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ilias saxelmwifo universiteti

semiotikis kvleviTi centri

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti


humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakulteti

semiotikis VII saerTaSoriso samecniero konferencia

qaosisa da kosmosis semiotika

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

XVI
SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL
VII INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SEMIOTICS CONFERENCE

Semiotics of Chaos and Cosmos

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
2016

UDC 8122

mTavari redaqtori
cira barbaqaZe

Editor-in-Chief
Tsira Barbakadze

redaqtorebi:

Editors

Tamar berekaSvili
guram Yyifiani
marina giorgaZe
gia joxaZe
daviT andriaZe

Tamar Berekashvili
Guram Kipiani
Marina Giorgadze
Gia Jokhadze
David Andriadze

semiotikis kvleviTi centri 2016

dafinansebulia aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis ganaTlebis,


kulturisa da sportis saministros mier
ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT:
E-mail: semiotics@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
qaosisa da kosmosis semiotika
Jolanta Zabarskait (Prof. dr., Institute of the Lithuanian
Language, Kazimieras Simonaviius university, Lithuania),
Mariam Manjgaladze (Prof. dr., Arn. Chikobava Institute
of Linguistics, TSU; International University of Georgia)
The Lexical Unit Space/Cosmos in Georgian and
Lithuanian Contexts of Economic Linguistic ............................ 9
nino abakelia (ilias saxelmwifo universiteti, asoc.
profesori)
ori simboluri modalobis - qaosisa da kosmosis korelaciis SeswavlisaTvis qarTul xalxur
sakralur poeziaSi .............................................................. 23
cira barbaqaZe (ilias saxelmwifo universiteti,

profesori)
sinergia, sinergetika da semiotika ................................... 31
Tamar berekaSvili (ilias saxelmwifo unversiteti,

profesori)
Tanamedrove sazogadoeba, rogorc kosmosis
simulakri ............................................................................. 37
zina gabiCvaZe (niutonis Tavisufali skola,

maswavlebeli, Tsu, doqtoranti)


qaosi da kosmosi vefxistyaosnSi ................................... 44
mariam goduaZe (ilias saxelmwifo universiteti,

doqtoranti)
enobrivi kosmosi _ Verba habendi-sa da sentiendi-s
qarTuli SemTxveva .............................................................. 49

4
eka CikvaiZe (Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis literaturis

instituti, mecnier-TanamSromeli)
samyaros suraTi sulxan-sabas sityvis konaSi ............... 57
elizbar elizbaraSvili (Telavis iakob gogebaSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti, asoc. profesori)


kosmosis da qaosis gagebebis iluzoruloba f.nicSes
filosofiis mixedviT........................................................ 67
natalia ingoroyva (saqarTvelos teqnikuri

universiteti, doqtoranti)
informaciis qaosi da wesrigi............................................ 73
eTer inwkirveli (Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis literaturis

instituti, mecnier-TanamSromeli)
dualistur rwmena-warmodgenaTa kvali qarTul
kosmogoniur gadmocemebSi................................................. 80
maia kikvaZe (baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo

universiteti, asoc. profesori)


vnebiTi gvaris qaosuri formebi qarTulSi ................... 89
rusudan mircxulava (ilias saxelmwifo universiteti,

asoc. profesori)
`fsiqes~ semiotika: qaosidan-kosmosisaken ....................... 96
nana mrevliSvili (saqarTvelos universiteti,

asoc. profesori)
samyaros kosmologiuri mTlianoba, rogorc
agiografiuli teqstis semiotikuri sistemis
erTgvari maxasiaTebeli..................................................... 102

5
nino gogiaSvili (Telavis iakob gogebaSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti, mecnierebaTa doqtori)


qaosis wesrigi da wesrigis qaosi qarTul
postmodernul poeziaSi ................................................... 110
rusudan saRinaZe (quTaisis akaki wereTlis

saxelmwifo universiteti, profesori)


enis SesaZleblobaTa realizeba da norma ..................... 117
maka saxuria (Tbilisis klasikuri gimnazia,

filologiis doqtori)
qaosisa da kosmiuri wesrigis semiotika
vefxistyaosanSi................................................................. 124
marina qavTaraZe (v. sarajiSvilis saxelobis

saxelmwifo konservatoria, profesori)


qaosis da kosmosis konceptebi musikaSi
(me-20 saukunis musikis magaliTze) .................................... 132
nino qimeriZe (ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis

saxelmwifo univeristeti, asoc. profesori)


gramatikuli qaosi vs teqsturi wesrigi (teqstikonstalaciaTa analizisaTvis) ......................................... 139
bela CekuriSvili (ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis

saxelmwifo universiteti, doqtoranti)


qaosisa da wesrigis paradigma meterlinkis
erTmoqmedebiani piesa brmebis mixedviT........................ 152
Sorena SamanaZe, naTela Citauri (Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis

qarTuli literaturis instituti, mecnier-TanamSromlebi)


modernistuli sazogadoebis wesrigidan
postmodernistul qaosamde (nino xaratiSvilis
merve sicocxlis mixedviT) ............................................. 158

6
laSa CxartiSvili (ilias saxelmwifo universiteti,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, mkvlevari)


qaosi Tanamedroveobis romeo da julietaSi .............. 165
mindia cecxlaZe (baTumis SoTa rusTavelis

saxelmwifo universiteti, doqtoranti)


primordialuri qaosis formaluri niSani Salva
bakuraZis poeziaSi................................................................ 171
eka WyoiZe (ilias saxelmwifo universiteti,

asoc. profesori)
simdidre: qaosis mizezi Tu kosmosis safuZveli? ....... 180
gia joxaZe (ilias saxelmwifo universiteti,

asoc. profesori)
`evraziuli wesrigi da qarTuli mwerloba ................... 186
qeTevan mayaSvili, ivane murusiZe (ilias saxelmwifo

universiteti, profesorebi)
qaosi antikuri berZnuli miTologiidan Tanamedrove
maTematikur Teoriamde...................................................... 195

semiotika da sxva
luiza xaWapuriZe, lela avaliani (akaki wereTlis

saxelmwifo universiteti, asoc. profesorebi)


gulTan dakavSirebuli frazeologizmebi arabulsa
da qarTulSi ........................................................................ 202
magda anikaSvili (Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo

universiteti, doqtoranti)
axali qarTuli kinoenis Taviseburebani ......................... 207

7
Sorena barbaqaZe (akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti, asoc. profesori)


sindisierebis sakiTxi Zvel berZnul mWevrmetyvelebasa da mxatvrul prozaSi ............................................ 213
konstantine bregaZe (ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, asoc. profesori)


`modernuli mgrZnobeloba goeTes faustSi:
modernis epoqis diagnozi da prognozi tragediis
meore nawilSi ...................................................................... 218
giorgi razmaZe (SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos

saxelmwifo universiteti, doqtoranti)


filmuri Tu fotogenuri?................................................. 233
lali daTaSvili (qarTul-amerikuli universiteti,

mecn. doqtori)
olamuri sulTa sira(samyaros bibliur-qristianuli
modeli) ................................................................................ 241
nino WalaganiZe (ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, asoc. profesori),


irina Rvineria (kavkasiis saerTaSoriso universiteti,
asoc.profesori)
socialuri media, rogorc masobrivi komunikaciis
saSualebaTa erT-erTi platforma ................................. 250
maka kaWkaWiSvili (qarTul-amerikuli skola

progresi, quTaisi)
qebais teqstis citirebis, recipirebisa da komentirebis
algoriTmuli analizi qarTuli perioduli presis
mixedviT (sakiTxis dasmisaTvis) ........................................ 257

8
nona kupreiSvili (Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis literaturis

instituti, mecnier-TanamSromeli)
beqa qurxulis romani samoTxidan gaqceulebi,
rogorc kulturuli travmis reprezentacia.................. 263
irine maniJaSvili (sdasu, asoc. profesori)
ena, rogorc eris kulturis realizacia......................... 272
mariam marjaniSvili (quTaisis saxelmwifo istoriuli

muzeumis mecnier-TanamSromeli, filologiis doqtori)


semiotikis raoba xelovnebaSi........................................... 279
TinaTin maWaraSvili (ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo

universiteti, doqtoranti)
foto, araverbaluri mediakodi, Tanamedrove qarTul
beWdviT mediaSi _ 2012 - 2014 wlebis gamocdileba ...... 287
ana WankvetaZe (quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universiteti, profesori)
koncepti ,,dro inglisuri enis frazeologiaSi
qarTulTan SepirispirebiT freimi _ drois
cikluri struqturuli organizacia ............................... 293
maia jaliaSvili (Tsu, SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli

literaturis instituti, mTavari mecnier-TanamSromeli,


qarTul-amerikuli universitetis profesori)
samyaros dabadeba leqsis sulidan
(niko samadaSvilis poezia)................................................. 300

qaosisa da kosmosis semiotika


Jolanta Zabarskait
Mariam Manjgaladze
THE LEXICAL UNIT
SPACE/COSMOS IN GEORGIAN
AND LITHUANIAN CONTEXTS OF
ECONOMIC LINGUISTIC
Introduction
The 21st century features processes that alter the
role language plays and peoples attitude towards language. Global virtualisation, influences from the media, and globalisation processes
drive a shift in the role of language as the world
begins to evolve in a semi-virtual and/or
completely virtual way. In other words, we do
not need a show factory to make shoes all we
need is a computer and a set of good communication skills to be able to reach shoe makers
some place in China or Bangladesh. But to be
able to sell the shoes profitably, we need a good
idea and a marketing strategy. These all are
linguistic things and that is why linguistics,
along with other humanities and social sciences,
has turned back to cognitive approaches and
neurosciences. The interaction between linguistic processes and the evolution of real life has
two linguistic and real-life axes: on the
linguistic plane, analysis of the semantic structure takes the front seat, while on the plane of
interaction between the linguistic worldview
and the real life, analysing the effects that language has on real-life processes is what matters.
The objectives of this article are the following:

10

Jolanta Zabarskait, Mariam Manjgaladze

1. Introducing methods of reconstruction of the deepest structures


of linguistic sense.
2. Showing the function of ideas of economic linguistic for using
the national language as the material for the producing of creative
ideas for branding sociocultural life and economy.
3. Conducting a comparative analysis of the Georgian and the
Lithuanian lexical unit Space/Cosmos for highlighting the
universal sensual features, ethnolinguistic qualities, and its
relationship with the real life.
I. Theoretical and practical preconditions
I.1. Humboldt's turn in linguistic. The key theoretical precondition of
this study first of all relates to the neo-Humboldtian concept of language
as the worldview of the linguistic community. The idea that language,
itself a superstructure with its own autonomous laws of being, represents
the quality of life (cultural) in the community that uses it and/or helps
develop it, has been dissected from various angles by philosophers since
Platos times, and by linguists for more than a hundred years, ever since
the era of Wilhelm von Humboldt. A contrary approach to language is
believing that language is not a unique worldview that is inseparable from
the meanings and values created by a specific linguistic community, but
rather a pragmatic tool (sort of like a linguistic hammer or pliers)
designed to perform elementary, predictable functions and achieve
specific practical goals.
If language is perceived as a tool of communication, the essential factors of
its application constitute its communicational benefits, formal structure, and
the importance of the rules of language. If we understand language from the
neo-Humboldtian point of view, the key factors then are its creative power,
ability to represent a national worldview with its historical, cultural, social,
and daily-life context, and the importance of knowledge of language and
knowledge obtained through language (see Pic. 1):

Picture 1. Humboldt's turn in linguistic

The Lexical Unit Space/Cosmos in Georgian and Lithuanian


Contexts of Economic Linguistic

11

I.2. Extra-linguistic factors. The shift in the role that language plays in
the 21st century is driven by the following extra-linguistic factors:
1.
Every national language is virtualised in the global space
(Vainien, Zabarskait: 2012).
2.
The functions of language expand as it becomes a tool of creativity
and not just communication (Augustinaitis, Zabarskait: 2015).
3.
National language has started to create added value in sociocultural
life and economy (Augustinaitis, Zabarskait: 2015).
Factor number one the virtualisation of national language allows
analysing linguistic resources in different dimensions and in a practical
manner, creating contemporary linguistic monolingual and multilingual
infrastructures, such as multilingual terminological resources (cf.
www.eurotermbank.com), parallel corpuses, multimodal dictionaries (cf.
www.lkiis.lki.lt), tree banks, semantic web nets, and others.
By allowing us to simultaneously investigate different linguistic data,
contemporary linguistic infrastructures also provide for a certain degree
of certainty when it comes to determining what lies, from the cognitive
point of view, on the semantic level of language, and its higher-order
level of meaning. National language is a black box, but users intuitively
grasp all aspects of its semantic features and are able to generate the
highest level of natural language comprehension the field of senses of
worldview of national language. Advocates of cognitivism argue, and
neuroscientists confirm, that every lexeme is related through many
semantic and associative ties with other words, meanings, metaphors,
social and individual associations that we feel by intuition, unconsciously
and/or semi-consciously. In other words, every word carries its semantic
dowry that it brings to communication, linguistic creative work, and
worldview. We can reconstruct this semantic dowry by analysing the
polysemy, synonymy, antonymy of a word, its semantic fields,
derivations, metaphors, collocations, phraseology, associations
(individual and social), and so on.
Factor number two the turn that language takes towards creativity has
to do with virtual linguistic infrastructures an altered logic of modern-day
knowing, when the latest media and digital technologies allow us to
simultaneously analyse and reconstruct various contexts with which
every word in a national language relates. In other words, every word is
rooted in language through the nations history, culture and ethnic
culture, and social processes (such as daily life) (see Pic. 2):

12

Jolanta Zabarskait, Mariam Manjgaladze

Picture 2. The lexical units in relation with the real world:


contexts (roots).
Contexts of words originate from the unique national history and from the
ethnic culture, culture, lifestyle that rises out of it, thus becoming
inimitable material for creativity and a font of unique ideas in the virtual
space and the latest media.
Factor number three creating added value through language is related
to the first two factors and generates an idea that once the semantic
dowry of any word is identified and the contexts pertaining to its
semantics and associations are established, one can create/construct/adjust reality because, bearing in mind the different role that
language plays in the 21st century, there are now processes taking place
that Searle, a prominent pragmatics figure, has described as words make
things (Searle: 1976).
Cognitivists argue that there are two ways to do research in cognitive
semantic: study the lexical units in relations with other lexical units and
study the lexical units in relations with the real world (Baker: 2000).
Linguistically speaking lexical units in relation with other lexical units
the relationship between the semantic dowry and the roots of contexts
of a word are generalised through the interaction between the concept and
understanding. As the deep structure of the root of the word is present on
this field as well, etymology the original value of the word comes into
play here as the third factor (see Pic. 3):

The Lexical Unit Space/Cosmos in Georgian and Lithuanian


Contexts of Economic Linguistic

13

Picture 3. Connection (contexts plus semantic dowry) from the


linguistic point of view.
Source: Lithuanian cognitivist Algirdas Saudargas scheme.
From the real-world point of view lexical units in relation with the real
world this represents the functioning of a word in discourses reflecting
different contexts (see Pic. 4) that can be analysed on a locality
globalism scale, involving regional contexts that can be interpreted in
many different ways.

Picture 4. Connection (contexts plus semantic dowry) from the


cognitive point of view.
Source: Augustinaitis A., Zabarskait J., The new approach towards language learning, economic linguistics and the language industries in a multilingual Europe, international conference Unity in diversity: languages
for mobility, jobs and active citizenship, 2526 September 2013, Vilnius.
http://www.multilingualism2013.eu/isvados/Plenary/PL_25%20Zabarska
ite_Augustinaitis.pdf

Jolanta Zabarskait, Mariam Manjgaladze

14

II. The semantic dowry of the Lithuanian word kosmosas


(Lith. for cosmos)
As it was already mentioned before, semantic dowry can be reconstructed
through the semantic ties and associations of a word. The lexeme of the
concept kosmosas (Lith. for cosmos) pertaining to this plane of expression
alone is being analysed. Semantically related words are examined only
through their connection with the word kosmosas. The semantic dowry of
the word visata (Lith. for space) is not analysed separately.
The analysis has been carried out on the basis of www.lkiis.lki.lt, an
information system for resources of the Lithuanian language, which
contains the following resources of Lithuanian: 4 electronic catalogues
(The Dictionary of the Lithuanian Language, Lithuanian riddles, folk
beliefs, post-war guerrilla songs); 6 monolingual dictionaries (the
dictionary of the modern Lithuanian language, a systematic dictionary of
the Lithuanian language, and a dictionary of synonyms, antonyms,
phraseology, comparisons); 10 multilingual dictionaries (Lithuanian
English, EnglishLithuanian, LithuanianGerman, GermanLithuanian,
LithuanianPolish, PolishLithuanian, LithuanianLatvian, Latvian
Lithuanian, LatinLithuanian, Ancient GreekLithuanian); 3 databases of
Lithuanian studies (a database of Lithuanian surnames, a geographic
information system of toponyms, a database of historical toponyms, and a
dialectal database). The main emphasis is placed on monolingual
dictionaries. Additionally, data from the Corpus of Lithuanian Language
were used (see Table 1):
Table 1
The semantic dowry of the Lithuanian word kosmosas, according to
the information available in dictionaries and in the Corpus of the
Lithuanian Language
Dictionary of Example in
another source Lithuanian
Modern
Lithuanian
Dictionary
(MLD)

Cosmos
ksmosas
visata: Skridimas universe: To
fly to cosmos
kosmos
visata kosmini
kn ir sistem
visuma:
em vistos
erdvje. Sauls
sistema tai
vistos dalel.

Dictionary of

Example in
English

Ksmosas

Universe: the
whole of
heavenly bodies
and systems:
The Earth in the
universe. The
solar system is a
part of the
universe.
Cosmos

Element of
semantic
dowry
Synonymy. The
meaning of the
word kosmosas
is explained
through
synonymy.
The MLD
interprets
universe from
the astronomical
point of view.
Synonymy.

Conclusions
A neutral
astronomical
meaning of the
word.
Has the
semantic
attribute of
very big.

The synonymic

The Lexical Unit Space/Cosmos in Georgian and Lithuanian


Contexts of Economic Linguistic
Synonyms
(DS)

visata

Dictionary of
Phraseology
(DPh)

jra iki kli apie


pagyrn: Jam
(teigiamam
herojui) bdinga
tai kas: jra iki
keli, kosmosas
iki kulkni, visos
klitys perokamos
vienu atsispyrimu.

Modern
Lithuanian
Dictionary
(MLD)

Dictionary of
Antonyms
(DA)

Corpus of
Lithuanian
Language

Universe

The sea
reaching to
ones knees
(lit.), when
referring to
someone who
likes to brag: He
(a good
character) has
the sea reaching
to his knees,
cosmos to his
ankles, any
obstacle is but a
leap tall.
Chasas senovs Chaos in the
graik ir romn
Greek and
filosofijoje
Roma
pirmin beform
philosophy, the
mediaga, i
mater that gave
kurios atsirads
birth to the
kosmosas, pasaulio Cosmos, the
darna. (DLK)
harmony of the
world (MLD).

m planeta,
kurioje gyvenama
ksmosas kosmini
kn ir sistem
visuma: Jokios
ries medis ar
augalas
tarpininkas tarp
kosmoso ir ems
savo vaisiais ar
atliekomis neteria,
nenaikina
gimtosios, j
iauginusios
ems r.
Kosmosas kas
labai didelis :
kieta kaip titnagas
ir didel kaip

15

Based on
astronomical
semantic ties.

relationship
does not reveal
any new
semantic and
associative
elements of
semantic dovry.
Metaphor.
A metaphorical
A phraseological meaning of
unit based on
very big.
metaphoric
translation of
very big.

Indirect
polysemy.
Mater
originating from
chaos.

A meaning
embedded in
the classical
Greek
philosophy.

Earth an
inhabited planet
Cosmos the
whole of
heavenly bodies
and systems
(Dictionary of
Antonyms)

Antonymy. A
cognitive
contraposition:
the cosmos is
alien.

The antonymic
contraposition
contradicts
scientific logic
that the earth is
also part of the
cosmos.

Cosmos smth.
very big

Collocation
comparison.
The semantic
attribute of very

The semantic
attribute of
very big gives
the word

16
http://tekstyna kosmosas
s.vdu.lt/teksty Aminybs
nas/
piramid.
Database of
Kosmosas
Lithuanian
protu
nesuvokiamas,
Neologisms
nesuprantamas
http://naujazodzi dalykas
ai.lki.lt/?

Jolanta Zabarskait, Mariam Manjgaladze

Cosmos smth.
inconceivable

big.

cosmos a
connotation.

Metaphor.
A new meaning.
Recorded in
2007.

Ties with the


antonymic
relationship of
alien. The
semantic
attribute of
alien creates a
connotation.

The Corpus data show that not all meanings are recorded in dictionaries
and databases; see Table 2:
Table 2
Missing meanings in dictionaries
The meanings recorded in the
The meaning according to the
dictionary/database
Corpus
The whole of heavenly bodies and
Aeronautic activities field
systems
What was born out of chaos
Harmony/order
Something very big
Something inconceivable; an
incomprehensible thing
We can draw a conclusion that in the Lithuanian language the semantic
dowry of the word kosmosas tends to diminish as a result of the new
figurative meaning of something inconceivable; an incomprehensible
thing that can be traced down to the contraposition of Cosmos equals
Earth, which contradicts the rules of logic (and astronomy) yet exists in
the Lithuanian language nonetheless. Hence the deep semantic attribute of
the word: cosmos is not something that should be seen as a practical part of
the mans life, one that has to do with latest technology, astronautics,
satellites, and so on. It is a weird tendency, especially considering that
many latest technologies relate to space (such as various satellite
communication systems, etc.). Could be that as a field of practical activity,
cosmos stirs in a Lithuanians mind memories of the Soviet occupation
when space conquest had a strong ideological meaning and a purpose of
display of the Soviet Unions military power. The word cosmos within
the meaning of a field of activity of a person (such as a scientist, engineer,
programmer) is not present in the terminological bank of the Republic of
Lithuania (http://terminai.vlkk.lt/pls/tb/tb.search) either.

The Lexical Unit Space/Cosmos in Georgian and Lithuanian


Contexts of Economic Linguistic

17

Nor do dictionaries carry the meaning of harmony, order, which is the


true antonymic contraposition of the lexeme chaos, yet this meaning can
be found in the Corpus. Its occasional status supports the presumption
that Lithuanians consider cosmos to be an alien object and therefore the
semantic dowry of this word tends to diminish, as per above.
III. The relationship between the lexeme cosmos
and real life in Lithuanian
III. 1. Analysis of historical context. It is indeed a unique architect in the
history of Lithuania, one that relates to the practical phase of the history of
cosmos as a field of aeronautical activity. The pioneer of the rocket theory
came from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He was Kazimieras
Simonaviius
(Latin: Casimirus
Siemienowicz,
Polish: Kazimierz
Siemienowicz, born ca 1600 ca 1651). He was a Polish-Lithuanian
general of artillery, gunsmith, military engineer, artillery specialist, and
pioneer of rocketry. He gave the world the basics of the rocket theory,
which he published in his book The Great Art of Artilery. The book was
translated into main languages of Europe already in the 17th18th century.
unfortunately, even he is mentioned on many different occasions within the
context of Lithuanian scientific advancement, Kazimieras Simonaviius is
unknown to the general public and is not a figure of general pride in
Lithuania, even he is the man who gave the world science a push to
significant progress, and a persona whose ideas were ahead of their time.
His personality is made relevant by Lithuanian intellectuals; for instance,
Kazimieras Simonaviius Universitetas was founded in Lithuania in 2012,
its object to be a leader in science and innovation of studies (for more, visit
www.ksu.lt), which is in line with Simonaviiuss symbolic value.
However, as it was already mentioned, the public does not see Lithuania as
a pioneer in space exploration and this unfortunately does not strengthen
other contexts of real life.
III. 1. Analysis of socioeconomic context. Even though the European
Space Agency (ESA), an intergovernmental organisation for space
exploration, was founded in 1975, Lithuania only became its member in
2014. This step on Lithuanias part was not well received in the public
space, although this may seem strange, because strategically Lithuania
positions itself as a state that should capitalise on high technology. ESA
member states all boost their GDP volumes through activities relating to
the space industry (for more, visit http://www.esa.int/ESA). Whether it
has to do with the weak position that the meaning of the phrase

18

Jolanta Zabarskait, Mariam Manjgaladze

aeronautical field of activity has in the linguistic worldview of


Lithuanians, is hard to tell, but a certain correlation is evident.
The situation may change, because in 2014, Lithuania launched its first
two satellites: LituanicaSat-1 and LituanicaSat-2. One picture taken by
the satellite LituanicaSat-1 shows the Sun, the Earth, and 3 antennae of
the satellite. Dalia Grybauskait, President of the Republic of Lithuania,
said that the first Lithuanian photograph taken from space reminded her
of a picture by Mikalojus Konstantinas iurlionis (see video here:
http://www.delfi.lt/video/aktualijos/prezidente-pirmoji-lietuviskanuotrauka-is-kosmoso-primena-m-k-ciurlioniopaveiksla.d?id=64847137).
III. 1. Analysis of cultural context. Within the Lithuanian culture, the
subject of contraposition to harmony and/or chaos is not one of the most
favourite. Its most obvious ties relate to the interpretation of the creative
work of Lithuanias most famous painter Mikalojus Konstantinas iurlionis.
iurlioniss paintings fuse the art movements that were prevalent at the turn
of the 19th and 20th century, such as symbolism, romanticism, secession, and
sometimes show buds of abstractionism as a new direction in art. iurlionus
was interested in the subjects of cosmos, religion, philosophy (for more, visit
http://www.ciurlionis.lt/). An interesting fact is that the cosmos of iurlionis
has a collocation of Lithuanian cosmos (cf. iurlionis, the Man who
Discovered Lithuanian Cosmos for the World, a show on ini Radijas).
Of course, saying that here, as well, the weak position of the meaning
harmony/order in the linguistic worldview is at play would be too bold a
claim, yet the need to minimise cosmos in terms of the Lithuanian identity
can be traced in other collocations, discussions of cultural phenomena (cf.
the peasants cosmos (cultural scientist D. Tamoaityt), a cosmos-like
homestead (graphics artist M. Jasilionyt-Vaicekauskien), the forest is my
cosmos (the JAKA TEKA band)). Apparently, the deep rustic view of the
world approaches the boundaries of the concept of cosmos with care; the
boundaries are expanding through practical activities of the 21st century, but
that is a rather slow-moving process. This correlates with the semantic and
notional structures of the lexeme cosmos, the antonymic contraposition of
Earth equals Cosmos that contradicts scientific logic, allowing us to
interpret the occurrence of the new meaning of an inconceivable,
incomprehensible thing.
IV. Economic linguistics: the creative power of language
Analysis of the semantic dowry of the word cosmos in the Lithuanian
language points to the somewhat surprising tendencies for it to diminish

The Lexical Unit Space/Cosmos in Georgian and Lithuanian


Contexts of Economic Linguistic

19

as a result of an inconceivable, incomprehensible thing, a new meaning


that has its own connotation and a negative undertone, as well as the
occasionally positioned meanings of an aeronautic activities field and
harmony/order, which are not featured in any of the dictionaries.
Analysis of the word and real-life contextual interactions also reveals
a tendency for the concept of cosmos to be minimised towards the
Lithuanian or rustic nature of the close environment, a homestead, a
forest, and so on. Even though the situation is changing, what with the
launch of Lithuanian space satellites, the shift in language, worldview,
and origins of the world is lagging behind, and the concept of cosmos is
so far not expanding. It is therefore consistent to expect that it is not
popular for the purposes of constructing new ideas, brands, marketing
strategies. This has further proof in the results of data analysis: there are
few if any competitive brands in Lithuania bearing the concept of
cosmos, even though such brands are quite popular elsewhere in the
world. The strongest brand that the older-generation consumers will
probably think about first in this regard is the popular Soviet-made
cigarettes Kosmosas.
V. Lexical Unit Space / Cosmos in Georgian
In Georgian linguistic environment the establishment and using the
lexical unit cosmos in different contexts is also associated with the
Soviet period. The Georgian Explanatory Dictionary (1950-1964) gives
such a definition: Cosmos [Gr. Kosmos] The Universe as a whole, as a
gross in the system (the opposite. Chaos) http://ena.ge/explanatory-online
. The definition is similar in The Dictionary of Foreign Words: Cosmos
the Universe as a whole; It includes the space between planets, stars
and
galaxies
and
all
the
objects
in
the
space.
http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gwdict/index.php?a=srch&d=3&id_srch=d7d63d
2261d84ca4f6f2afdee68fa27b&il=en&p=1
Dictionary compiled by Sulkhan-Saba-Orbeliani
- The Georgian
Dictionary (the first edition was published at 1754 ) contained the
encyclopedic elements excels with its advanced methodology and plenty
of actual material). The lexeme Universe may be considered as a
synonym of Cosmos: Cosmos Universe (Synonyms). Universe:
Samyaro (1, 6 dabad.) esei cai ars uZravi da myari garegan sxvaTa
caTa ZA.. (1,6 dabad.) ese ars ca yovelTa caTa garegan uZravi da mtkice
B. samyaro ars gareSe yovelTa caTa Cab. samyaro ca ars uZravi da
ganuzomeli, romelsa zeda(T) ars sasufeveli da mxedroba caTa CqD. ese
ars ca uZravi da ganuzomeli, romlisa ze missa ars sasufeveli da Zalni
caTani
E.

