingvisturi programirebis SeswavliT SegviZlia gamovikvlioT, rogor muSaobs Cveni azrovneba,
TviTon SevcvaloT programebi da
Tavidan aviciloT sxvebis mier Cveni
daprogrameba.

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metaforebi da Tavis tvinis


marjvena naxevarsfero

metaforebis Zala
mainc riT gansxvavdeba Cveulebrivi sityvebiT gamoTqmuli azri metaforebiT gamoxatuli azrisgan?
sad imaleba metaforis Zala?
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bendlerma da grinderma, eriksonis meTodebze dakvirvebis Sedegad,


metaforebis gavlenis meqanizmze Camoayalibes lingvisturad orientirebuli Teoria. am Teoriis Tanaxmad,
msmenelis mier metaforebis miRebisas mniSvneloba gadis sam stadias:
1. metafora mniSvnelobis zedapiruli struqturaa, romelic TxrobiT gamoixateba;
2. mniSvnelobis
zedapirul
struqturas moqmedebaSi mohyavs (aRviZebs) masTan asociaciurad dakavSirebuli mniSvnelobis siRrmiseuli
struqturebi;
3. aqtiurdeba dabrunebuli siRrmiseuli struqturis mniSvneloba,
am fazaSi iwyeba msmenelSi transderivaciuli Zieba, romlis drosac mas
gadaaqvs metafora sakuTar Tavze.
Txrobis siuJeturi xazi ubralo xidia msmenelsa da TxrobaSi dafarul
gzavnils Soris.
fsiqoTerapiaSi metaforebiT efeqturad mkurnalobis Sedegebis gaanalizebam mecnierebi fiziologiamde miiyvana... diax, fiziologiamde...
ra xdeba Cvens Tavis tvinSi metafo16

rebis miRebisas, rogor axerxebda


eriksoni, gaefarToebina adamianTa
cnobiereba metaforebis meSveobiT?
metaforebis fiziologia
Tavis tvinis marjvena da marcxena
naxevarsfero
ukve saidumlo aRar aris, rom Tavis tvinis marjvena da marcxena naxevarsferos informaciis aRqmisas Tavisi prioritetebi aqvT da isini gansxvavebuli stiliT muSaoben. ZiriTadad, metaforulad rom vTqvaT,
marcxena naxevarsfero mecnierebisaa, xolo marjvena Semoqmedebis.
amis garda:
Tavis tvinis marcxena naxevarsfero aregulirebs: logikurobas,
argumentebs, faqtebs. am naxevarsferos prerogativaa: maTematika, awmyo
da warsuli, codna, wesrigi, sagnis
saxelebi; marcxena naxevarsfero eyrdnoba realobas, strategiis formirebac am naxevarsferoSi mimdinareobs, praqtikuloba-pragmatulobac marcxena naxevarsferos produqtia.
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marjvena naxevarsfero moicavs: Semoqmedebas, fantazias, ocnebas, qaoss, grZnobebs, warmodgenebs,


suraTebsa da simboloebs, filosofiasa da religias, mrwamss, faseulobebs. riskis gawevac tvinis marjvena
naxevarsferos unaria.
informaciis miRebisas pirveli
mimRebia marjvena naxevarsfero, es
miReba mTliani, erTiania, maSin, rodesac marcxena naxevarsferos miReba danawevrebulia... is mihyveba sityvaTa mniSvnelobebs, ismens faqtebs,
argumentebs...
informaciis miRebisas marjvena
naxevarsferos gamohyavs saxeebi da
aformebs emociurad. Semdeg marcxena naxevarsfero mxolod logikurad
amarTlebs da aZlierebs am informacias, imis miuxedavad, rogoria es informacia sinamdvileSi.
marcxena naxevarsfero ar gansjis... im SemTxvevaSi, Tu informacia
neitraluria, maSin logika iwyebs informaciis gaanalizebas, xolo Tu
marjvena naxevarsferom informacia
emociurad gaaforma, logika eZebs
mxolod am emociis gamarTlebas!
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CvenTvis sainteresoa mecnieruli


gamokvlevebiT dadgenili mosazreba,
rom metaforul SetyobinebaTa warmoqmna-damuSaveba Tavis tvinis marjvena naxevarsferos prerogativaa.
eriksonis mixedviT, metaforebis
gamokvleva saSualebas mogvcems, Tavis tvinis marjvena naxevarsferos
uSualod Tavis enaze velaparakoT.
metafora pirdapir amyarebs kavSirs marjvena naxevarsferosTan da
moqmedebaSi mohyavs procesebi...
metaforebiT swavleba
metafora simboluri enaa. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mimarTavdnen am
enas swavlebaSi: Zveli da axali aRTqmis igavebi, kabalas teqstebi, literaturuli alegoriebi, poeturi
saxeebi yvelafer amaSi metaforaa.
metaforis am Zalas grZnobs yvela
mSobeli, bebi da babu, amitom mowyenil bavSvs uyvebian istoriebs, ambebs, romlebic bavSvs intuiciurad
gadaaqvs sakuTar Tavze.
paradoqsuli metaforebiT gadmocemuli aRmosavluri sibrZnec didi
zegavlenis mqonea, radgan is abnevs
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msmenels da aiZulebs, dafiqrdes da


Tavad eZebos pasuxi.
magaliTad, Wabuki monazoni kiTxulobs: ras gulisxmobs gasxivosnebis saidumlo? maswavlebeli pasuxobs: roca mSieri xar, Wame, roca
daRlili xar, daiZine.
an: ras niSnavs Zeni? maswavleblis pasuxi: CaasxiT mduRare zeTi
mZvinvare cecxlSi.
metaforuli saxeebiT gadmocemuli emocia aRqmis dros konteqstad
iqceva, rac ufro adekvaturs xdis
aRqmas. amitom saxeebiT gadmocemuli
azri ufro srulia da ufro zustad
Sifravs mas Cveni Tavis tvinis marjvena naxevarsfero, marcxena naxevarfsero ki am dros Tavisi specialobiT muSaobs.
dResdReobiT, mravali mecnieruli gamokvleviT dasturdeba, rom
Cveni SesaZleblobebi srulad mxolod maSin realizdeba, roca harmoniulad muSaobs orive naxevarsfero.
gTavazobT specialistebis Sedgenil 7 martiv savarjiSos, romlebic
dagexmarebaT, marjvena naxevarsfero yovelTvis CarTuli iyos informaciis damuSavebisas.
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Svidi gza marjvena naxevarsferos


gasaaqtiureblad
1. gamoiyeneT feri roca weras
gadawyvetT, moimarageT feradi kalmebi an feradi furclebi; gamoiyeneT
gansxvavebuli ferebi saTaurebisa da
qvesaTaurebisaTvis,
gamoyofili
sityvebisTvis, xSirad gamoyenebuli
frazebisTvis, reziumesTvis. am xerxiT muSaobaSi CarTavT marjvena naxevarsferos;
2. gamoiyeneT suraTi suraTebi
ferebze aranakleb efeqturia. erTi
suraTi cvlis aTas sityvas. suraTebi
SeiZleba iyos Zalian martivi, miaxloebiTi. isini simboloebad gamoiyeneT.
3. gamoiyeneT metaforebi da analogiebi ama Tu im azris gadmocemisas ar unda ufrTxodeT metaforebis
gamoyenebas. es gacilebiT efeqturia, vidre azris mSralad gadmocema.
rodesac warmoTqvamT iseT frazas,
rogoricaa: davewioT da gavuswroT
Coca-Cola-s popularobas, irRveva
Sablonuri CarCoebi da ixsneba SemoqmedebiTi azrovneba;
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4. gamoiyeneT emocia emociebis


gamoxatvaSi saTakilo araferia. isini arseboben da maTi gamoyeneba logikur teqstebSi zrdis zegavlenis
Zalas. emociisa da logikis kombinacia aRqmisas amcirebs barierebs.
5. gamoiyeneT intuicia Zalian
xSirad vinteresdebiT faqtebiT da
ar vaqcevT yuradRebas winaTgrZnobas. faqtebi es aris sufTa logika.
intuicia ki dakavSirebulia marjvena, SemoqmedebiT naxevarsferosTan.
logikisa da intuiciis erTianobas
aqvs didi Zala. adamiani Tavisi cxovrebis yvelaze mniSvnelovan gadawyvetilebebs iRebs orive naxevarsferos
monawileobiT;
6. gamoiyeneT ara marto faqtebi,
aramed ambebi faqtebi TavisTavad
metyvelebs es gamonaTqvami arasworia. is, vinc Tanamosaubres ver arwmunebs, xSirad mimarTavs am frazas.
faqtebi rom TavisTavad metyvelebdnen, maSin kamaTi ar iarsebebda. amitom faqtebis warmodgenisas gamoiyeneT sxvadasxva ambavi, istoria, anekdoti, romlic Seafasebs da kon22

teqsts Seuqmnis faqtebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi, faqti iZens msmenelisaTvis


azrs. erTi istoria, ambavi, anekdoti
SeiZleba ufro efeqturi aRmoCndes,
vidre faqtebis mTeli wyeba.
7. gamoiyeneT ara mxolod profesiuli leqsika, aramed saxeebi
profesiuli slengis didi nawili dakavSirebulia Tavis tvinis marcxena
naxevarsferosTan. es aris erTgvar
formulaTa krebuli. profesiuli
slengi, ra gasakviria, monawileobdes
Cvens metyvelebaSi, magram mas unda
hqondes Tavisi adgili. Tu gsurT,
gadmosceT azris siRrme, aucileblad mimarTeT saxeebs, romlebic saTqmels zustad miitanen msmenelamde.

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abduqciuri azrovneba
anu
rogor davZlioT problemebi
metaforebiT

tyes xedavT Tu xes?


ratom Seiqmna ena?
bolo dros sul ufro problematuri xdeba adamianTa Soris komunikacia, TiTqos sityva kargavs Tavis
ZiriTad funqcias, iyos azrTa gacvlisa da urTierTgagebinebis saSualeba.
ai, adamians esaubrebi, uxsni, uyvebi da ggonia, yvelaferi gaagebine,
magram uecrad iseT kiTxvas dasvams,
grZnob, rom sul amaod ilaparake,
24

sul amaod daxarje Zalisxmeva; ra vici, aseT dros Tqven rogor iqceviT:
xels CaiqnevT da gzas gaagrZelebT,
Tu... kidev erTxel cdiT yvelafers...
pasuxi martivia: Tu adamiani TqvenTvis mniSvnelovania, daiwyebT Tavidan...
mainc ra xdeba? erTnairi sityvebiT, erTi gramatikiT da erTi sintaqsiT vlaparakobT, da ratom...? ratom
aris dialogi SeuZlebeli? uamrav mizezs Soris erT umTavress gamovyofdi: gagCeniaT kiTxva, Tqveni Tanamosaubre azrovnebis da Semecnebis romel meTodzea orientirebuli?
magaliTad, TqvenTan saubrisas
ras aqcevs ufro met yuradRebas: detalebs, zogad azrs Tu ideas (arss)?
iqneb daakvirdeT... anda, ubralod,
hkiTxoT sxvagvarad: axali informaciis miRebisas ra aris misTvis mniSvnelovani?
Tqveni Tanamosaubre detalebis
xedviT gamoirCeva, anu, rogorc filosofosebi ityvian: xes xedavs da
tyes vera?
aseT SemTxvevaSi Tqven winaSea azrovnebis induqciuri meTodi, xolo
Tu piriqiT xdeba: tyes amCnevs da xes
vera es azrovnebis deduqciuri
25

meTodia... amasobaSi beitsonma azrovnebis abduqciuri meTodic aRwera (pirvelad pirsma ganixila abduqcia), roca adamiani upiratesobas analogiebiT, metaforebiT azrovnebas
aniWebs...
CvenTvis induqciuri da deduqciuri azrovneba cnobilia,
cota ram viciT abduqciur azrovnebaze, amitom ufro dawvrilebiT mimovixiloT es sakiTxi.

`double bind~ anu ormagi kavSiri


(Setyobineba)
beitsoniT sul ufro metad interesdebian imitom, rom is ufro mets
fiqrobda da ainteresebda ara mxolod meTodebi da formebi, aramed
saganTa urTierTkavSirebi, damokidebulebebi... misi biografiis mTavari koncefcia iyo `double bind~ anu ormagi kavSiri (an Setyobineba). beitsoni miiCnevda, rom yovelgvar sityvas,
Jests, teqsts ormagi xasiaTi aqvs:
pirdapiri da gadataniTi anu metaforuli. beitsoni amtkicebda, rom metafora ar aris mxolod literatu26

ruli tropis saxe, es adamianTa Soris komunikaciis logikuri tipia.


abduqciuri azrovneba anu abduqcia analogiebis meSveobiT msjeloba, metaforebis Seqmnis unaria. beitsons deduqciuri da abduqciuri azrovnebis sailustraciod moaqvs Semdegi gamonaTqvamebi:
deduqciuri azrovneba

abduqciuri azrovneba

Tu adamianisTvis ufro metad azrovnebis deduqciuri meTodia damaxasiaTebeli, maSin misTvis mosawyenia

27

induqciuri an abduqciuri msjelobis tipi da piriqiT.


kargia, roca msjelobis samive saxes vicnobT aseT SemTxvevaSi advilia, amovicnoT, romel enaze gvesaubreba adamiani da SevurCioT misTvis misaRebi msjelobis forma, anu
advilad SegveZlos gadarTva.
qristes igavebi da milton eriksonis Terapevtuli metaforebi abduqciuri azrovnebis saukeTeso nimuSebia.
savarjiSo:
cxovrebiseuli metaforebi
mecnierebis mier SemoTavazebuli
es savarjiSo dagexmarebaT, daZlioT
problemebi beitsonis abduqciuri
azrovnebis meTodis gamoyenebiT:
1. dafiqrdiT im problemis Sesaxeb, romlis axleburad gaazrebac
gsurT.
magaliTad: giWirT, koncetrirdeT swavlaze.
daafiqsireT Tqven win garkveuli
fizikuri adgili. SediT am sivrceSi,
asocirdiT problemur situaciasTan
da SeigrZeniT, ra moxdeba.
28

2. gadadiT problemuri situaciidan metapoziciaSi.