20

Jolanta Zabarskait, Mariam Manjgaladze

http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gwdict/index.php?a=srch&d=8&id_srch=86df35
d69916d039f11b63da836eba24&il=en&p=1
As for the historical contexts the lexeme universe, it can be found in
the religious as well as in the literary texts, e.g. for example the beginning
of the poem The Knight in the Panthers Skin by Shota Rustaveli:
One who created the universe with its powers...
http://www.nplg.gov.ge/ebooks/authors/shota_rustaveli/vefxistyaosani.pd
f
Phraseologisms: 1. He / She has a universal calm! 2. He / She conquered
the universe He became significantly popular.
Jargon meaning: Cosmos: unclear, ambiguous; I will fly you to the
space = I will get rid of you.
Cultural context (Cosmos in art): - the space is a source of inspiration
for modern artists. A number of interesting works have been created in
this regard.
Cosmos in economic linguistic: concept of cosmos as in Lithuanian
is not expanding and it is not popular for the purposes of constructing
new ideas, brands, marketing strategies. Even in Soviet Georgia as well
as in other republics the cigarette brand Cosmos was most of popular.
Existing meanings in Georgian: Terminological meaning (astronomy,
physics); Philosophical meaning (Chaos Cosmos in the Greek and
Roma philosophy); Harmony / order; Metaphorical meaning
incomprehensible.
Missing
meanings
in
Georgian:
The world/universe considered as ordered system; Aeronautic activities
field; Ordered system.
Conclusions
1. The method of semantic dowry and contextual roots permits
reconstructing the deepest structure of sense of the lexical unit
cosmos;
2. The sense of the lexical unit cosmos clears the level of the concept
of cosmos existing in the national worldview and in sociocultural
and economic contexts of real life;
3. The Georgian and the Lithuanian sense of the lexical unit cosmos
have a lot in common: the contemporary practical meaning is absent
in both languages;
4. The missing meaning aeronautic activities field has eliminated the
active demand to be a country engaged in space exploration;
5. Cosmos is not a popular concept to be found in national brands in
Lithuania and Georgia;

The Lexical Unit Space/Cosmos in Georgian and Lithuanian


Contexts of Economic Linguistic

21

6. More phraseology in the Georgian language may be connected with a


philosophical meaning that has a wider (both historically and
culturally) proliferation.
Literature:
1. Augustinaitis, Zabarskait 2015: Augustinaitis A., Zabarskait J.


Actual Problems
of Azerbaijani studies, Azerbaijan : Baku Salvic University, p. 3540.
2. Augustinaitis, Zabarskait 2013: Augustinaitis A., Zabarskait J. The
new approach towards language learning, economic linguistics and
the language industries in a multilingual Europe international
conference Unity in diversity: languages for mobility, jobs and
active citizenship, 2526 September 2013, Vilnius. Internet accesss:
http://www.multilingualism2013.eu/isvados/Plenary/PL_25%20Zaba
rskaite_Augustinaitis.pdf.
3. Baker 2000: Baker Chr. What Can Words Mean? Encyclopedia of
Cognitive Science. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers
4. Searle 1976: Searle J. R. A classification of illocutionary acts
Language in Society, Vol. 5 No. 1 Cambridge University Press, p. 123.
5. Vainien, Zabarskait 2012: Vainien D., Zabarskait The
Lithuanian Language in the Digital Age. White Paper Series.
Lietuvi kalba skaitmeniniame amiuje. Baltj knyg serija.
Berlin: Heiderberg: Springer, 85 p. ISBN 978-3642-307-57-7.
Internet accesss: http://www.meta-net.eu/whitepapers/ebook/lithuanian.pdf
Digital language resources:
1. Corpus of the Lithuanian Language: http://tekstynas.vdu.lt/tekstynas/
2. Database of Lithuanian Neologisms: http://naujazodziai.lki.lt/
3. Information infrastructure of Lithuanian language resources:
www.lkiis.lki.lt
4. Multilingual terminology resource: www.eurotermbank.com
5. National Bank of Lithuanian terms:
http://terminai.vlkk.lt/pls/tb/tb.search
6. Shota Rustaveli , The Knight in the Panthers Skin. Internet accesss:
http://www.nplg.gov.ge/ebooks/authors/shota_rustaveli/vefxistyaosan
i.pdf
7. The Dictionary of Foreign Words, by Chabashvili, Internet accesss:

22

Jolanta Zabarskait, Mariam Manjgaladze

8. http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gwdict/index.php?a=srch&d=3&id_srch=d7
d63d2261d84ca4f6f2afdee68fa27b&il=en&p=1
9. The Georgian Dictionary, by Sulxan-Saba Orbeliani , Internet
accesss:
http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gwdict/index.php?a=srch&d=8&id_srch=86
df35d69916d039f11b63da836eba24&il=en&p=1
10. The Georgian Explanatory Dictionary, by Arn. Chikobava, Tbilisi,
1950-1964, Internet accesss: http://ena.ge/explanatory-online
Other Internet Resources:
1. http://www.ciurlionis.lt/
2. http://www.delfi.lt/video/aktualijos/prezidente-pirmoji-lietuviskanuotrauka-is-kosmoso-primena-m-k-ciurlioniopaveiksla.d?id=64847137)
3. www.ice.ge
4. www.ena.ge
5. http://www.esa.int/ESA
6. www.ksu.lt
iolanta zabarskaite,
litvuri enis instituti, kazimiras
simonaviCiusis universiteti, litva
mariam manjgalaZe,
Tsu arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis
instituti, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso
universiteti, saqarTvelo
semantema kosmosi litvursa da qarTulSi ekonomikuri
lingvistikis konteqstSi
moxsenebaSi ganxilulia semantema kosmosis istoriuli,
socialuri, kulturuli da enobrivi aspeqtebi litvuri
da
qarTuli (ori gansxvavebuli enobrivi ojaxis, magram uZvelesi
leqsikuri fondis mqone)
magaliTebis safuZvelze. naCvenebia,
Tu rogor cocxlobs eris kuturul, enobriv garemoSi semantikuri koncepti da gadmoicema sinonimebis, antonimebis, metaforebis, asociaciebis da sxva enobrivi saSualebebiT. naSromis siaxlea semantema kosmosis ganxilva ekonomikuri lingvistikis
konteqstSi.

nino abakelia
ori simboluri modalobis
qaosisa da kosmosis
korelaciis
SesawavlisaTvis
qarTul xalxur sakralur
poeziaSi
winamdebare statia exeba qarTul sakralur poeziaSi dacul erT-erTi saweso
simReris _ mze Sina da mze gareTa-s _
teqstis analizs. saweso simRera _ mze
Sina da mze gareTa _ romlis dafiqsireba garkveul konteqstSi jer kidev SesaZlebeli iyo meoce saukunis adreul
wlebSi, Tavis sakulto daniSnulebaze
migvaniSnebs; is mSvidobianad Tanaarsebobda maRali religiis gverdiT, romlis safuZvelic wigniereba iyo.
aRniSnul saweso simReras Tavis
droze, sakvlevi Temidan gamomdinare,
gakvriT Seexnen d. janeliZe da l. gvaramaZe, xolo musikaluri teqstis analizidan gamomdinare, eTnomusikologebma
is qarTvelTa musikaluri azrovnebis
uZveles safexurebs daukavSires (WiTanava: 1987).
Cveni kvleva fokusirdeba aRniSnuli
saweso simReris verbalur teqstze, mis
Tanmdev ritualze da masTan asocirebul konteqstze, romlebic mravalfero-

24

nino abakelia

vani informaciis Semcvelia da semiotikuri perspeqtividan analizdeba.


saweso simReris teqsti aseTia:
mze Sina da mze gareTa
mzev Sin Semodio,
uyivlia mamalsao
mzev Sin Semodio.
gaTenebulao
mzev Sin Semodio,
gaTendi Tu gaTendebi
mzev Sin Semodio.
Cven vaJi dagvebada
mzev Sin Semodio.
vaJis mama Sin ar aris
mzev Sin Semodio (qarTuli xalxuri poezia: 1972).
fragmentulobis miuxedavad, teqsti ramdenime informaciuli
nakadis Semcvelia da gulismobs iseT konceptebs, rogorebic
aris qaosi/kosmosi, uwyvetoba/wyvetiloba, moZraoba/uZraoba, mze,
sekvencia, gza, moZraoba, sazRvris semiotizacia da misi gadalaxva, karebi, cikluroba, labirinTi da sxv.
Tavidanve unda aRiniSnos, rom zemoT motanili saweso simRera or dones Seicavs: miTologiursa da yofiTs.
yofiT doneze aRniSnuli saweso simRera bavSvis dabadebasTan
iyo dakavSirebuli. l. gvaramaZem yuradReba Zalze mniSvnelovan
faqtze gaamaxvila; kerZod ki, imaze, rom Zeobis wesi Ram-RamobiT sruledboda, simReris Semsrulebelni mze Sina da mze gareTa-s SesrulebiT mzes uxmobdnen Sin (gvaramaZe: 1987; abakelia:
2001, 175).
mogvianebiT Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobisgan dacilebuli mze
Sina da mze gareTa iavnanas teqstSi CarTes, romelic batonebis anu (sulebad warmodgenili) bavSvTa infeqciuri daavadebebis stumrad mosvlis dros sruldeboda maTi gulebis mosagebad.
batonebisadmi miZRvnil kultSi v.bardaveliZem gamoavlina
didi deda nanas kulti. nanasadmi miZRvnil simReraSi batoniSvili oqros qoCriania _ oqros burTia (mzea), oqros mtevania,
mas mTvare grexilad uvlia (artyia), varskvlavi Rilad ubia,
vardni fexamdin usxia, oqros akvanSi Zvirfas farCebSi wevs,

ori simboluri modalobis _ qaosisa da kosmosis _ korelaciis


SesawavlisaTvis qarTul xalxur sakralur poeziaSi

25

romelsac ia-vardi ayria. akvans lalis CanCxura, CanCxura margalitisa ubia (bardaveliZe: 1957, 100-109).
miTologiur doneze aRniSnuli teqsti SeiZleba davakavSiroT solarul miTologiur ciklebSi mziuri yrmis dabadebis
uZveles motivTan.
vaxtang batoniSvilis istoriebr aRweraSi dadasturebulia Zeobis wes-Cveuleba, romlis drosac samaias rituali
sruldeboda. aRniSnuli wyaros mixedviT, mSobiarobidan mesame
dRes maxarobeli midioda naTesavebTan, megobrebsa da nacnobebTan erTad. mologinebul dedas awvendnen mdidruli farCebiT
dafarul taxtze. modiodnen momlocvelebi.
l. gvaramaZis TqmiT, ufro adre Zeobis wes-Cveulebebs Teimuraz II-is leqsebSi vxvdebiT. mis mier aRwerili wes-Cveuleba
maRali sazogadoebis ojaxebs exeba, magram TviTon ritualis
Sesruleba mkvlevars avaraudinebs, rom igi xalxSic sruldeboda da dakavSirebuli iyo nayofierebis kultTan. aq Zeobis monawileni. gadaxlarTuli xelebiT, cekviTa da simReriT Sediodnen
SenobaSi, iq, sadac axalSobilis deda iwva.
mze Sina da mze gareTa-s CamTavrebis Semdeg monawileni musikosebs saxlSi epatiJebodnen ukve musikis TanxlebiT da simRerisas asrulebdnen cekva samaias, anu samis cekvas gadawnuli xelebiT saxlSi anu SinaSi. xazgasasmelia, rom aRniSnuli wesis
dros ferxulebi sruldeboda rogorc Sin, ise _ gareT.
saweso simReris (romelic mTlianad mzis monotonuri Sin
moxmobaa) pirvelive pwkarSi mzis ori mdgomareoba _ Sina da
gare _ aris dafiqsirebuli. misi perioduli Sina da gare samyaroebSi yofna da qarTvelTa kosmologiur rwmena-warmodgenebze
mianiSnebs: uxilavi, gaumJRavnebeli mdgomareobis gamJRavnebaa,
Sesabamisad, mikrokosmosSi / sacxovrebelSi /SinaSi Semosvlaa.
mzis SinaSi Semosvla droSi Semosvlaa. SinaSi igulisxmeba ara
marto aq, aramed rogorc es arqauli cnobierebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli _ aq da axla. Sinas da gares Sesabamisi binaruli
opoziciebi Seesabameba: aRmavloba / daRmavloba, naTeli / bneli,
sikeTe / boroteba, dRe / Rame, sicocxle / sikvdili, TeTri /
Savi, buneba / kultura da sxv.
teqsti aqcentirdeba mzeze, mis moZraobaze da, Sesabamisad, gzaze, romelic mzem unda gaiaros (da, rogorc Cans, Cvilmac masTan erTad, romelic sxva teqstebs Tu SevadarebT, TviTon xan
mzea, xan mzes mihyveba), sazRvarze (sazRvris semiotizacia); gza

26

nino abakelia

ki, rogorc cnobilia specialuri literaturidan akavSirebs,


aerTianebs zemosa da qvemos, mTasa da bars, zRvasa da xmeleTs,
saaqaosa da saiqios, dabolos _ mTlianad kosmoss.
aRniSnul saweso simReraSi, romelic ferxuliT sruldeboda, mzis miTologiuri gza gadioda Sinasa da gares sazRvarze.
aq ki Semodis ferxulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli moZraoba-uZraobis
Tema.
zogadad, moZraoba-uZraobis dapirispirebaSi moZraoba realizdeba usasrulo gameorebasa da elementebis zrdaSi, rac gulisxmobs gadaadgilebas sivrceSi. uZraoba _ erTi da igive elementis erTsa da imave kombinaciur gameorebaSi (raporti ornamentSi), anu dabrunebaSi erTsa da imavesTan, tkepnis mdgomareobasTan, gasasvlelis verpovnasTan. TiToeul maTgans SeuZlia rigrigobiT Seasrulos dasawyisisa da dasasrulis roli. romlis arCeva ganisazRvreba gzaze moZraobis mimarTulebiT, centriskenuli Tu centridanuliT: rolebis cvliT moZraobis ciklurobiT, wasvla /mosvlis monacvleobiT, anu maradiuli dabrunebiT.
marSruti moZraoba gzaze sivrceSi imavdroulad aris moZraoba gzaze droSi. (ix. civiani: 1999). am gzas ki, qarTuli arqauli Sexedulebebis mixedviT, gadis axalSobili, roca is Semodis adamianTaA samyaroSi /sociumSi / SinaSi da, aseve, gardacvlilis suli, rodesac is saiqioSi gadis, romelsac qarTvelTaA kosmologiuri rwmena-warmodgenebis mixedviT, Sina da gare
sknelebi Seesabameba.
aRsaniSnavia, rom sivrculi da droiTi opoziciebis garCevisas anTropocentrul proeqciaSi Sina nacnobs, gare ucnobs,
Sesabamisad, xilulsa da uxilavs Seesabameba.
amgvarad, aRniSnul saweso simReraSi nagulisxmevi sivrculi
da droiTi kategoriebi bunebrivad ewereba anTropocentrul
klasifikaciaSi. amasTan, aTvlis wertilad iTvleba ara imanenturi sivrce da dro, aramed adamianis mdgomareoba sivrcesa da
droSi. adamiani gadaadgildeba sivrceSi, dro ki miedineba. adamiani sivrceSi orientirdeba opoziciebSi: sakuTari / sxvisi; sivrcul terminebSi: Sina /gare (Sesabamisad, kosmosi / qaosi).
mzis simbolika cnobilia da TvalsaCinod gamWvirvalea:
RmerTi Tvalia, Tvali _ Riobi/ kari sxva samyaroSi. am metaforis mixedviT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom karebi miRmur samyaroSi adamianisTvis iReba orjer misi cxovrebis dasawyisSi da dasasruls. is aqtualuria sicocxlis dasawyissa axalSobilisTvis,

ori simboluri modalobis _ qaosisa da kosmosis _ korelaciis


SesawavlisaTvis qarTul xalxur sakralur poeziaSi

27

rodesad kari miRmur samyaroSi mTlianad ara, magram mainc daketilia, daGgardacvliliTsTvisac. aRniSnulis sailustraciod
SeiZleba xalxuri leqsi gavixsenoT, romelic ra vqnisas saxeliT aris cnobili aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTaSi. masSi dasturdeba rwmena-warmodgenebi imgvari cixis Sesaxeb, romelic,
Cveni azriT, saaqaosa da saiqios zRurblze moiazreba. aRniSnuli leqsis mixedviT, cixis karebi mxolod maSin iReba, rodesac
dro modis:
ra vqnisa cixe avage,
javri Sevabi karada,
saiqiodan moidnen
am cixis sanaxavada.
bevri uares cixesa,
kar ver gastexes Zalada,
memre Tqves: dro ro moalis
kar gaiRebis Tavada (qarTuli xalxuri poezia: 1974, 52).
aqve SeiZleba gavixsenoT s. makalaTias erTi cnoba, romlis moxedviT, samegreloSi mZime mSobiarobis dros bebia qali miwas
usvamda fexebs sityvebiT: gamiRe jixas kario, xolo vinc Semodioda, ixsnida qamars da saltes mSobiarobis gasaadvileblad.
gare samyarosgan SemozRuduli, Semofargluli saxli Caketili
sivrcea da amgvari sivrce mSobiarobis dros unda gaxsniliyo.
unda gaxsniliyo realurad karebis, fanjrebis da yvelafris
CaTvliT, rac Caketili iyo da, aseve, ritualuri ferxulis
SesrulebiT, romelic simbolur doneze, Cveni azriT, garTulebul gzas labirinTs warmoadgenda.
mzesTan, aseve, dakavSirebulia ylapvis/STanTqmis motivi. fizikur samyaroSi (bunebaSi) miwa ylapavs, STanTqavs gvams, dro _
sicocxles. arsebobs mosazreba, romlis mixedviT, uadresi mziuri miTebi, SesaZloa, is miTebi iyos, romelic mis amosvlasa da
Casvlas emyareba. zogadad, zRvispireTis uZveles mosaxleobas
swamda, rom RamiT, rodesac mze uCinardeboda zRvaSi mas monstri ylapavda, romelic Tavis msxverpls diliT aRmosavleTis
caze gadmoanTxevda (CeTvaindi: 1982).
gamoTqma Ramis mier gadaylapuli axla SeiZleba mxolod metaforad aRiqmebodes, magram idea, romlesac igi Seicavs da,
kerZod, mzis Casvlas didi mniSvneloba hqonda Zveli xalxebisTvis da maT Soris qarTvelebisTvisac.

nino abakelia

28

xateba, romelSic mze Sinasa da gareSi (aq sknelebi igulisxmeba) moZraobs, qarTvelTaA kosmologiuri Sexedulebebis amsaxvelia.
samyaros zogad suraTSi cnobilia, rom saxls (sacxovriss),
rogorc sxvadasxva donis SemaerTebel rgols, gansakuTrebuli
adgili uWiravs. erTi mxriv, saxli ekuTvnis adamians, romelic
adamianis sagnobriv samyaros warmoadgens, meore mxriv, saxli
adamians akavSirebs garesamyarosTan (civiani: 1973).
specialuri literaturidan cnobilia, rom adamiani sacxovreblis orientirebs sakuTar rwmena-warmodgenebTanAakavSirebs, romelic samyaros organizacias exeba, afardebs mas samyaros suraTis ZiriTad parametrebTan (baiburini: 1983, 127).
sacxovreblis topografiuli Rirebuleba zedmiwevniT naTelia. saxls specifikur konstruqciul funqciebTan erTad sazRvris funqciac aqvs (iqve, 127). aqedan gamomdinare, arsebiTad
miiCneva saxlis, rogorc sazRvarTa sistemis, ganxilva da misi
meSveobiT lokusebis gamoyofa (iqve 127).
miuxedavad imisa, rom mze Sina-s teqsti erTi SexedviT
martivia, Cveni azriT, masSi ideaTa mTeli kompleqsia Camaluli,
romelic qarTvelTa religiuri gancdis uRrmesi fenis gamomxatvelia. mzis amosvla miTologiur doneze TavisTavad dabadebasTan aris dakavSirebuli: qaosidan kosmosSi, uformobidan
formaSi, gaumJRavnebeli mdgomareobidan gamJRavnebulSi, uxilavidan xilulSi Semosvlaa. magiuri Zalebi, romlebic mzis moxmobiTa da ritualuri qmedebebiT aqtiurdebian (izrdebian), rogorc Cans, axlad dabadebulis bunebis did ciklur moZraobaSi
CarTvas isaxavda miznad. aqvea faruli imedic kvlav dabadebisa
da, Sesabamisad, ukvdavebisac.
naSromSi SevecadeT, gagveanalizebina xalxur sakralur poeziaSi kosmologiuri mniSvnelobis mqone xatebis _ gares da Sinas, Sesabamisad, kosmosisa da qaosis _ Tanmimdevroba, rogorc
ori simboluri modalobis doneebi korelaciaSi, romelTa aRwerilobebi dasabams iReben qarTul warmosaxvaSi da miTad qceulni gvxvdebian kosmologizebul ritualTan erTad gansazRvruli
drois CarCoSi. naCvenebia, Tu rogor vlindeba qarTul sakralur
poeziaSi dro sivrcis meSveobiT da sivrce drois meSveobiT.
L

ori simboluri modalobis _ qaosisa da kosmosis _ korelaciis


SesawavlisaTvis qarTul xalxur sakralur poeziaSi

29

literatura

abakelia 2001: teluriuli da xTonuri Teofaniebi qarTul miToritualur sistemaSi, kavkasiur-aRmosavluri krebuli,
X, Tbilisi.
baiburini 1983: ..
. .
bardaveliZe 1957: ..

, .
gvaramaZe 1987: ., ,
.
qarTuli xalxuri poezia, Tb., 1972.
qarTuli xalxuri poezia , Tb., 1974.
civiani 1999: . .,
( ) ,
, .
CeTvaindi 1982: Chetwynd T., A Dictionary of Symbols, Paladin,
London.
WiTanava 1987: .,
.
,
.

30

nino abakelia

Nino Abakelia
Tbilisi Ilia State University

Concerning the Correlation of the Two Symbolic Modalities Chaos and Cosmos in the Georgian Sacred Poetry
The paper analyzes cosmological images - the sequences of cosmos
and chaos as two correlated symbolic modalities - in the Georgian sacred
popular poetry. Their descriptions are found in Georgian perception
which are transformed in certain myths and are found together with the
associated with them rituals at a definite time framework.
The paper demonstrates how time is revealed by means of space in
the round dance song called mze shina da mze gareta (lit. the sun inside
and outside of the dwelling) performed during the childbirth customs.
The paper also discusses the patterns of sacred poetry in which the
concept of border is preserved, which in turn is based on the oldest
universal cosmological spatial concepts. The paper analyzes the
actualization of border concept by means of demonstration of the definite
examples of the folk sacred poetry; it is supposed that beliefs and inner
language of symbols to which the specific human activities are related
could be seen as the models for acting, which are manifested in schemes
and correspondingly it becomes possible to reveal some expressions of
cosmological patterns in the local cult religion which peacefully existed
side by side and inside the high religion approximately until the
twentieth of 20th century.

cira barbaqaZe

sinergia, sinergetika da
semiotika
peplis efeqti
pepelam, romelic frTebs aiqnevs aiovaSi,
SeiZleba gamoiwvios efeqtebis zvavi
indoneziaSi, wvimebis sezonze...
Cven ise miveCvieT struqturebs, xSirad ver
vacnobierebT, ra saswaulia maTi arseboba...
hakeni

qaosi da kosmosi - rogorc ori


urTierTsapirispiro kategoria, warmoadgens yovelgvari arsebobis organizaciul safuZvels. qaosisa da kosmosis semiotikur WrilSi ganxilva - es aris
Tanamedrove mecnierebebis erTgvari sinergetika - sxvadasxva bunebis mqone qvesistemebisagan Semdgar sistemebSi daadginos kanonzomierebebi da Seqmnas TviTorganizaciis Teoriuli modelebi sxvadasxva sistemisTvis.
sinergetika - es aris qaosidan kosmosis (wesrigis) dabadeba. es Zalian
hgavs kvantur fizikas, rodesac sistemis SigniT arsebobs gansxvavebul SesaZleblobaTa erToblioba, gansxvavebuli
struqturebi.
kerZo mecnierebebis sazRvrebi ir-

cira barbaqaZe

32

Rveva, isini erwymian erTmaneTs, irevian... warmoiqmneba erTgvari


qaosi, romlidanac axali wesrigi unda daibados. swored es
aris sinergetika.
zogjer ki mecnierebisTvis qaosi sulac ar aris qaosi.... is
aris rTulad organizebuli wesrigi...
sinergetikis arsi kargad ixsneba rei bredberis 1952 wels
dawerili moTxrobiT - Weqa-quxilis xma, romelSic Soreul
warsulSi peplis sikvdili cvlis momavlis samyaros.
kompania Seqmnis drois manqanas, romlis meSveobiT uzrunvelyofs klientTa gadayvanas Zvel samyaroSi da dinozavrebze
nadirobas. imisaTvis, rom yvelaferma mSidobianad Caiaros, aucilebelia 3 wesis dacva:
arasdros ar unda gadaxvide bilikidan;
araferi ar unda datovo im Zvel samyaroSi;
da araferi ar unda wamoiRo Tan im Zveli samyarodan.
magram erTxel, warumatebeli nadirobis dros, erTi klienti SemTxveviT gzidan gadava da oqrosfer pepelas moklavs...
swored es faqti gaxdeba momavalSi didi da saSineli cvlilebebis mizezi.
saqme is aris, rom determinur-qaosuri sistemebi mgrZnobiarea umniSvnelo zemoqmedebazec ki. qaosur samyaroSi Znelia winaswar gansazRvro, Tu ra variaciebi Seiqmneba konkretul dros
da konkretul adgilas... eduard norton lorencma am movlenas
peplis efeqti uwoda.
semiotika da sinergia
semiotikuri kvlevebis efeqti gamoixateba mis sinergetikulobaSi. rac aZlierebs sagnis, movlenis, niSnis aRqmas, afarToebs cnobierebas.
Tu Cven vaSlebs gavcvliT erTmaneTSi, isev vaSlebi darCeba... magram ideebis gacvlis sinergetikuli efeqti imiT vlindeba, rom ideebis gacvliT orive mxare mdidrdeba da ideebic erTis magivrad TiToeuls ori uxdeba, an imdeni, ramdensac gaucvlis.
sabolood, Cven viRebT gamdidrebul ideebs TiToeuli mxarisTvis, romelic bevrad aRemateba calke aRebul TiToeulis
ideas.

sinergia, sinergeetika da ganaTleba

33

1+1=2X sadac X>1


sinergia - urTierTqmedebaa.
rogorc kompozitori 7 notisgan qmnis musikas, mxatvari
ferebis SereviT - tilos, rogorc 33 aso-bgerisgan viRebT uamrav azrs da Sinaars... swored am kanons efuZneba sinergiac.
amitom iZens Tanamedrove samyaroSi semiotikuri xedva
sul ufro da ufro met mniSvnelobas. sinergia warmoqmnis da
badebs axal cnobierebas, romelSic meti Tavisufleba da SemoqmedebiTobaa. iSleba Zveli da igeba azrovnebis axali paradigma...
zogadad, adamianis da samyaros bunebac sinergiiTaa gansazRvruli. aq klasikuri maTematikis kanonebi uZluria... erTs roca erTi emateba, yovelTvis orze metia... es Zalian hgavs Seqmnas
da dabadebas... Tu poetis leqss metaforulad gavigebT, sinergiis arsi kargad aixsneba:
erTs roca erTi emateba
sami yofila Tqva siyvarulma pirvelyofilma...
Tqva da krusuniT Seaweba adami evas.
arad daagdo caTa Sina qveynisa wyeva.
daibindeba yvelaferi,
Jami dawdeba...
ors Tu miviRebT,
roca erTi erTs emateba
(moris focxiSvili).
sinergia _ Cveni cnobierebis mdgomareobaa, romelSic gamudmebulad mimdinareobs ideebis gacvla. swored amis gamo cnobierebis am fazaSi cxovrobs Semoqmedeba da Tavisufleba.
semiotikuri xedva - es aris sinergiis safuZveli.
struqturebi
Cveni samyaro Sedgeba gansaxvavebuli sagnebisagan, maTgan zogierTi ram adamianma Seqmna _ saxli, manqana, instrumentebi... danarCeni Seqmnilia bunebis mier.
swavlulTaTvis es samyaro aris struqturaTa samyaro, romelsac awesrigebs mkacri kanonzomiereba. mowesrigebuli struqturebi mxolod kosmosSi ar SeiniSneba, mimovixedoT Cven irgvliv da uamrav aseT struqturas aRmovaCenT. magaliTad, fifqebi... Tvalis agebuleba... cxovelTa da mcenareTa harmonias xSi-

34

cira barbaqaZe

rad movyavarT aRtacebaSi, aranakleb aRgvafrTovanebs cekvebi,


cxenTa jiriTi da sxv.
adamianTa sazogadoebac qmnis aranakleb gansxvavebul struqturebs, rogorc socialur-politikur, ise _ sulier sferoSi
(ena, musika, mecniereba).
Cven ise miveCvieT struqturebs, xSirad ver vacnobierebT,
ra saswaulia maTi arseboba... _ wers hakeni wignSi: bunebis saidumlo, sinergetika...
formaTa samyaro struqturaTa gareSe ar arsebobs... gansxvavebuli parametrebis struqturebi kveTen da Tanaarseboben. Tu
davakvirdebiT, adamianTa urTierTobebic struqturirdeba (megobroba, ojaxi, jgufi, koleqtivi) da rac ar struqturirdeba,
ubralod, wyvets arsebobas.
50-ian wlebSi saintereso eqsperimentebi Caatara amerikelma
fsiqologma solomon eSma, Tu rogor struqturirdeba sazogadoebaSi jgufebi. nolen-neimani am eqsperiments ase aRwers Tavis
wignSi:
cdispirTa amocana is iyo, rom mocemuli monakveTis nimuSi
sigrZiT unda SeedarebinaT 3 monakveTisaTvis da aerCiaT erTi
Sesabamisi (1-li, me-2 an me-3). davaleba ar iyo rTuli. pirvel
cdaze yvela cdispirma zustad amoicno Sesabamisi sigrZis monakveTi. amis Semdeg eqsperimentis xelmZRvanelma asistentebTan
SeTanxmebiT Secvala pirobebi. asistentebma daiwyes miyolebiT
araswori pasuxebis gacema. amis Semdeg saintereso iyo, ra moxdeboda: sacdeli jgufidan ramdeni gaimeorebda Secdomas, ramdeni iyoymanebda da ramdeni daicavda sakuTar pozicias yoymanis
gareSe.
eqsperimentis Sedegi iyo Zalian saintereso: aRmoCnda, rom
yoveli 10 cdispiridan 2 mtkiced icavda Tavis pozicias, 2 yoymanobda da 6 imeorebda umravlesobis mcdar azrs.
sinergetikis safuZvelSi arsebuli universaluri kanonzomierebis mixedviT, msgavs situaciebSi warmoiqmneba gansxvavebul
msjelobaTa konkurencia, erT-erTi msjeloba, romelic aRmoCndeba dominanturi (ara aqvs mniSvneloba, rogor iqna miRweuli)
qmnis umravlesobas. umravlesobaSi adamianebi Tavs daculad
grZnoben da amiTaa ganpirobebuli maTi daufiqrebeli arCevani.
ase rom, sazogadoebrivi azris formirebaSi monawileobs
sinergetikuli efeqti...

sinergia, sinergeetika da ganaTleba

35

ganaTleba
semiotikuri da sinergetikuli Teoriebis aqtualizeba Tanamedrove samyaroSi imaze mianiSnebs, rom icvleba adamianis cnobiereba, rac vlindeba yvela mimarTulebiT qaosur procesebSi; es
ar aris ubralod cvlilebebis moTxovnileba, esaa - Cveni cnobierebis gadawyoba da aRqmisa da Semecnebis parametrebis sruli
Secvla, azrovnebis axali paradigmis Camoyalibeba. amis niSnebi
SegviZlia yvelgan vipovoT: piradi da intimuri urTierTobebidan
dawyebuli _ socialuri movlenebiT damTavrebuli. yvelgan gacvda Zveli struqturebi, arsebuli ganaTlebis sistema CamorCeba
epoqis moTxovnebs, is codna, romelsac skola da universiteti
iZleva, arasakmarisia. ganaTlebis sistemam SeaCvia adamiani niSnebis, faqtebis, movlenebis calsaxa gagebas: anu romelime erTi
axsna ufro prioritetulad iqna miCneuli da yvela eZebs, Caswvdes, risi Tqma undoda mwerals. aRqmis am paradigmidan unda
gadavideT sxva fokusze: rogor gavigeT is, rac mweralma
Tqva...? amas mohyveba kiTxva: is, rac me gavige, namdvilad is aris
netav, rac mweralma Caifiqra? da vin icis, namdvilad risi
Tqma undoda mwerals, an ra aris sinamdvile?
Tu teqstma fiqrisTvis gangvawyo da refleqsia gamoiwvia,
amaze didi gageba ar arsebobs. sul ar aris mniSvnelovani, vin
rogor gaigo komble an vefxistyaosani, mniSvnelovania, Sen
rogor gaige? isic faqtia, rom sxva konteqstiT da sxva dros
Cveni aRqma aucileblad Seicvleba imave teqstis an personaJis
mimarT, rac niSnavs, rom kargi teqstebi arasdros sruldebian
da cocxldebian mxolod maSin, rodesac Cven vkiTxulobT mas...
samyaro ki gvaqvs uTvalavi feriTa da es mSvenieria. koleqtiur azrovnebaze orientiebuli sistemebi unda Seicvalos individualur azrovnebaze orientirebuli ganaTlebis sistemis SeqmniT.
mokled, adamiansac da teqstebsac aqvT kvanturi SesaZleblobebi. sinergetikuli gaazreba ki gvaZlevs saSualebas, gavxsnaT sazRvrebi da jer davinaxoT es SesaZleblobebi, xolo
Semdeg gavakeToT arCevani. sistemis Riaoba aucilebelia axali
paradigmis CamoyalibebisTvis, radgan Caketil sistemaSi cvlilebebi iseTive SeuZlebelia, rogorc daxurul WurWelSi maWris
daduReba...hakeni 1996

cira barbaqaZe

36
literatura

hakeni 1996 - Haken . Principles of Brain Functioning. A Synergetic


Approach to Brain Activity, Behavior and Cognition. Heidelberg
N.Y.: Springer'Verlag, 1996.
hakeni 1980 - . . .: , 1980.
hakeni 1980 - . .
. .: , 1985.L

Tsira Barbakadze
Synergy,Synergetic and Education
Chaos and cosmos - the two opposite categories are the organized
bases of all sorts of existence.Chaos and cosmos in the light of semiotics
appears to be particular synergetic of modern sciences,that establishes
regularity in systems consisting of various subsystems and creates selforganizing theoretical models for different systems.Synergetic is the birth
of cosmos (order) from chaos.It resembles quantum physics while the
unity of various possibilities and structures exist inside the system.The
frontiers of separate sciences dezorganize,merge and mixParticular
chaos is formed,that should give the birth to the new order.The
contemporary world is described as synergetic condition,that creates new
cosmos.It totally deals with transformation of private,social and other
relational systems as well as appearance of new parameters in
consciousness, formation of cognition and perception of the new
paradigm.

Tamar berekaSvili

Tanamedrove sazogadoeba,
rogorc kosmosis simulakri
me-20 saukunis samociani wlebidan
dasavlurma sazogadoebam, da ara marto
dasavlurma, didi cvlilebebi ganicada.
es Zireuli gardaqmnebia, rac masobrivi
moxmarebis sazogadoebis Camoyalibebas
ukavSirdeba. cxovreba gacilebiT ufro
mravalferovani gaxda _ Seicvala mimarTeba kerZo cxovrebisadmi, gaizarda pirovnebis roli, gansxvavebulia saxelmwifos kontrolis formebi, didi mniSvneloba SeiZines socialurma Rirebulebebma da a.S.
is, rasac uwodeben postmodernistul epoqas, swored am axali tipis damokidebulebebs ukavSirdeba da Sefasebis
sruliad gansxvavebul kriteriumebs efuZneba.
erTi SexedviT, Rirebulebebi, romelTac liberaluri demokratiis Rirebulebebs vuwodebT da romlebic Camoyalibdnen e.w. modernis epoqaSi, igivea:
demokratia iqneba es Tu pirovnebis uflebebis dacva, tolerantoba Tu Tavisufleba, magram Sinaarsobrivad isini
xSirad sruliad gansxvavebulia, zogjer
sapirispiro mniSvnelobasac ki iZenen.
moviyvanT ramdenime magaliTs:
Tu modernis dros Tavisufleba

38

Tamar berekaSvili

faqtobrivad efuZneboda hegeliseul gansazRvrebas - gacnobierebuli Tavisufleba an Tavisi sasicocxlo saSualebebis floba,
postmodernSi Tavisufleba aRar izRudeba mxolod sasicocxlo
saSualebebis flobiT, is gulisxmobs am saSualebebis gankargvasac; pragmatizmi modernis SemTxvevaSi konstruqciulia, es qmediTi praqtikaa, postmodernSi ki damangreveli praqtikaa, is qaosuria da SemoqmedebiTi formis iers iRebs. modernis erT-erTi
ZiriTadi moraluri moTxovna socialuri pasuxismgeblobaa, postmoderni movaleobebs asustebs an sruliadac xsnis, ris Sedegadac moraluri xdeba TviTneboba. modernuli voluntarizmi
socialurad mniSvnelovani qmedebiT vlindeba, postmodernuli
voluntarizmi ki materialuri da kulturuli moxmarebiT, ris
Sedegadac morCileba kanonisadmi, rac aucilebeli moTxovnaa modernSi,
gardaiqmneba
SeTanxmebad
gansazRvrul
wesebs
daemorCilo da ara _ kanons. aseTi CamonaTvalis gagrZeleba
didxans SeiZleba.
rogorc aRvniSneT, es dakavSirebulia sazogadoebis kardinalur cvlilebasTan. sazogadoeba modernis epoqaSi TandaTanobiT
icvleboda moxmarebis sazogadoebiT, rac ueWvelad dakavSirebulia mecnierebis da teqnikis swraf ganviTarebasTan, progresTan,
romelic adamianebs met materialur saSualebebs aZlevda da amasTan, uTavisuflebda dros, romelsac isini xarjavdnen garTobisa
da sakuTari siamovnebisTvis. meore msoflio omis Semdeg es procesi kidev ufro aCqarda da gaizarda, ris Sedegadac ukve 60-70ian wlebSi dasavlur samyaroSi Camoyalibda ara mxolod moxmarebis sazogadoeba, aramed masobrivi moxmarebis sazogadoeba.
sxvadasxva sagnis, produqtis, gasarTobi saSualebis siWarbea dRes. mewarmeebis, komersantebis da politikosebis mTavari
Zalisxmevac mimarTulia aseTi sazogadoebis dasakmayofileblad.
metic: didi Zalisxmeva ixarjeba axali moTxovnilebebi Camosayalibeblad, moxmarebis procesSi adamianebis kidev ufro aqtiurad CasarTavad.
Tu dasavluri sazogadoebisTvis momxmareblobis es bumi
Sromis, istoriuli socialuri ganviTarebis Sedegia, sxva samyarosTvis, romelic, ase Tu ise, xdeba am siuxvis momxmarebeli,
an mowme mainc, es ganicdeba saswaulebriv movlenad, romelsac
afrikis da aziis bevr qveyanaSi xsnian imiT, rom evropelebma da
amerikelebma miisakuTres maTi simdidre, maTTvis gankuTvnili
madli... isini siamovnebiT sargebloben dasavluri sazogadoebis

Tanamedrove sazogadoeba, rogorc kosmosis simulakri

39

monapovrebiT, metic, xSir SemTxvevaSi kanonierad miiCneven Tavad


Seenacvlon evropelebs am sikeTeebis flobaSi (3).
moxmarebis obieqtebad iqceva yvelaferi, maT Soris, kultura, xelovneba, masmedia da yovelive xdeba moxmarebisTvis vargisi mxolod gadamuSavebis, gafiltvris Sedegad, rasac didwilad
axdens masmedia. swored masmediis xelSi iqceva movlena Tu sagani mosaxmareblad saboloo mza produqtad. amdenad, adamiani
faqtobrivad cxovrobs da moixmars ara namdvil sagnebs, ara
namdvil produqtebs. misi arseboba, movlenebi, romliTac is interesdeba da romlebsac mniSvnelobas aniWebs, yvelaferi meoradia, fsevdoproduqtis da fsevdomovlenis saxe aqvs. es namdvili
produqtebis da namdvili movlenebis simulakrebia da xSirad
simbolos saxiT arsebobs.
jer kidev nicSe Tavisi drois sazogadoebis kritikisas
SeniSnavda, da swored es xdeba misi SeSfoTebis ZiriTadi mizezi, rom Rirebulebebi icvlian mniSvnelobas da Sinaarss. liberalizmis ganviTarebis kvalobaze nebismieri mkveTrad gamoxatuli individualoba iwvevs gakicxvas. xdeba adamianTa damsgavseba,
gaSualeba, erTmaneTis msgavs koreqtul da usaxo individebad
gadaqceva, romelTac ar SeSveniT grZnobebis, emociebis, interesebis mkveTrad gamoxatva, sakuTari Rirsebis metismetad Zalumad warmoCena, miTumetes, Tu am dros isaxeba sxvebis naklovanebebi. faqtobrivad, jansaRi, Wkviani, qmediTi, gansakuTrebuli
Rirsebis, unaris, TviTobis mqone pirovnebebi iZulebulni xdebian, Tavi gautolon avadmyof, duxWir, gonebadaxSul keTil adamianebs, rogorc maT nicSe eZaxis.
dRes es tendencia kidev ufro TvalsaCinoa, da Tumca gansakuTrebiT xazgasmulia pirovnuloba, is personalurobis iers
atarebs. adamian-personas ranJirebis Tavisi grafa aqvs, romelSic is mis msgavs adamianebTan aris, romelTac misnairi moTxovnilebebi, gemovneba, interesi aqvT. sinamdvileSi gamravalferovnebulia arCevis asortimenti, momxmareblis dakmayofilebisas
gaTvaliswinebulia bevri pirovnuli niuansi, magram es adamianipersonebi masobrivi adamianebi arian, romlebic sargebloben Wreli da mravalricxovani sikeTiT mxolod im pirobiT, rom ar
cdiloben, gamoxaton Tavisi upiratesoba, iqneba is fizikuri,
Tu sulieri.
dRes bevri saubrobs personalizaciaze, da postmodernsac
personalizaciis TvalsazrisiT ixilaven. lipovecki, magaliTad,

40

Tamar berekaSvili

saubrobs personalizacize, romelic ar aris individualizaciis


igiveobrivi (2). rusi mkvlevarebi lipoveckis personalizacias
axasiaTeben, rogorc pirovnebis moSTobas, mis gadaqcevas araraobad, rac, Cemi azriT, usamarTloba.
lipovecki personalizacias ganmartavs rogorc organizaciis da socialuri kontrolis axal tips, romelic aTavisuflebs adamianebs disciplinaruli, pirobiTad, revoluciuri wesrigisgan, romelic sufevda gasuli saukunis 50-ani wlebamde. es
aris, misi azriT, uaris Tqma Tanamedrove demokratiuli, universaluri rigoristuli iZulebiTi ideologiuri sazogadoebis
sawyisze. Cven am statiaSi gvsurs movniSnoT is sruliad ganaxlebuli da, SeiZleba iTqvas, Zvel RirebulebebTan dakavSirebuli revoluciuri safuZvlebi, romlebic TandaTanobiT ikveTeba.
am axal sulier fizikur realobas bevri mecnieri, moazrovne
acnobierebs da aanalizebs. sainteresoa maTi midgomebi, romlebic, gansxvavebebis miuxedavad, imeoreben erTsa da imave Sedegebs,
cdiloben ra axsnan sxvadasxva mizezebiT. amasTan, yvela axsna
samarTliania da yvela nakluli. rac mTavaria, umravlesoba (yvela Tu ara) miiCnevs, rom es axali msoflio wesrigi, axali tipis individualizmi Tu personalizmi ukve Camoyalibebulia da
swored amitom xdeba SesaZlebeli misi daxasiaTeba da analizi.
Cemi SexedulebiT, es ase ar aris. sazogadoeba, romelmac
sul raRac 50-60 wlis ganmavlobaSi aseTi Zireuli cvlilebebi
ganicada, dResac icvleba (vgulisxmob umniSvnelovanes, revoluciur cvlilebebs), is qmnadobis procesSia, razec metyvelebs,
upirveles yovlisa, is politikuri atmosfero, romelic dRes
msoflioSia. hibriduli omi da omi e.w. eqstremistul muslimur
dajgufebebTan, dasavluri sazogadoebis ganmxoloeba, misi, TiTqosda gaerTianebis paralelurad, ruseTis sruliad auxsneli an,
yovel SemTxvevaSi, Znelad asaxsneli qmedebebi da bevri sxva ram
miuTiTebs imaze, rom Cven varT samyaroSi, romlis ~wesrigi~ da
stabiluroba Cven Tvalwin imsxvreva da gvibiZgebs qaosisken.
aseTi qaosi, rasakvirvelia, Znlad prognozirebad movlenebs
badebs, amasTan, is areulobebis, konfliqtebis da krizisebis gamomwvevia, magram, meore mxriv, TandaTanobiT yalibdeba axali
ufro mobiluri da moqnili sazogadoeba, romelic efuZneba sainformacio teqnologiebs, metad mimarTulia adamianebis moTxovnilebebisa da interesebis gaTvaliswinebisken, rac swored
personalizaciis procesia.

Tanamedrove sazogadoeba, rogorc kosmosis simulakri

41

faqtobrivad, am personalizaciis ganviTarebam gamoiwvia kidec is qaosi, romelic warmogvidgeba, rogorc Zveli ideologiebis msxvreva, erTi ZiriTadi paradigmis Sesusteba sxva mravali
paradigmis Camoyalibebisa da gaZlierebis kvaldakval. es procesi daiwyo dasavlur samyaroSi _ SeerTebul Statebsa da dasavleT evropaSi, da man TandaTanobiT moicva mTeli msoflio. Tu
dasavlur sazogadoebaSi mas aqvs pluralizmis, sazogadoebrivi
urTierTobebis diversifikaciis, humanizaciis saxe, aziis da afrikis, gansakuTrebiT ki _ islamur sazogadoebebSi is warmoCnda
aqamde nivelirebuli eqstremistuli ganwyobebis gaZlierebad,
rac ueWvelad Sedegia imisa, rom am sazogadoebebSi ar arsebobda iseTi politikuri kultura, romelic efuZneboda demokratiul da liberalur Rirebulebebs.
Tu dasavlur samyaroSi ganviTarebuli kibernetikuli da
teqnologiuri progresi xels uwyobs kidev ufro met pirovnul Tavisuflebas da TviTidentobis ganmtkicebas, aRmosavleTis
bevr regionSi es iwvevs yvelaze ufro pasionaluri, agresiuli
da xSirad fanatikurad ganwyobili jgufebis kidev ufro met
gaaqtiurebas, brZolas Tavisi ideologiis, moTxovnebisa da interesebis aRiarebisa da damkvidrebisTvis.
es qaosia, qaosi, Zveli berZnebis gagebiT, romlebic mas gansazRvravdnen rogorc uwesrigobis princips, an Tu empedokles
davesesxebiT, es aris universaluri principi: uwyveti da usasrulo, usazRvro qmnadoba. amasTan qaoss, bevri berZenis xedviT,
gansakuTrebiT _ antikuri saberZneTis bolo periodSi, erT-erT
maxasiaTeblad sicarielec aqvs.
Tanamedrove viTarebaSi, rodesac bolomde da mkveTrad ar
Camoyalibebula midgomebi, meTodebi, gansazRvrebebi, aseTi sicarieleebi blomad aris. faqtobrivad, ar arsebobs paradigma
imisa, Tu ra SeiZleba iyos sayovelTao sikeTe, sazogadoebis saerTo keTildReoba. im dros, rodesac wamyvani dasavluri sazogadoeba orientirebulia calkeuli adamianis, moqalaqis pirovnebis survilebis, miswrafebebis, interesebis, ocnebebis dakmayofilebaze, mTeli sazogadoeba daucvelia, mis mTlianobas, mis simtkices araferi icavs. Zalian xSirad calkeuli adamianebis interesebi ar emTxveva an sulac ewinaaRmdegeba saerTo interesebs.
Tanamedrove postmodernuli kultura decentralizebulia,
is orientirebulia moxmarebaze. mis yvelaze mTavar miznad cxad-

Tamar berekaSvili

42

deba pirovnebis bedniereba. cneba `bedniereba~ ki metad efimerulia, ganusazRvrelia, is efuZneba grZnobebs, amasTan pirovnul
grZnobebsa da gancdebs. bednierebis SegrZnebiT dasavluri sazogadoeba axasiaTebs adamianebis mniSvnelobas, maT potencials.
ramdenadac bedniereba, kmayofileba, nebismieri wvrilmani yofiTi
survilis Sesruleba xdeba erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi Rirebuleba, is miznebi da amocanebi, romlebic sazogadoebriv, sayovelTao xasiaTs atarebs, kargaven aqtualobas, yovel SemTxvevaSi
calkeuli pirovnebebis TvalSi isini aRar ganicdeba sasicocxlod aucileblad. rasakvirvelia, zogadi, `absoluturi Rirebulebebi: demokratia, Zlieri saxelmwifo, liberalizmi, Tavisufleba da a.S. kvlavac JRers da maT aravin upirispirdeba dasavlur samyaroSi, magram am Rirebulebebis dacvisTvis aucilebeli moTxovnebi, SezRudvebi, valdebulebebi idRabneba da naklebad qmediTia, piradi interesi sjabnis maT, Tu am pirad interess sazogadoebrivi sikeTe SeiZleba daemuqros an SezRudos.
TandaTanobiT dasavluri principebisa da Rirebulebebis safuZveli iryeva, iqceva simulakrad, raRac nacnob da, TiTqosda,
bunebrivad arsebul dekoraciad, romelSic yvela Tavis sixarulze zrunavs da srulebiTac ar miaCnia aseTi viTareba saSiSad. da Tu daudgeba arCevani, sakuTari simSvide, keTildReoba,
bedniereba, Tu qveynis sazogadoebis usafrTxoeba da siZliere,
savsebiT savaraudoa, is sakuTar siamtkbilobas airCevs.
literatura
Bruckner Pascal LEuphorie perpetuelle. Essai sur le desir de
Bonheur; Bernard Grasset, Paris, 2000
Lipovetsky Gilles Lere du vide. Essais sur lindividualisme
contemporain; Gallimard, Paris, 1993
Baudrillard Jean La societe de consummation. Ses mithes, ses
structures; Paris: S.Y.P.P, 1970

Tanamedrove sazogadoeba, rogorc kosmosis simulakri

43
Tamar Berekashvili

Modern Society as a Simulacrum of the Cosmos


Abstract
Already in the second half of the 20th century Western society was
transformed into a society of consumption, and soon after that - into a
society of mass consumption. Changed lifestyle, social values, attitude to
private ownership, forms of control by the state etc.
At the first glance, the so-called values of the modern era seemed to
have stayed the same. This is democracy, human rights, freedom,
equality, justice, tolerance, etc. But in fact their contents and significance
have changed. If in the modern era, e.g., the freedom was expressed
mainly ograsm in possession of vital funds, today, in the postmodern era,
this is not enough the man not only owns these assets, but uses them.
Pragmatism, while being constructive under modernism, (what was
expressed in effective productive practice}, becomes destructive in
postmodern era it is the chaos, having the form of individual creativity,
not evaluated by anyone and not destined to benefit society.
The modern world shows, that it turns everything into objects of
consumption , including art, science, culture in general. In addition, all
consumption objects receive this quality only after their processing from
the media. Thus, a person becomes a consumer, not of the objects and
services themselves but of pseudo-objects and pseudo-services. It is
simulacra of these products and phenomena, and they often appear as
some symbols.
One of the main features of postmodernism or, more precisely, of
modern post-industrial society is a special kind of personalism It is a new
type of organization and social control, which frees a person from the
disciplinary order.
The old order, with its rigorous rules and requirements, which gave
a person more individual freedom, in fact, undermined that order and law,
which have brought the individual more freedom. As a result, individual
interests make all of these individualspersons individuals in the mass,
and the political and social situation into the chaos.