3. dafiqrdiT iseT rameze, romelsac kavSiri ara aqvs problemasTan da TqvenTvis resursia: magaliTad, Semoqmedeba an unari, romelic
giCenT individualobis grZnobas;
magaliTad: TxilamurebiT sriali.
daafiqsireT es resursuli mdgomareoba Tqven win, SeigrZeniT, asocirdiT im SegrZnebiT, rom daZlioT
problemuri situacia.

suraTze: metaforebi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT, rogorc gardaqmnis saSualeba


saqmianobis erTi sferodan meoreSi.

4. SexedeT problemur situacias


resursuli poziciidan. SeqmeniT me29

tafora problemuri situaciisaTvis,


resursuli situaciis gamoyenebiT.
magaliTad: koncentraciis uqonloba msgavsia imisa, Cemi Txilamurebi mudmivad rogor ejaxeba erTimeores.
5. resursuli aqtivobis mdgomareobaSi moZebneT metaforulad warmodgenili problemis gadawyveta.
magaliTad: Tu Tqven fokusirdebiT erTi Txilamuris kontrolze,
meore mas mihyveba TavisTavad.
6. SediT isev metapoziciaSi da
gansazRvreT, rogor gadaiyvaneT metaforuli gadawyveta namdvil problemur situaciaSi. Semdeg SediT
problemur situaciaSi, raTa darwmundeT, rom SeZeliT Cixidan gamosvla.
magaliTad: Txilamurebze kontrolis fokusireba msgavsia Cemi
swavlis miznisa da motivebis garkvevisa; Tu cxadia ratom, maSin rogor da ra TavisTavad garkveulia.
30

7. SegiZliaT, gaimeoroT procesi


saqmianobis sxva resursul saxeze gadawyvetilebis gansamtkiceblad an
gasaRrmaveblad.
mosinjeT da gadawyviteT Tqveni
gadauwyveteli problema warmatebul saqmianobaze problemis metaforuli gadataniT...
damerwmuneT, saxaliso da sasargeblo TamaSia... Tavidan iqneb gagiWirdeT, magram Tu ramdenjerme gaimeorebT, Tqveni cnobiereba amas daiswavlis da sxva dros ukve avtomatur reJimSi gadagrTavT da martivad dagaZlevinebT problemebs.
warmatebebs gisurvebT!

31

`rogor miviyvanoT cxeni


patronamde~
ra enaze laparakobs aracnobieri?
Cveni aracnobieri yovelTvis metaforebiT gvelaparakeba, ubralod,
mTavaria, es ena viswavloT, maSin sakuTar Tavsac da sxvebsac ufro advilad gavugebT. ar arsebobs winaswar
mocemuli anbani da leqsikoni, romelsac SeiswavlidiT da SeZlebdiT
sakuTari sulis amoxsnas. am enis sirTule isaa, rom individualuria. erTi da igive saxe sxvadasxva adamianTan
sruliad gansxvavebulad aRiqmeba.
mitom, xSirad, gadacemuli Sinaarsi
Sordeba aRqmul Sinaarss da metyveleba kargavs efeqturobas.
32

samagierod, SesaZlebelia, ideas


Seufardo iseTi metaforuli Sinaarsi, romelic meore adamianisaTvis
nacnobi da gasagebia. am SemTxvevaSi
mTavaria gzavnili. sworad agebuli
metafora gexmarebaT Tqveni problemebis gasaRebis povnaSi.
fsiqoTerapiaSi
metaforebis
mTavari Zala imaleba asociaciebSi,
romlebic msmenelebSi cocxldeba;
Tqven SgiZliaT, SeqmnaT metafora
erTi sityvisgan, msmenelis qvecnobieri damoukideblad monaxavs gamosavals da miiRebs gadawyvetilebas.
metaforebis gamoyenebis xelovneba imiT ganisazRvreba, rom isini,
erTi mxriv, unda iyvnen realisturi
da, meore mxriv, bundovani, daumTavrebeli, mTavaria, Seicavdes optimistur miniSnebas finalze.
da mainc, ratom metaforebi?
metyveleba, romelic Sedgeba abstraqtuli cnebebisagan, gansxvavebulia im metyvelebisgan, romelic metaforulia. metaforebis SemTxvevaSi
Cveni grZnobaTa organoebi ufro aqtiurad muSaoben da iwveven kaSkaSa
warmodgenebs, romlebsac axlavs xma
da SegrZnebebi. isini xdian Setyobine33

bas cocxals. metyveleba, romelic


cnebebisgan Sedgeba, sruliad sxvagvarad registrirdeba gonebaSi. rodesac mimarTavT metaforebs, msmeneli
igivdeba mxedvelobiT suraTebTan,
xmasTan, romelsac qmnis saxe, amasTan,
mosaubre registracias ukeTebs
azrs da ukeT imaxsovrebs saubars
(gari olderi, beril xezeri).
albaT, TiToeul Tqvengans hqonia SemTxveva, pirdapir eTqva mosaubrisaTvis: `iyavi Zlieri!, `jobs, ase
moiqce!~ magram adamianebi iSviaTad
iReben da iTvaliswineben rCevebs garedan. isini ufro metad endobian Sinagan SegrZnebebs, vidre vinmes rekomendaciebs.
rogor gadmovceT azri ise, rom
ar SevawuxoT cnobiereba?
metafora amisTvis saukeTeso saSualebaa. metaforuli dialogis
dros: ar kamaTob TanamosaubresTan,
ar cdilob, daarwmuno raimeSi, ar iwvev konfliqts, cnobierebisaTvis es
romeliRac ambavi, istoriaa, romelic ar exeba saqmes, aracnobierisaTvis ki es aris moqmedebis instruqcia.
metafora yovelTvis ufro zustad axasiaTebs sagans an movlenas,
34

vidre pirdapiri aRwera. amave


dros, metafora gvexmareba, ufro
efeqturad viazrovnoT, rTavs Tavis tvinis marjvena naxevarsferos da
qmnis axal gzebs SemecnebisTvis.
ra iqneboda, rom vyofiliyavi...?
neirolingvisturi programirebis
specialistebi gvirCeven, rom es kiTxva davusvaT sakuTar qvecnobiers.
metaforaSi SeiZleba igulisxmebodes sagani an arsi (xe, Senoba, personaJi, cxoveli...). am process moqmedebaSi mohyavs intuitiurad warmoqmnili ideebi, romlebic gamoxataven
Tqvens qvecnobier zraxvebs da Rirebulebebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi, metaforaTa saSualebiT Tqven SeZlebT kavSirs damyarebas marjvena naxevarsferosTan.
magaliTad: ra moxdeboda, rom
vyofiliyavi xe. SegiZliaT, daweroT
patara esei am Temaze (an daawerinoT
moswavleebs) da Semdeg, yuradRebiT
waikiTxoT es naweri. Tqven bevrs gaigebT Tqveni aracnobieri survilebis
Sesaxeb.

35

milton eriksonis metaforebi


usmineT guls: saidanRac man
icis, ra aris TqvenTvis saWiro!
stiv jobsi
milton eriksonis Txrobas gansakuTrebulad misi metaforuloba aqcevs. fsiqoTerapiaSi igi metaforebs
iyenebda mniSvnelovani gzavnilebisTvis. miiCnevda, rom adamianis cxovrebaSi arsebobda bevri SesaZlebloba, gzas rom acdenoda: Terapevtis
misia iyo, daebrunebina igi Tavis gzaze. ambebi, romlebsac eriksoni hyve36

boda, orplaniani iyo: am ambebs hqonda pirdapiri mniSvnelobac da metaforulic. ufro metic, SesaZlebeli
iyo, erTi idea mravalgvari SinaarsiT gaeformebina msmenelisaTvis
gasageb enaze.
amasTan dakavSirebiT Tavis studentebs igi xSirad uambobda erT istorias, romelic axalgazrdobaSi
Tavs gadaxda:
erTxel dakarguli cxeni Seexeta
misi saxlis ezoSi. eriksonma gadawyvita, cxeni patronisTvis daebrunebina, magram cxens, samwuxarod, ar
hqonda araviTari maxasiaTebeli,
romliTac patron amoicnoboda.
eriksoni ubralod Sejda cxenze,
gaiyvana gzaze da mimarTulebis arCevis saSualeba misca. cxeni gzas daadga. eriksoni mxolod maSin ereoda,
roca cxeni gzidan gadauxvevda. rogorc iqna, cxeni miadga patronis
ezos. patronma hkiTxa erisons:
rogor gaigeT, rom cxeni Cemi iyo?
risonma upasuxa: me ar vicodi, ai,
cxenma ki icoda. erTaderTi, rac me
gavakeTe, is iyo, rom ar miveci saSualeba, gzidan gadaexvia.

37

am istoriiT eriksoni arwmunebda


studentebs, rom zustad ase SeeZloT dasaxuli miznis miRweva. eriksoni miendo cxenis instinqtebs, radgan sjeroda, rom cxenma icoda gza;
aseve, TiToeulma adamianma kargad
icis, rac mas sWirdeba da isic, rogor miaRwios amas... ubralod, gzidan
ar unda gadauxvios!
imisaTvis, rom gaigonoT Sinagani
xma, unda iswavloT sakuTari Tavis
smena da mosmena... intuiciur codnas
vatarebT imis miuxedavad, SegviZlia
Tu ara misi sityvebiT gamoTqma. magaliTad, midixarT sayidlebze... erTi
maRaziidan meoreSi... izomebT, isinjavT da Tu vinme gkiTxavT, rogori
fexsacmlisa da tansacmlis yidva
gsurT, umetesad, pasuxobT: ar vici....
Semdeg ki, roca uecrad SeniSnavT
TqvenTvis sasurvel samoss, ityviT:
ai, zustad aseTi mindoda da rom es
kaba swored TqvenTvisaa... TiTqos arsebobs raRac mistikuri kavSiri
Tqvensa da sayidel nivTs Soris...
ase rom, nebismier SemTxvevaSi,
roca raime mizans daisaxavT.... mihyeviT sakuTar Tavs... nu gajiutdebiT
da nu gaCerdebiT, nu gadauxvevT gzidan... nu miaqcevT yuradRebas, ras ge38

ubnebian sxvebi... ubralod, usmineT


Sinagan xmas... da yovelTvis gaxsovdeT, esec metaforaa: Tqven ubralod
adamiani ki ara, mxedari xarT, romelmac icis, rogor marTos cxeni, rodis
mouSvas aRviri, rodis iaros CorTiT
da rodis gaaWenos...

39

robert kiosakis `ori mamis~


metafora
codna, romelic sagnis miRmaa
kiosakim Cemi yuradReba metaforebiT miipyro, raki cxovrebis am
etapze yvelafers metaforebis saTvaliT vxedav. erTi utyuari semiotikuri niSani, romelic aRmovaCine, is
aris, rom adamianebi, romlebic weraSi, metyvelebasa da saubarSi metaforebs ar mimarTaven, ar arian SemoqmedebiTebi da sainteresoebi, radgan
maT hyofniT saleqsikono sityvebi
azris gamoxatvisTvis... rac sinamdvileSi, standartul da stereotipulad moazrovne adamians SeiZleba axasiaTebdes. Sesabamisad, yvela, vinc
40

azris gamoTqmisas analogiis am SemoqmedebiT formas, metaforas, mimarTavs, ukve sainteresoa.


arada, saubari exeba fuls... diax,
diax, fuls... Cven yovelTvis gviyvars
saubari maRal materiebze, sulze,
sulierebaze, poeziaze, mxatvrobaze,
Teatrze, da arasdros vsaubrobT
fulze... fuli is aris, rac binZuria, rac adamians afuWebs...; ufro
metic, adamianebs fulis SiSi aqvT,
rogorc ram eSmakeulis... arada,
fuli, iseve, rogorc Zalauflebis
sxva formebi, mxolod adamianTa bunebis gamovlenis saSualebaa da, aseT
SemTevevaSi, SiSi rasac niSnavs, albaT, gasagebia mkiTxvelisTvisac.
vfiqrob, rom samyaroSi sagnebi
sulierebad da materialurebad ar
ganiyofebian... dedamiwaze, materialur samyaroSi yvelaferi formaa,
ideis forma, mTavaria, rogor da ra
ideas `vaTavsebT~ ama Tu im formaSi,
Torem yvelaze ufro sulieri saganic SeiZleba yvelaze materialuri
aRmoCndes. iseve, rogorc poeziaSi
nebismieri sagani an movlena SeiZleba
gamodges poeziis faqtad, movlenad...
mTavaria, konkretul konteqsts rogor moargeb. SeuZlebelia imis Tqma,
41

rom mTvare da ayvavebuli alublebi


ufro poeturia, vidre kartofilis
amoReba. aq SeiZleba, gagaxsendeT besik xaranaulis mSvenieri leqsi kartofilis amoReba. imis Tqma minda,
rom mogviwevs, davarRvioT stereotipi: fuli afuWebs, imis miuxedavad, rom is Zalian bevrs marTlac
afuWebs.
am Sesavlis Semdeg isev kiosakis
da fuls davubrundebi. kiosaki aswavlis, rogor gamdidrdnen adamianebi da am dros misi saubari da dialogebi brZenis qadagebas ufro hgavs,
vidre adamians, romelic fulze gelaparakeba... kiosaki ambobs, rom fuli iluziaa... rom adamianebi uSveben
Zalian did Secdomas, roca fulisTvis muSaoben... sinamdvileSi, piriqiT unda iyos... roca amas vkiTxulob
kiosakis wignSi an vusmen, vatyob, rom
fuli SegiZlia nebismieri sxva ramiT Caanacvlo da xelT rac SegrCeba,
es aris sibrZne... Rrma fiqrisa da analizis Semdeg adamianis gonebas aqvs
Tviseba, gaaRwios mis miRma... iluziaa
fuli... diax... magram sxva romel saganze ar vityodiT imaves...?
ai, ra aris mTavari: imas, rasac akeTeb, unda akeTo Zalian Rrmad... mxo42