zina gabiCvaZe

qaosi da kosmosi
vefxistyaosanSi
(prologis or strofSi
mocemuli koncefcia)
yvela saxelebSi mxolod rusTaveli ixsnis
gansacdeliT mraval saukunes...
galaktioni

rusTvelologia
vefxistyaosnis
mraval kuTxesa da waxnags Seiswavlis.
radgan SoTa poemaSi enciklopediur codnas amJRavnebs, TiTqmis ar darCenili
mecnierebis arcerTi dargi, romelTa gaTvaliswinebac rusTveli da misi poema
ar ekvlioT. erT-erTi aseTi dargia kosmologia, romelsac vefxistyaosnis
mxatvrul-esTetikur koncefciaSi umniSvnelovanesi datvirTva akisria. met-naklebad Seswavlilia rusTvelis astronomiuli da astrologiuri Sexedulebani. am problemas araerTi mkvlevari Sexebia da bevrs gamouTqvams Tavisi mosazreba.
vefxistyaosani wignia, romelic
saTauriTac da siuJeturi TvalsazrisiTac aris aluzia, simbolo, metafora,
alegoria. es aris wigni, romelSic arapirdapiri miTiTebaa multisamyaros koncefciisaken(arabeTi, indoeTi, mulRazanzari,gulanSaro, qajeTi sxva araferia

qaosi da kosmosi `vefxistyaosanSi~

45

Tu ara samyaroTa mravalferovneba). poeti igavuri eniT gvesaubreba, saukuneebia xeli-xel sagogmanebi..., saWoWmano saqme mosvenebas ar gvaZlevs, vfiqrobT, vmsjelobT, raRacas vaskvniT da
ra? amouwuravi literaturuli madani, albaT, arasdros moasvenebs adamians. amjerad vcdiT ara rusTvelis kosmologiasa da
qaosze saubars, aramed poemis SesavalSi qaosisa da kosmosis
simbolikasTan dakavSirebul paradigmebze mivuTiTebT, Cveneba,
radgan migvaCnia, rom vefxistyaosani is poemaa, romelSic qaosisa da kosmosis urTierTdamokidebulebaa aRwerili.im qaosisa
da kosmosis, romlebsac wesrigi da uwesrigoba Seesabameba. rogorc cnobilia, Zveli berZnuli filosofia kosmoss uwodebs
mowesrigebul, organizebul samyaros qaosis, uwesrigod daxrovebuli materiis, sapirispirod. qaosisa da kosmosis urTierTmimarTebis gaTvaliswinebiT poemaSi iSleba siuJetuli qarga,
romlis mixedviTac gmirTa garemoSi viTardeba moqmedeba. im
multisamyaroSi, romelzec zemoT visaubreT (arabeTi, indoeTi,
mulRazanzari,gulanSaro, qajeTi), erTmaneTs enacvleba qaosi da
kosmosi, xSir SemTxvevaSi qaosia im interpretaciisa da SesaZleblobaTa usasrulo sivrce, romelic avtors aZlevs saSualebas, daangrios azrovnebis tradiciuli formebi, waSalos Zveli
da mogvces axali, dasabami misces axal azrovnebas, romelic daexmareba adamians, datkbes samyaroTi da Seicnos sakuTari me.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, SevecdebiT, mokled warmovadginoT
qaosisa da kosmosis Sesaxeb prologis pirvel or strofSi
warmodgenili koncefciebi, romlebic, Cveni azriT, poemis Temis
ZiriTadi motivebis safuZvelia. yvelaferi, rac prologSia mocemuli, ganfenilia teqstSi. samyaroSi yvelaferi harmoniulad
ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs, es ki gansazRvravs wesrigs, kosmiur
wyobas, radgan yvelafers Tavisi adgili aqvs. xSirad kosmoss
qaosi cvlis, Semdeg isev _ kosmosi da ase maradiulad, samyaroSi mudmivad qaosisa da kosmosis Widilia, amis gamo ki samyaro
mudmivad icvleba.
prologis pirvel strofSi kosmosia _ wesrigi:
romelman Seqmna samyaro ZaliTa miT ZlieriTa,
zegardmo arsni suliTa yvna zeciT monaberiTa,
Cven, kacTa, mogvca qveyana, gvaqvs uTvalavi feriTa,
misgan ars yovli xelmwife saxiTa mis mieriTa.
Semoqmedi- samyaro- zegardmo arsni - kacni - qveyana- xelmwife, viT margaliti oboli isea asxmuli, yvelaferi Tavis

46

zina gabiCvaZe

adgilzea, zesknelSi Semoqmedia, SuasknelSi qveynad ki kaci-xelmwife. kaci-adamiani da xelmwife Tu kaci-xelmwife?


mose winaswarmetyveli adamianis Seqmnas amgvarad aRwers:
mas Semdeg, rac miwieri arsebebi Seqmna, Tqua RmerTman: vqmneT
kaci xatisaebr Cuenisa da msgavsebisaebr. da mTavrobdes TevzTa
zRvisaTa da mfrinvelTa cisaTa da pirutyvTa da mxecTa yovlisa queyanisa, yovelTa quewarmavalTa mavalTa queyanasa zeda... da
Seqmna RmerTman kaci igi saxed Tsad da xatad RmrTisa Seqmna
igi... (Sesaq. 1,26-27). es naTlad mianiSnebs, rom adamiani dedamiwaze gansakuTrebuli, gamorCeuli, aRmatebuli da srulyofilebis umaRlesi gamoxatulebaa, romelic samyaroSi umaRlesi daniSnulebis mqone qmnileba unda yofiliyo. adamiani RvTis xatad
da msgavsad Seiqmna da amiT kidev ufro gamoikveTa azri adamianis maRali mowodebisa da gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb
- RvTis xatis arseboba adamianSi adasturebs, rom mis sulier
bunebaSi Tavad saRvTo Tvisebebi aisaxeba. aqedan gamomdinare, xom
ar SeiZleba, rom damkvidrebuli azri, TiTqos pirveli strofis
meoTxe taepi mxolod mefes gulisxmobs, sxvagvarad SegviZlia
wavikiTxoT. kaci, adamiani, xelmwifea Semoqmedis mier misTvis
Seqmnili qveynisa, Sesaqmis meore TavSi adamis Seqmnis zedmiwevniTi gadmocema ufro metad warmoaCens adamianis bunebis gamorCeul upiratesobebs: da Seqmna ufalman RmerTman kaci mtuerisa
mimRebelma queyanisagan da STabera pirsa missa suli sicocxlisai da iqmna kaci igi sulad cxovelad (Sesaqm. 2,7).
yvelaferi wesrigSia, Semoqmedma adamiani RvTis xatad da
msgavsad Seqmna, misca xelmwifoba uTvalavferian qveyanaSi, raTa ukve mas ideaTa mravaferovan samyaroSi efiqra, Tavad Seeqmna,
Seecno amqveyniuri, grZnobadi samyaro da mSobliuri wiaRisaken,
rogorc ukeTesi arsebobis sferosken, sulnaTeli wasuliyo,
gana avTandilic amas ar ambobs:
ara viqm, codna ras margebs filosofosTa brZnobisa!
miT viswavlebiT, mogveces SerTva zesT mwyobrTa wyobisa.
mxolod amis Semdeg unda dabrundes adamiani RvTaebriv wesrigSi. amas ki SeiZleba xeli samyaroSi arsebulma Zalebma SeuSalos. es ki qaosia. qaosia iq, sadac WeSmariteba ar arsebobs,
albaT, amitom eajeba ufals adamiani:
he, RmerTo erTo, Sen Sehqmen saxe yovlisa tanisa,
Sen damifare, Zleva mec daTrgunvad me satanisa.

qaosi da kosmosi `vefxistyaosanSi~

47

Tu kaci ver SeZlebs daTrgunos xorcieli, pirovnuli


srulqmnis gza, romelic dafarulia, daekargeba, am SemTxvevaSi
rac dafarulia, ar gacxaddeba.
vefxistyaosanSiumniSvnelovanes sakiTxebadaa miCneuli wuTisofelSi adamianis adamianad yofnisa da sikvdil-sicocxlis
sakiTxebi:
ver vecruebi, ver vuzam saqmesa saZabunosa,
piris-pir marcxvens, ornive mivalT mas saukunosa.
rusTvelis azriT, adamiani codvilia, romelic RvTis samsjavroze unda ganisajos. sawuTro-sofelSi sikvdilis winaSe
yvela da yvelaferi uZluria, is yovlisSemZlea, yvelasa da yvelafers aTanasworebs. sikvdili erTgvari kanonzomierebaa, kosmosia. is amqveyniuri cxovrebis dasasruli da imqveyniuri cxovrebis dasawyisia, swored aman aTqmevina vaJas Seni Wirime sikvdilo, sicocxle Svenobs SeniTao. Tu adamiani SeZlebs sicocxleSi sikeTis keTebas, amqveyniuri arsebobis sazrisiT avsebas,
maSin amasac ityvis:
me igi var, vinc sicocxles ar amovkref kitrad berad,
vis sikvdili moyvrisaTvis TamaSad da uCans mRerad...
adamianisaTvis sikvdili sicocxlis sasixarulo gagrZeleba
iqneba, amas ki im SemTxvevaSi moaxerxebs, Tu qaosidan kosmosSi
dabrundeba, kosmosis maradiulobisaken moZraoba ganpirobebuli
iqneba erTisaken, miuwvdomeli miznisaken miswrafebiT, amas ki
mxolod ase SeZlebs:
momec mijnurTa survili, sikvdidmde gasatanisa,
codvaTa Sesubuqeba, mun Tana wasatanisa.
samyaroSi yvelaferi erTmaneTTanaa dakavSirebuli. qaossaa
da kosmoss Soris maradiuli brZola adamians fiqrisa da Semecnebis usasrulo SesaZleblobas aZlevs.am brZolis Sedegad adamiani aRwevs kanonzomierebis kidev ufro maRal safexurs. migvaCnia, rom rusTvelma moaxerxa, daxmareboda adamianebs, daeZliaT
qaosis SiSi da rom prologis pirvel or strofSi mocemulia
gza adamianis TviTSemecnebisaken, gza qaosidan kosmosisaken, romelsac is mihyavs samyaros xelmwifobamde da swored es gza
ganvles poemis gmirebma.

zina gabiCvaZe

48
literatura

baramiZe 1975: al. baramiZe, SoTa rusTveli, Tb.


gamsaxurdia 1991: z. gamsaxurdia, vefxistyaosnis saxismetyveleba, Tb.
TevzaZe 1984 : g. TevzaZe :rusTvelis kosmologia Tb.
petre iberieli 1960: petre iberieli (fsevdo-dionise areopageli). Sromebi. gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo samson enuqaSvilma. Tb.
imedaSvili 1968 : g. imedaSvili vefxistyaosani da qarTuli
kultura Tb.
kekeliZe 1958: k. kekeliZe. Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, II, Tb.
nozaZe 1963: v. nozaZe. vefxistyaosanis RmrTismetyveleba. parizi. SoTa ioane petriwi 1940: ioane petriwi. Sromebi. I.
gamosacemad moamzades m. gogiberiZem da s. yauxCiSvilma.
Tb.
rusTavelivefxistyaosani 2002 : SoTa rusTavelivefxistyaosani: saskolo gamocema. teqsti moamzada, Sesavali, ganmartebani, komentari da bolosityva daurTo n. naTaZem. redaqtori al. WinWarauli, Tb.
xinTibiZe 1975: e.xinTibiZe msoflmxedvelobiTi problemebi vefxistyaosanSi, Tb.

Zina Gabichvadze
Rustvelology studies Shota Rustavelis Vepkhistkhaosani from
different angles. This article, The chaos and cosmos in
Vepkhistkhaosani addresses concept of the cosmology and chaos
symbolism in prologue of the poem. Everything in the world is
connected. The battle between chaos and cosmos gives people unlimited
possibilities to think and learn. As the result of this battle human reaches
new level of the natural phenomena. We think that, Rustaveli helped
people to overcome the fear of chaos and in first two stanzas of the
prologue he offers a road map to enlightenment of a human, which drives
men to rule the universe and this is the same journey which heroes of the
poem took.

mariam goduaZe

enobrivi kosmosi VERBA


HABENDI-sa da SENTIENDI-s
qarTuli SemTxveva

ergatiuli konstruqciis qarTulsa


da mis monaTesave zanur-svanur enebSi
e.w. inversiuli zmnebis wre, garda
grZnoba-aRqma wris zmnebisa, moicavs
yola-qonis aRmniSvnel zmnebsac. aqamde
qarTul enaTmecnierebaSi calke klasisad miCneuli es zmnebi, romelTac erTi
SexedviT, emociis gamomxatvel zmnebTan,
garda datiuri konstruqciisa, araferi
akavSirebT, Cven erT zmnur klasSi gavaerTianeT [goduaZe 2013], ramdenadac
fsiqologiaSi calke dgas flobis, damokidebulebis, damorCilebis grZnobebi
da isini sxvadasxva fsiqikuri emociis
gamomwvev grZnobaTa kerZo jgufs qmnian.
jer kidev aristotele kategoriebSi
acxadebs, rom grZnobiT aRqmaze adre
gveZleva is, rasac manamde ukve vflobT
da rac ukve gvaqvs miRebuli SegrZnebebiT. misi azriT, flobis gancda SegrZnebebze winandelia. amaves ambobs makdugali, romlis Tanaxmad, floba dominantu-

50

mariam goduaZe

ri grZnobaa [makdugali 1928]1. amdenad, verba habendi flobis


grZnobaTa zmnur qvejgufs mikuTvnebas samarTlianad imsaxurebs.
miT ufro maSin, rodesac aRniSnuli jgufis zmnebic imave morfosintaqsur struqturas aCvenebs, rasac grZnobis, emociis, Semecnebis da sxv. fsiqikuri zmnebi qarTulSi.
cnobilia, rom indoevropul enaTa morfo-sintaqsuri da semantikuri struqturebisagan gansxvavebiT, Zvelsa da axal qarTulSi flobisa da grZnoba-aRqmis gamomxatveli zmnebis formobrivi konstruqcia gacilebiT rTuli da, amavdroulad, binaruli sistemisaa, romelsac qmnis saerTo leqsikuri mniSvnelobis mqone, realuri subieqtis gamoxatulebis ori gramatikuli
rigi: vinisa da manisa, kerZod, qarTul zmnebSi posesori, ganmcdeli, Semfasebeli piri micemiTi brunviT gadmoicema, xolo
gancdis, Sefasebis sagani saxelobiTi brunviT. Sesabamisad,
zmnaSi pirveli e.w. manis rigis (obieqtis) niSnebiTaa warmodgenili, meore e.w. vinis rigis (subieqtis) niSnebiT. amavdroulad, qona-yolisa da grZnoba-aRqmis zmnaTa manisa da vinis, aseve
dinamikuroba/statikurobis saziaro struqturuli Sablonebi
e.w. inversiuli zmnebis saziaro maxasiaTebelia. inversiis sakiTxis Semotana ramdenadme abundovanebs qarTuli enis gramatikis
wesrigs.
am metad sadavo sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Cveni Tvalsazrisi
aseTia: inversia qarTul zmnebSi ar unda arsebobdes. amis Tqmis
safuZvels gramatikuli ileizmis faqtze dayrdnobiT iZlevame-s
(Self-is) obieqtivaciis meqanizmis arseboba enebSi. Cvens varauds
amyarebs Zvel da saSual inglisurSi [geldereni 2014; vakledini2016], aseve islandiurSi dResac arsebuli enobrivi monacemebi
[bardali 2001,48], msgavsi Him thinks, Me Thinks, Him likes, Me likes
formebisa, romlebSic, rogorc vxedavT, eqsperienserebad obieqtivirebuli I da III piris nacvalsaxelebia warmodgenili. rac
Seexeba ileizms, igi dResac cocxali uZvelesi da universaluri enobrivi movlenaa. ileizmis dros pirveli piri sakuTar
Tavs mesame piris formiT moixseniebs da es movlena dResac

McDougall, W. (1928) Emotion and Feeling Distinguished. Feeling and


Emotions: The Wittenberg symposium (pp. 200-2005). Worcester MA: Clark
University Press.

enobrivi kosmosi verba habendi-sa da sentiendi-s qarTuli SemTxveva

51

cocxlobs literaturaSi, dedaTa da bavSvTa, politikosebis,


sazogado moRvaweTa, samxedro pirebis Tu sxvaTa metyvelebaSi.
qarTul enaSi, umTavresad, Semdegi tipis SemTxvevebia gamoyofili: 1. ileizmi bavSvTa metyvelebaSi; 2. ileizmi qarTulad mosaubre azerbaijanelTa metyvelebaSi; 3. ileizmi literaturaSi; 4.
ileizmi media-diskursSi. mag.: (1) me (aCis) unda bu(r)Ti; (2) me
(giuljahars) uyvars wignebis kiTxva; (3) ara sWirs, ara,
rjulZaRlo, yrmasa gudanisjvrisasa (vaJa, aluda qeTelauri); (4) es icis qalbatonma qeTevanma, amisi didi imedi aqvs
qalbaton qeTevans [goduaZe, 2015].
pirvel or magaliTSi mosaubre sakuTar Tavze I piris nacvalsaxeliTa da zmnis piris formiT saubrobs, xolo danarCen orSi nacvalsaxeli sulac ar gvxvdeba, aramed sakuTar
Tavze piris formiT molaparake micemiT brunvaSi mdgari subieqtebi. orive tipis mosaubre TviTobieqtivacias axdens. Cven
mier me-s (Self-is) obieqtivacia ileizmis eqstralingvistur
safuZvelad imdenad iqna miCneuli, ramdenadac me-Si ori sakmaod gansxvavebuli aspeqtis I-sa da Me-s gamoyofa [jeimsi 1890]
xerxdeba. me-s fsiqologebis Tanaxmad, I me, rogorc subieqti aris aqtualuri me, cnobierebis awmyo nakadi; Me me,
rogorc obieqti Seicavs yvelafers, rac ki arsebobs Cveni
me-s Sesaxeb. I-Si igulisxmeba me-s SedarebiT mkafio da SemosazRvruli gancda. Me me ki TviTon individualuri Sinaarsis Semcvelia [baliaSvili 2002, 22]. I-sa da Me-s amgvari dapirispireba qarTul enaSi nacvalsaxelTa zmnis piris niSnebad Camoyalibebis gamo ara nacvalsaxelur, aramed zmnur doneze saZiebelad miviCnieT, kerZod, m-anisa da v-inis binarul opoziciaSi,
romelsac fsiqikuri flobis, grZnobis, emociis, aRqmis, Semecnebiszmnebi qmnian. rogorc ukve iTqva, isini inversiuli zmnebia.
garda amisa, inversiulad miiCneva gardamavali zmnis mesame seriis formebi, pasiuri subieqtis mqone e.w. dinamikuri vnebiTebi,
obieqturi wyobis, datiuri konstruqciis (erTi an or piriani)
zmnebi. mag.: myavs, miyvars, mixaria, mesmis, mgonia, damiweria, meguleba, meZineba, maxvelebs, maJrJolebs da a. S.
Cven mier ukve SeniSnulia, rom III seriis yvela zmna, anu
perfeqtul-rezultaturi Sinaarsis formebi Tavisi bunebiT
fsiqikuria. benvenistma perfeqti gansazRvra rogorc forma, romelSic moqmed pirs ukavSirdeba flobis cneba, SeerTebuli
mdgomareobis cnebasTan [benvenisti 1974;furbi1978;uznaZe 1989

52

mariam goduaZe

da sxv.], garda amisa, qarTulSi I-sa da II TurmeobiTSi warmodgenilia ZiriTadad aRqmis an cnobierebis, xolo III kavSirebiTSi
survilis zmnebi [goduaZe 2013g, 126] da yvela maTganSi subieqti dativSia, iseve, rogorc bazisur ileistur frazebSi. swored amitom SeiZleba iyos morfologiuri inversiis gasaRebi
ileizmi, rogorc sakuTriv movlena, romlis eqstralingvisturi
safuZveli aris obieqtivacia da romelic molaparake pirvel an
meore pirTaTvis dativSi mdgom subieqts iTxovs. [goduaZe
2015e, 89]. bavSvTa sxeulis enasa da qarTuli enis aTvisebis
sawyis etapze myof pirTa metyvelebaze dakvirveba cxadyofs,
rom isini,upirveles yovlisa, migvaniSneben maTTvis sasurvel
obieqtebze, romlebic enaSi mesame piris nacvalsaxelebiTaa gamoxatuli. piris nacvalsaxelebis zmnebze Sezrdis dausrulebeli procesi dResac cocxalia da mimdinareobs enaSi, magaliTad, mSven-is, mixar-is, imwar-is, megulv-is, medagv-is, menukv-is,
mel-is... (barad rom viyo laRada, suli mTisaken ixaris... barSi
sicocxlec imwaris! (erisT.)2; mixaris gimzer, vhswuxvar
da gimzer...(orb.)). xolo me pirveli piris nacvalsaxeli, realuri subieqtis piris niSnad bevrad adre Sexorcebia zmnas.
niko maris tabulebSi [mari 1908], sadac e.w. moqmedebiTi
gvaris I uRlebis warsuli, usruli drois II natvriTis jgufSi
gamokveTilada Cans III piris niSanTa nacvalsaxeluri genezisi:
mrwamdis/, grwamdis/a, hrwamdis/a... rogorc vxedavT, -s>-is/es/-a
markeruli monacvleoba TvalsaCinoa. aSkaraa, rom sxvadasva
zmnur Zirze is/es CvenebiT nacvalsaxelTa SezrdiT xorcieldeba saganTa obieqtivacia. gamodis, am zmnebSi obieqtebi gamoixateba -s sufiqsiT, da ara subieqtebi.
rozenis [1847:411-421], Smidtis [1962:123] da sarjvelaZefenrixis [1990:213] etimologiur kvlevebze dayrdnobiT, zmnaSi
gamoxatuli da obieqtis niSnis genezisi ase warmovidgineT:
I piris mx. ricxvisTvis _ me>m; mr. ricxvisTvis Cven// Cqi//
Sgu>gv; II pirisTvis Sen (Tqven)//si//sgai>g;
Tuki aRvadgenT formebs pirveli da meore piris formebisaTvis, alofonTa poziciuri variantulobisa Tu fakultatu-

Amgvari formebi iZebneba axali da Tanamedrove qarTuli enis


korpusSic: http://corpora.iliauni.edu.ge/?q=ka/search-words

enobrivi kosmosi verba habendi-sa da sentiendi-s qarTuli SemTxveva

53

robis daSvebiT suraTi naTeli iqneba: me yau is >>>>myavs; me


yuar is >>miyvars; Sen (Tqven) // Tqven // si // sgai>giyuar is
>giyvars; me xar is>mixaris>mixaria; Sen (Tqven) // Tqven // si //
sgai>gi xaris>gixaria...; rac Seexeba mesame seriis formebs, Zvel
qarTulSi 1-el TurmeobiTSi gvqonda: miRebies, gmosies da sxv.
ase rom, aqac SeiZleba imave suraTis aRdgena: me Reb is/es>m Reb
is>miRebies>(mi-) miRia; Sen (Tqven) // Tqven // si // sgai>gi Rebies>mi-giRia...;
meore piris niSnad *g-s, rogorc nacvalsaxelis aRdgenas
adasturebs Zveli qarTuli ststikuri zmnebis SemTxveva. g-gonie
Sen, g-ipyrie Sen formebSi markirebuli unda iyos ara iribi
obieqtis piri, rogorc es aqamde iyo miCneuli [uTurgaiZe
2009, 203], aramed subieqtis piri. xolo SemdgomSi swored
Self-is obieqtivaciis meqanizmis damsaxurebiT gaiCina am zmnebma
v-inis rigis meSvelzmnuri warmoeba (ggoni-var, gipyri-var, giyvar-var da a. S.). nominatiuri obieqti Tavad usvams xazs sakuTar arsebobas, Sesabamisad, datiuri subieqti xazs usvams nominatiuri obieqtis arsebobas. ase rom, es ar aris piris niSanTa
Senacvleba, aramed aqtantTa obieqtivaciaa da es ar aris is SemTxveva, romelzec ferdinand de sosiuri ityoda, rom enaSi
obieqtebi qmnian subieqtebs.
Tuki zemoTqmuls SevajamebT, gamodis, enis ganviTarebis adreul etapze gvqonda datiurkonstuqciani ileisturi formebi:
*me(s) yvar is, *me(s) Zul is, *me(s) hyav is pirveli pirisaTvis; *Sen<g(s) yvar is, *Sen <g(s) Zul is, *Sen (s)< gyav is
meore pirisaTvs; *is<s Zul is, *is<i< h yav is, romlebSic *me,
*Sen, *Cven, *Tqven, *is nacvalsaxelebi warmodgenili unda yofiliyo zogad, obieqtivirebul nomenebad, romelTa gaformeba piris niSnebad imaze adre moxda, vidre mesame piris niSnad is
nacvalsaxelis Sezrda da formireba. am varaudis safuZvels
gvaZlevs arseboba eg CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelisa, romlis funqciaa, mxolod meore pirs miemarTos. aki zmnaSic meore obieqturi
piris niSnad saerTo qarTveluridan g- prefiqsia darCenili da
Tan inkluzivis gamosaxatad Zvel qarTulSi micemiTSi dasmul
obieqtTan (gu-aqus Cuen) -gu prefiqsi 2 +1 prefiqsTa kombinaciiT Sedgenil gm>g inkluzivis kategoriis odindel niSnad
moiazreba.
daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom me-s/Self-is obieqtivacia is movlenaa, romelic enis uxsovar suraTs gvinaxavs da

mariam goduaZe

54

gvaCvenebs, rom fonologiis gavleniT qarTul zmnaSi gvaqvs ara


piris niSanTa inversia, aramed opoziciuri ganawileba: pirveli
subieqturi piris mx. ricxvis gamosaxatad m / v, mr. ricxvis
gamosaxatad v-T / gv-T, xolo II subieqturi piris gamosaxatad (ist. x-h-s-0-)-T / g-T dapirispireba. Sesabamisad, arc ise
Soria praqtikul gramatikaSi fsiqikuri zmnebis piris niSnebad
manis rigis niSnebis (m-, g-, h-, s-), subieqtad micemiTSi
dasmuli saxelis, xolo obieqturi pirisad vinis rigis (v-, ,
-s, -a, -o) da obieqtad saxelobiTSi dasmuli saxelis kvalificirebis dro, romelic istorias gaatans inversiasTan dakavSirebuls qaossa da uwesrigobas, xolo qars moswavle-maswavleblobis Wirsa Tu wuxils

literatura
baliaSvili 2002: baliaSvili m. 2002, me-s obieqtivaciis roli qcevis regulaciaSi, fsiqologiis mecn. doqtoris xarisxis mosapoveblad wardgenili disertacia, Tbilisi.
bardali 2001: Bardal, J. 2001, The perplexity of Dat-Nom verbs in
Icelandic. Nordic Journal of Linguistics, 24.
Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 4770.
benvenisti 1974:
, , , , 192-225.
geldereni 2014: Gelderen, E. van 2014, Changes in Psych-verbs: A
reanalysis of little , Catalan Journal of Linguistics 13, 99-122.
goduaZe: a. goduaZe m. 2013, flobis zmnebis semantikuri markirebis sakiTxisaTvis, II saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis ena da kultura Sromebis krebuli, quTaisi, 122128. b. goduaZe m. 2015, ileizmi da me-s obieqtivacia, II

saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis Tanamedrove interdisciplinarizmi da humanitaruli azrovneba Sromebis krebuli, quTaisi, 87-91. g. goduaZe m. 2014, fsiqikur
zmnaTa universaluri modelisadmi qarTuli zmnebis mimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis, humanitaruli kvlevebi, weliwdeuli,
5, Tbilisi. 108-123. d. ileizmi da inversiis sakiTxi
qarTulSi, (gagzavnilia humanitarul kvlevaTa weliwdeulis 7-Si dasabeWdad).
valkedini 2016: Walkden, G. 2016, Syntactic Change (Course handouts

enobrivi kosmosi verba habendi-sa da sentiendi-s qarTuli SemTxveva

55

of EGG Summer School). University of Manchester, Lagodekhi.


mari 1908: , . 1908,
. .-.
meliqiSvili 1998, 2014, 1977: a. meliqiSvili d. 1998, inversia
qarTul zmnaSi diaqroniuli da sinqronuli aspeqtiT, arn.
Ciqobava saerTaSoriso simpoziumis masalebi, Tbilisi. b.
meliqiSvili d. 2014, qarTuli zmnis sistemuri morfosintaqsuri analizi, savaldebulo saleqcio kursi humanitaruli fakultetis qarTveluri enaTmecnierebis specialobis magistraturis studentebisaTvis, Tbilisi. g. meliqiSvili d. 1977, inkluziv-eqskluzivis gamoxatvis istoriisaTvis qarTul zmnaSi. macne filologiis seria, 4,
159-166.
sarjvelaZe da fenrixi: sarjvelaZe, z., fenrixi .,1990, qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tbilisi.
uTurgaiZe 2002: uTurgaiZe T. 2002, gramatikuli kategoriebisa
da maTiurTierTmimarTebisTvis qarTul zmnaSi, Tbilisi.
uznaZe 1998: uznaZe, d. 1998, zogadi fsiqologia, t. III-IV, Tbilisi.
jeimsi 1890: James, W. 1890. The principles of psychology (Vol. 1).
London: Macmillan, p. 291.
Mariam Goduadze
Lingual Cosmos Georgian Case of Verbahabendi and sentiendi
It is not surprise if we can observe much more difficult formingsystemic construction of verbs of possession, feelings and cognition in
Georgian language (in old and new) than in any other Indo-European
morpho-syntactic and semantic structures. In terms of grammar, this
difficulty occurs in the binary system, which is created by two
grammatical orders, having common lexical meaning, especially two
orders with real subject: m-typeand v-type, particularly, in Georgian verbs
possessor, impressible and estomator person is expressed with Dative
Case, while the object of sense and assessment is expressed with
Nominative Case. Consequently the former is represented by the signs of
m-typeorder (object), and the latter by the signs of v-type order
(subject). Such kind of person marking distribution is calledinversion in
Kartvelology and this event still holds a great deal of attention of
linguists.

56

mariam goduaZe

We expressed the idea, that the key of so called morphological


inversion might be in the existence Illeistic forms with dative
construction that are preserved in the languages [Goduadze, 2015], which
are characteristic for human speech from ancient time. Observation on
childrens body language and speech, also on people who are on the
beginning level of learning Georgian language reveal, that at first they
indicate their desired object. Such objects in the language are expressed
with the help of III person pronouns. By adding the pronoun is,es
(she/he/it) to the desired verbal root the objectifying of the world [James
1890] is carrying out. Such kind of verb forms are still alive in Georgian
language. It turns out, that originally we had Illeistic forms with dative
construction: mes ukvar is me loves him/her/it. I person pronoun me
was lately formed as personal marker. III person pronoun was formed as
subjective personal marker in the next stage[Goduadze 2015, 91]. So,
Inversion should not exist in Georgian verb. The opinion that in miqvars
(is me) I love him/herform, is represents a grammatical subject is
unacceptable, because it implies the cause of sense-perception and basis
of the action, however, at the same time no signs of reverse personal
markers are revealed in these verbs. The basis of reverse markers can be
created by the ancient unique linguistic phenomenon Illeism,
objectifying of self is considered as its mental basement in psychology
and is still alive in languages, including in Georgian language. In mental
verbs of possession and sense-perception, also in III serie forms,
objectified person markers must be assessed as oppositional units and
must be described as subjective person markers, considering the fact, that
every verb in its essence from III Series is Psych [Goduadze 2013].

eka CikvaiZe

samyaros suraTi
sulxan-sabas `sityvis konaSi~
(kosmosi, samoTxe, jojoxeTi, caTa da
varskvlavTa sistemebi)
sulxan-sabas ganmartebiTi leqsikoni axali sityva da axleburi saazrovno
sistemis produqtia kulturul-politikuri Ziebis procesSi myofi qarTveli
erisTvis.
is zedmiwevniT warmodgenas
gviqmnis ara mxolod me-17 saukunis qarTvelTa yofis, ganviTarebisa da ganaTlebis siRrmis, urTierTobebis, leqsikuri formebis, aramed kulturuli paralelebisa Tu gzajvaredinebis Sesaxebac.
,,qarTveli eris mamad wodebuli avtori aqve uTiTebs wyaroebs, romelTac eyrdnoboda leqsikonis Sedgenisas. esenia:
,,werilni (Zveli da axali aRTqma),
RrmaTa filosofosTa (prokle diadoxosis, porfiris, nemesios emeselis, ioane
damaskelis) Sromebi (leqsikoni 1991:
28). amave dros, `qarTuli leqsikonis~
avtograful nusxebs ilustraciebic moepoveba Semdegi sityvebisa: naTesavi,ca,
jojoxeTi... ucnobia wyaro Tu wyaroebi
sityvebTan: qveyana, ca, jojoxeTi, safiqrebelia... ilustraciebi laTinuridan
iyvnen aRebulni~ (leqsikoni 1991: 8).
mniSvnelovania, rom sulxan-saba xsnis
qarTul ZeglebSi dadasturebul leqse-

58

eka CikvaiZe

mebsa da cneba-leqsemebs (mecxre ca, filagi, caT moxilva, cani


caTani, cis mSvildi, cisnatexa...). am SemTxvevaSi `sityvis konas~
(`leqsikoni qarTuli~), marTlac, ganmartebiTi leqsikonis xasiaTi aqvs da sxva araerT sakiTxTan erTad mkafio warmodgenas
gviqmnis samyaros, kosmosis, qaosis, Sesaqmes Sesaxeb. Sesabamisad,
ganmartebebis mixedviT SeiZleba aRvadginoT, rogoria samyaro/kosmosi sulxan-sabasTan (erTiani suraTis aRqmas aadvilebs
xsenebuli principi: axsnas leqsema, ganmartos cneba da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi daurTos sqemac ki. aseTebia ca, cTomilni, qveyana, jojoxeTi). Sesabamisad, erTi mxriv, sainteresoa, rogoria
ca, cani caTani, cTomilni (qveyana, zeskneli, qveskneli, gareskneli...), jojoxeTi da zogadi kosmografiuli suraTi sabasTan;
meore mxriv, Rirebulia leqsikuri da terminologiuri dakvirvebani, xolo, mesame mxriv, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT sabas cxovrebis biografiul detalebs, sakiTxi SesaZloa amgvari rakursiTac warmovaCinoT: ra aiRo sabam evropelTa swavlebebidan da
etyoba Tu ara xsenebul enciklopediur statiebs kaTolikur
swavlebaTa kvali; emTxveva Tu ara cis, sasufevlis, varskvlavTa
sistemis da masTan dakavSirebuli cneba-terminebis ganmartebani
orTodoqsul TxzulebaTa swavlebas, kerZod, ioane damaskelis
fundamenturi naSromis ganmartebebs (Tavis mxriv, TviT damaskelis statiebi xSirad sxvadasxva wminda mamis mosazrebebs efuZneba). am TvalsazrisiT davakvirdiT a. komentirebis princips, b.
terminologias, g. kaTolicizmis kvals. amave dros, SevecadeT,
am ganmartebebis (enciklopediuri statiebis) mixedviT aRgvedgina, rogoria samyaro sulxan-sabasTan.
queyana. ,,qveyana erTi ars oTxTa kavSirTagani, xmeli da
grili, mZime da uZravi. aramyofobisagan yofad pirvelsa dResa
moyvanebuli RvTisagan. xolo qveyanasa Sina kerZo ars jojoxeTi
da qveyana gareSecvul ars haerisagan. xolo haeri Secvul ars
eTerisa mier da eTeri Secvul ars caTagan. simgurgle queynisa
ori bevri da aTas equs asi eji, sivrce 6822 eji, sigrZe
10800 eji (sami mili erTi eji ars). niSandoblivia, rom dedamiwis Sesaxeb arsebuli monacemebi (simgrgvle/garSemoweriloba,
sigrZe da sigane/sivrce) laTinuri wyaros monacemebs unda efuZnebodes. qveyana, faqtobrivad, aris dedamiwa, romlis wiaRSic
saba moiazrebs jojoxeTsac, xolo mis garSemo atmosferos
(eTers) da caTa sistemas.
,,qveyanaTa Soris, qveynis qveSe konkretuli geografiul

samyaros suraTi sulxan-sabas `sityvis konaSi~

59

areSi mdebareobs jojoxeTi, sadac oTx sferos gamyofs saba. am


SemTxvevaSi kidev ufro metad axdens materializacias saba da
sivrciT aRwerilobas sferoTa siRrmeebsac miuTiTebs: ,,garegani
sfero mamaTmTavarT dilegi (simgrgvle 121x100500 eji, sigrZe 90x100000), mas SigniTi sfero unaTlavT CCvilT sapyrobile, mas SigniTi sfero salxinebeli jojoxeTi, da SigniTi
meoTxe saukuno jojoxeTi, gamouxsneli. amgvari konkretuli
sivrciTi maCvenebeli darTuli aqvs jojoxeTis TiToeul sferos, rac kvlavac gvafiqrebinebs laTinuri wyaros arsebobaze.
laTinur zegavlenaze ki mkveTrad miuTiTebs ,,salxinebeli.
samyaro. Tanamedrove leqsikaSi samyaro sxva ufro viwro
mniSvnelobebTan erTad yovelive arsebulis erTobliobas aRniSnavs. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni upirveles mniSvnelobad Semdeg axsnas gvTavazobs: samyaro dedamiwisa da sxva
ciuri sxeulebis erTiani sistema. dabadebis pirvel TavSi samyaro Svidgzis moixsenieba. sayuradReboa me-8 muxli, sadac vkiTxulobT: ,,da uwoda RmerTman samyarosa ca. savaraudod, am muxlze dayrdnobiT saba ganmartavs: ,,ese cai ars uZravi da myari
garegan sxuaTa caTa (dab. 1.6) (sabas kvalobaze axal qarTul
versiaSi samyaros Sesatyvisad gamoiyeneba swored leqsema ,,myari). sxva versiaSi amgvar ganmartebas vxvdebiT: ,,samyaro ars
gareSe yovelTa caTa, an ,,samyaro ca ars gareSe yovelTa caTa, ,,samyaro ca ars uZravi da ganuzomeli, romelsa zeda ars
sasufeveli da mxedroba caTa, xolo sxvagan ,,ese ca ars uZravi da ganuzomeli, romlisa ze missa ars sasufeveli da Zalni
caTani. amgvarad, calsaxaa, rom samyaro aris myari adgili, romelic garegan akravs sxvaTa caTa, romlis zec aris sasufeveli
da caTa mxedrobis samyofeli. amgvarad, sabasTan samyaroc aris
ca, mxolod myari ca, romlis zec aris sasufeveli da mas ara
aqvs yovelive arsebulis erTobliobis datvirTva-gaazreba.
ca (cani caTani, anu caTa sistema). dabadebis I.1 muxliT,
,,dasabamad qmna RmerTman ca da queyana. rogoria caTa sistema
sabasTan? sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom qristianTa warmodgeniT
(romelic, Tavis mxriv, iudevelTa swavlebas efuZneba), ca ar
aris erTi, mxolod is, rasac vxedavT. jer kidev SesaqmeSi
ufalma `ganyo wyalni caTani da wyalni zesknels caTani~. cas
sulxan-saba ase ganmartavs: `ca, ze aRsaxedi (dab.1.1). ca ars gareSemcveli yovelTa dabadebulTa da SeqmnilTa nivTierTa, xolo cani Secvul arian sasufevelisagan, sada ars sayofeli ange-

60

eka CikvaiZe

lozTa da wmidaTa, xolo mxolod RmerTi ars yovelTa Semcveli da gareSemouwereli. cisasa romelnime oTxTa kavSirTagan
(asoTagan, CA) ityvian Semzadebasa; xolo romelnime gareSe oTxTa kavSirTasa (asoTasa, CA) qmnilsa Semoqmedisa mier (+xolo
saRmrTo basili kuamlis saxed ityvis CAQ). qveyana ars mrguali da gareSeculi haerisagan, xolo haeri gareSeculi eTerisa
mier da eTeri_mTovarisa cisa mier, romelsa saxel-edebis Wirano, da merme ermis ca, romelsa ewodebis corano; merme afroditis ca, romelsa ewodebis meltaro; merme mzis ca, romelsa
ewodebis koWimeli; merme arias ca, romelsa ewodebis WimWimeli,
merme dias ca, romelsa ewodebis kimkimeli, merme kronosis ca,
romelsa ewodebis arbastro; merme (merve CA) varskvlavTa ca,
romeli aRmosavaliT dasavalad miiqcevis; merme meore mZvreli
ca da mermePpirveli mZvreli ca, romeli yovelTa caTa aRmosavliT dasavlad gardabrunebs da msgavsi ars brolisa. xolo garegani ca ars samyaro, romeli Secul ars sasufevlisgan
(ZA)~. igive statia gansxvavebuli versiiT aris daculi B da
CA jgufis xelnawerebSi. Tavis mxriv, gansxvavebani Zalze mniSvnelovania. caTa sistema CA jgufis xelnawerebSi ukeT aris
sistematizirebuli da advilad aRsaqmeli: `qveyana ars mgrguali
da gareSeculi haerisagan, xolo haeri gare Seculi eTerisa mier da eTeri Seculi caTa mier, romelTa Sina arian Svidni
cTomilni TviTosa sartyelsa zeda, merme varskvlavni da samyaro. da dasasrulsa sasufeveli. viTarca qveyanisa zeda kerZo
arian cani, egreTve da yovliT kidiT qveda kerZo da igurdiv da
slvani varskvlavTanica egreTve, romelni uqvemoesTa caTa zeda
arian, umswraflesad movlian da romelni mas zedeT_ugvianesad.
viTarca axlos mavali da SoriT momarTebeli. da urTierTisa
ganSorebisa da siaxlisa, gansworebisa da pirispir Wvirobisa mier iqmnebian mzisa da mTovarisa moklebani, gina wvima, Tovli,
qari, setyva, gina gvalva da notiobani, yovelive varskvlavTagan
ars~ (CA). am aRwera-ganmartebaSi sulxan-saba CaurTavs naxazs,
ilustracias, sadac warmodgenilia sqematuri gamosaxuleba, romelic `yrmebs~, swavlis mosurne ymawvilebs (rogorc Tavad avtori brZanebs), warmodgenas Seuqmnis caTa sistemaze. aseTi sqema TviT leqsikonSic ramdenimea, miuTiTeben, rom qarTuli xelnawerebisTvis es sqemebi ucxoa da arc damaskelis SromaSi ar
Cans. xolo rakiRa leqsikoni sabas evropaSi mogzaurobis produqtia, safiqrebelia, rom sqemebi da naxazebi romelime laTinu-

samyaros suraTi sulxan-sabas `sityvis konaSi~

61

ri dednidan aris aRebuli. il. abulaZe miuTiTebs, rom isini


gadmoRebulia laTinuri kosmografiuli saxelmZRvanelodan,
Tumca dedani da avtori ucnobia (leqsikoni 1991: 8).
cTomilni. caTa sistemas avsebs sulxan-sabas ganmarteba
cTomilTa Sesaxeb. yuradsaRebia, rom saba ganasxvavebs cTomilebsa da varskvlavebs erTmaneTisgan, Tumca aigivebs varskvlavsa
da mnaTobs. cTomili dRevandeli terminologiiT mzis sistemis
(sabas droisTvis cnobili) Svidi planetaa. leqsikografi mnaTobs ase ganmartavs: `mnaTobi _ arian varskvlavni. umecarT mnaTobad uTqvamT varskvlavmorbedi, romel ars tatani. ara TviT
naTeli, aramed savane naTlisa (Sdr. damaskeli, S1463, 65r,b10)~.
sulxanis ganmartebiT `Svidni igi varskvlavni ukve iTqmian cTomilad, romelni SvidTa maT caTa Sina TiToeulni arian, romelTa saxelebi ese ars qarTulad da arabulad: mTovare yamar luna, ermi - otarid - venere, afroditi aspiroz - merkurio,
mze Sams - sole, aria marixi - marte, dia muSTari - jove, kronosi zual - saturno~. amave dros, Zalian sayuradReboa TiToeuli cTomilis cis (CA jgufis xelnawerebiT, _ cis
TiToeuli Sris) qarTuli Sesatyvisi, rasac aseve ver vxvdebiT
ioane damaskelTan (corano, koWimeli, WimWimeli...).
Tuki davajgufebT da SevajamebT, samyaros suraTi, romelsac sulxan-saba gvTavazobs, amgvari iqneba: qveyanas (romelsac
sferos saxe, simgurgle aqvs) gars akravs haeri, haers_eTeri.
arc haeri da arc eTeri cad (cis sferod) ar iwodeba. haeri
`erTi ars oTxTa kavSirTagani. pirvelsa dResa dabadebuli. ese
ars nivTi wvlili, notio, mxurvali, cecxlisa ukue umZimesi da
qveyanisa da wylisa usubuqesi. aRmofSvinvisa da xmayofisa mizezi. uferuli, orsaxe, orsaCino. naTlisa ars semwynarebeli da
bnelisa. msaxuri samTa grZnobaTa CvenTa... ese haeri ganiyofebis
samad: are,.. airi,.. niavwvlili~. eTeris ganmarteba Zalze uCveuloa: es aris `cecxli... Semcveli haerisa caTa udablesad~. B
jgufis xelnawerebSi eTeri ufro srulad aris ganmartebuli
da axsnilia, rogor gardaisaxeba eTeri airad (haeris Sua fenad): `ese ars cecxli, caTa qvemore Semcveli haerisa, romeli
mecxris cisa aRmosavliT dasavlad iCqiTad msrbolobasa iZulebiT Tana hyvebian sxva cTomilTa sferonica da maTisa mswrafl
qcevaTagan aerTeben Tvisasa axlore hairsa da miT iqmnebis cecxli, xolo ra iSTamoebs_hair~. haersa da eTers mosdevs caTa
Svidi sartyeli zemodasaxelebuli TanmimdevrobiT: 1. mTovare-

62

eka CikvaiZe

yamari-luna-Wirano, 2. ermi-otaridi-venere-corano, 3. afroditiaspirozi-merkurio-meltaro, 4. mze-Samsi-sole-koWimeli, 5.


aria-marixi-marte-WimWimeli, 6. dia-muSTari-jove-kimkimeli, 7.
kronosi-zuali-saturno-arbastro. Svid cas mosdevs merve: 8.
varskvlavT ca, 9. mecxre sfero-meore mZvreli ca, pirveli
mZvreli ca, msgavsi brolisa 10. samyaro, 11. sasufeveli.
sulxan-saba ganmartavs, rom `sartylad uTqvamT Svidni igi
sferoni cisani, romelTa vlenan Svidni cTomiloni~. e.i. sartyeli mxolod cTomilTa gzis aRmniSvnel sferoTa saxelia. Svidi
cis, anu cTomilTa sartyelTa Semdeg aris varskvlavTa ca. saba
uTiTebs: `simravle varskulavTa ars mervesa casa zeda~. saba
calke ganmartavs mecxre cas, romlis axsnac aq warmodgenil
suraTs, TiTqos, cvlis, TumcaRa ufro metad avsebs. ilustraciaze, romelic erTvis cis komentars, varskvlavTa caze gamosaxulia cTomilis aRmniSvneli TerTmeti simbolo (am niSnebs Tavad saba urTavs). Tumca, varskvlavTa ca mervea da ara mecxre.
meTormetis funqcias TiTqos asrulebs Tavad warwera: varskvlavTa ca. SesaZloa, vifiqroT, rom es niSnebi aris zodiaqoTa aRmniSvneli, magram zodiaqos saTanado adgilas gansxvavebuli simboloebiT uTiTebs saba. mecxre cas (da ara varskvlavTa
cas) leqsikografi ganmartavs, rogorc brolis cas, romelzec
`arian aTormetni igi zodiaqoni~. brols saba zemoT adarebs
pirvel mZvrel cas, romelic meore mZvreli cis zeviT unda
iyos. mecxre sfero igive meore mZvreli caa. Tuki I da II
mZvrel cas cal-calke sferos ar SevusabamebT, ris safuZvelsac gvaZlevs ilustracia, maSin mecxre sferos da mecxre cis
ganmarteba erTmaneTs aRar SeewinaaRmdegeba da komentari_mecxre
ca, brolis ca, romelzec `arian aTormetni igi zodiaqoni~, winaaRmdegobrivad aRar aRiqmeba. mecxre cas ekvris (Seicavs) samyaro, samyaros ki_sasufeveli. rogorc vnaxeT, saba samyaros
mniSvnelobas Zalze aviwrovebs. Termini ,,samyaro sabasTan gulisxmobs ara mowesrigebul substancias, qaosis mowesrigebis
Semdeg miRebuls, kosmosi (berZnuli SesatyvisiT), aramed uZrav
da myar sferos, romelic gars akravs rva cas (da rva casTan
erTad _ dedamiwas). xolo sasufeveli ki mokled aris axsnili
(saba imowmebs mT. 5.3): `ese ars samyofi angelozTa, sada wmidani arian~. Zalian sainteresoa isic, rom sabasTan samoTxe da sasufeveli gansxvavebuli Sinaarsis cnebebia. samoTxis Sesaxeb
statiaSi saba konkretul adgilsac miuTiTebs: ,,(2,8 dabad.) sa-

samyaros suraTi sulxan-sabas `sityvis konaSi~

63

moTxe ars queyanasa zeda aRmosavalsa, saSuebeli, yvavilT mtili; samoTxe ewodebis msofliosa walkotTa SuenierTa. rogorc
Cans, saba uTiTebs adgils dedamiwis aRmosavleT nawilSi da,
savaraudod, gulisxmobs, rom am konkretul geografiul arealSi mdebareobda edemi, sadac ufalma Seqmna da daasaxla adami da
eva. xolo edems ganmartavs leqsemuri da ara egzegetikur-Teologiuri mniSvnelobis mixedviT.
`caTa Sesaxeb~ ganmartebas vxvdebiT ioane damaskelTanac.
ioane damaskelis `gardamocemisa~ (`marTlmadidebeli sarwmunoebis zusti gardamocema~) da sulxan-sabas kosmografiuli suraTis Sedarebam cxadyo sulxan-sabas muSaobis principi. igi ramdenime wyaroTi sargeblobs, ajerebs cnobebs da aerTianebs ganmartebebSi. ase, magaliTad damaskelis gardamocemis ori Tavi
(`cisaTvis~ da `naTlisaTvis da cecxlisa da mnaTobTa, mzisaTvis da mTovarisa da varskulavTa~) ramdenime komentarad gadanawilda. saba komentars amoklebs, amcirebs gamokrebiT, ise, rom
ZiriTadi, mniSvnelovani ar daikargos (am SemTxvevaSi, sulxan-sabas muSaobis meTodi axloa eqvTimes `kleba-Sematebis~ principTan). Sedareba naTelyofs msgavseba-gansxvavebasac: `ca ars gareSemcveli xilulTa da uxilavTa dabadebulTa. rameTu Sinagan
missa goniernica Zalni angelozTani da yovelni grZnobadni gareSeicvian. mxolo RmerTi ars gareSeuwereli, yovelTa gareSemcveli, viTarca zesTa myofi da dambadebeli yovelTa... amissa
bunebasa wmida basili wuliladad ityvis, msgavsad kuamlisa,
sxuani oTxTa nivTTagan Sezavebulad da sxuani mexuTed guamad
sxuad, Tvinierad oTxTa nivTTasa ityvian mas...~ `xolo SvidTa
sartyelTa ityvian zecisaTa, erTsa umaRles meorisa da bunebasa
maTsa wuliladad uwoden saxed kuamlisa da TiToeulsa maT
sartyelTagansa erTsa xuedrebulad varskulavTa maTgan, cTomilad saxel-debulTa, rameTu Svidad uwoden cTomilTa maT varskulavTa, ese igi arian: mze, mTovare, dia, ermi, area, afroditi,
kronon... cTomil amisTvis uwodian, rameTu winaaRmdgomad cisa
hyofen Zrvasa...~ amgvarad, kavSiri aSkaraa. kavSiri ikveTeba ara
mxolod azris ganviTarebaSi, msjelobis TanmimdevrobaSi, aramed
leqsikur qsovilSi. gardamocemis teqstebTan lamis zedmiwevniTi msgavseba konkretul statiaTa damuSavebisas laTinuri wyaroTi sargeblobas gamoricxavs. Tumca zogierTi statiis konkretuli detali (sazomTa miTiTeba, terminologia), metad materializebuli warmosaxvebi samoTxisa Tu jojoxeTis mdebareobis

64

eka CikvaiZe

Sesaxeb aSkarad metyvelebs laTinuri saxelmZRvanelos kvalze


(SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom saqme gvaqvs garkveuli tipis kompilaciasTanac).
zemoT Cven SevecadeT, aRgvedgina sulxan-sabaseuli samyaros
suraTi. damaskelTan mas aerTianebs Svidi mnaTobis sartyeli,
Svidi ca, Tanmimdevroba, leqsikuri qsovili. gardamocemis xelnawerebSi TiToeul cTomils sakuTari niSani_simbolo aqvs, rac
miTiTebulia,
magram ar aris asaxuli beWdur gamocemaSi. amitom am aspeqtiT Sedareba ver moxerxda. xolo haerisa da eTeris Sesaxeb gamoTqmuli mosazreba, varskvlavni, mecxre ca, samyaro da sasufeveli damaskelTan am konkretul statiaSi ar
gvxvdeba. gansxvavebis mizezic aSkaraa: gansxvavebulia mizani, romelsac aRwevs sulxan-saba da gansxvavebuli _ marTlmadidebeli
sarwmunoebis zedmiwevniTi `gardamocemis~ avtorisa. erTis Sromas miznad aqvs warmodgenis Seqmna, meorisas _ zedmiwevniTi axsna, swavleba, sarwmunoebis fundamentur sakiTxTa axsna-ganmarteba. amitom, erTi mxriv, cxadi da aSkaraa teqstebiT sargeblobis kvali, xolo, meore mxriv _ gansxvavebisac, swored miznidan, funqciidan gamomdinare.
rogorc vxedavT, sulxan-saba ZiriTadad eyrdnoba, gamokrebs
da sakuTari miznis mixedviT ajgufebs ioane damaskelis ganmartebas. maT Soris arsebiTi gansxvaveba ar aris. sxvaobas qmnis is,
rom ioane damaskeli ganmartavs mxolod imas, rac saeklesio
swavlebiT aris ganpirobebuli, exeba ZiriTad dogmatur sakiTxebs da swavlebis materializacias ar axdens. ver SevxvdebiT
verc erT sqemas damaskelTan. TiTqos araferi icvleba ilustraciis SemotaniT da CarTviT statiaSi, magram swored aq etyoba
laTinuri Sromebis gavlena sabas leqsikons. laTinuri Sromebi,
cxadia, laTinuri eklesiis wiaRSi iqmneboda. is, rac ucxoa orTodoqsuli eklesiisTvis, Cveulebrivi da misaRebia laTinTaTvis. ilustracia ki am midgomis naTeli dadasturebaa.

samyaros suraTi sulxan-sabas `sityvis konaSi~

65

literatura:
axali aRTqma 1979: qarTuli oTxTavis ori bolo redaqcia, gamosca da gamokvleva daurTo iv. imnaiSvilma, Tb., 1979.
ioane damaskeli, dialeqtika, qarTuli Targmanebis teqsti gamosca, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo m. rafavam, Tb.,
1976.
ioane damaskeli 2000: marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis zusti
gadmocema, gamosacemad moamzades r. miminoSvilma da m.
rafavam, Tb. 2000.
leqsikoni qarTuli 1991: moamzada... ilia abulaZem; [red.: el.
metreveli, c. qurcikiZe]; saq. mecn. akad., xelnawerTa inti. - Tb.: merani, 1991. - 20sm. t.1, t. 2.
meliqiSvili d. 1975: ioane petriwis filosofiur SromaTa ena
da stili, Tb., 1975.
saqme mociqulTa 1950: gamosca i. abulaZem, Tb., 1950.
fsalmunis Zveli qarTuli redaqciebi: X-XIII saukuneTa xelnawerebis mixedviT gamosca mz. SaniZem.
Zveli aRTqmis teqstebi: mcxeTuri xelnaweri, teqsti gamosacemad moamzada da gamokvleva daurTo el. doCanaSvilma,
Tb., 1961-1986, aseve: wignni Zuelisa aRTqumisani, nakveTi
I, gamosacemad moamzades b. gigineiSvilma da c. kikviZem,
1989; nakv. II, gamosacemad moamzades b. gigineiSvilma, n.
goguaZem da c. qurcikiZem, 1990.
Eka Chikvaidze
Shota Rustaveli Institute
of Georgian Literature
The Depiction of Universe in Sulkhan-Saba Dictionary
(World, Heaven, Hell, Firmament and Star Systems)
Sulkhan-Saba Explanatory Dictionary is interesting in many ways.
Along with many other issues, it gives us an idea of the Biblical
conceptions about universe, cosmos, chaos, creation. Universe,
firmament are fully defined in Sabas dictionary, and definition is even
reinforced with Hence, on the one hand, definitions of the Sky, the
heavens, celestial bodies, hell, and general cosmographic picture in
Sabas work are interesting; and secondly, lexical and terminological

66

eka CikvaiZe

observations are of value, and thirdly, considering biographical details of


Sabas life, the issue may be presented from the following perspective:
What did Saba take from the teachings of the Europeans and do the
mentioned encyclopedic entrieshave the imprint of Catholic teachings; do
the definitions of heaven, the kingdom of heaven, firmament and related
concepts coincide with the teaching of Orthodox works, specifically,
definitions provided in the fundamental work by John of Damascus. In
this respect, we have examined a. semantic development and conveyingof
comments, b. identity-difference of terms, c. whether a definition
comprises an explanation acceptable for Catholicism that is aliento
Orthodox dogmatic teaching.

elizbar elizbaraSvili

kosmosis da qaosis
gagebebis iluzoruloba
f. nicSes filosofiis
mixedviT
pirvel rigSi, saWiroa CamovayaliboT kosmosisa da qaosis klasikuri da
postklasikuri gagebebi.
hesiode Tavis TeogoniaSi qaoss
ganixilavs, rogorc usasrulo sivrces,
bnel ufskruls, samyaros elementebis
uwesrigo grovas, romlisganac warmoiSva yvelaferi. kosmoss ki ganixilavs,
rogorc samyaros, romelic elementebis
mowesrigebuli mTlianobaa. qaosSi gaRvivda siyvarulis Zala da amoizarda
misgan kosmosi. kosmosi modis qaosidan
da Semdgom sabolood isev qaoss ubrundeba, rodesac igi daiRupeba da isev daiSleba Semadgenel elementebad.
demokritesTan qaosi atomTa uwesrigo moZraobaa, qaosi aris usasrulo,
mouwesrigebeli kosmosis winaresafexuri, sanam atomTa moZraoba araviTar konfiguracias ar warmoqmnis. kosmosi ki
atomTa mowesrigebuli da kanonzomieri
moZraobaa, moZravi materiis struqturulad organizebuli mTlianoba. kosmosi
TavisTavad warmoiSoba da amoizrdeba qaosidan atomTa grigalebis CamoyalibebiT
da zrdiT. xolo Semdeg isev iSleba

68

elizbar elizbaraSvili

calkeul, SemTxveviTi da spontanuri moZraobebis mqone atomebad kosmosis daRupvisas.