lod es mogcems saSualebas, gascde


formas da moipovo sagnis miRma arsebuli codna.
Raribi mama da mdidari mama
maS, ase robert kiosakis ori metafora: Raribi mama da mdidari mama. kiosakim am saTauriT wignic gamosca (romelic, sxvaTa Soris, qarTuladac uTargniaT). es mxolod wignis saTauri ki ara, kiosakis azrovnebis stilia: kontrastebis saSualebiT daganaxoT gansxvaveba, raTa SeZloT arCevani, qmediTi arCevani...
radgan umoqmedo arCevani saerTod
ar aris arCevani; diax, da am SemTxvevaSic, rusTaveli uciloblad gamomadgeba: ara viqm, codna ras margebs,
filosofosTa brZnobisa. kiosaki ki
ityvis: moqmedeba yovelTvis amarcxebs umoqmedobas.
rogorc kiosaki ganmartavs, Raribi da mdidari mamis metaforebs realuri pirovnebebic Seesabameba. Rarib mamad igi sakuTar mamas, filosofiis doqtors da pedagogs moiazrebs, romelic saxelmwifo samsaxurSia (es samsaxuri maRalanazRaurebadia da sityva `Raribi~ mase aseve me43

taforulad Seesabameba), xolo mdidar mamad Tavisi megobris milioner mamas. erTis Sexedulebebi tradiciuli da stereotipulia, meoris
yovelTvis gansxvavebuli da sapirispiro... maTi ideebis dapirispirebiT sakuTar Tavs da msmenelsac
kiosaki arCevans sTavazobs...
roberti erTsa da imave kiTxvas
usvams Rarib da mdidar mamas. magaliTad: ra aris yvelaze didi investicia? Raribi mama pasuxobs, rom yvelaze didi aqtivi Seni saxlia; mdidari
mamis pasuxi ki amgvaria: Tu Seni saxli yvelaze didi investicia ggonia,
maSin seriozuli problemebi gaqvs...
mama, modi ra, es viyidoT!
Raribi mama: ar SemiZlia, amis ufleba mivce Cems Tavs.
mdidari mama: modi, vifiqroT, es
rogor gavakeToT...
mama, milioneri minda gavxde!
Raribi mama: Sen verasdros gaxdebi milioneri.
mdidari mama: arasodes Tqva, rom
raRac ar SegiZlia, Tavs hkiTxe: rogor SevZleb amis gakeTebas?
me orive mama miyvarda, ambobs kiosaki, CemTvis orives bedniereba
44

surda, magram gansaxvavebuli gzebiT... am gzebsa da gzis arCevaze kiosaki Zalian bevrs fiqrobda da amasve
urCevda igi sxvebs.
arasdros TqvaT: ar SemiZlia
es ubralo sityva ar aris; es azria,
romelic urTierTmoqmedebs realobasTan da Tqvens tvins aiZulebs, gaCerdes da ar eZebos gamosavali...
gamosavlis ZiebaSi kiosaki bevrs
fiqrobda, eZiebda... wignSi calke nawilad aqvs gamoyofili patara Tavi:
gakveTili
robert
frostisgan.
frosti misi sayvareli avtoria da
mis leqsSi gamoxatuli azri sruliad
Seesabameboda mis Ziebebs:

Robert Frost
The Road Not Taken
TWO roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;
Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim,
45

Because it was grassy and wanted wear;


Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.

am leqsis qarTuli Targmani moviZie,


romelic, albaT, saukeTeso ar aris,
magram ZiriTad azrs mainc inarCunebs:
robert frosti
gza, romelic ar amoirCies
yviTeli tyea da gza gzas ascda,
Tanac orive Tavisken miwvevs,
radgan var marto, mWirdeba dacda,
rom kargad vnaxo, Tvalic Tu gamwvda.
46

savalad romlis arCeva miwevs


da virCev erT-erTs, romelmac TiTqos
momTxova metad wayola misi,
simwvanec Tavis gakvalvas iTxovs,
Tumca meorec, kacma rom mkiTxos,
ar unda iyos navali sxvisi.
da gzac, orive seraven ra tyes,
Canan mwvaneSi friad uvneblad,
ox, am gzas rasac wavyevi am dRes,
ar vixmar ukan dasabruneblad.
da vimeoreb, dRea Tu Rame,
rom sanam mosvlas sikvdilis veli,
ori gza gadis am tyeSi da me
mivdev mas, razec ar mosCans rame
da es aRmoCnda sxvaoba mTeli.
(Targmna kote yubaneiSvilma)

robert kiosaki da ken robinsoni


Tanamedrove ganaTlebis sistemis
Sesaxeb
kiosaki Tanamedrove ganaTlebis
Sesaxeb imaves ambobs, rasac ken robinsoni. imis miuxedavad, rom isini
sruliad gansxvavebul sferoebs
ekuTvnian, orive progresulia da
kargad xedavs, rom aseTi ganaTlebiT
Taobebi Sors ver wavlen. sisulelea
imis daSveba, rom Tanamedrove ganaT47

lebis sistema Tqvens Svilebs realuri cxovrebisaTvis moamzadebs. TiToeul bavSvs esaWiroeba kidev ufro
meti da gansxvavebuli ganaTleba.
dRes yvelaze saSiSi rCeva, romelsac
Tqvens Svilebs miscemT, aseTia: wadi
skolaSi, miiRe kargi ganaTleba, moZebne maRalanazRaurebadi samsaxuri es moZvelebuli rCevaa (robert
kiosaki). igi imitom ar gamodgeba,
rom, kiosakis azriT, skolebi zrdian
momsaxureebs da ara samsaxurebis
Semqmnelebs. skolebSi ar aswavlian
bavSvebs, ra aris fuli da rogor SeiZleba misi mopoveba. es Tema tabuirebulia;
xSirad mekiTxebian, ambobs kiosaki, : `Tu fulis sakeTeblad fuli
ar aris saWiro da skolaSic ar gvaswavlian, rogor gavxdeT finansurad
da materialurad Tavisufali, maSin,
aba, ra mogveTxoveba?~
Cemi pasuxi aseTia: mogeTxovebaT
ocneba da didi gambedaoba. swrafad
moqmedebisa da swavlisaTvis mzadyofna da unari, sworad gamoiyenoT
RvTis mier boZebuli SesaZleblobebi da pirovnuli aqtivebi (wignidan
`fulis nakadis kvadranti~).
48

ken robinsoni erT-erTi leqciis


dros (rogor davaRwioT Tavi ganaTlebis sikvdilis xeobas) aseT araCveulebriv ambavs hyveba da saintereso
metaforas qmnis:
Cemi sacxovreblidan arc ise Sors
erTi adgilia, romelsac sikvdilis
xeoba hqvia. es yvelaze cxeli da
mSrali adgilia amerikaSi. iq araferi
izrdeba, radgan arasdros wvims. 2004
wlis zamTarSi moulodnelad iwvima
xeobaSi, msxvili wveTebi cvioda mcire xniT. 2005 wlis gazafxulze saswauli moxda: sikvdilis xeobis mTeli
midamo daifara yvavilebiT. ras amtkicebs es? imas, rom sikvdilis xeoba ar aris mkvdari, ubralod,
Tvlems. swored zedapiris qveS aris
SesaZleblobebis marcvlebi, romlebic elodebian Sesabamis pirobebs,
rom gamoCndnen. organuli sistemiT,
Tu pirobebi zustia, sicocxle gardauvalia, is yovelTvis mimdinareobs... iReb erT adgils: skolas,
ubans... cvli pirobebs, aZlev gansxvavebul saSualebebs da gansxvavebul
molodins, sTavazob moqmedebis Tavisuflebas, exmarebi, iyvnen inovaciurebi imaSi, rasac akeTeben da skole49

bi, romlebsac aklda es, ivsebian sicocxlis wyurviliT.


ken robinsonis mixedviT, WeSmariti roli ganaTlebis liderobaSi ar
aris da arc unda iyos. liderobis
mTavari roli klimatis kontrolia,
SesaZleblobebis klimatis Seqmna.
saubris bolos igi benjamin franklinis gamonaTqvams imowmebs da mec
amiT davasruleb:
msoflioSi arsebobs sami tipis
adamiani: is, vinc uZraobaSia adamiani, romelic ver igebs da arc unda gaigos; is vinc moZraobaSia vinc xedavs cvlilebebis saWiroebas da is,
vinc amoZravebs...
Tu met adamians wavaxalisebT samoZraod, isini Seqmnian erT did moZraobas, da Tu es moZraoba sakmarisad
gaZlierdeba, es iqneba sityva revoluciis saukeTeso aRqma es aris is,
rac gvWirdeba!

50

`ipove Seni elementi~


am metaforiT gamoxatavs SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis cnobili mkvlevari ser ken robinsoni sakuTar TavSi
im niWis aRmoCenas, romlis realizebiT adamiani xdeba bednieri, xolo
cxovreba rutinis nacvlad aRmafrenad iqceva.
aravin icis, romel siRrmeSi gadaumalavs es niWi adamians. saskolo ganaTlebis mizani swored am talantis
aRmoCena unda iyos bavSvebSi. amis
nacvlad ki Zalian xSirad piriqiT
xdeba: skola axSobs niWs... 2006 wels
ken robinsonma Tamami da xmamaRali
gancxadeba gaakeTa: skola klavs SemoqmedebiTobas.
ipove Seni elementi~ robinsonis es fraza, daaxloebiT, ase JRers:
51

ipove Seni siyvaruli; adamians xom


erTi gansakuTrebuli vinme uyvardeba; niWic asea: TiToeuls gansxvavebuli unari aqvs. mTavaria, maswavlebelma SeZlos da es gansakuTrebuli
elementi~ apovninos moswavles.
yovelTvis mawuxebda es kiTxva:
swavla-ganaTleba ratom asocirdeba
tanjva-wamebasTan, erTgvar ZaladobasTan... roca zeimi unda iyos codnasTan Tanaziaroba? ra vici... pasuxi
Tqvenc geqnebaT, Cemo mkiTxvelo,
skola xom Tqvenc daamTavreT...
daZlie stereotipebi
gavixsenoT is stereotipebi, romlebic saskolo ganaTlebaSi filtrebiviT~ muSaobs da codnis mimRebs
TiTqos arTmevs sixarulis uflebas... mTavari ram, rac am dros maxsendeba, daviT guramiSvilis strofia:
`nu genaRvlebis swavlaze yrmis wkeplic cemiT kivili, mal gamTeldebis
uwamlod misi wylulebis tkivili~, an
kidev: `swavlis Ziri mware aris, kenweroSi gatkbildebis...~ gifiqriaT,
is `kenwero~ rodis dgeba? arc
arasdros, radgan gvaqvs sxva stereo52

tipic: swavla siberemdeo...~ ai, aseT


gaugebrobaSi vcxovrobT...
mokled, `swavliT gatkbilebuli
kenwero~ siberis Semdeg, savaraudod,
samoTxeSi, unda moviZioT. roca
mxatvrul nawarmoebs analitikurad
gansji, amgvari azrebi saSiSi~ ar
aris, magram roca es frazebi kulturaSi aRzrda-ganaTlebis qvakuTxedad iqceva, damafiqrebelia.
mxiblavs imgvari ganaTlebis sistema (romelic, savaraudod, arasdros
damkvidredeba),
romelSic
swavleba procesze orientirebuli
iqneba da ara Sedegze. Cveni moswavleebi ufro mets fiqroben, ramden
qulas daagroveben semestris bolos,
imis magivrad, rom sruliad da TavdaviwyebiT CaerTon swavlis procesSi. bunebrivia, es imas sulac ar niSnavs, rom Sedegi umniSvneloa: is aucileblad dadgeba, magram mTavaria,
moswavle am damokidebulebisgan gaaTavisuflo: mere xdeba is sruliad
gansxvavebuli, SemoqmedebiTi, ufro
mets fiqrobs, ufro mets kiTxulobs
da masTan swavlebisas urTierToba
ormxrivad saintereso xdeba.
stereotipebi cnobierebis is
filtrebia, romlebic xedvas zRu53

davs da samyaros SezRudul realobad giCvenebs. saWiroa am stereotipebis moxsna, sxva da gansxvavebuli
xedva; Cven xom zedmiwevniT daJinebiT vamtkicebT raRacas, romelic
(sulerTia, ra) mxolod aseTi an iseTi gvgonia, sxvagvarad warmoudgenlad gveCveneba. sinamdvileSi (im sinamdvileSic ki, romelic yvelasTvis
gansxvavebulia), yvelaferi yovelTvis SeiZleba iyos sxvagvaradac...
ubralod, Cveni aRzrda, ganaTleba,
religia, Cvevebi da tradicia gviqmnis iseT yalibs, romelSi arsebobac
sikvdilis tolfasia. hoda, an icxovreb rogorc cocxal-mkvdari, an gadawyvet, rom ufro sainteresoa,
cocxali iyo, daZlio stereotipebi
da is yalbi SiSi, romelic budobs
CvenSi stereotipebis gavleniT...
ase rom, stereotipebis daZleva
jer maswavleblebma unda SeZlon, gaTavisufldnen kulturis mier Tavmoxveuli trafaretuli azrebisgan,
ris Semdegac SeZleben isini moswavleebSi Tavisufali azrovnebis ganviTarebas da talantebis aRmoCenas...
mokled, me SemoqmedebiTi ganaTlebis mxares var, es Zalian rTuli
gzaa, magram am gzaze `cocxali~ xar,
54

ara xar mosawyeni da standartuli


maswavlebeli...
gansakuTrebiT, es exeba qarTuli
enisa da literaturis maswavleblebs
skolebSi...

ratom yvirian maswavleblebi?


arc Tu iSviaTad minaxavs maswavlebeli, romelic moswavles uyviris
(piriqiTac minaxavs) imitom, rom: ar
Seasrula davaleba, ar iswavla gakveTili, daarRvia wesrigi... maswavlebeli ki amis gamo brazobs da yviris...
ratom yvirian adamianebi?
es kiTxva dausva ostatma erTxel
Tavis Segirdebs.
imitom rom, kargaven simSvides,
iyo pasuxi.
ki, magram, ratom yvirian, roca
meore adamiani gverdiT udgaT? ar
SeiZleba, mSvidad esaubro?
Segirdebma ostats xan ra uTxres,
xan ra ... bolos ostatma auxsna: roca adamianebi ukayofiloebi arian erTmaneTiT da kamaToben, maTi gulebi
Soreuldeba... rac metad cxaroben,
55

ufro metad yvirian da gulebic ufro metad Sordeba erTmaneTs, swored


am sivrcis amosavsebad yvirian... maT
aRar esmiT erTmaneTis...
maSin raRa xdeba, roca adamianebs
uyvarT erTmaneTi? isini CurCuleben... da Tu ufro metad uyvarT, CurCulic ki saWiro aRar aris, radgan
maTi gulebi erTadaa da maT usityvod esmiT erTmaneTis...
ratom yvirian maswavleblebi? ra
manZilia maswavleblisa da moswavlis
gulebs Soris?
pasuxis moZieba TqvenTvis momindvia...

rogor gamoiyureba RmerTi?


saerTod, ratom swavlobs adamiani... ratom itanjavs~ Tavs... ra aqvs
miznad? codna unda iqces erTgvar
navigatorad, romelic Tqvens suls
daubrkolebel gzaze atarebs... Seacnobinebs sakuTar Tavs da gaarkvevinebs sakuTar rols am samyaroSi... es
mizani fonad sul unda arsebobdes,
sul unda axsovdes aRmzrdelsac da
aRasazrdelsac, Torem sxva SemTxve56

vaSi, is iqceva dagrovil informaciad, romelic ar iqca qmedebad, ar ganxorcielda...


xom gaxsovT: ara viqm, codna ras
margebs, filosofosTa brZnobisa.
mxolod adamianis SemoqmedebiT realizebas moaqvs bedniereba da aRmafrena...
isev ser ken robinsonis erT saintereso monaTxrobs gavixseneb imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom bavSvebi ufro
metad ivsebian rwmeniT, TavdajerebiT, ocnebiT, vidre mozardebi da
didebi:
dawyebiT klasSi xatvis gakveTili
mimdinareobda. bolo merxze ijda
gogona, romelic ar gamoirCeoda aqtiurobiT, magram es ar exeboda xatvis gakveTils. gogona 20 wuTis ganmavlobaSi TavdaviwyebiT xatavda.
daintrigebulma maswavlebelma ver
moiTmina da gogonas hkiTxa, ras xatavo. gogonas Tavi ar auwevia, ise upasuxa: me vxatav RmerTs. gancvifrebulma maswavlebelma uTxra: ki, magram, xom aravin icis, rogor gamoiyureba RmerTi? gogonam ki upasuxa: male gaigeben...

57

Tu ar miumatebT am gogonas rwmenas raimes, iqneb ar mouklaT RmerTi,


romelsac xatavs...

`daiWireT wami!~
gaxsovT is filmi Dead Poets
Society~ (mkvdari poetebis sazogadoeba) da robin uiliamsis gmiri mister kitingi, literaturis maswavlebeli konservatul saswavlebelSi?
kitingi bavSvebs dafiqrebisken, sakuTari stilis aRmoCenisken ubiZgebs
literaturis gakveTilebze, poeziis
mSrali analizis nacvlad aswavlis,
rogor SeigrZnon poezia. moulodnelad magidaze amxtari maswavlebeli
moswavleebs ekiTxeba:
aba, vin metyvis, magidaze ratom
vdgavar?
ufro maRali rom gamoCndeT,
pasuxobs erTi...
magidaze imitom vdgavar, rom sakuTar Tavs Sevaxseno, movlenebs yovelTvis gansxvavebulad unda SevxedoT... iciT, samyaro aqedan Zalian
sxvanairad Cans...

58

administraciis warmomadgenels,
romelmac aiTvalwuna mister kitingi
amgvari meTodebis gamo, is pasuxobs:
yovelTvis vfiqrobdi, rom ganaTlebis idea sakuTar Tavze dafiqreba
iyo...~ xolo Tu am gzas gavyvebiT da
ufro Sors wavalT, rusTavelamdec
mivalT:
miT viswavlebiT, mogveces SerTva zesT mwyobrTa wyobisa...
...................
sabolood, yvelaferi warmavalia... simarTle is aris, rom yvela
mokvdeba. amitom da swored amitom
ufro did Zalas iZens metafora: daiWireT wami...~ es isev jon kitingia...
SeigrZeniT sicocxle da arseboba...

59

roca saTauri metaforaa....


erTxel feisbukze gamoqveynda
aseTi statusi: erekle deisaZes Tavi
mouklavs! xom ar iciT, ra mouvida
sawyals?
rogorc aRmoCnda, Jurnalists
statia dauweria, saTauriT: `erekle
deisaZem Tavi moikla!~ saqme isaa, rom
saTauri metaforuli iyo, Cveulebrivma mkiTxvelma ki pirdapir gaigo.
erTi poeti am faqtis Sesaxeb werda: `xom giTxariT, saqarTveloSi mxolod saTaurebs kiTxulobeno.
davamatebdi, rom mxolod saTaurebsac ver kiTxuloben... umetesad,
Tu kiTxuloben, yvelafers pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT igeben da mere ganixilaven, ras niSnavs imave deisaZis
60

saidumlo siroba an zaza burWulaZis gasaberi angelozi...


rTulia, adamians auxsna, ras niSnavs metafora da risi Tqma surda sinamdvileSi avtors, roca manamde metaforis arsebobis Sesaxeb araferi
gaugia.

rogor davarqvaT saTauri?


yvelaferi, rac arsebobs am samyaroSi, iTxovs saxels. saxelis darqmeviT TiTqos sruldeba erTgvari rituali da sagans, movlenas, faqts, nebismier teqsts, eniWeba funqcia. amis
Semdeg is Semodis saxelTa samyaroSi
da fuZndeba, rogorc garkveuli Sinaarsisa da funqciis mqone fenomeni,
romelsac eniWeba kanonieri ufleba, urTierTqmedebdes saxeliT gamoxatul sxva sagnebTan, movlenebTan, faqtebTan.
teqstisTvis saxelis darqmeva SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobacaa da, erTgvarad, Semoqmedis moRvaweobac: es
raRac axali qmnadobaa. avtori teqstis baton-patronia, man kargad
icis, risTvis, ratom, ra motivebiT
61

Seiqmna teqsti. gacnobierebuli aqvs


misi arsi, funqcia, daniSnuleba, azri
(yovel SemTxvevaSi, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia). enis qaosidan avtori
qmnis teqsts, aniWebs mas sicocxles
da damoukideblobas da aucileblad
arqmevs saxels (saTaurs). es procesi
SegviZlia SevadaroT bavSvis dabadebas, roca mSobeli mas saxels uwodebs. teqstis saTauri (iseve, rogorc bavSvis saxeli), SesaZloa, ar
gansazRvravs da amowuravs yvelafers, magram aucilebelia, rogorc
misi arsebobis niSani.
saxeldeba es aris gamorCeva sxva
danarCenisgan. informaciul okeaneSi Cven varCevT teqstebs saxelebiT
anu saTaurebiT.
losevis mixedviT, saxeli, es aris:
sazRvari, forma, gansxvavebuloba,
Tavisebureba, saxe, azri... igive SeiZleba gavimeoroT saTaurebzec.
avtorebi Zalian bevrs fiqroben
saTauris darqmevaze da es yovelTvis
rTuli procesia, radgan Sen ukve gansazRvrav ara mxolod teqstis azrs,
aramed orientaciasac, saiT da rogori mkiTxvelisken gascuros am teqstma.
62

umberto eko werda, saTaurma ar


unda Seiyvanos SecdomaSi mkiTxveli/msmeneli/mayurebeli, radgan pirveli STabeWdileba Zalian mniSvnelovania. sjobs, mwerali umalve gardaicvalos, rogorc ki bolo gverds
dawers, raTa naweri usaTaurod mivides mkiTxvelamdeo.
Tanamedrove samyaroSi teqstis
saTauri, amave dros, reklamacaa
brendis nawili, teqstis pasporti,
fasadi, saxe, gzamkvlevi, droSa da
simboluri niSanic ki.
reklamis teqsti ki universaluri
daniSnulebisaa. misi mizania, rac SeiZleba, sazogadoebis did nawilze
moaxdinos zegavlena. amisaTvis reklama imuSavebs zemoqmedebis universalur formebs. ena (metyveleba) ukve
Tavis TavSi atarebs zemoqmedebis
funqcias imis miuxedavad, am funqcias molaparake acnobierebs Tu vera.
mas, vinc metyvelebs an teqsts qmnis,
surs, misma naTqvamma an dawerilma
imoqmedos meore adamianze, adamianTa jgufze, an sazogadoebaze. sxvagvarad is, ubralod, ar ilaparakebda
(ar dawerda). reklamis da, am SemTxvevaSi, saTauris SerCevisas, metyvelebis zegavlenis funqcia prioritetu63

li xdeba, raTa saTaurma, rogorc


reklamam, miiqcios yuradReba.
saleqsikono ganmartebiT: reklama (laT. reclamo wamoviyvireb) es
aris informacia, gavrcelebuli nebismieri meTodiT, nebismieri formiT da xerxiT, mimarTuli sazogadoebis farTo masebisaken, reklamirebis obieqtis mimarT maTi yuradRebis
mipyrobis da/an interesis gaRvivebis
mizniT.
teqstis saTauris, rogorc reklamis gageba, gvaiZulebs, meti sifrTxiliT SevarCioT saTaurebi, radgan Zalian ar gagvitacos sareklamo funqciam da ar daSordes teqsti saTaurs, rogorc es xSirad xdeba reklamaSi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu avtori efeqturad SearCevs saTaurs, magram am
saTaurs ar eqneba kavSiri teqstTan,
mkiTxveli motyuvdeba erTxel da meored amas ukve aRar dauSvebs.
saTauris funqciaa, mkiTxveli miiyvanos teqstamde, risTvisac avtorebi gansxvavebul xerxebs mimarTaven.
rogori SeiZleba iyos kargi saTauri? originaluri, sxarti, kreatiuli, man raRac unda Tqvas teqstze
da, amave dros, ar unda Tqvas yvela64

feri. mokled, saTaurebic mravalferovania iseve, rogorc maTi Semqmneli avtorebi.


egreT wodebuli `molaparake~ saTaurebi publikaciaze pirvelad warmodgenas gviqmnis, riTac mkiTxveli
iRebs gadawyvetilebas, ra waikiTxos
pirvel rigSi da ra gadados.
provokaciuli (epataJuri) saTaurebi zemoqmedebs mkiTxvelis emociaze, iwvevs interess, aintrigebs mas.

rogor davweroT saTauri


saTauri unda Seicavdes gasaReb sityvebs da gamoxatavdes statiis arss;
gasaRebi sityvebis SerCeva saTaurSi mniSvnelovania imiTac, rom amis
mixedviT xdeba internet-sivrceSi
Tqveni masalis indeqsacia;
umjobesia, TxrobiTi, martivi
winadadebebi;
zmna aris `molaparake~ saTauris mTavari elementi, SearCieT dinamiuri zmnebi;
dro umjobesia axlandeli!

65

saTaurma ar unda gamoiwvios


imedgacrueba, igi unda Seesabamebodes Sinaarss!
romeli saTaurebi iqcevs yuradRebas Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi
anu rogori saTaurebi muSaobs:
1. yviTeli presis myvirala saTaurebi (SeiZleba, ar mogvwons, magram es
faqtori `muSaobs);
2. negatiuri informaciis Semcveli saTauri pozitiurze met yuradRebas iqcevs;
3. provokaciuli da epataJuri;
4. kreatiuli.
Tu saTaurebs amgvarad SeqmniT,
yuradRebas namdvilad miiqcevs da
SeiZleba `wagikiTxon kidec, magram
gaxsovdeT: amis Semdeg rogori azri
darCebaT, Tqven iRebT pasuxismgeblobas, radgan es faqtori aucileblad imoqmedebs Tqvens imijze.
nebismieri rCeva, romelic SeiZleba saTauris darqmevasTan dakavSirebiT moisminoT, pirobiTia, maT Soris
saukeTeso ki aseTia: ubralod, ifiqreT amaze.