ZvelberZnuli gageba (gansakuTrebiT _ platonsa da aristotelesTan) kosmosisa ukavSirdeba mSvenierebas, srulyofilebas
da umankoebas. klasikaSi qaoss da kosmoss erTmaneTTan garegani
kavSir-mimarTeba aqvs:
1) isini erTmaneTisagan arian gamijnulni anu rodesac qaosia, qaosia, rodesac kosmosia, kosmosia. isini sakuTari Tavis
identurni arian da erTmaneTSi arasodes aRirevian.
2) isini erTmaneTs enacvlebian da gadadian erTimeoreSi
mudmivad.
postklasikur azrovnebaSi qaosi kreatiuli, TviTkmari,
Zlieri Sinagani aqtiurobisa da Zlieri kreatiuli potencialis
mqone garemoa. igi warmoadgens SemTxveviTi fluqtuaciebis samyaros mikrodoneze. qaosSi raime wesrigis aryofna niSnavs konfiguraciebis mravali formisadmi gaxsnilobas. kosmosi ki aris
organizaciuli wesrigi makrodoneze. kosmosi ganisazRvreba,
warmoiqmneba qaosidan, makrodonis wesrigi yalibdeba mikrodonis SemTxveviTi fluqtuaciebidan, xolo mikrodonis fluqtuaciebi ayalibebs da gansazRvravs makrodonis wesrigs. es gansazRvra, Camoyalibebi ar mimdinareobs droSi, kosmoss da qaoss Soris ar aris monacvleoba, aramed qaosi kosmosis safuZvelia, mikrodonis SemTxveviTi fluqtuaciebi warmoadgens makrodonis
mowesrigebuli sistemebis safuZveli.
aqedan gamomdinare, postklasikaSi qaoss da kosmoss Sinagani kavSir-mimarTeba aqvs _ qaosisa da kosmosis imanenturi igiveoba (J.deliozi). postmoderni arsebul realobas uyurebs,
rogorc qaosisa da kosmosis kontaminacias _ erTgvar qaoskosmoss qaosmoss.
zemoT aRwerilis Semdgom, Cven SegviZlia, kargad davinaxoT,
rom qaosisa da kosmosis klasikuri da postklasikuri gagebebi
qmnadobis filosofiur velSi Tavsdeba. qmnadobis velis miRma
maTze saubari uazrobaa. qmnadoba warmoadgens sagnebisa da movlenebis ganuwyvetel gadasvlas, gardaqmnas. formula _ yvelaferi mimdinareobs (heraklite, hegeli, uaitxedi...). qmnadobis
metaforaa heraklites mdinaris metafora. rasakvirvelia, qmnadi
samyaros aucilebeli niSania dinamikuri drois arseboba. ufro
swored, qmnadoba da dro erTi da igivea, ubralod, pirveli

kosmosis da qaosis gagebebis iluzoruloba f. nicSes filosofiis mixedviT 69

sagnebze, movlenebsa da maT gardaqmnaze amaxvilebs yuradRebas


meore ki xangrZlivobasa da movlenaTa monacvleobaze.
drois statikuri Teoria ki drois subieqturobis Teoriaa,
romelic drois msvleloba-dinebis realurobas ar aRiarebs,
aramed _ cnobierebis msvleloba-dinebis realurobas, am dros
ki cnobierebas eqmneba iluzia ,,drois gasvlis Sesaxeb. dro ar
gadis es Cven gavdivarT swored am koncefciis gaazrebiTaa
SesaZlebeli amis Tqma. drois amdagvari gageba gveubneba, rom
obieqturia cnobierebis moZraoba, xolo subieqturia drois
moZraoba. cnobierebis moZraobaa is, rac aris namdvili, obieqturi dro, rasac ver xedavda drois dinamikuri Teoria.
drois arsis aseTi gagebis metafora aris ara mdinare, rigis monacvleoba, rodesac Cven vdgavarT mdinareSi, mdinare ki
moZraobs (aRmqmeli gaCerebulia _ samyaro-dro moZraobs), aramed tba, uZravi, momcveli arsi, erTianoba-mTlianoba-totaloba,
rodesac is gaCerebulia da Cven vcuravT masSi (samyaro, sinamdvile gaCerebulia-aRmqmeli moZraobs) cnobiereba moZraobs
obieqtur, gaCerebul samyaroSi da am moZraobisas ibadeba aRqmebis Tanmimdevroba drois iluzia.
,,Ecce Homo-s fragmentSi nicSe wers: ,,axla me mogiyvebiT
zaratustras istorias. am nawarmoebis ZiriTadi koncefciaa azri maradiul mobrunebaze, es damkvidrebis umaRlesi formula,
romelic saerTod SesaZlebelia miiRwes, ekuTvnis 1881 wlis agvistos; is Cawerilia furcelze saTauriT: ,,6000 futi adamianisa da drois miRma. me im dRes mivdiodi silvaplanis tbis
gaswvriv tyeebiT; Zalumi piramidiseburad daxvavebuli qvebis
blokTan, surleas maxloblad, me gavCerdi. iq momivida me es azri (nicSe. 1990: 743-744). (Ich erzhle nunmehr die Geschichte
des Zarathustra. Die Grundconception des Werks, der EwigeWiederkunfts-Gedanke, diese hchste Formel der Bejahung, die
berhaupt erreicht werden kann , gehrt in den August des Jahres 1881:
er ist auf ein Blatt hingeworfen, mit der Unterschrift: 6000 Fuss jenseits
von Mensch und Zeit. Ich gieng an jenem Tage am See von Silvaplana
durch die Wlder; bei einem mchtigen pyramidal aufgethrmten Block
unweit Surlei machte ich Halt. Da kam mir dieser Gedanke. nicSe 1967:
Ecce homo. http://www.nietzschesource.org. 2009).
am fragmentSi Cven gvaqvs Semdegi mocemulobebi:
1. drois wris, samyaros ciklurobis koncefcia;
2. adamianisa da drois miRma yofna (6000 futiT);
3. silvaplanis tbis gaswvriv moZraoba;

70

elizbar elizbaraSvili

4. piramidiseburad daxvavebuli qvebis blokTan gaCereba;


rogorc vxedavT, drois wrebrunvis Teoria, romelic qaragmuli formiT aqvs gadmocemuli nicSes da romliTac Semofarglavdnen nicSes aRniSnul moZRvrebas, mxolod Semadgeneli, erTi nawilia romeliRac, ufro didi da ufro farTo suraTisa,
sadac mravali sxva aqcentic gvxvdeba. Tuki martin haidegeris
Sexedulebas gaviziarebT, rom maradiuli mobruneba ar aris Teoria da igi mxolod ganwyobilebebis Seqmnas emsaxureba, an Jil
deliozis im azrs, rom es moZRvreba aris saidumlo da ucnauri
ezoTerika, maSin Cven mier CamoTvlili es mocemulobebi urTierTdamoukideblad da TanabarmniSvnelovnad axmiandebian erTian
suraT-gamocanaSi. warmodgenili ,,moZRvrebis garSemo arsebuli
yvela qaragmis, metaforis da faqtis reintegrirebiT Cven SegviZlia SevqmnaT erTiani suraTi, romelic gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT raRacas gamoxatavs an malavs, da romelic iqneba gamosacnobi-gasaSifri. aseTi ram filosofiaSi aris miTi, romelic ar
qmnis raime koncefcias, aramed ayalibebs amosacnob, mravalgvarad CaSifrul sivrces. nicSe miTebis mTxzvelia - es moaruli
azri aq gamodgeba yvelaze metad. Cveni azriT is iseTive miTia,
rogorc platonTan gamoqvabulis miTi. is araviTari Teoria an
koncefcia araa. xolo ras davarqmevT mas, es mogvianebiT SeiZleba gadawydes.
silvaplanis tbis gaswvriv moZraoba nicSes miTSi samyaros
garkveuli modelis struqturas qmnis: uZravi tba, wylis momcveli sivrce, rogorc mTlianad arsi, realoba da mis gaswvriv
moZravi cnobiereba, romelic gadis sanapiros mimdebare tyeebs.
uZravi tba - uZravi arsi da mis gaswvriv (masSi) moZravi cnobiereba - nicSe, rogorc sakuTari miTis miTogenuri personaJi.
tba da tbis gaswvriv (an tbaSi) moZraoba (curva) metaforulad
samyaros im struqturas gadmoscems, sadac cnobiereba moZraobs
obieqtur, gaCerebul samyaroSi da am moZraobisas ibadeba aRqmebis Tanamimdevroba - drois iluzia. Cvens SemTxvevaSi nicSes napir-napir tye-tye moZraoba warmoadgens am aRqmebis Tanamimdevrobas. Cven SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom aq gvaqvs drois statikuri
Teoriis vizualuri xati, romelic upirispirdeba Tavis sawinaaRmdegos - heraklites mdinares da masSi Sesvlas.
maSasadame, nicSe 1881 wlis agvistos Tavis Tavs gadamxdari
faqtidan qmnis filosofiur miTs da Tavadve gvevlineba am miTis
personaJad. drois ciklurobis Teoriaze apelirebiT is gviqmnis

kosmosis da qaosis gagebebis iluzoruloba f. nicSes filosofiis mixedviT 71

ganwyobas, saazrovno mimarTulebas, rom aq vexebiT iseT Temebs,


rogorebicaa drosa da maradisobaze fiqri, da Semdgom warmogvidgens, statikuri drois metaforas: tbas, rogorc mTlianobiT
arss da mis gaswvriv moZraobas, rogorc am maradiul, mTlian
arsSi cnobierebis gadaadgilebas.
maSasadame, nicSe silvaplanis tbis miTiT uerTdeba filosofiis, mecnierebis da okultizmis im ucnaur moZRvrebas, romelic drois statikuri Teoriis saxeliT aris cnobili da romelic istoriis manZilze saidumlo moZRvrebad iTvleboda. statikuri drois Teoria gamoricxavs samyaros qmnadobas, saganTa
da movlenaTa gadasvlas, gardaqmnas, mudmiv dinebas, uaryofs heraklites mdinares da samyaros warmoidgens, rogorc statikurs, gaqvavebuls, uZravs, ucvlels.
am miTis siRrmiseuli analizis gziT mivdivarT daskvnamde,
rom nicSes filosofia saubrobs statikur, maradiul, ucvlel
arsze da samyaros wakiTxvis yofiereba-qmnadobis SepirispirebaSi
yofierebis mxares iWers. nicSes filosofiaSi gvaqvs igives maradiuli dabrunebis moZRvrebis magivrad sinamdvileSi Cven winaSea miTi silvaplanis tbis Sesaxeb, romlis erT simbolur aspeqtsac warmoadgens is, rasac rigi mkvlevrebisa maradiul dabrunebad moixsenieben. warmodgenili miTi nicSes filosofiaSi
afuZnebs samyaros araqmnad struqturas, ris Sedegadac kosmosis, qaosis da qaosmosis gegebebi ontologiur sazriss kargaven.
literatura:
nicSe 1990: . . 1.
.
nicSe 1990: . . 2.
.
nicSe 1967: Friedrich Nietzsche, Digital critical edition of the complete
works and letters, based on the critical text by G. Colli and M.
Montinari, Berlin/New York, de Gruyter 1967-, edited by Paolo
DIorio]. http://www.nietzschesource.org. 2009

elizbar elizbaraSvili

72

Elizbar Elizbarashvili
The Illusiveness of concepts of Cosmos and Chaos according to
Nietzsches philosophy
The article discusses the topics of the philosophy of Friedrich
Nietzsche, such as the regularity and non-regularity of the universe, order
and disorder issues of the universe. We analyze the understanding of the
cosmos and chaos. According to the postmodern tradition we have
shown the relation of the chaos and cosmos. Along the confrontation light
of the existence and creation both understandings of the action field
are described and the direction in which they are "canceled.
Nietzsches "doctrine" of the eternal return of the same De/Re
Construction has been carried out. As a result, we get a broader picturespace called Silvaplana lake myth.
Nietzsche through the myth of the Silvaplana lake joins such
doctrines of the philosophy, science and the occultism which is known by
the name of the Time Static Theory. The presented myth in the
Nietzsche's philosophy establishes the non-creative structure of the
universe. As a result the understandings of the cosmos and chaos lose its
ontological sense.

natalia ingoroyva

informaciis qaosi da
wesrigi
Cven informaciis epoqaSi vcxovrobT. 21-e saukuneSi TiToeuli Cvengani
gamudmebiT iRebs uzarmazari moculobis
informacias. teqnologiebis ganviTareba
TiToeul adamians, erTsa da imave dros,
gvaqcevs rogorc mediamomxmareblad, ise
mediaproduqtis avtorad.
dRes problema informaciis moZieba
ki ara, ukve informaciis uzarmazar nakadSi garkvevaa. faqtisa da mosazrebis
gamijvna erTmaneTisagan Cveni drois
erT-erT yvelaze did gamowvevad iqca.
swored am gamowvevam gaaCina Tanamedrove, 21-e saukunis adamianisaTvis aucilebeli, sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani mediawignierebis kompetencia. is, Tu rogor
axerxebs adamiani zRva informaciasa da
am informaciis gamavrcelebel uamrav
wyarosTan urTierTobas, gansazRvravs
mis warmatebas, mis adgils sazogadoebaSi, sargebelsa da zians pirad cxovrebasa da yoveldRiurobaSi.
informaciis nakadidan saWiro da
sasargeblo informaciis gamocalkeveba,
misi gageba da analizi, mediasTan urTierTobisas meti sargeblisa da naklebi
zianis miReba, mediawignierebisa da informaciis kritikulad gaazrebis unare-

74

natalia ingoroyva

bis ganviTareba, mediaproduqtis SeqmnaSi gawafuloba dRevandelobis erTerTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani gamowvevaa.
informaciis menejmenti anu misi mowesrigeba, romelic adamianSi mediawignierebis unars ukavSirdeba, Tanamedrove samyaros
moqalaqis mniSvnelovani unaria. mediawignier adamianebs gacilebiT ukeT SeuZliaT im mravalferovani gzavnilebis gaazreba, romelTac viRebT televiziis, radios, gazeTebis, Jurnalebis, wignebis, sareklamo abrebis da banerebis, marketinguli masalebis,
videoTamaSebis, klipebis, internetis da sxva mediasaSualebebidan. maT SeuZliaT am mediagzavnilebis struqturis danaxva da
dadgena, Tu rogor qmnian es gzavnilebi Sinaarss erTi SexedviT uCinari meTodebiT. mediawignieri adamianebi aseve Tavad qmnian sakuTar medias da xdebian mediakulturis aqtiuri monawileebi.
TiToeuli Cvengani, ra saqmianobasac unda eweodes dRes, mainc informaciuli muSakia. amdenad, media, nebiT Tu uneblieT,
monawileobs imaSi, rom Seqmnas Cveni kultura, imoqmedos Cvens
fiqrebsa da damokidebulebebze, gamoiyenos amisTvis darwmunebis
ena, Segviqmnas warmosaxviTi samyaro, mogvawodos informaciis
nawili da Cven Segvatovos misi interpretireba, an Semogvaparos
misTvis sasurveli interpretacia, gzavnilebSi gabneuli teqstebiTa da qveteqstebiT.
media qmnis Cvens kulturas. Cveni sazogadoeba da kultura,
realobis Cveneuli aRqmac ki yalibdeba im informaciiT da suraTebiT, romelTac mediidan viRebT. ramdenime Taobis win kulturis ambebs adamianebi ojaxis wevrebi, megobrebi da Temis
sxva wevrebi pirdapir gadascemdnen erTmaneTs. dRes bevri adamianisTvis mTavari mTxrobeli televizia, kino, musika, videoTamaSebi da internetia.
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom mediis did nawils marTavs komerciuli interesebi. Tanamedrove demokratiul saxelmwifoebSi bazari metwilad gansazRvravs, ras vxedavT televizorSi, ras
vismenT radioSi, ras vkiTxulobT Jurnal-gazeTebSi. mediis gamoyenebisas unda vacnobierebdeT mediis Semqmnelebis interesebs.
marTla zrunaven isini Cvens janmrTelobaze? miznad isaxaven,
Wkviani an kargad informirebuli viyoT? surT Tu ara maT sazogadoebis da kulturis aqtiuri monawileebis Seqmna, Tu ubra-

informaciis qaosi da wesrigi

75

lod, maTi produqtebis, servisebis da ideebis pasiuri momxmareblebi sWirdebaT?


cxadia, mediagzavnilebi moqmedebs Cvens fiqrebze, damokidebulebasa da qmedebebze. vaRiarbT Tu ara, TiToeul Cvenganze
axdens gavlenas reklama, sainformacio gadacemebi, filmebi, popmusika, videoTamaSebi da mediis sxva formebi. amitomac aris media aseTi mZlavri kulturuli Zala, xolo mediaindustria
Zalian didi biznesi, romelsac SeuZlebelia, raime daupirispiro, garda informaciis kritikuli Sefasebisa.
informaciis SiSi kargad Cans cnobili mwerlebis oldos
haqslisa da jorj oruelis wignebidan _ 1984 da _ saocari
axali samyaro.
oruels eSinoda maTi, vinc wignebs akrZalavda. haqslis
eSenoda, rom wignebis akrZalva azrs moklebuli Seiqneboda,
radgan maT isedac aravin waikiTxavda. oruels eSinoda maTi,
vinc informaciis miRebis SesaZleblobas SegvizRudavda. haqslis
eSinoda, rom informacias imxela raodenobiT mogvawodebdnen,
rom yvela nihilizmsa da egoizmSi Caefloboda. oruels eSinoda, simarTles dagvimalavdnen, haqslis eSinoda, rom simarTle
daikargeboda da daixSoboda usargeblo informaciul xmaurSi,
oruels eSinoda, rom kultura morCili gaxdeboda, haqslis ki
imis, rom trivialuri, umniSvnelo aqtivobiT gajerebuli kultura Camoyalibdeboda. oruels eSinoda, rom dagvimonebdnen
tkivilis moyenebiT, haqsli ki fiqrobda, rom adamiani siamovnebis miniWebiT imarTeboda. mokled, rom SevajamoT maTi SiSi,
orueli fiqrobda, rom Cven gagvanadgurebs is, rac gvZuls, xolo haqslis azriT, gagvanadgurebs is, riTac verTobiT.
gulubryviloba iqneba vTqvaT, rom es SiSi usafuZvloa. magram SiSTan gasamklaveblad mxolod am SiSis aRiareba ar iqneba
ikmarebs. ra unda gaakeTos adamianma masTan gasamklaveblad.
upirvelesi pasuxia icodes simarTle an iyos simarTlesTan
axlos mainc! magram Tu adamiani mediawignierebis unarebis miRmaa, mas es gauWirdeba. amitom, upirvelesad, imis gamo, rom adamians ar gauWirdes arsebuli produqtebiT sargebloba, ar gaxdes informaciiT manipulirebis msxverpli, Tavadac gaxdes informaciis wyaro, mniSvnelovania, informaciis menejmentis, mediawignierebis anu informaciis codnad gadaqcevisa da misi mowesrigebis unarebis ganviTareba. efeqturi moxmarebis, Tavdacvisa
da informaciis Seqmnis unarebi TanamedroveobaSi iseTive mniS-

76

natalia ingoroyva

vnelovani da sabaziso unarebia, rogorebic ramdenime saukunis


manZilze werisa da kiTxvis unarebi iyo.
ras gulisxmobs es unarebi: upirvelesad unda gavaZlieroT
piradi traeqtoria. pirvel rigSi, Cveni miznebi unda gavaanalizoT. sinamdvileSi ra gvabednierebs? cxovrebaSi risi miRweva
gvsurs? aris Tu ara am SekiTxvebze pasuxSi raRac iseTi, rac
mediam daaprograma? davfiqrdeT, pasuxebi saidan modis? komfortulia CvenTvis es pasuxebi?
informaciis gacnobis
sxvadasxva mizezi arsebobs. yvela
maTgani SeiZleba marTebuli da sasargeblo iyos. Tumca maTi daniSnuleba gansxvavebulia. Cven naTlad unda gvesmodes, misi
gacnobisas ra mizani gvaqvs. unda gvaxsovdes, Tu medias Cveni
miznebis gacnobierebis gareSe vecnobiT, sakuTar Tavs arasasurveli efeqtebis riskis winaSe vayenebT. mediasTan Sexebis win
vici Tu ara, ras vecnobi? Tu rasac wavawydebi, yvelafers vecnobi? rodesac mediis SablonebSi piradi miznebis gareSe verTvebiT, calsaxad masmediis iaraRi varT.
unda vkiTxoT sakuTar Tavs: ramdenad realuria ambavi? iqneb viRacis gamonagonia? zogierT informaciaSi gamogonil ambavs martivad amovicnobT. zogierTi, SesaZloa, am mxriv, sakmaod
rTuli iyos. zogierTi ambavi realistur garemoSi viTardeba,
xolo zogi realistur situaciebs asaxavs, Tumca mainc viRacis warmosaxvis nayofia. informaciaSi realobis fantaziisagan
garCeva rTuli amocanaa. realoba avtoris fantaziisgan rom gaarCioT, gzavnilis mravali gansxvavebuli maxasiaTeblis Sesaxeb
unda davfiqrdeT. am dros analitikuri azrovneba mogveTxoveba:
gzavnili komponentebad unda davyoT, Semdeg SevafasoT, romeli
komponentia realisturi. nu vecdebiT gzavnilis martiv kategoriebad dayofas (realuri an gamogonili). erTi da igive gzavnili orive elements Seicavs.
rodesac mediis gacnoba ukve Cvevad Camogviyalibdeba, periodulad Tavs vkiTxoT - ratom Camogviyalibda amgvari Cveva?
davaprogrameT Tu ara Cveni Cveva ise, rom Cvens saWiroebebs emsaxurebodes? ra roli aqvs masmedias Cveni saWiroebebis dakmayofilebaSi? vkiTxoT sakuTar Tavs: Cemi mosazrebebi kargad
aris dasabuTebuli? yovelTvis vagrovebT swor informacias?
vamyarebT Tu ara Cvens mosazrebebs qceviT? ramdenad Seesabameba
Cveni qceva Cvens mosazrebebs? am kiTxvebze pasuxis mopovebis
Semdeg, rogorc jeims poteri gveubneba Tavis wignSi - media-

informaciis qaosi da wesrigi

77

wigniereba, Cveni Cveva gvexmareba avtomaturad mviRoT gadawyvetilebebi da amis sailustraciod supermarketis magaliTi
mohyavs: davuSvaT, SedixarT maRaziaSi minimum 10 produqtis sayidlad da 20 wuTis Semdeg gamodixarT SeZenili 10 produqtiT. am scenaris mixedviT, ramdeni gadawyvetileba miiReT? cduneba gvkarnaxobs, vTqvaT, rom _ 10, radgan aseTia SeZenili produqtebis da, Sesabamisad, miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis raodenoba.
magram gvaviwydeba yvela is danarCeni produqti, romelic gadavwyviteT, ar gveyida. dRes saSualo zomis supermarketis daxlebze daaxloebiT 30,000 produqtia. Sesabamisad, im mokle
droSi, romelic supermarketSi davyaviT, Cven daaxloebiT
30,000 gadawyvetileba miviReT: kerZod, gadavwyviteT, SegveZina
10 da ar SegveZina danarCeni 29,990 produqti.
media ara mxolod sakuTari gzavnilebis Sedgenis Sanss
gvaZlevs, aramed moiTxovs kidec amas, risi saukeTeso magaliTic
socialuri qselia. magaliTad, rodesac feisbuqis angariSs
vxsniT, sakuTari gverdi unda SevqmnaT. Cvengan moelian, rom
gverds mudmivad ganvaaxlebT. rogoria Cveni feisbuqis gverdi,
Cveni megobrebis gverdebTan SedarebiT? ramdenad kargia misi dizaini? gvaqvs Tu ara fotoebi da grafikebi, teqstTan erTad?
moundeba Tu ara adamians Cveni gverdis naxva mxolod imitom,
rom misi dizaini daaTvalieros?
ramdenad kargia Cveni feisbuqis gverdis dizaini piradi informaciis TvalsazrisiT? ra gvaqvs gaziarebuli Cven Sesaxeb?
ra gavlenas moaxdens gverdze warmodgenili informacia Cvens
megobrebze? Tqvens mSoblebze? momaval damqiraveblebze? rodesac Cveni gzavnili cifruli formiT aris gamoqveynebuli, SesaZlebeli xdeba misi kopireba, Senaxva da nebismieri pirisaTvis gaziareba usasrulo raodenobiT. amdenad, sanam gzavnils cifrul
formatSi gadaviyvanT, davfiqrdeT im potenciur auditoriaze,
romelmac SeiZleba Cveni gzavnili waikiTxos - marketologebi,
potenciuri damqiraveblebi, megobrebi, momavali meuRle, Svilebi, mSoblebi, saxelmwifo moxeleebi da a.S. savaraudod, ra STabeWdilebas movaxdenT am mravalferovan auditoriaze.
Tu informaciaSi, romelic ginda momawodo, ar aris araferi _ arc kargi, arc marTali da arc sasargeblo, maSin saerTod ra azri aqvs mis Tqmas? _ ambobda sokrate da informaciis
simarTlis sam sacerSi gatarebis mosurne iyo.