66

`metaforebi, romlebSic
vcxovrobT~
metafora axali aromatia
mas, vinc yuradRebas miaqcevs enaSi
iseT movlenas,
rogoric metaforaa, male adamianTa ena
mTlianad metaforuli moeCveneba.
biuleri

ra aris metafora?
SeiZleba fiqrobT, rom es mxolod
is aris, rac amSvenebs poezias an
mxatvrul Semoqmedebas... ufro metic: metafora Cveni yoveldRiurobaa... SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cven vcxovrobT metaforebiT da, saerTodac,
Cven vcxovrobT metaforebSi... da

67

ufro Sors Tu wavalT, Cven varT metaforebi...


gamoxatvisTvis arasdros aris
sakmarisi Ciqobavas SvidtomeulSi
Sesuli sityvebi, zed sulxan-sabas
leqsikonebic rom daumatoT da sxva
danarCenic... mainc mwiri iqneba im azrebis, grZnobebis, gancdebis gadmosacemad, romlebic CvenSia. amitom
TiToeuli Cvengani mimarTavs qmnadobas da iwyebs erTi sagnis, movlenis, faqtis romelime aspeqtis gadatanas meoreze... es igivea, erT sagans
SexedoT sxva sagnis TvalebiT...
aseT SemTxvevaSi gamoTqmuli azri
iRebs da aerTebs orive Tvisebas (aspeqts) da viRebT mesames, sruliad
gansxvavebuls, romelmac axali nazaviT axali aromati Seqmna... rogorc
sadilis momzadebisas: calkeul ingredientebs
gansxvavebuli
gemo
aqvT, urTierTSerevisas ki axal gemos qmnian... diax, zustad asea... metaforebis SeqmnaSi qimia, SesaZloa, alqimiac ki, monawileobs.
magaliTad, rogor SeiZleba warmovidginoT metafora: adamiani-lomi...? axali arseba ukve arc adamiania
da arc lomi... daaxloebiT, ise SeiZ68

leba gamoiyurebodes, rogorc qvemoT mocemul vizualur namuSevarze.


saqme SedarebiT ioldeba, roca konkretuli sagnebiT xdeba metaforizeba, advilad SegviZlia warmovisaxoT
maTi naerTi... ai, rac Seexeba abstraqtul sagnebs, aq viTareba rTuldeba:
poeziaSi xom saerTod piks aRwevs metaforizaciis procesi!
magram konkretuli sagnebis SemTxvevaSic yvelaferi ise rodia, rogorc gveCveneba. bevri metafora
dRemde amouxsneli rCeba. magaliTad, aravin icis, rogoria: ivlisisferi yinvis Tasebi...

Tqven SiZleba ver gaugoT adamians, romelic metaforebs xSirad mimarTavs, radgan calsaxad metforu69

li metyveleba metyvelebis maRali


xarisxia... ubralod, SeiZleba, SecdeT da metaforebiT gadmocemuli
azri pirdapir miiRoT... codna metaforebis Sesaxeb Cvens cnobierebas
afarToebs da cxovrebasac ufro sainteresos xdis....

70

ori universaluri metafora


konceptualuri metaforis Zala
ganisazRvreba mis gaucnobierebel
gamoyenebaSi. lakofis mixedviT, metaforaTa Tvisebaa, rom isini ki ar
qrebian, aramed rCebian adamianTa
cnobierebaSi, maTi moqmedebis logikuri Sedegebi ki vlindeba Cven mier
samyaros aRqmis TaviseburebebSi.
jonsoni da lakofi naSromSi metaforebi, romlebSic vcxovrobT
dawvrilebiT ganixilaven or universalur metaforas da saubroben metaforis mamodelirebel funqciaze.
me-20 saukuneSi daiwyo metaforis
modelirebis funqciis gamoyofa. metafora ganixileboda, ara mxolod
rogorc poeturi da ritorikuli gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualeba, aramed
rogorc sinamdvilis aRqmisa da gaazrebis seriozuli meqanizmi.
magaliTad, yvelasaTvis cnobili
universaluri metaforebi: kamaTi
omia da dro fulia axdenen adamianTa cnobierebis orientirebas garkveuli mimarTulebiT; Sesabamisad,
SevcvliT metaforas da cnobiereba71

Si sinamdvilis gaazrebis axali konstruqtebi wamoiqmneba.

Tu kamaTi omia, maSin kamaTi aRiwereba omis terminebiT da SesaZlebelia:


kamaTSi (da omSi) gamarjveba kamaTSi (omSi) damarcxeba
kamaTSi (da omSi)Setevaze gadasvla
kamaTSi (da omSi) sakuTari poziciebis dacva
kamaTSi (da omSi) winsvla
kamaTSi (da omSi) danebeba
kamaTSi (da omSi) gansazRvruli
strategiis gamoyeneba
72

kamaTSi (da omSi) strategiis


Secvla
kamaTSi (da omSi) ieriSze gadasvla da sxv.

igive xdeba meore metaforis


dro fulia SemTxvevaSi.
drois (fulis) warTmeva
drois (fulis) ekonomia
drois (fulis) micema, daTmoba
drois (fulis) gaflangva
drois (fulis) dakargva
drois (fulis) gamoyofa
drois (fulis) daxarjva
drois (fulis) darCena
drois (fulis) Cadeba saqmeSi....
73

marTalia, ganxilul metaforebs


dakarguli aqvT adamianebze emociuri zegavlenis funqcia, radgan, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es gacveTili metaforebia, magram aq kargad Cans, rogor axdens metafora Cveni cnobierebis modelirebas da rogor ukavSirdeba Cveni msoflaRqma am metaforebiT modelirebul realobas.

Secvale metafora Seicvleba


cxovreba
amis Semdeg aqtualuri gaxdeba gamoTqma: Secvale metafora Seicvleba cxovreba!
ara mxolod socialur cxovrebas
aqvs Tavisi metaforebi... TiToeul
Cvengans Cveni metaforebi gvaqvs,
romlebic imis miuxedavad arseboben
da moqmedeben Cvenze, vacnobierebT
Tu ara maT arsebobas...
axla, roca am striqonebs kiTxulobT, ra aris Tqveni cxovrebis metafora? SemiZlia, uamravi gacveTili metafora CamovTvalo:
cxovreba TamaSia
cxovreba gamocdaa
cxovreba brZolaa
74

cxovreba cirkia
cxovreba sadguria da ase Semdeg...
iyaviT originaluri da SeqmeniT
Tqveni cxovrebis saukeTeso metafora... mere naxavT, es metafora rogor
Seclis Tqvens cxovrebas...
maS ase, SeqmeniT Tqveni metafora:
`cxovreba ~????

75

poezia metaforaa
poetisTvis mze yovelTvis mze ar aris,
mTvare mTvare da varskvlavebi
varskvlavebi.
maleviCi
sityva, yofierebis Semoqmedeba,
CvenSi ganagrZobs cxovrebas, rogorc
metafora.
andrei beli

poezia erTi didi metaforaa... aq


mxolod sityvebi ar metaforizdeba... mTeli leqsi metaforaa: azris,
gancdis, grZnobis, poetis Sinagani
mdgomareobis; imas, rasac poeti sityvebiT xatavs da qmnis, anareklia,
proeqciaa Sinaganis. piriqiTac SeiZleba iTqvas: xSirad adgili, sagani,
76

garemo airekleba poetSi da sagnebi,


movlenebi, sxva adamianebi laparakoben misi meSveobiT. sad aris am dros
Semoqmedi... poeti? is mxolod mediumia Tu Tavadac aris is, rasac gamoxatavs...?
ra xdeba poetis Sin da gareT?
poetic metaforaa da isic, rasac poeti qmnis... realoba, dedani sadRaa?
am kiTxvebze pasuxs gagiadvilebT
poeziaze dakvirveba.
poeziaSi xom Sinaarsic metaforaa, riTmac, ritmic... gamokvleulia,
rom garkveuli ritmebiT gadmoicema
garkveuli gancdebi da grZnobebi da
Sinaarsi am dros sruliad pirobiTia:
iseTive pirobiTobaa, rogorc raimes
sagnis saxeli...

adamiani sarkesTan, anu


Sin da gareT
didi ambebi xdeboda gareT, erTi
amindi cvlida meores..., wers oTar
WilaZe. es striqonebi Sinagan adamians ekuTvnis, romelic TiTqos aviTarebs (an adasturebs) baxtinis Temas
adamiani sarkesTan. gareT yovel77

Tvis raRac xdeba, iseve, rogorc


SigniT, sagnebi da movlenebi poetebisTvis iqcevian gancdaTa metaforizaciis obieqtebad. am metaforebis
Sinaarss isev poetis SemoqmedebiT
Tu avxsniT.
samyaro gadaewyoba Semoqmedis
kalmiT da ena iqceva sulis moZraobad, romelic Tavisebur kardiogramas wers. mkvlevris funqcia am kardiogramis sworad gaSifvra. zogjer
poetur teqstSi zedapirze Zevs gasaRebi, zogjer ki, raRacis asaxsnelad
teqstSi ufro Rrmad Sesvlaa saWiro.
terenti granelis poezia gaxda
lirikaSi erTi saintereso movlenis
gasaRebi: magaliTad, ras gulisxmobs
poeti, roca is bunebis movlenebs aRwers? romeli da rogori gancdebi
metaforizdeba qariT, wvimiT, TovliT...?
rac yvelaze sainteresoa, poeti
paralelurad aRwers `Sina (ra xdeba
poetis sulSi) da gare (ra xdeba gareT, bunebaSi) movlenebs: amiT, TiTqos, pirvelyofil saxeldebas axorcielebs da suls aerTebs xorcTan
(anu sityvasTan). sabolood, sityva

78

xom sulis moZraobis gamomxatvelia,


miT ufro poetis sityva!
dReTa simZime Cems suls aCnia
da vxedav foTlebs, qarSi dafenils.
dReebiT damZimebuli poeti qarSi
dafenil foTlebTan igivdeba. asea
umetesad terenti granelis SemoqmedebaSi: Sinagani sulieri gancda bunebiT ixsneba da saintereso is aris,
rom es `Sin da gareT monacvleobiT mihyveba erTamaneTs, TiTqos, aRqmis procesis gasaadvileblad.
damagvianda, morCa, ar moval,
Cans gulis landi da raRac meti.
ha, Semodgomis yru saRamoa,
daRamda nela, wvims
ganuwyvetliv...
an:
guli miwuxs da sulia vrceli,
risagan iRupeba toti.
anda:
me ra vqna, sikvdils Tu
ver avcdebi,
qarma xes toti gadauzniqa.
isec xdeba, rom poeti kargavs adamianis formas da ukve bunebaSi ki ar
eZebs gancdaTa analogias, aramed Tavad xdeba bunebis nawili:
79

modis zamTari, Tovli da yinva,


Tovlis da yinvis cisferi wveTi,
sneuli saxe sikvdilis win var,
sikvdilis win var me, rogorc gedi.
davdivar RamiT da me var Tovli,
da me var nisli, da me var wvima,
da suls cecxlisken mivyavar
TrTolviT,
ise var, rogorc viyavi winaT.
terenti graneli isev Tavad adasturebs Sinagani gancdebisa da bunebis movlenebis analogias: aqac gaisma qaris godeba, qaria gareT, qaria
sulSi. da roca igi wers: vucdi sxva
aminds..., bunebrivia, ar gulisxmobs
meteorologiur cvlilebebs, xolo,
roca Sinagani ganwyoba Seecvleba,
bunebac gadaewyoba da erT SemTxvevaSi sevda-wuxilis gamomxatveli garemo sixarulsa da aRfrTovanebasac
daitevs. am SemTxvevaSi, mTavari Sinagani adamianis guneba-ganwyobilebaa,
romelsac buneba gaimeorebs gareT.
terenti Tavisi SemoqmedebiT mainc qaris poetia da ufro metad
mwuxarebis, sevdis da tkivilis matarebeli.
axlac qarSi var, Tavs ver vuSvele;
didi xania, rom vcxovrob qarSi;
80

Cemi cxovreba qariSxalia;


vici, qariSxals ver davewevi...;
dRes Cemi bedi qariSxals misdevs; da sxv.
terenti granelis poeziaSi gamovlenili bunebis movlenebisa da Sinagani adamianis analogia SeiZleba dagvexmaros sxva poetTa wakiTxvisas,
romelTa SemoqmedebaSi ase mkafiod
ar Cans bunebisa da sulis kavSiri,
Tumca udavod igulismeba.
P.S. is, rogorc forma,
aris saSualeba...
samyaroSi yvelaferi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc niSani, xolo poeziaSi nebismieri niSani gansakuTrebuli niSania imis CaTvliT, rom Tavad
poeti-mediumi, sakuTari pirovnebisagan damoukideblad, metaforaa,
romelic Zalian xSirad gaucnobierebel movlenebze gvelaparakeba. amitom ambobs poeti: muza mewvia, STagonebuli var... viRac mkarnaxobs...
maleviCi poetis Sesaxeb wers: is,
rogorc forma, aris saSualeba, romlis meSveobiTac laparakobs RmerTi
81

an eSmaki... poetis xiluli forma iseTive niSania, rogorc bgera, noti...


Tqveni ar vici, da me am azris gamo
didxans da bevrs vfiqrobdi...
netav vis xmas vaxmovaneb axla?