natalia ingoroyva

78

informaciasTan urTierTobis unarebi exmareba adamianebs, gaiazron, rogoria mediagzavnilis namdvili Sinaarsi, gansazRvron,
vin Seqmna konkretuli mediagzavnili, gaacnobieron, raSi cdilobs Cvens darwmunebas mediagzavnilis Semqmneli risi gvjerodes da ris Sesaxeb davsvaT kritikuli kiTxvebi, amovicnoT
gzavnilSi gamoyenebuli darwmunebis meTodebi, aseve amovicnoT
winaswari daSveba, gazviadeba, dezinformacia da sicrue, aRmovaCinoT ambis nawili, romelic gamiznuladaa gamotovebuli mediagzavnilidan, SevqmnaT da gavavrceloT sakuTari mediagzavnili,
vimoqmedoT arsebuli mediasistemis cvlilebisTvis, riTac cxadia, xels SevuwyobT pirovnebis kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTarebas, mediakulturaSi aqtiur monawileobas, informaciis codnad gadaqcevas, codnis transfers da codnis ekonomikas.
Tanamedrove samyaros sWirdeba adamiani, romelmac icis, rogor mimarTos informacis qaosi - wesrigisken, anu unda SeZlos: gansazRvros saWiro informaciis moculoba; Seafasos saWiro informacia efeqturad; Seafasos informacia da misi wyaroebi kritikulad; gaaerTianos SerCeuli informacia sakuTari
codnis bazaSi; efeqturad gamoiyenos informacia specifikuri
miznebis misaRwevad; gaacnobieros informaciis gamoyenebis Tanmdevi ekonomikuri, samarTlebrivi da socialuri sakiTxebi da
informacia eTikurad da samarTlianad gamoiyenos.
bolo wlebSi informaciis naklebobas ki ara, zedozirebas
ganvicdiT, ambobs mwerali erik Smiti. Cven, amJamad, yovel or
dReSi, imden informacias movipovebT, ramdensac civilizaciis
dasawyisidan 2003 wlamde vawarmoebdiT. axla Cveni amocana
udabnoSi iSviaTi yvavilis povna ki aRar aris, aramed junglebSi
konkretuli mcenaris povna. Cven gvWirdeba daxmareba navigaciaSi,
raTa informaciis zRvaSi is vipovoT, rac danamdvilebiT gvainteresebs da gvWirdeba.
literatura
jorj orueli - 1984, (aTas cxraas oTxmocdaoTxi)- 1949
oldos haqsli - saocari axali samyaro - 1932
jeims poteri, mediawigniereba, 2015
dana boidi- es CaxlarTuli ambavia: qselSi myofi mozardebis
socialuri cxovreba, 2014. Dana Boyd , Its Complicated:
TheSocialLivesofNetworkedTeens

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79

d.panlfi, d. gaseri, cifruli epoqis bavSvebi, ,


., . , (2011). .
"Sesavali mediawignierebSi", mediawigniereba proeqti.
Introduction to Media Literacy,Media Literacy Project.
ttp://mediasmarts.ca/digital-media-literacy/generalinformation/digital-media-literacy-fundamentals/media-literacyfundamentals

Natalia Ingorokva
Information Chaos and Order
We are living in the information age. In 21st century each of us has
consistently takes an enormous amount of information. By the technology
development we get addicted on media as well as we turned to be the
authors of media products ourselves.
Today the problem is not to find information but rather to catch true
pieces among the huge flow of information. To separate facts and
opinions from each other is the biggest challenge of our time. That
process gave birth to the media literacy competence which is vital and
necessary for 21st century human. It's about how person manages to get
along with huge information and having relationship with different
sources of information determines his success, his place in society, the
benefits and everyday life.
Nowadays it is one of the most important challenges to separate
useful information from this huge flow, to understand and analyze,
communicating with the media.

eTer inwkirveli

dualistur rwmena
warmodgenaTa kvali qarTul
kosmogoniur gadmocemebSi
yvelas kargad axsovs qarTul folklorSi metad popularuli legenda
mTa-gorebis warmoSobis Sesaxeb: RmerTma Turme dedamiwa caze ufro didi gaaCina. ar moergo ca dedamiwas, ver esarqveleboda. maSin eSmakma urCia Turme
RmerTs mouWire miwas Seni Zlieri
mklavebi da ca zarfuSiviT daexurebao.
marTlac RmerTma daujera eSmaks, mouWira dedamiwas mklavebi ca daesarqvela,
magram miwa ki Seizniqa da aqa-iq amoiburca gorebad (sibrZne 1964: 249).
es, erTi SexedviT, gulubryvilo
legenda, romelic msoflios mravali
qveynis (ZiriTadad, qristianul!) folklorSia gavrcelebuli, metad saintereso motivs Seicavs: RmerTis mier Seqmnil samyaroSi koreqtivebi eSmaks Seaqvs rCevis saxiT. mTavari isaa, rom,
xalxis warmodgeniT, RmerTi ujerebs
eSmaks an zog variantSi iZulebulia,
rom daujeros da, faqtobrivad, folklori eSmaks kosmogoniis erT-erT subieqtad warmogvidgens, riTic principulad ewinaaRmdegeba qristianuli kosmogoniis monoTeistur ideas da samyaros

dualistur rwmena-warmodgenaTa kvali qarTul kosmogoniur gadmocemebSi

81

Seqmnis dualisturi modelis elementebs aviTarebs.


dualisturi miTologiuri warmodgenebi ori sapirispiro
da, imavdroulad, Tanabari Zalis arsebobis aRiarebas gulisxmobs. is, ZiriTadad, samyaros Sesaqmis legendebSi gvxvdeba, rogorc misi Semadgeneli elementi. rogorc wesi, sxvadasxva miTologiaSi sxvadasxva polarul sawyisTa wyvilzea saubari: qali
mamakaci, ca miwa, keTili boroti, RmerTi satana da a.
S. qarTul xalxur sityvierebaSi dualisturi warmodgenebi
gvxvdeba mzisa da mTvaris, cisa da dedamiwis gabaasebebSi (TviTon termini dedamiwa garkveulwilad ukve kosmologiuri terminia), sadac dapirispirebuli saxeebi dualisturi miTologiuri warmodgenebis metaforebia da TavianTi sazrisiT, SesaZloa,
swored kosmogoniaze miuTiTeben. Cvenamde moRweul teqstebSi
kosmogoniis kvali TiTqmis waSlilia, Tumca SeimCneva dualur
wyvilTa dialeqtikuri xasiaTi; magaliTad, leqsSi ,,mze dedaa
Cemi mze da mTvare varskvlavebis warmomSob mdedr da mamr
RvTaebaTa saxiT arian warmodgenilni. dualisturi rwmena-warmodgenebis garda es kosmogoniuri leqsi, SesaZloa, kacobriobis
ganviTarebis im periodzec mianiSnebdes, roca mTavari socialuri roli dedakacs eniWeboda da ara mamakacs, raki mTavari mnaTobi mze mdedrobiTi sqesisaa da ara mamrobiTi, rogorc es
qarTul xalxur zRaprebSia. aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia, vivaraudoT, ramdenad Zvelia es formulasaviT moRweuli leqsi da
Cveni winaprebis ragvar msoflmxedvelobas asaxavs.
uZveles rwmena-warmodgenebSi ori urTierTdapirispirebuli
Zala dialeqtikur wyvils qmnis, radgan isini ara mxolod upirispirdebian, aramed avseben kidec erTmaneTs. amdenad, keTil da
borot sawyisTa dapirispireba antagonistur winaaRmdegobad ki
ar gaigeboda, aramed sawinaaRmdego ZalTa dialeqtikur erTianobad. Sesabamisad, Sesaqmis aqti iyo ara urTierTbrZolis (rogorc es xSirad aris gamoxatuli folklorul teqstebSi),
aramed erToblivi Semoqmedebis (TanaSemoqmedebis) Sedegi. mogvianebiT qristianobam Semoitana mkveTri antagonizmi RmerTsa da
satanas Soris da swored antagonisturi dapirispireba iqca maTi urTierTobis erTaderT SesaZlebel formad.
dapirispireba, rogorc kosmogoniuri potenciis warmomSobi.
besarion niJaraZis mier damowmebuli svanuri teqstis Tanaxmad,
samyaros Tavdapirveli mdgomareoba warmodgenilia erTgvarovan
masad (wylisa da miwis naerTad), romelzec RmerTi da mTavaran-

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gelozebi TxilamurebiT dadian, raTa ar CaiZiron: miwis kani maSin iseTi fumfe da rbili iyo, rom muxlebamdi miwaSi iflebodnen (RmerTi da miqel-gabriel mTavarangelozebi), Tumca samTaves
Txilamurebi hqondaT fexebze (niJaraZe 1962: 142). miwis sirbile, rasakvirvelia, mis amorfulobas mianiSnebs. kosmosi daiwyeba
erTgvarovan, amorful samyaroSi elementebis gamoyofiT.
dualisturi msoflxedviT, samyaro gulisxmobs winaaRmdegobebs da swored winaaRmdegobebi aris misi Seqmnisa da arsebobis principi. samyaros Seqmnis biZgi SesaZlebelia mxolod dapirispirebuli Zala yofiliyo. swored dapirispirebulTa mTlianoba (RmerTi da eSmaki Zmebi xdebian, an saerTo warmomavloba
aqvT) asaxavs samyaros srulad. aseTi winaaRmdegoba svanur teqstSi moulodnelad Cndeba mrgvali/lurji qvis saxiT, romelic
satanis winasaxea. qvis gadaweva (zog variantSi gaxeTqva) eSmaks aCens. rogorc vTqviT, garkveuli struqturebis, samyaroSi
materiebis Sesaqmnelad saWiroa dapirispirebuli Zalis gaCena.
winaaRmdegoba, e. i. kosmogoniuri potencia, eSmakis gamoCenisTanave Cndeba.
samyaros erToblivi Seqmna / dualisturi kosmogonia. bibliuri RmerTis mier samyaros sityviT (logosiT) Seqmna folklorSi transformirebulia da akustikuri kosmogoniis saxes iRebs:
sityviT Seqmna (Tqva RmerTma...) folklorSi akustikuri mniSvnelobiT aris gagebuli da hiperbolizebulia sayviris xmiT.
upirveles yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom svanur narativSi
wyliT dafaruli xmeleTis gamosaCenad RmerTi miqel-gabriel
mTavarangelozebTan erTad wylisTvis sulis Sebervas iwyebs. sulis SeberviT rom veras gaxdeba, kedlebis Senebas mihyofs xels,
romelic aSenebisTanave ingreva. fuWi saqmianoba kedlebis Seneba qvisgan, rogorc Cans, mxolod samyaros gaaqtiurebas emsaxureba, radgan am gziT miwisa da wylis erTmaneTisgan gayofa
ver xerxdeba. rodesac RmerTi daxmarebas eSmaks (samaels)
sTxovs, misgan iRebs miTiTebas: ngrevis miuxedavad ganagrZon
kedlis Seneba, Cahberon mTavarangelozebma sayvirs da bolos daiyviros RmerTma mTeli ZaliT xmamaRla. xmeleTisa da wylis
erTmaneTisgan gamoyofa mxolod eSmakis miTiTebebis Sesrulebis
Semdeg xdeba SesaZlebeli: Semdeg amisa wyali TavisTvis wavida
da xmeleTi gamoCnda (niJaraZe 1962: 139).
saerTo warmomavloba. RmerTisa da eSmakis naTesaoba dualistur rwmena-warmodgenaTa erT-erTi gavrcelebuli motivia da

dualistur rwmena-warmodgenaTa kvali qarTul kosmogoniur gadmocemebSi

83

msoflios sxvadasxva miTologiaSi sxvadasxvagvarad viTardeba.


motivis invarianti amgvaria: Tavdapirvelad iyo mxolod wyali,
Semdeg misgan gamovidnen RmerTi da eSmaki; RmerTi avalebs eSmaks,
moutanos Tixis masa, romlisganac Semdeg iqmneba samyaro, adamianebi da a. S. (eliade 1998: 382). TanamSromlobis motivi zogan
ZmobiT aris gaZlierebuli. maT rigs miekuTvneba iseTi teqstebic,
romlebSic RmerTi da eSmaki erTi warmomavlobis arian
(me da
Sen erTad visxediT qvis SuagulSi, me da Sen orive erTi gvarisa
varT. amitom damiTme rame samyaroSi... margiani 1890: 249) da
isinic, sadac eSmaki daZmobilebas mosTxovs RmerTs garkveuli
daxmarebis sanacvlod (eSmaki yelSi swvdeba da daxrCobas upirebs
RmerTs. RmerTi sTxovs: oRond gamiSvi da rac ginda mTxoveo.
samoelma miugo: sxva araferi minda, mxolod miZmeo. RmerTi yabuls gaxda. niJaraZe 1962: 139). RmerTi iZulebulia, dauZmobildes eSmaks da swored am sababiT iTxovs eSmaki wils samyaroSi. amasTan erTad, svanur teqstebSi calsaxaa, rom eSmakis miTiTebebiT aris Seqmnili es samyaro. RmerTi oden Semsruleblad
gvevlineba mTavarangelozebTan erTad.
samyaros ganawileba. dualizmis erT-erTi gavrcelebuli
forma - ganawileba TavisTavad gulisxmobs SeTanxmebas or (an
met) subieqts Soris. mocemuli narativi imiT grZeldeba, rom
RmerTi mTavarangelozebTan erTad satanis Txovnas ganixilavs.
maT yvelaferi sam nawilad gayves: erTi nawili cocxali adamianebisTvis, meore gardacvlilTaTvis da mesame cxovelebisa da frinvelebisaTvis. svanur miTSi RmerTs aqvs upiratesoba,
pirvelma airCios: is TavisTvis cocxal adamianebs da cxovelebs
irCevs, satanas ki adamianTa sulebi im dromde daeTmoba, vidre
RmerTs Svili ar gauCndeba (margiani 1890: 249).
RmerTis upiratesoba ar Cans afxazur variantSi: RmerTi ki
anawilebs, magram arCevani eSmakzea: RmerTma erT nawilad mcenareuloba dasaxa, meore nawilad ki TviT miwa, xmeleTi. erT RameSi aayvava mcenareebi da eSmakma Tavis wilad swored mcenareebi
airCia, RmerTma ki mosTxova, rom Tavisi wili miwidan mcenareebi moeSorebina. mixvda eSmaki, rom motyuvda da ufals mxolod
xidan Camovardnil adamianTa sulebi mosTxova. RmerTma eSmaks
dauTmo imaTi sulebi, vinc xeze asvlis win uflis saxels ar

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axsenebda (janaSia 1898: 26).1


eSmakis mcdeloba hqondes sakuTari adgili samyaroSi
Cndeba al. xaxanaSvilis mowodebul teqstSic. rodesac RmerTma
xorbali daTesa, eSmaks SesTavaza aerCia fesvebi undoda Tu
Rero. raki eSmaks winaswar daenaxa, rom xorbali miwaSi CaTesa
RmerTma, fesvebi moiTxova, RmerTma ki nayofi Reros Tavze gamoaRebina xorbals. meore weliwads nivris daTesvaze imave kiTxviT mimarTa RmerTma eSmaks. eSmakma Rero airCia, RmerTma niors
fesvebze gamoaRebina nayofi da eSmaki amjeradac xelmocaruli
darCa (xaxanaSvili 1895: 258).
dualisturi anTropogonia. qarTul folklorSi Semonaxuli anTropogonuri gadmocemebis umravlesoba bibliur, anu monoTeistur models imeorebs: RmerTi qmnis adams, Semdeg adamis
neknidan qmnis evas da a. S. gamonakliss am SemTxvevaSi warmoadgens aWaruli folklori, sadac anTropogoniis dualisturi modeli gvxvdeba. kerZod, RmerTi melaiqebs (angelozebs) daavalebs
adamianis Seqmnas, romlebic Seqmnian adamis sxeuls Tixisgan/miwisgan, magram ar ZaluZT misi gacocxleba. maSin RmerTi TviTon
STaberavs suls da gaacocxlebs miwisgan Seqmnil adamianis sxeulebs. melaiqis/angelozis mier adamianis sxeulis Seqmna ioanes
saidumlo wignSi saTanaelis (satanis) mier adamianis sxeulis
Seqmnis transformirebuli saxea, radgan angelozTa Soris mxolod Rezraeli (gaampartavnebuli angelozi aWarul folklorSi) qmnis adamianis sxeuls. slavur folklorsa da apokrifebSi
sakmaod gavrcelebuli am tipis siuJetebis mTavari saTqmeli eSmakis uZlurebiT gamoixateba, romelsac, adamianis sxeulis Seqmnis miuxedavad, misi gacocxleba ar ZaluZs, rac, rasakvirvelia,
akninebs mis funqciasa da rols.
genderiT gamovlenili dualizmi. dualisturi dapirispirebis erT-erTi gamovlineba genderuli gansxvavebaa (col-qmari/ded-mama/da-Zma).
xaxanaSvilis cnobiT, fSavebi amboben, rom RmerTi da eSmaki
Zma da da arian. dam gaajavra Zma da am ukanasknelma daswyevla

analogiuri Txroba megrul kosmogoniur gadmocemebSic gvxvdeba,


romlebSic samyaros gayofisas RmerTisa da eSmakis paeqroba gavrcobilad aris warmodgenili da kumulaciur TxrobaSi gadadis. ix. qobalia
1903: 89-90.

dualistur rwmena-warmodgenaTa kvali qarTul kosmogoniur gadmocemebSi

85

igi. amis Semdeg da gadaiqca eSmakad da cdilobs, RvTis qmnilebas ziani moutanos (xaxanaSvili 1904: 151). CvenTvis ucnobia,
ra wyaroebs eyrdnoboda al. xaxanaSvili, magram qristes da
gvxvdeba agreTve xevsurul kosmogoniur gadmocemaSi, romlis
Tanaxmad, samyaroSi yvelafris saxe (aRe) qristes dam Seqmna,
miutana qristes, raTa mas suli STaebera. qristem daswyevla sakuTari da, iudad aqcia da qvesknelSi Caagdo: exla is iuda ganagebs saiqios, qvesknels... es yvela bebrebisgan vici, jvarSi naubar maxsons. es eesr yofilav, es eesrav ro mohyvian (Tsufa: 23771). arxiloskaloeli berdia wiklauris TxrobiT: qristes das gaukeTebav kacisa da sxva mwerebis aReebi, survielebisaic (qvemZromi). qriste ro masul, uTqom: reeb dagikeTebavav
eseebiv, reebiav, rad ar gadaxyriv. gaRbernev, uTqom dasa da
gadaiyrebisav (gadacvivdeba). scodniv das, ro qriste ras gaRbernebd (Seuberav), gacocxldebod.
daubernebav am qristesa da gadayril miwaze suyvela. miwaze
dayrileb zog raske gacocxlebulan, zogan raske (saiTken). maSin uTqom qristes: iuda xarav, dao, iudav. qristes da saiqios
mbrZanebelia eexlad (Tsufa: 23810).
dualisturi modeli yofiT-sameurneo gadmocemebSi. qristes
da aseve gvxvdeba mTiulur gadmocemaSi wyalwisqvilis warmoSobis Sesaxeb, sadac is eSmaks enacvleba: wisqvili RmerTma gaakeTa da ayriT mjiRiT yelSi; eSmakma uTxra: Cemo Zmao, egre rogor unda ayaro? - Cemo dao, maS rogorao? gamoiyena sarekeli da uh, Cemo daoo, gaukvirda (bedukaZe 1960: 81).
mewisqvileobasTan dakavSirebul mraval gadmocemaSi eSmaki
qristes exmareba wisqvilis gamarTvaSi. gadmocemebi Tavis SinaarsiT dualisturia da kosmogoniuri narativis fabulas imeorebs: qriste qmnis wisqvils, magram is ar muSaobs gamarTulad.
eSmaki moigonebs sarekelas (specialuri joxi, romelic wisqvilis amuSavebisTvis aucilebelia) da samagierod, iTxovs wils
wisqvilis muSaobidan: im adamianebis suls, vinc moityuebs wisqvilSi. RmerTic uTmobs: ras mamcemo? vincao wisqvilSi rasme maiparavso, imis suls Sen mogcemo, vinc maiparos, eSmakis
aris imis suli (bedukaZe 1960: 81). sayuradRebo aq is aris,
rom sarekelas mogoneba, - ramac wisqvili damoukideblad momuSave manqanad aqcia da mewisqvile martivi, magram gamudmebuli
da momqancveli Sromisgan gaaTavisufla (bedukaZe 1960: 86), eSmaks miewereba. qarTlur variantSi ki eSmaki Sesrulebuli sa-

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muSaos asanazRaureblad RmerTs puris momparavis sulis daTmobas mosTxovs. RmerTi Tanxmdeba (bedukaZe 1960: 81).
qarTul xalxur poeziaSi gankiTxvis dRis aRwerisas xSirad vxvdebiT fqvilis moparvis gamo dasjil codvil mewisqviles, romelsac xelSi sarekeli uWiravs. leqsSi jojoxeTSi
vin aris gankiTxvis dRes ibareben mewisqviles:
daibares mewisqvile, _ xelT eWira sarekeli.
daiCoqe, mewisqvilev, aRiare codo Seni!
amostirda mewisqvile: saqme vqeni sazareli!
vai, dedaCemis mzesa, xrils ro Semousvi xeli!
TiTo jams mind viparamdi, gamomyamda sarCo Cemi
(poezia
1973: 147).
aSkaraa, rom gankiTxvis dRis teqstebi wisqvilis warmoSobis legendis gagrZelebas warmoadgens da, Sesabamisad, swored
mocemuli legendis saSualebiT xdeba SesaZlebeli motivis sruli rekonstruqcia. am poetur-prozaul variantTa SejerebiT viRebT dualistur dapirispirebas eSmaksa da RmerTs Soris, romelic realistur samyaroSi adamianze vrceldeba: eSmaki RmerTs
adamianis saSualebiT upirispirdeba da ebrZvis.
motivi sakmaod gavrcelebulia folklorSi da dapirispirebac xSirad erTgvar SeTanxmebis saxes iRebs. dapirispireba, iseve
rogorc TanamSromloba, komunikaciis erT-erTi saxea da sinamdvileSi mxolod da mxolod urTierTobis formaa, romelic
qristianuli msoflxedvisTvis yvelaze ufro misaRebi, metic
erTaderTi dasaSvebi forma aRmoCnda RmerTisa da eSmakis urTierTobis saCveneblad. amitom migvaCnia, rom dualisturi gadmocemebi, ase gavrcelebuli da popularuli qarTul folklorSi,
arsebiTad azrovnebisa da msoflaRqmis gacilebiT arqaul
plasts asaxavs, vidre qristianoba.
satanis gaampartavnebisa da RmerTTan ganxeTqilebis Semdeg
Zvel aRTqmaSi, kerZod, ,,iobis wignSi, mkrTalad, magram mainc
igrZnoba maTi Serigebis mcdeloba im gansxvavebiT, rom, marTalia, satana da RmerTi TiTqos SeTanxmebulad moqmedeben, magram
swored am SeTanxmebiT aris dasazRvruli da gansazRvrulic eSmakis moqmedebaTa sivrce RmerTis mier: satanas neba eZleva, gaanadguros mxolod iobis monagari, mis sicocxles, mis suls ki
ver Seexeba. es momenti ki fundamenturad gansxvavdeba dualisturi folkloruli teqstebisgan, sadac eSmaki garkveul sazRaurad mxolod da mxolod adamianis/adamianebis suls iTxovs. Se-

dualistur rwmena-warmodgenaTa kvali qarTul kosmogoniur gadmocemebSi

87

iZleba iTqvas, dualisturi rwmena-warmodgenebis mixedviT, brZolis mTavari mizani adamianis sulis mopovebaa. eSmaks adamianis
sulis dapatroneba surs, swored imisa, rac masSi RvTiuria. Tu
kaci aris RvTis xati, maSin gamodis, rom adamianTan mebrZoli
satana (luciferi) adamianis saSualebiT swored RmerTs ebrZvis
sinamdvileSi, RmerTTan siaxloves cdilobs adamianis sulis dapatronebiT; es motivi, romelic msoflio literaturaSi fausturi paradigmis saxeliT aris cnobili, swored fausturi paradigmis arqetipia, romlis arsic RmerTisa da satanis dapirispirebaa. satana ebrZvis RmerTs da radganac ver uaxlovdeba mas,
RvTis xatad Seqmnil adamians iyenebs brZolis obieqtad, RmerTTan miaxloebis saSualebad. TviTon dapirispirebac, dualisturi rwmena-warmodgenebis gaTvaliswinebiT, erT-erTi formaa (an
xerxi) miaxloebis, sawyisSi dabrunebis. amas cdilobs mefistofeli, romelsac faustis (amqveyniuri sibrZnis gansaxiereba) suli jojoxeTSi mihyavs (faustis miTis da ara _ goeTes mixedviT) da amasve cdilobs eSmaki, romelic murmanis saSualebiT
ebrZvis siyvaruls, RmerTis amqveyniur gamovlinebas.
eSmaki adamianSi ebrZvis RvTaebrivis nebismier gamovlinebas
(sibrZnes, siyvaruls, rwmenas...) da aRwevs kidec Tavis mizans. es
ki imas mianiSnebs, rom, xalxis aRqmiT, eSmaks RmerTis Tanabari
Zala aqvs, rac, rasakvirvelia, dualisturi rwmena-warmodgenebiT aris nakarnaxevi.
literatura
bedukaZe 1960: bedukaZe s., wyliT mbrunavi wisqvilebi aragvis
xeobaSi, Tb.: mecn. akademiis gamomcemloba, 1960.
eliade 1998: ., . -.:
, 1998.
margiani 1890: . - . .
. // -
, X, II, 1890, . 241-252
niJaraZe 1962: niJaraZe b., istoriul-eTnografiuli nawerebi I,
Tbilisi, 1962.
poezia 1973: qarTuli xalxuri poezia, t. I, nakvT. II. Semdg. m.
Ciqovani, Tb.: mecniereba, 1973.
sibrZne 1964: xalxuri sibrZne, t. III, Tb., 1964.

eTer inwkirveli

88

qobalia 1903: ., , -
1903, #32, III, .: 89-94.
xaxanaSvili 1895: . .,
. . . I, ., 1895.
xaxanaSvili 1904: xaxanaSvili al., qarTuli sityvierebis istoria (uZvelesi droidgan XVIII s-is gasulamde). tf.: werakiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis gamomcemloba, 1904.
janaSia 1898: janaSia n., afxazebi. // akakis Jurnali 1898, VIII,
gany. II, gv.: 24-28.
Tsufa: Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis folkloris arqivi.
Eter Intskirveli
The Trace of Dualistic Faith and Beliefs
in the Georgian Folklore
Dualistic motives are quite widespread in the Georgian folklore. In
this regard, several principles can be outlined: 1. God and Satan are
brothers; 2. God and Satan cooperate in order to create the Universe; 3.
The opposition between God and Satan leads to cosmogonic power; 4.
They distribute the Universe Satan demands his share of the jointly
created Universe; 5. Dualism revealed by gender alongside with Christ,
his sister also takes part in the creation of the Universe.
The paper is an attempt to analyze Georgian folk narratives of
dualistic character. These narratives are viewed as artistic reflection of
dualistic vision and attitude. The Georgian folk narratives are considered
as natural and organic form of dualistic thinking.

maia kikvaZe

vnebiTi gvaris qaosuri


formebi qarTulSi
enis ganviTarebis sxvadasxva safexurze qarTul enaSi kosmosuri siCqariT
vrceldeba Cveni enisTvis ucxo, axal-axali formebi, romlebic advilad imkvidrebs
adgils zepir metyvelebaSi. formaTa siWrele gansakuTrebiT SeimCneva socialuri
qselis enaSi, pirad mimowerebsa Tu komentarebSi. satelevizio sivrce, masobrivi
sainformacio saSualebebi am mxriv sruliad daucvelia.
Cveni saanalizo masala bolo periodSi zepir metyvelebaSi gavrcelebul formebs, 2015-2016 wlebis socialuri qselis,
masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis monacemebs eyrdnoba.
is, rac ewinaaRmdegeba enis ganviTarebis normalur gzas, qaosuri, miuRebeli da
absurdulia. enaSi qaosis momZlavrebas socialuri qselebis avtorebi skolebSi qarTuli gramatikis ugulebelyofas miaweren. gramatikis ucodinroba, ra Tqma unda,
xels uwyobs enobrivi Secdomebis moWarbebas, magram igi naklebad iwvevs axali, xelovnuri formebis gaCenas. vfiqrobT, Tanamedrove axalgazrdebis (da ara mxolod)
zepir metyvelebaSi, mokle teqstur SetyobinebebSi, komentarebSi wina planze wa-