82

Tqven sarke xarT

warmoidgineT, rom sarke xarT...


sul...sul sarke... da dadixarT, rogorc sarke, iRviZebT da iZinebT, ro83

goc sarke, megobars esaubrebiT,


rogorc sarke... Cais miirTmevT, rogorc sarke.... warmoidgineT? sarkeSi
ki ar iyurebiT, Tavad xarT sarke...
anu sxvebi iyurebian TqvenSi, rogorc
sarkeSi... aireklavT: quCebs, saxlebs,
peizaJebs, adamianebs mxiarulebs,
mowyenilebs, motiralebs, momcinarebs... legitimuri kiTxva gagiCndebaT: sarke ki xarT, magram Tqven TviTon sad xarT da romeli xarT...? gamodiT, gamodiT, daginaxeT... Tumca,
veraaa.... ver daginaxeT, magram Tqven
xom xarT da dadixarT, rogorc sarke... da sakuTar Tavsac aireklavT...
vxedav, quCaSi viRac gaCerebT... man
ar icis, rom sarke xarT, is didxans
geqaqanaT, giyuraT (uyura Tavis
Tavs...), mere raRacaze gabrazda da gaiqca... Tqven sarke iyaviT da ra unda
geqnaT, xom ver gamoekidebodiT...? axla meore... gicinaT, geferaT, bolos
gakocaT da bednieri dagSordaT...
gawvimda da Tqven wvima airekleT... mere wvima mzem STanTqa, gagamSralaT da
axla mze aenTo TqvenSi. ho... cota ucnauri SegrZnebaa, roca sarke xar... is
xdebi, vinc da rac SenSi iyureba... midis da morCa, mTavrdeba... Sen sarke
84

xar da imis anarekls aRar inaxav, vinc


ukve wavida, vinc ukve Caiara... da ra
icvleba sarkisTvis? ra vici, mgoni,
arc araferi... ubralod, yvelafers
akvirdeba... yvelafris mowmea da rCeba iseTive neitraluri, rogorc ekrani, romelzec films uCveneben...
sarke yovelTvis aris aq da axla
da igi mxolod imas aireklavs, rac
mis winaa... arasdros araferze reagirebs... ar afasebs... aseT SemTxvevaSi,
sarke namdvilad aris brZenis metafora... mas ara aqvs arc warsuli, arc
momavali... mas ara aqvs arCevani, radgan arCevanis miRmaa... siyvarulis da
siZulvilis miRmaa, sicilis da tirilis miRma... is ar brazobs, roca masSi
mkvleli ixedeba... verc poets da kaxpas ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisgan...
SeginiSnavT, albaT, roca wylis
zedapiri sarkiseburad ireklavs garemos mzes, Rrublebs, adamianebs,
peizaJs... zogjer geCveneba, rom wyalia aseTi kamkama da sufTa, roca
lurji ca airekleba.... an mRvriea wyali, roca Savi Rrubelia caze... sinamdvileSi, sarke ekrani ucvlelia, mxolod is icvleba, rac masSi
ixedeba da araviTari kavSiri bunebis cvlilebas ara aqvs wyalTan...
85

aseTive iluziebis wyarod SeiZleba iqces Cveni ego... egos emociebs,


romelic Cvenive sulis sarkeSi airekleba, araviTari kavSiri ara aqvs
sulTan... suli ekrania, romelic mxolod aCvenebs, is yovelTvis neitraluria emociebis mimarT... amitom
aris brZeni egos emociebis miRma...
sarke masSi areklilis miRma...

silvia plaTis sarke


silvia plaTis sarke avtoris gaorebuli fsiqikis anareklia... leqsis
pirvel nawilSi sarke RmerTis oTxkuTxa da samarTliani Tvalia, romelic, ubralod, sicarielea TavisTavad, Tavisufali yovelgvari winaswari zraxvisa da motivisagan... amitomac is yvelafers zustad aireklavs,
grZnobebs ar amatebs: arc siyvaruls,
arc siZulvils... da moulodnelad
RmerTis Tvals, imis gamo, rom mopirdapire kedels didxans uyurebda,
ewyeba masTan identifikacia da mas
sakuTar nawilad ganicdis... TiTqos
sarkes nel-nela ipyroben sagnebi da
is garemo, romelSic aris...
86

SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom sarke Tavidan poetis sulieri mea, romelic


TandaTanobiT mZimdeba... ivseba sibneliT, sirTuleebiT da simZimiT, roca qalis ego mas daisakuTrebs...
`me vercxlis var da zusti. ar maqvs
aranairi winaswarakviatebuli Sexeduleba.
yvelafers, rasac vxedav, dauyovnebliv vylapav
iseve siyvaruliT an siZulviliT
daunislavs.
me ar var sastiki, mxolod samarTliani
Tvali patara RmerTis, oTxkuTxa.
drois did nawils sapirispiro kedelze fiqrSi vatareb.
is vardisferia, dawinwkluli. mas
ise didxans vucqerdi,
rom vfiqrob Cemi gulis nawilia,
oRond cimcimebs.
saxeebi da wyvdiadi ufro da ufro
gvaSorebs erTmaneTs~.

qalis narcisuli damokidebuleba


sarkis mimarT Zlierdeba da imatebs
cremlebis tba... sarke kvlav spikeria da agrZelebs monologs... axla
is RmerTis Tvali ki ara, dasazRvruli CarCoa, romlis zedapirze qali
87

ixrCoba... warmavlobis nislma qalSi


gogona Cakla da axla moreveviviT
iTrevs moxuci sazareli Tevzi...
kritikosi jo hili silvia plaTis
am leqsze werda: sarke faqtobrivad
dominirebs da ayalibebs qalis samyaros... is aramarto aireklavs mas, rasac xedavs, aramed Cveni gagebisaTvis
Sesaferis saxeebsac qmnis.... meore
strofi mniSvnelovania: aq vlindeba
qalis moTxovnileba sarkeze.... sabolood, leqsi Zalian sevdiania da, SeiZleba iTqvas, mwarec...
axla me tba var. qali ixreba Cem Tavze,
eZebs Cems sazRvrebSi imas, rac sinamdvileSia.
Semdeg ubrundeba im matyuarebs sanTlebs an mTvares.
me vxedav mis zurgs da zustad vireklav.
is majadoebs cremlebiT da xelebis
mRelvarebiT.
me misTvis mniSvnelovani var. is modis da
mtovebs.
yoveli dila misi saxea, romelic sibneles enacvleba.
man CemSi gogona CaaxrCo da moxuci dRiTi-dRe misken miiwevs, rogorc sazareli Tevzi.

(Targmna qeTi gziriSvilma).


88

sarke cnobiereba, ego


mxolod brZenis metafora ar aris
sarke, ra Tqma unda.... es mxolod erTi aspeqtia. sarke SeiZleba iyos narcisis metaforac. gavixsenoT ZvelberZnuli miTis yvelaze popularul versia: Wabukma narcisma uaryo
feria eqos siyvaruli, ris gamoc igi
RmerTebma dasajes. narciss ise Seuyvarda sakuTari Tavi wylis sarkeSi,
rom Tvali ver moswyvita mas da gauziarebeli siyvarulisagan maleve
gardaicvala. narcisis sxeuli yvavilad iqca. amitom narcisi gadataniTi
mniSvnelobiT, sakuTar Tavze zedmetad Seyvarebul adamians niSnavs.
baTu danelias erT leqsSi poeti
da sarke avtori swored poeturi
narcisizmis saSiSroebaze gvelaparakeba. is afrTxilebs poetebs, nu Caixedaven sarkeSi, radgan sarkeSi yvelaferi SeiZleba moxdes: sarkem, SesaZloa, aireklos iluziebi, Tavad
poeti ki Seucnoblis nislSi datovos... rogorc Cans, poetma sarkeSi
Caixeda, raki am ambebs gviyveba...
aseT SemTxvevaSi, leqsi lirikuli
personaJisa da avtoris dialogi uf89

roa... lirikuli avtori aracnobieridan gvelaparakeba, man yvelaferi


icis, yvelafers xedavs... is ar aris
sarke, is gvesaubreba sarkis safrTxeze, am dros is Tavadac nawilobriv sarkea...
poetebs sarkeSi Caxedvas ar vurCev,
radgan poetisTvis zogjer sarkeSi
SeiZleba mze amovides, mTvare Cavides
Tavad ki ar gamoCndes,
RrubliT dafaruli...
sarkeSi SeiZleba winwyaro CamoiaroT
da win lamazi qali ki ara
yivCaRi SemogxvdeT.
sarkeSi SeiZleba neronma
Tavisi leqsebi wagakiTxoT
da Tqvens xelnawerebs xanZari
gauCndes...
sarkeSi SeiZleba gadayvarebuli
qali ayvavdes
da misi yvavilebis surneli
SemogefrqveT.
sarkeSi SeiZleba...
mokled, bevri ram SeiZleba sarkeSi
naxoT,
poetad Tu xarT dabadebuli...

lirikuli subieqti wers, rom, erTi mxriv, poetma sarkeSi ar unda Caixedos da, meore mxriv, mokled, bev90

ri ram SeiZleba sarkeSi naxoT, poetad Tu xarT dabadebuli....


erTi SexedviT, sruliad sapirispiro mosazrebebia... Tumca, striqonebis paToss Tu gaviTvaliswinebT,
mivxvdebiT, rom poeti-sarke saubrobs sarkis cru-efeqtebzec da imazec, rom yvelaferi, rac sarkeSi xdeba, poetis fantaziaa da vinc ase ver
xedavs, vinc poetad ar aris dabadebuli da poetobs, sarkeSi mxolod sakuTar egos dainaxavs... aseT SemTxvevaSi ki is, ubralod, narcisia da poeziasac da sarkesac unda SeeSvas...
magram poetad Tu ara xarT dabadebuli,
sarkeSi yovelTvis gamoCndebiT
Tqven,
sakuTari garegnobiT kmayofili,
pirs gaiparsavT,
Tmas daivarcxniT,
halstuxs gaikeTebT da...
erTi sityviT, sarkeSi Tqveni Tavis garda,
veravis da verafers dainaxavT,
rac imas niSnavs,
rom poetad ar gaCenilxarT,
da Tu amis gageba ar gsurT,
sarkeSi nu CaixedavT!..
91

rogorc baTu danelias am leqsidan Cans, sarke poetisaTvis safrTxis


Semcvelia, is realobas anaxebs avtors da amitom afrTxilebs, rom, umjobesia, Tu ar Caixedaven sarkeSi poetebi, ra ici, iq ras gadaeyrebian....?
fantaziis qaravans Tu sakuTar
halstuxian Tavs...
am leqsis konteqstze Tu SevTanxmdebiT, rom sarke cnobierebaa da
masSi Caxedva sakuTar TavTan Sexvedraa (aseTi an iseTi), poetis, erTi SexedviT, brazmoreuli rCeva sarkeSi nu CaixedavT! imperatiulad ar
unda miiRos mkiTxvelma.

92

roca sagnebi laparakoben


romel JanrSi cxovrobT?
kiTxva romel JanrSi cxovrobT?
ukve metaforaa... sanam am nawers CaaTavebT, SegiZliaT, am kiTxvaze ifiqroT da bolos mipasuxoT...
Tanamedrove adamiani informacias, umetesad, vizualurad iRebs...
verbalur komunikaciaze swrafad vizualuri aRiqmeba da raki cxovreba
ase aCqarda da vcxovrobT samyaroSi,
romelSic yvelas sadRac eCqareba,
vizualuris prioritets verafers
movuxerxebT. aseT SemTxvevaSi, sityva kidev ufro iwnexeba, ufro kondensirebuli da ekonomiuri xdeba
(Tu, ra Tqma unda, fuWsityvaobasTan
ar gvaqvs saqme). sxartad Tqma xelov93

nebaa, miT ufro maSin, rodesac saTqmeli mxolod sityvebiT ar gadmoicema... vgulisxmob Teatris enas da,
kerZod, reJisor gaga goSaZis mier
iliaunis Teatris scenaze dadgmul
speqtakls antigone.
aqve mogaxsenebT, rom am speqtaklze saubrisas viqnebi sruliad subieqturi da mimoxilvac iqneba mxolod
interpretaciis farglebSi.
mokled, iqidan daviwyeb, rom Tanamedrove speqtakli rom mosawyeni
ar iyos, reJisors uwevs teqstis SekumSva. SekumSvaSi ar vgulisxmob azris Seclas, aramed mxolod gamosaxvis sxva saSualebebis gamoyenebiT
sityvaTa (saxeTa...) ekonomias, rac gaga goSaZem namdvilad moaxerxa... karg
speqtakls yvela Taviseburad gansazRvravs: zogs eklebi ayris, zogs WianWvelebi daudis, zogs Tvali uTamaSebs da ase Semdeg... isic minaxavs,
yovlad uniWo teqstze an speqtaklze
rom mavans akankalebda, an WianWvelebi daudioda... amitom, maincdamainc, nu endobiT sxvaTa fiziologiur
reaqciebs garkveul emociebze... Cemi
testi ki aseTi iyo: speqtaklis dros
damaviwyda yvelaferi, scenis garda,
da msaxiobTa kargi TamaSisa da emo94

ciebis wyalobiT, scenaze gaTamaSebul ambavSi srulad CaverTe...


simarTle giTxraT, ar megona, antigones problematika Tu kidev saintereso aRmoCndeboda CemTvis... erTi
sityviT, am tragediam isev maRvrevina
cremlebi. morigeobiT: xan kreonis
mesmoda da xan antigonesi, da aseve
morigeobiT: xan kreonisa ar mesmoda
da xan ntigonesi... yvelaferi damTavrda ise, rogorc unda damTavrebuliyo: vinc unda momkvdariyo, mokvda.... da kreonic sikvdilisTvis moemzadeba. avtoris am finaluri frazis
Semdeg imaze davfiqrdi, rom, Cven,
adamianebi, imTaviTve virCevT Cvens
Janrs da mere am Janris kanonebiT
vcxovrobT, romelSic ukve yvelaferi winaswar gansazRvrulia... isic sakiTxavia, aqvs ki adamians am Janris arCevis arCevani...? iqneb es aris winaswargansazRvruloba da bediswera...
maSin sad aris Tavisufleba?

cxovreba speqtaklia?
aRqma yovelTvis subieqturia, magram Cven xom gvainteresebs, rogor
aRiqvamen sxvebi...? an rogor aRgviq95

vams sxva... ara speqtaklSi, aramed


cxovrebaSi... SemTxveviTi ar aris metafora, rom cxovreba speqtaklia.
cnobierebas ara aqvs sazRvrebi...
sartris mixedviT, adamiani Seicnobs
Tavis Tavs mxolod meore piris meSveobiT: me varsebob, ramdenadac me
Cems Tavs gavcem. baxtinis dialoguri azrovnebisa da filosofiis mixedviT ki, zogadad, yofna niSnavs,
iyo sxvisTvis da sxvisi meSveobiT
sakuTari TavisTvis. adamians ara aqvs
Sinagani suverenuli teritoria, is
yvelgan da yovelTvis zRvarzea...
roca Tavis TavSi ixedeba, is uyurebs
TvalebSi sxvas, an imzireba sxvisi
TvalebiT.
swored amitom, speqtakli mxolod msaxiobTa TamaSi da scena ar
aris, is mayurebelTa darbazic, anu
mayurebelicaa... amas Cemi leqtorobis 25 wliani gamocdilebac malaparakebs. leqciac raRacnairad hgavs
speqtakls... da dameTanxmebian kolegebi, kargi leqcia uciloblad damokidebulia im interesze, im mzeraze,
im energiaze, romelic auditoriidan
modis... am dros metyvelebac gansakuTrebulad SemoqmedebiTi xdeba da
iseTi SemTxvevac mqonia, Sua leqciis
96

dros dasmuli kiTxvis gamo leqcia


rom Semiwyvetia. es is situaciaa, romelsac semiotikaSi ewodeba niSnis
damokidebuleba momxmarebelTan. ra
Tqma unda, yvelaferi icvleba da
idea gansxvaveuli xarisxiT warmoCndeba, roca icvleba aRmqmeli, mayurebeli, meore adamiani, adamianTa
jgufi...
warmodgena erTianobaa... darbazSi
arsebuli yvela sivrcis da am sivrceSi arsebuli yvela niSnis Tanamyofoba da TanakveTa... amitom Teatris mistikur samyaroSi yvela detali laparakobs, Tumca minda, erTi
saidumloc gagimxiloT: yvelas ena
gansxvavebulia da gagebis erTaderTi winapiroba mosmenaa...
antigoneSi, iliaunis Teatris
scenaze, molaparake sagnebsac aRmoaCenT... Camomsxdaran metaforebi
da gvelaparakebian... magaliTad, aiwona-daiwona (saqanela), sisxliani perangebi sakidebze, Cais Wiqebi, daTunia, sabeWdi manqana, sapnis buStebi,
akvariumi oqros TevziT da sxv.
aseT dros sagnebis mosmenac SesaZlebelia... da sulac ar aris aucilebeli, maincdamainc, antigones
teqsts gahyveT... ise, TavisTavad da
97

damoukideblad... darwmunebuli var,


Sinaarss Tu daiviwyebT, ideas aracnobierad mainc gahyvebiT... nebismier
teqstSi ambebi xom mxolod imitom
arsebobs, gagviyvanon ambebs miRma,
sityvebma sityvebs miRma, niSanma
niSnis miRma, speqtaklma speqtakls
miRma, forma uformobisa da usasrulobisken wargviZRves...

aiwonadaiwona
sagnebze roca vsaubrob, yovelTvis maxsendeba erTi frangi filosofosi da mwerali, fransis ponJi da
misi Zalian saintereso wigni sagnebs
miRma. am poetur-prozaul teqstebSi ponJi alaparakebs sagnebs Tavis
Tavze... roca antigones da metaforebiT savse scenas vuyurebdi, am saganTa xmac mesmoda...
aiwona-daiwona (saqanela) romelic sul trialebs, sul centrSia,
TiTqos yvelaferi mis garSemo xdeba... is yvelas elaparakeba... magram
mas aravin usmens... roca kreoni saqanelas erT mxares muSts dascxebs...
saqanela SekrTeba da wailaparakebs:
nela, kreon, damSviddi, ra mogivi98

da? magram kreons araferi esmis, aravisi esmis... kanoni... kanoni... saxelmwifo... kanoni... mere antigone daabzrialebs saqanelas, daxtis xan erT
da xan meore mxares... saqanela ekiTxeba: ra ginda, antigone, ras woni...?
da Tu woni, gaCerdi, Sens mxares gaCerdi... risTvis kvdebi, antigone?
mere kreons miubrundeba da ai, im
frazaze: viRacam xom unda akeTos es
saqme... saqanela pasuxobs: viRacam
unda akeTos, kreon... es viRac SeiZleba Senc iyo... SeiZleba, arc iyo... kreons mainc araferi esmis... mas ar unda
esmodes (Janris kanonebi karnaxobs),
arc maSin esmis, roca scenaze avtori,
Jan anui dasdevs: nu moklav, antigones, kreon....
mzad var, vaRiaro, rom sagnebi
floben sakuTar nebas, sakuTar gancdebs..., wers erTgan bodriari... es
frazac maSin gamaxsenda, saqanelam
rom laparaki daiwyo...
samwuxarod, personaJebs mxolod
calmxrivi dialogi aqvT saqanelasTan... is ki trialebs... gadaixrebagadmoixreba... gadaswonis-gadmoswonis... es aris misi wonasworoba, gamudmebulad iryeodes, trialebdes... aq
ar aris gamosavali...
99

sibrZne, yvelafers rom aRemateba


msaxiobebi sulac rom gaCumdnen,
yvelafers isedac gaigebT... an kreons (gia roiniSvils) rom uxmo roli
hqondes, sxeulis eniT mainc unaklod
gamoxatavda Tavis saTqmels... mis
rols calke, monospeqtakliviT aRviqvam... aseT dros mgonia, rom msaxiobi ideis niSania, Taviseburi ieroglifi, Jest(eb), da Tu is msaxiobi ostatia, TamaSis dros mTlianad erwymis ideas da am dros, rogorc ukve
giTxariT, yvelaferi laparakobs:
xma, moZraoba, sxeulis yvela kunTi...
yvelaferi... aseTia gia roiniSvilis
kreonic... gansakuTrebuli ieroglifi... sainteresod wasakiTxi...
antigones koconad aRviqvam... ai,
sul tkaca-tkuciT rom iwvis... naperwklebs xan sad gahyris da xan sad...
misi cecxli gadamdebia... is iwvis am
cecxlSi meti da meti azartiT...
(esec Janris kanonebs mihyveba...). bolos, Caiwveba da Caiferfleba... formidan idead transformirdeba...
sofokles antigones finali speqtaklis ideis `gaxsnaSi~ dagexmarebaT:

100

sibrZnea, yvelafers rom


aRemateba.
aravis uRirsad ar unda moveqceT
didebul RmerTTagan...
zviadi sityva ki
kacs, misiT mzvaobars,
dartymebiT pasuxobs da sibrZnes
aswavlis,
aswavlis, TumcaRa ukve moxucs....
P.S. Tqven Tu ukve gaqvT pasuxi
kiTxvaze, romel JanrSi cxovrobT,
Sesabamisad, Janris kanonebic gcodniaT da isic, rogor ganviTardeba da
dasruldeba ambavi... da Tu es Janri
ar mogwonT, yovelTvis gaxsovdeT,
rom postmodernistul epoqaSi advilad SegiZliaT, Janridan JanrSi
imogzauroT, an sulac: SeqmnaT axali
Janri da scenaric Tqvenve daweroT...
da nu daasrulebT mas: ra iciT, rodis mogiwevT misi Secvla...

101

frazeologiuri metaforebi _
dapyroba da monadireba
anu
`lamazi qali qalaqia,
kaci ki Saragzis yaCaRi~
rogorc yvelasTvis cnobilia, am
or leqsemas (dapyroba da monadireba), pirdapiri mniSvnelobebis garda,
gadataniTi, metaforuli mniSvnelobebic aqv SesityvebaSi: qalis (mamakacis) dapyroba, qalis (mamakacis) monadireba.
ra Tqma unda, frazeologiuri tipis metaforebi SemoqmedebiTi xasiaTis ar aris, magram maTi gaanalizeba
saintereso daskvnebamde migiyvanT.

102

metaforebi (maT Soris, enobrivi)


iqmneba analogiis safuZvelze... sagnis saganTan, movlenis movlenasTan, faqtisa faqtTan da, es sulac
ar aris SemTxveviTi. frazeologiuri
metaforebi konceptualuri xasiaTisaa da dakavSirebulia am enaze molaparakeTa mentaluri sivrcis struqturebTan: msoflaRqmasTan, xedvasTan, gemovnebasTan da sxv.
am mxriv, frazeologiuri metaforebi dapyroba da monadireba mxolod qarTuli kulturis sakuTreba
ar gaxlavT. arsebobs universaluri
enobriv-frazeologiuri metaforebic. sxvaTa Soris, enebis kvleva universaluri metaforebis gamovlenis
mizniT, gacilebiT met informacias
mogvcemda kulturebze. vfiqrob,
rom es momavlis saintereso da sasargeblo kvlevebi iqneba.
axla mkiTxvelma minda gaixsenos,
Tavad Tu warmouTqvams an sxvisgan
mousmenia frazebi: qali (mamakaci)
davipyari, an qalis (mamakacis) guli
movinadire... Tqveni azriT, ramdenad
ukavSirdeba es frazebi siyvaruls da
ras niSnavs vinmes dapyroba da monadireba?
103

mecnierebis mier dadgenilia, rom


metaforebs aqvT mamodelirebeli
funqcia, rac imas niSnavs, rom is, rac
metaforaSia mocemuli ori sagani,
faqti, movlena... erTmaneTTan rezonansSia, anu erT movlenas Cven vxedavT meore movlenis TvalebiT da
semantikuri veli erTidan meoreze
ucvlelad SeiZleba gadavitanoT.
maSasadame, roca Cven vambobT davipyari niSnavs, rom me var dampyrobeli, qali (kaci) aris teritoria, vaxden mis okupacias da amiT var
bednieri. dapyrobilic, savaraudod,
bednieria... Sesabamisad, me vaxorcieleb yvela im moqmedebas, romelTac
dampyrobeli: vzverav, vadgen gegmas,
viCen Tanamoazreebs, vutev da ase
Semdeg... fsiqologebic ar ayovneben
da gvTavazoben: rogor davipyroT
sasurveli qali (mamakaci) 9 gza, 7
meTodi, 6 rCeva da sxv. me mxolod metaforebSi Cadebul azrs veZeb, Torem dapyrobili qalebi da kacebi, rogorc teritoriebi, ar mainteresebs...
roca dampyrobeli xarT, elodeT
axal dampyrobelsac... sxva da ucxo
dampyroblis gamoCena Tqvengan uciloblad Zalas moiTxovs, romlis ga104

reSec Tqvens teritorias sxva miiTvisebs. xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu


ori dampyrobeli erTmaneTs Seakvdeba, teritoria sxva arCevans gaakeTebs. am azris klasikuri nimuSia xalxuri balada: `Semomeyara yivCaRi,
romlis finalis erTi varianti ase
sruldeba:
aqeT is kvdeba, iqiT me, qali wavida sxvisasa.
mkvlevarma da mweralma giorgi
SatberaSvilma es dasasruli bunebrivad ar miiCnia, radgan qarTveli qalisTvis Seuferebel qcevad CaTvala,
magram teqsts qmnian avtorebi (am
SemTxvevaSi, xalxi) da ara mkvlevrebi. vfiqrob, damatebiTi variantebi swored am damokidebulebis gamo
gauCnda baladas.
maS, ra xdeba, rodesac Tqven viRacis guls inadirebT? metaforuli
kavSiri aseTia: guli nadiria... amitom is unda daamarcxo, gangmiro
da nanadirevad aqcio, mxolod amis
Semdeg xdeba is Seni sakuTreba, Sen gekuTvnis, raki moinadire. am metaforis SemTxvevaSic isev fizikur ZlasTan gvaqvs saqme. unda iyo kargi meomari, raindi, rom gamudmebulad ibrZode imisTvis, rac ginda da SeiZleba,
105

Senic iyos... an imisTvis, rac, rogorc


gamarjvebuls, SeiZleba jildod gadmogeces, magaliTad, qali...
bevr qals (kacs) unda, rom misTvis
ibrZodnen, moipovebdnen, sisxls
Rvridnen, sxvebs amarcxebdnen... radgan, aseT SemTxvevaSi, qali Seefareba
Zliers sxva Zlieris, an yivCaRis gamoCenamde.... erTxel erTi Cemi nacnobi siamayiT hyveboda, sasurveli mamakacis dasapyrobad rogor CamoaSora mas 19 qali da rogor gahyva colad... magram ufro gvian ufro Zlierma qalma isic CamoaSora Tavis dapyrobils da axla man moipova sasurveli mamakaci... aseT SemTxvevaSi,
msxverpls moswons, rodesac misTvis ibrZvian...
metaforuli kavSiri siyvaruli
brZolaa gamomdinareobs ufro didi metaforuli kavSiridan: cxovreba brZolaa...
bunebrivia, es cxovrebis da siyvarulis erTaderTi metafora rodia...
SegiZliaT, sakuTari metafora aRmoaCinoT... SecvaloT kidec, Tu dainaxavT, rom ar mogewonaT is paradigma,
romelSic uneburad mogaqciaT cxovrebis Cvevebma, enobrivma Cvevebma...
kulturam (Tu ukulturobam)...
106

siyvarulis amgvari frazeologiuri metaforebis wyalobiT, mopoveba-monadirebis paradigma mxatvrul


SemoqmedebaSic grZeldeba...
zemoT ukve giTxariT, rom metaforebs aqvT mamodelirebeli funqcia da isini xSirad, Cvengan damoukideblad, Cvens qvecnobierSi ganagrZoben axali da msgavsi modelebis
agebas ukve arsebul fundamentze...
amis dasturad uamravi nimuSis
moyvana SeiZleba. amJamad erTi avtoris (Salva ramiSvili) erTi leqsis
fragments davimowmeb:
lamazi qali qalaqia
lamazi qali qalaqia,
kaci ki Saragzis yaCaRebis xrova,
lamazi qalis monadireba qalaqis aRebas udris.
aha...
vdgavarT da vuyurebT am patara koxta qalaqs,
Cans zurmuxtisferi bastionebi,
firuzis galavanic Cans,
miwaTxrilia garSemo...
naxe, ra kargad icaven qalaqs?!
magram unda SeviWraT!....

107

da ase Semdeg... grZeldeba es baladac vidre qalaqis (qalis), rogorc


teritoriis, dapyrobamde da misi gulis monadirebamde... (srulad naxeT
aq: http://www.bu.org.ge/x3210?lang=geo).
didi mwerlebi aseT rCevebsac iZlevian: Tu qalis monadireba ginda,
mometebuli yuradReba ar unda miaqcio (konstantine gamsaxurdia).
vTqvaT da, moinadire... mere...? mere eqcevi ise, viT nanadirevs... dahkideb, gaatyaveb da miirTmev...
siyvarulze, rogorc sakvebze,
sxva werilSi gesaubrebiT.
dasasrul ki, erTi metaforuli
igavi siyvarulze monadirebis da
dapyrobis sapirwoned:
qari da yvavili
qars Seuyvarda mSvenieri yvavili.
sanam is nazad ealerseboda yvavils,
isic yvavilobiTa da aromatebiT pasuxobda satrfos. qarma gadawyvita,
rom es ar iyo sakmarisi da mTeli ZaliT daubera yvavils, raTa kidev ufro didi siyvaruli mieRo pasuxad...
yvavilma ver gauZlo aseT Zlier vnebas da gadatyda...

108

qari Seecada, yvavili gaecocxlebina da nazad daubera, magram is sul


gaqra... maSin qarma daiyvira:
me Sen mogeci da daganaxe mTeli
Cemi siyvarulis Zala, Sen ki gadatydi...! rogorc Cans, Sen ar geyo siyvarulis Zala Cem mimarT, ese igi, ar
giyvardi...
magram yvavilma araferi upasuxa,
is mokvda...
P.S. visac uyvars, unda axsovdes,
rom ZaliT da ZlierebiT ar izomeba
siyvaruli.

109

fentezuri metaforebi
`vefxistyaosanSi~

rogor warmogidgeniaT, vefxistyaosanze filmi rom gadaiRon, romeli Janrisa iqneba? vfiqrob, es iqneba fentezis Janris suraTi. sxva JanrSi warmoudgenelia, aRwero is pasaJebi, romlebic poemaSi gvxvdeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom fentezis Janri
axalia da, calsaxad, verc vefxistyaosans mivakuTvnebT am Janrs, masSi aucileblad aRmovaCenT im niSnebs
da metaforebs, romlebic am JanriTvisaa niSandoblivi; saerTodac
mgonia, rom vefxistyaosani Janrulad ekleqturia da romeli Janric

110

unda mivusadagoT, romelime erTi Zalian viwro iqneba am poemisTvis.


fentezis Janris uamravi ganmartebis miuxedavad, gamoyofen 5 ZiriTad niSans, romlebic fentezis Janris nawarmoebisaTvis aucilebelia.
es niSnebia:
sinaTlisa da sibnelis brZola;
misia;
fentezis personaJebi;
jadoqroba;
jadosnuri sagnebi
vefxistyaosanSi am niSnebs SegviZlia SevusabamoT:
sinaTlisa da sibnelis brZola
raindebisa (avTandili, tarieli,
fridoni) da qajebis bZola;
misia satrfos gamoxsna qajTagan;
fentezis personaJebi devebi
da qajebi;
jadoqroba qajebis grZneulebani da sxva;
jadosnuri sagnebi mosasxami,
xmali, muzaradi...

111

`vefxistyaosnis~ samyaro mTliani


da ganuyofeli samyaroa: samefoebiT,
brZolebiT, devebiT, qajebiT... es
samyaroni Tanaarseboben. poemis personaJebma ician qajTa samyaros~ arseboba, amitom dialogSi xSirad aris
apelireba maT Tvisebebze (grZneulebaze), rac imas niSnavs, rom maTTvis
es samyaro ucxo ki ara, aramed kargad
nacnobia:
`kvali Zebnes da ukvirda ver-povna nakvalevisa,
agre kval-wmindad warxdoma kacisa, viTa devisa;
`yovlni arsni caT qveSeTni erTob
srulad momivlian,
magra saqme mis kacisa verasada Semignian;
uRoniod marTal iyvnes, romelTaca qajad Tqvian.
aw tirili aras margebs, cudad
cremlni rasa mdian?~
viTa qaji dagvemale, monebica davafeTeT (avTandili tariels).
`ese wyroma mefisagan visca esma,
vinca icis,
man uambo davar qajsa, vin grZnebiTa caca icis~.
112

devebis ambavi
poemis swavlebisas skolaSi maswavleblebi e.w. mTavar ambebs aqceven yuradRebas da detalebs xSirad
ar ganixilaven; arada, teqstis mTlianobis gasagebad mniSvnelovania detalebi. amitom aris, rom vefxistyaosanTan kvlav da kvlav mibrunebisas
raRac axals yovelTvis aRmovaCenT.
ar vici, ramdens gaxsovT devebis ambavi...
rogorc poemidan iciT, tarieli
cxovrobda devebis gamoqvabulSi,
romelic brZoliT moipova. am brZolaSi, marTalia, devebma tariels monebi dauxoces, magram tarielmac didi ambavi daawia devebs, ise aawioka,
rom maTi xma zecas swvdeboda.
ese qvabni ukacurni vpoven,
devTa Seekafnes,
Semovebi, amovwyviden,
yola veras ver mexafnes,
maT monani damixocnes,
jaWvni avad moeqafnes.
sawuTroman damaRrija, cqafni misni
kvla mecqafnes.
`devTa yvirili, zaxili
zecamdis aiweoda;
113

maTisa laxtis cemiTa


qveyana Seiryeoda;
mze daabneles mtveriTa,
alvis Sto Seirxeoda,
asi erT kerZoT momixdes,
davfriwe, daixeoda.

am ambavs tarieli avTandils uambobs, etyvis, rom mas aqeT cxovrobs


devebis gamoqvabulSi, rom mas Tan axlavs asmaTi, romelic ar tovebs,
radgan tarieli Tavad xan tiris, xan
ibnideba da xanac, gaxelebuli, velad
iWreba:
aha, Zmao, maSindliTgan aqa var
da aqa vkvdebi;
xeli mindors gaviWrebi, zogjer
vtir da zogjer vbndebi,
ese qali ar damagdebs, ars
misTvisve cecxl-nadebi, Cemad Roned sikvdilisa
metsa aras ar vecdebi!

devebis saganZuri da abjari


sakvirveli
mgoni, am ganZis ambavi Zalian mniSvnelovania poemaSi, radgan aq gadana114

xul nivTebs ukavSirdeba gmirebis


momavali gamarjveba.
tarieli uambobs avTandils, rom
rodesac devebi daxoca da maT gamoqvabulSi daiwyo cxovreba, im droidan
icis, rom gamoqvabulSi ganZia, magram
arasdros gasCenia am ganZis monaxulebis survili. axla ki gadawyvita,
avTandilTan erTad enaxa Zvirfaseuloba, romelic 40 darbazSi iyo ganTavsebuli.ai, ra unaxavT SigniT:
`igi saxli ormocive Sigan iyo
gatenili.
poves erTi zaradxana, abjrisaTvis
saxlad qmnili;
mun abjari yovli-feri asre idva,
viTa mwnili,
Sigan erTi kidobani dabeWdili,
ar-gaxsnili.
zeda ewera: `aqa Zevs abjari sakvirvelio,
jaWv-muzaradi, almasi, xrmali basrisa, mWrelio;
Tu qajni devTa Seebnen, dRe iyos igi
Znelio!
umisJamisod vinc gaxsnas, aris mefeTa mklvelio~.

115

yvelaze mniSvnelovani ganZi kidobanSi aRmoaCines: sami tani abjari


saswaulmoqmedi iyo, xmali rkinas ise
Wrida, rogorc bambas; gmirebma qajebTan brZolis win am ganZis aRmoCena kargi bedis niSnad miiCnies:
`kidobani gaxsnes, poves mun abjari
sami tani,
rasaca viT Seimosen meomarni
samni ymani:
jaWvi, xrmali, muzaradi, sabarkuli
maTi gvani,
zurmuxtisa budebiTa iyvnes
viTa luskumani.
TviToman TviTo Caicves, Tavis
Tavs gamoscdidian,
jaWv-muzaradsa, abjarsa marT vera
ver mohkidian;
xrmali rkinasa mohkrian, viT bambis
mkedsa sWridian,
maT uRirs yovlad qveyanad, Sevatyev,
ar gahyidian.
Tqves: `ese niSnad gveyofis, varTo
kargiTa bediTa;
RmerTman mogvxedna TvaliTa, zegardmoT monaxediTa~.
aiRes igi abjari Tavis-Tavisa qediTa,
TviTo maT, erTi fridonis saZRvnoblad Sekres RvediTa~.
116

vin arian qajebi?


qaji qarTul miTologiaSi sulebi; usiamovno garegnobis anTropomorfuli arsebebi. qajebis mudmiv
sacxovrebel adgils qajeTi ewodeba.
qajebs SeuZliaT dRis Ramed, Ramis
ki dRed qceva, zRvaze qariSxlis gamowveva, isini Ziraven xomaldebs, Tavisuflad gadaadgildebian wylis
zedapirze, gadaqcevis da gauCinarebis unari aqvT. ganarCeven miwier da
wylis qajebs. miwieri qajebi tyeebSi
da miuval kldeebSi cxovroben,
mtroben adamianebs, sasikvdilod
scemen an agiJeben maT. wylis qajebi
mdinareebsa da tbebSi cxovroben.
isini nakleb borotebi arian da xSirad exmarebian meTevzeebs. qali-qajebi silamaziT gamoirCevian, adamianebTan sasiyvarulo urTierTobebs
amyareben, xSirad ubedurebisagan ixsnian maT, mihyvebian colad gmirebs.
Tanamedrove qarTul enaSi qaji
ixmareba adamianis misamarTiT, romelmac ar icis miRebuli qcevis normebi an xSirad arRvevs maT.

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leqsikonebidan:
ar kacnia, qajniao, mindobian kdesa salsa... poemaSi qajebi Cveulebriv adamianebad ar moixsenebian, maTi
brZolis wesebic gansxvavebulia, iseTi ar aris, romelTac Cveulebrivi
adamianebi, Tundac gmirebi iyeneben.
mitom, rom qajebisgan Sepyrobili
nestani wers satrfos: nuTu eseni
gegonen sxvaTa mebrZolTa wesiTa...?
da ar urCevs aqamde ubrZolvel qajebTan Sebmas:
`qajTa qalaqi aqamdis mterTagan
ubrZolvelia:
qalaqsa Sigan magari klde maRali
da grZelia...~
grZneulebiT ganTqmuli qajebisTvis araferia miuRweveli. maT SeuZliaT saSineli qarebis gamowveva,
wyalze ise siaruli, rogorc xmeleTze, dRis Ramed gadaqceva, Ramis ganaTeba da sxv.
`iqmen rasme sakvirvelsa, mtersa
Tvalsa daubrmoben,
qarTa aRZrven saSinelTa, navsa
zRva-zRva daamxoben,
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viTa xmelsa gairbenen, wyalsa wmidad daaSroben,


swaddes dResa bnelad iqmen,
swaddes bnelsa anaToben~.

qajTa grZneulebani poemaSi


fatman-xaTuni Tavis grZneul monas (qajs) agzavnis qajeTSi nestanis
ambis gasagebad:
`mohgvara mona grZneuli, Savi,
marT viTa yorani;
ubrZana: `qajeTs gagzavni, wa, gzani gisxen Sorani!~
fatmani eubneba mona-qajs, axla
gamoCndeba, ra SegiZlia Seni grZneulebiTo:
`aw gamoCndebis saxmroba CemTvis
Senisa grZnebisa,....~
imis miuxedavad, rom gza iyo Zalian Sori, `man uTxra: `xvale mogarTva
yovli ambavi nebisa~. (qajebi gadaadgildebian arabunebrivad swrafad).
mas Semdeg, rac fatmani werils gadascems qaj-monas, igi (qaji) wamoisxams jadosnur mosasxams da gafrindeba:
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`fatman misca dawerili mas


grZneulsa xelovansa.
`ese wigni miarTvio qalsa,
mzisa dasagvansa!~
man grZeulman moli rame
wamoisxa zeda tansa,
masve wamsa daikarga, gardafrinda
banis-bansa.
ra qajeTs Sexda, qmnil iyo
oden bind-bandi bnelisa.
uCinod Sevlo simravle moymisa,
karTa mcvelisa,
mas mzesa hkadra ambavi misisa
sasurvelisa.
cixisa karni daxSulni Sevlna
marT viTa Riani,
Sevida zangi pir-Savi,
Tma-grZeli, tan-nabdiani.

mravali dRis mogzaurobis nacvlad, mona-qaji wam-erT mixda fatmanisas:


igi mona wamovida, gulanSaros
momavali,
wam-erT mixda fatmanisas, dRe iara ar-mravali...
misia Sesrulebulia: raindebma gamoixsnes nestani (amiT gaaTavisufles siyvaruli) da ixiles saswaulebrivi suraTi:
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naxes, mzisa Sesayrelad gamoeSva


mTvare gvelsa... am metaforiT yvelaze ukeT ixsneba poemis idea.
es da sxva adgilebi namdvilad aniWebs
vefxistyaosans
fentezis
xibls da am kuTxiT personaJebis danaxva kidev ufro sainteresos xdis
teqsts.
p.s. Tqveni ar vici da, am pasaJebiT
CemTvis TiTqos axali vefxistyaosani daibada...

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Sinaarsi

redaqtorisgan
(kavSiri gulTa Soris)

metafora da nlp

metaforebi da Tavis tvinis


marjvena naxevarsfero

15

abduqciuri azrovneba anu


rogor davZlioT problemebi metaforebiT

24

`rogor miviyvanoT cxeni


patronamde~

32

robert kiosakis `ori mamis~


metafora

40

`ipove Seni elementi~

51

roca saTauri metaforaa

60

`metaforebi, romlebSic
vcxovrobT~

67

poezia metaforaa

76

Tqven sarke xarT

83

122

roca sagnebi laparakoben

93

frazeologiuri metaforebi
dapyroba da monadireba

102

fentezuri metaforebi
`vefxistyaosanSi~

110

123

gamomcemloba `universali~
,

Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19 : 2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30

E-mail: universal@internet.ge

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