90

maia kikvaZe

moiwia grZnoba-emociis gamoxatvam. Sesabamisad, gaCnda grZnoba-emociis gamomxatveli axal-axali zmnuri fuZeebi. zogi maTgani gavrcelebuli da cnobilia, zogi ki spontanurad, situaciidan gamomdinare iqmneba da zustad gamoxatavs saTqmels.
Cven mier mopovebuli masalebi savsea formebiT, romlebic individualobiT gamoirCeva. am mxriv Cveni yuradReba miipyro miCnevisa da
gunebis, agreTve doniani vnebiTi gvaris formebma. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa subieqtis sulieri mdgomareobis gamomxatveli zmnebi,
romelTac d. meliqiSvili afeqtur zmnebs uwodebs.
qarTul zmnas azris gamoxatvis gansakuTrebuli saSualebebi
aqvs. qarTul zmnas SeuZlia gamoxatos: 1) piris/sagnis fizikuri an
sulieri mdgomareoba; 2) piris/sagnis moqmedeba, moqmedebis procesi
(meliqiSvili 2014: 26).
a. SaniZis ganmartebiT, zmnis klasifikaciis safuZveli gvaris
kategoriaa... swored gvari aerTianebs semantikuri niSniT gansxvavebul jgufebs. am mxriv, yuradRebis gamaxvileba Rirs vnebiT gvarze,
kerZod, vnebiTis semantikur niuansebze.
vnebiTi, rogorc moqmedebiTis sapirispiro gvari, mas upirispirdeba formiTac da SinaarsiTac. vnebiTi, moqmedebiTisagan gansxvavebiT, aRWurvilia Tavisi specifikuri mawarmoebeli afiqsebiT (imnaiSvili 1979:30).
vnebiTi gvaris Sesaxeb saenaTmecniero wreebSi gansxvavebuli
Sexedulebebi arsebobs. mas sxvadaxva saxeliT moixsenieben: vnebiTi,
pasivi, formiT pasiuri da SinaarsiT aqtiuri zmnebi da sxva.
miCnevisa da gunebis vnebiTebis cnobili formebis paralelurad
Tanamedrove zepir metyvelebaSi gaCnda axali tipis eniani vnebiTebi,
rasac ganapirobebs, erTi mxriv, analogia, meore mxriv ki, enis ekonomiurobis principi, Tumca es SemTxvevebi yovelTvis araa gamarTlebuli. am tipis formebSi Cans adamianis xasiaTi, damokidebuleba sxvebisadmi, grZnoba, emocia, guneba-ganwyoba, imedi, siamaye, qarTuli
enis siyvaruli...
miCnevis vnebiTebi. miCnevisaa vnebiTis forma, romelic aRniSnavs, Tu rad miaCnia gramatikuli subieqti gramatikul obieqts...
aseTi forma yovelTvis orpiriania da mxolod nasaxelar zmnebSi
gvxvdeba. am SemTxvevaSi vnebiTi prefiqsiania, misi niSania e (SaniZe
1953:300).

vnebiTi gvaris qaosuri formebi qarTulSi

91

q. lomTaTiZis azriT, e.w. miCnevis vnebiTi qarTulSi ar unda


iyos vnebiTis gamomxatveli. igi unda iyos imave iribi mimarTebis
gamomxatveli Taviseburi qcevis saxeoba (imnaiSvili 1979:43).
miCnevis vnebiTTagan zogi zmna subieqturi wyobisaa, zogi obieqturi. sailustraciod davasaxelebT ramdenime magaliTs:
vezedmetebiT formiT subieqturi wyobis eniani vnebiTia. afxazebs aSkarad vezedmetebiT. afxazebi somxebs sastikad gauswordnen (ela abramiani, soxumSi mcxovrebi somexi: fb, 10.06. 2016,
17:33).
obieqturi wyobis eniani vnebiTia mezedmeta. proeqt cekvaven
varskvlavebis meoTxedfinalSi (13.06.2016) stanislav bondarenkosa da nike keSelavas sacekvao nomris Sefasebisas Jiuris wevrma nino
suxiSvilma aseTi komentari gaakeTa: cekvis pirvel nawilSi sruliad mezedmeta baleti.
mezedmeteba da mexelovnureba: aseT ambebze wera ar miyvars, mezedmeteba da mexelovnureba (mariam maRlakeliZe, fb, 04.10.2016,
15:55).
miCnevis vnebiTebis adresatebi zogjer faqtebi da movlenebia,
zogjer ki adamianebi, sazogadoebisTvis cnobili da naklebad cnobili saxeebi. amgvari formebi yvelaze mkafiod gamoxataven saTqmels.
maTi saSualebiT SesaZlebelia, erTi mxriv, mTqmelis xasiaTis,
grZnobebis Cveneba, ama Tu im pirovnebis (pirovnebebis) mimarT sakuTari damokidebulebis gamoxatva da, meore mxriv, maT Sesaxeb informaciis miReba, maTi SesaZleblobebis, rolis, Rvawlis warmoCena. am
tipisaa:
mebednierebi: Zalian menatrebi da mebednierebi (= CemTvis bedniereba xar);
eZvirfaseba: visac uyvars, eZvirfaseba qarTuli ena (= visTvisac Zvirfasia qarTuli ena).
meimedeboda: me yovelTvis meimedeboda Cemi megobrebis (lela
cinariZe, fb, 22.06.2016) (= Cemi megobrebis imedi yovelTvis mqonda).
imave Ziris zmna dadasturda sareklamo teqstSic: Cemo megobrebo da gulSematkivrebo!.. gelodebiT, meimedebiT (miranda seidiSvili, fb, 23.10.2016);
meamayebiT: gogoebo, yvelaze magari, Zlieri da patrioti qarTveli qalebi xarT! meamayebiT (= vamayob TqveniT) ( fb, 16.05.2016)...

92

maia kikvaZe

am tipis vnebiTis formebi gaCnda socialuri qselebiT gavrcelebuli misaloci teqstebis enaSic: gilocavT, warmatebebs gisurvebT! meimedebiT, meamayebiT am metad mniSvnelovan gzaze (maka salia,
fb, 01.06.2016). dasaxelebul magaliTSi zmnebi meamayebiT da meimedebiT erTmaneTis gverdiT gvxvdeba.
kidev ufro mniSvnelovania is, rom konkretuli pirovnebis saxelis nacvlad gvxvdeba CvenTvis saintereso forma me-Se-modgomebi.
am saxelis mqone pirovneba dasasveneblad wasvlis win ase emSvidobeba Tavis axloblebs: Cemo Zvirfasebo. dadga nanatri dasvenebis dReebic. radgan gverdi aris piradi da sxva adamianebi jerjerobiT ar
myavs, miwevs TqvenTan droebiT gamomSvidobeba. momenatrebiT... mesiyvarulebiT da me-Se-modgomebiT seqtembramde... Tqveni qeTi (fb, me-Semodgomebi, 21.07.2016).
konkretuli adamianis pirovnul Tvisebebzea gamaxvilebuli yuradReba zmnaSi meqarTvelebi: harun, rogor Zalian meqarTvelebi!!!
(nino giorgaZe, fb, 12.05.2016).
marTalia, miCnevis vnebiTis zogierT formaSi Cans xelovnuroba, magram kargad igrZnoba mTqmelis damokidebuleba faqtisadmi. am
mxriv sainteresoa zmnebi:
megemriela: raRac megemriela es simRera!!! (= gemrieli meCvena) (lali nikolaZe, fb, 13.10.2016). megemrieleba forma ZiriTadad
saWmels, nugbars ukavSirdeba, magram simRerasTan am zmnis dakavSireba uCveuloa.
meadreba: velodebi sayvaviles, ise arc ki vCqarob, meadreba (=
adre mgonia) (natalia SavguliZe, fb, 25.10.2016, 22:47). socialuri
qselebis enaSi am tipis formebic ar aris ucxo.
gunebis vnebiTebi. a. SaniZis ganmartebiT gunebisaa vnebiTi, romelic gamoxatavs, rom adamianis sulieri ganwyobileba (guneba) mimarTulia im moqmedebisaken, romelic zmniT aris aRniSnuli. es vnebiTi uTuod orpiriania da e-Tia nawarmoebi. aseTi zmna SeiZleba pirveladic iyos da nasaxelaric (SaniZe 1953:300).
Cvens saanalizo masalebSi davadastureT zogierTi zmnuri
forma gunebis vnebiTisa, romlebic Seqmnilia spontanurad, situaciidan gamomdinare. am tipisaa meRimileba, meSeqspireba...
qarTulSi sicili da Rimili relatiuri sinonimebia. sicilisagan miRebuli gunebis vnebiTia mecineba. socialur qselebSi Segvxvda

vnebiTi gvaris qaosuri formebi qarTulSi

93

amave agebulebis meRimileba: me rom gavamxilo rogor meRimileba


dRevandel aRiarebul mwerlebis siaze, anaTema ar amcdeba (maiko marine qavTaraSvili, fb, 28.06.2016. 11sT.).
adamianis ganwyoba kidev ufro metad Cans zmnaSi meSeqspireba:
magram maxvili SegiZlia ar amarido. grZnoba wamarTva da erT wamSi
gamaRaribo, meSeqspireba (= Seqspiris gunebaze var, sevdiani var) (maia faRava, fb, 02.06.2016, 22:00). am tipis zmnas asaxelebs gr. imnaiSvili Tavis naSromSi: ra geqiziyeba? (pers. vaJa, V, 56, 24-25) (imnaiSvili 1979: 36).
qarTulSi gunebis vnebiTebSi gamoiyofa uneburobis gamomxatveli formebi, rogoricaa: SemomeWama, Semomexarja, SemomelanZRa...
Cvens saanalizo masalaSic Segvxvda zmnebi SemomeTargmna, wamekiTxina. isini situaciis Sesabamisad miRebuli gunebis vnebiTebia: SemomeTargmna sami leqsi galaktionis (n. Samugia, italiis q. pizis skola
normale superiores doqtoranti klasikuri siZveleTmcodneobis
ganxriT). daviT! ra Wviani xarT? asi wlis brZeni mgonixarT! ramxela posti wamekiTxina (xaTuna yuraSvili, fb, 31.10. 2016, 17:00). miCnevis vnebiTebis msgavsad, aRniSnuli zmnebic ar gamoxataven vnebiTobas. isini formiT aqtiurni arian.
doniani formebi. sajaro moxeleebisa da Jurnalistebis zepir
metyvelebaSi moqmedebiTi gvaris nacvlad TandaTan mkvidrdeba doniani vnebiTis umarTebulo formebi: (aRar/ar) ganvmeordebi; (aRar/ar)
davkonkretdebi) nacvlad (aRar/ar) gavimeoreb); (aRar/ar) davakonkreteb) formebisa: isev ganvmeordebi (gadacema imedis dila,
12.05.2016, 08:50); davpliusdebi: velodebi im dRes, Sen ro iubileze dapostav da me ueWveli davpliusdebi( fb, 13.10.2016).
aseTi darRvevebi xSiria politikuri diskursis enaSic. keTeba
zmnas sruliad aramiznobrivad vxvdebiT politikosebis metyvelebaSi. magaliTad: dRes ori zari gamikeTda (nacvlad dRes orjer damirekes)(mamuka kacitaZe, kurieri, 13.10.2016, 21:00).
kidev ufro saintereso formebia mokostumdeba, gamolamazdeba:
anu sxvas ajoba WkuaSi da skdeba gulze xalxi? arauSavs ra, exla
gamolamazdeba parlamentSi, mosuqdeba da mokostumdeba, ise rogorc bevri gaRletili(xaTuna ivaniSvili, fb, 13.10.2016) (= kostums moirgebs, Cacmis stils Seicvlis. saubaria 2016 w. saparlamento arCevnebis Sedegebis mixedviT patriotTa aliansis erT-erTi lideris, irma inaSvilis parlamentSi SesvlasTan dakavSirebiT. aq do-

maia kikvaZe

94

niani vnebiTis forma gamoyenebulia ironiis, msubuqi dacinvis gamoxatvis mizniT.


saanalizo masalebSi dadasturda qarTuli yalibis mqone ucxouri fuZeebi, doniani vnebiTiT gaformebuli. rogoricaa: vCeqindebiT, vCeqindebodi, daCeqinda... (= checked in) dRes pirveli ivnisia-o
amboben!.. anu vCeqindebiT leqciidan!(niniko gabeCava, fb, 01.06.2016,
10:30); Zalian magar da karg adgilas viyavi da ver vCeqindebodi, interneti ar iyo (fb, 30.05.2016); saqarTvelo ara mxolod daCeqinda
msoflio musikalur rukaze, aramed... (m. giorgaZe, qronika,
28.05.2016, 14 :30).
qarTuli zepiri metyvelebisTvis, masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis, socialuri qselebis enebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli vnebiTi
gvaris zmnaTa axali formebi dRes enaSi arsebuli cvlilebebis maCvenebelia. Znelia imis Tqma, am formaTagan ra damkvidrdeba da ra
ara. es ufro metad gamoikveTeba enis ganviTarebis procesSi.
literatura:
imnaiSvili 1979: grigol imnaiSvili, vnebiTi gvari, warmoeba da funqciebi Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba, XXI, gamomc. mecniereba, Tbilisi.
meliqiSvili 2014: damana meliqiSvili, qarTuli zmnis sistemuri
morfosintaqsuri analizi, programa logosi.
SaniZe 1980: akaki SaniZe, Txzulebani III, Tbilisis universitetis
gamomcemloba, Tbilisi.
SaniZe 1953: akaki SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, Tbilisi.
www.facebook.com

Maia Kikvadze
Batumi Shota Rustaveli
State University
Chaotic Forms of Passive Voice in Georgian
Recently the usage of passive voice has become frequent in
Georgian. The number of sense and emotion verbs has increased. Many
new and unnatural forms of verbs appeared in the language. Some of

vnebiTi gvaris qaosuri formebi qarTulSi

95

them are well-known for native speakers. Others are produced by


speakers spontaneously, in the process of speaking. Variety of the verb
forms are found mainly in social nets, in private chats and comments.
Our analysis is based just on these examples.
Chaotic forms of verbs reflect the emotions and mood of the
speaker, their hopes, pride, their love towards Georgian language and
Georgian nation:
1) Passive verbs showing consideration: vezedmetebit/ mezedmeteba/ mezedmeta
(= it seems we are extra, it seems it is /was extra); mebednierebi
(=You are my happiness); meshemodgomebi (= well meet each other in
autumn); edzvirfaseba (= it is precious for me); meadreba(= it seems it
is yearly);
2) Passive verbs showing mood of the speaker: meghimileba (= it
makes me smile); mesheqspireba (= Im in a bad mood and wish to read
Shakespeare); shemometargmna (= I did not intend to translate, but I
did);
In the speech of public figures and journalists one can find many
examples of artificial passive forms like: ganvmeordebi (=Id love to
repeat); davkonkretdebi (=Id love to specify); davpliusdebi; dghes ori
zari gamiketda (=Today I was given two calls); mokostumdeba (= He
will try on a suit); dachekinda (he was registered).

rusudan mircxulava

`fsiqes semiotika:
qaosidan-kosmosisken~
termins `fsiqologia` (mecniereba
sulis Sesaxeb) pirvelad germanelma filosofosma q.volfma mimarTa me-18 saukuneSi, Tumca Zv. berZnuli `fsiqe~ (suli) gacilebiT xnieria da saukunovan
sibrZnes ukavSirdeba. upirvelesi cnobebi fsiqeas Sesaxeb gvxvdeba homerosTan
(VIII sk. Cv. eramde) (homerosi 2013),
Tumca, miTi fsiqeaze srulad apuleusma
Camoayaliba TxzulebaSi `metamorfozebi
an oqros saxedari~ (II sk); apuleusma
gaaerTiana Zveli berZnuli miTebi da Seqmna igavi gogona-fsiqeaze, romelic siyvarulis (amuris) Ziebis procesSi ara
erT dabrkolebas gadalaxavs, fsiqea
(suli) TviT hadesSic Cadis (kvdeba), raTa Semdeg siyvarulis amboriT gacocxlebulma ukvdavdeba moipovos (apuleusi
1963). fsiqeas miTis mniSvneloba sruliad gansakuTrebulia, radganac masSi protagonistad Tavad fsiqika (fsiqe) gvevlineba. Sesabamisad, miTis metaforuli
enis amokiTxva adamianis fsiqikasa da misi ganviTarebis procesTan dakavSirebuli uZvelesi, arqetipuli warmodgenebis
gamoaSkaravebas gulisxmobs. berZnul
sityvas `fsiqea` 3 ZiriTadi mniSvneloba
aqvs: suli, pepela da sunTqva. fsiqeas

`fsiqes semiotika: qaosidan kosmosisken~

97

Zveli berZnebi gamosaxavdnen peplis, peplisfrTiani gogonas an


gogonas saxiT, romelsac xelSi pepela uWiravs. SedarebiT iSviaTad, fsiqeas gamoxatavda frinvelic. aseve, sakmaod xSirad fsiqea-pepela gardacvlilis saritualo koconidan hadesSi, sulTa
saufloSi mofarfated gamoisaxeboda, rogorc gardacvlili sulis xati (gelovani 1983; kuni 2013; noimani 1971; jonsoni 2002).
fsiqea-sulis zoomorful saxed an mis atributad pepela
SemTxveviT ar qceula; Zvel berZenTa gancdiT, gogonasa da peplis sisuste Tu mowyvladoba moCvenebiTia da zedapiruli,- maT
Tavad ukvdaveba, maradiuloba ukavSirdeba (aq vamCnevT antipodebis arqetipul kavSirs: sisuste-siZliere, sinorCe-sibrZne). peplis ukvdavebasTan simboluri kavSiri peplis cxovrebiseuli
ciklis TaviseburebiTac aixsneba; cxovreba (Wiayela), sikvdili
(Wupri), aRorZineba (peplis Tavisufali frena). Wupri- sudaris
asociacias iwvevs, Wiayelas daWupreba- sikvdilisas, xolo pepela sulis metaforad ganicdeba, romelic mkvdar sxeuls tovebs
da mifrinavs. Sesamisad, frena- aRdgomis, amaRlebis, sxeulis
borkilebidan sulis ganTavisuflebis metaforad iqceva. rac Seexeba sunTqvas, mas Zveli berZnebi qarsa da frTebTan aigivebdnen.
adamianebis sulebi moCvenebaTa qarbuqad warmoedginaT. magaliTad, troasTan aqilevsis moCveneba qarbuqis TanxlebiT Cndeba
(homerosi 2013). unda iTqvas, rom sunTqva sicocxlis tradiciuli da universaluri metaforaa. bibliaSi Semoqmedi adamis sxeuls, miwisgan Seqmnils, Tavisi RvTaebrivi sunTqviT suls STaberavs da sococxles aniWebs. Sesabamisad, fsiqea sulia, `cocxali an maradiuli sunTqvaa~, romelic peplis msgavsad, meored an
maradiulad ibadeba.
fsiqeas arsobrivad ukavSirdeba siyvaruli, siyvarulis RvTaeba (amuri- `siyvaruli`, kupido -`survili`). ara erT gamosaxulebaze fsiqea amurs xelisgulze pepelas- sulis simbolos,
udebs da TiTqos am metaforiT Tavis suls uZRvnis. fsiqea-amuris kavSiris erTerTi aucilebeli elementia cecxli. orakuli
amcnobs fsiqeas mamas, rom misi siZe gaxdeba ara adamiani, aramed
`raRac frTosani, cecxliT Semmusvreli, RmerTebisa da Tavad
stiqsis risxva` (apuleusi 1963). amuris erTerTi epiTetia `yoveli cecxlis batoni`(apuleusi 1963). swored amitomac fsiqeas
antikur gamosaxulebebs xSirad amuri misdevs, xelSi CiraRdniT!
amave dros, Tavad fsiqea daswvavs amurs sanaTidan daRvenTili
zeTiT. aqve Cndeba farvanis asociacia _ pepela, romelic cecxls

98

rusudan mircxulava

eswrafvis da masSi iwvis- `siyvarulis cecxls` ewireba. cecxlisa da frTosnis gamTlianebis pozitiuri nimuSia feniqsi (cecxlovani Citi) (van der broki 1972). berZnul miTologiaSi feniqsi
ukvdavi frinvelia, romelsac regeneraciis, aRdgomis unari aqvs.
feniqsis msgavsad, fsiqea Cadis hadesSi (kvdeba) da meored ibadeba. feniqsis feminuri reminiscenciebis anareklad SeiZleba miviCnioT is, rom folklorSi gmiri vaJebi mtrulad ganwyobili feniqsebis xelSi Cagdebas cdiloben. feniqsi asocirdeba mzesTan da
mzesaviT brwyinvaleba axasiaTebs; is mzis frinvelia, romelic,
grZnobs ra sikvdilis moaxloebas, Tavs iwvavs sakuTar budeSi da
ferflidan aRdgeba. (analogia mzesTan, romelic saRamos kvdeba,
raTa diliT isev daibados). heraldikaSi feniqsi gamoisaxeba cecxlidan amofrenili frinvelis saxiT. aq unda gavixsenoT fsiqeas
Zvel berZnuli gamosaxulebebi, romlebSic fsiqea gardacvlilis
koconidan amofrindeba. feniqsi fsiqeas (sulis) zoomorfuli xatia; mas cecxli wvavs, magram ar iwvis, radganac Tavadaa cecxli.
(fsiqea Tavad dawvavs siyvarulis RmerTs sanaTidan daRvenTili
zeTiT.) fsiqea farvanasaviT mieltvis cecxlovan amurs, magram
peplisgan gansxvavebiT ar iRupeba. fsiqea Cadis hadesSi (kvdeba),
magram rogorc feniqsi, meored ibadeba siyvarulis amboriT an
siyvarulis cecxliT gaRviZebuli.
fsiqeaze miTis gageba-interpretirebis ara erTi versia arsebobs. aris mosazreba, rom apuleusma Tavis nawarmoebSi metaforulad asaxa veneras misterialur kultSi iniciaciis rituali,
romlis mizani neofitis, saidumlo religiuri jgufis axali wevris, metamorfoza da transformaciaa (genepi 1999). Tuki e.w. gardasvlis ritualebis sqemis safuZvelze ganvixilavT miTs fsiqeas Sesaxeb, maSin SegviZlia misi struqtura ase warmovadginoT: 1) separacia-motacebuli fsiqea martod marto cxovrobs sasaxleSi, sadac misi meuRle da msaxurebi uxilavni arian. 2) zRurbli- fsiqea miatova
amurma da is amqveyniur da imqveynier samyaroebs Sorisaa moqceuli:
amuris ZebnaSi moiara dedamiwa da hadesi (arc cocxalia da arc mkvdari), 3) aRdgena- fsiqea gaacocxla amurma da masTan iqorwina.
iungianeli avtori, beatris hinkli aRniSnavs, rom siyvarulis mier mZinare sulis gaRviZeba (rogorc fsiqikuri ganviTarebisa da fsiqikuri gamoRviZebis metafora) - is arqetipuli motivia, romelic xSirad meordeba miTebSi, zRaprebSi, xelovnebis
nawarmoebebsa da aseve, subieqtur gancdebSi. avtoris gagebiT,

`fsiqes semiotika: qaosidan kosmosisken~

99

miTi monanieba- gamosyidvis process asaxavs; mTavari personaJi


(fsiqea) gadis tanjvis, TviTmkvlelobisa da aRdgomis mtkivneul process (jonsoni 2002). aqve avtori aRniSnavs, rom anima
fsiqikur struqturad siyvarulis ZaliT yalibdeba _ erosi
warmoSobs fsiqikurs. amave dros, animas SemoqmedebiTi sawyisi
ukavSirdeba. `SemoqmedebiT demons` avtori maradiuli bavSvis
RvTaebriv xatTan (yrma amuri) aigivebs; kreatulobis aRmosaceneblad is unda Seerwyas qalur suls (animas) `fsiqikur koitusSi`. Sesabamisad, miTi fsiqeaze erosisa da fsiqikuris urTierTobis rituals asaxavs, romelic maradiulad TamaSdeba rogorc adamianebs Soris, ise erTi adamianis fsiqikis farglebSiac. b. hinkli miuTiTebs, rom Tanamedrove cnobierebisaTvis fsiqeas istoriis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba jon kitsis leqsma
`oda fsiqeas` mkafiod asaxa. kitsi fsiqeas (an adamianis suls),
rogorc axal an Tanamedrove qalRmerTs mimarTavs _ `gonebis
uxilav siRrmeTa Soris, me-qurums momeci neba agigo taZari.
fleitis nacvlad axal azrebis ismodes bgera tkivilnarevi`
(Targmania Cemia _ r.m.) Cvens epoqaSi sakraloba adamianis (!)
sulma SeiZina. fsiqea qalia, romelmac misi sulis an pirovnebis
formirebis procesSi gansacdeli gamoiara da axali sakraluri
sferos qalRmerTad iqca (jonsoni 2002).
sxva mravalricxovan interpretaciaTa gverdiT fsiqeas miTi
aseve gaigeba, rogorc fsiqoTerapiuli procesis an adamianis pirovnuli zrdis miTologiur-xatovani arqetipi (noimani 1971;
jonsoni 2002). Tanamedrove fsiqoTerapiam fsiqeas miTSi mZlavri Terapiuli potenciali amoicno (viSniakovi 2014), rac Tavad
fsiqeas semantikiT aixsneba; fsiqea-feniqsi ara erT atributsa
da simbolosTan (gogona, suli, pepela, sunTqva, siyvaruli, cecxli) kavSirdeba, is polisemanturi xatia. Tumc, amiT sxva miTosuri xatebisgan ar gansxvavdeba. misi unakaloba sxva, ramdenime
mizezidan momdinareobs; fsiqea qali-gogonaa, magram, sxva feminuri miTologiuri personaJebisgan gansxvavebiT, aqtiuria da
ganviTarebis unari aqvs. miTologiis feminuri personaJebi, iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda, mamakaci-protagonistebis aqtivobisa
da brZolis miznad an jildod arian warmodgenilni; amis naTeli magaliTebia andromeda- persevsis jildo _ meuRle (andromeda kldeze mijaWvuli an ukiduresad pasiuri da urCxulis
momlodine ixsna da gaaTavisufla persevsma) da ariadne-Tezevsis, Semdgom ki _ Tavad dionises meuRle. es ukanaskneli Rrma

rusudan mircxulava

100

ZilSi myofi gaaRviZa dionisem Tavisi mxiaruli amaliTa da sicocxlis momniWebeli ZaliT. ariadnesgan gansxvavebiT, fsiqea
Tavad aRviZebs mZinare amurs da gamohyavs igi Ramis safarvelidan. mamakaci-protagonistebis saxelebisgan gansxvavebiT, fsiqeas
saxeli ar iTargmneba rogorc `herasTan mebrZoli` (herakle),
rogorc `qalaqebis mZarcveli` (persevsi) da arc rogorc `institucia` (Tezevsi); fsiqea adamianis sulis metaforaa da misi
aqtivoba Tavad sulis brZolaa da evolucia. fsiqeas, rogorc
`Ria` an `idealur` simbolos, SeiZleba `didi makavSirebeli`
ewodos; fsiqea iseT tradiciul antipodebs akavSirebs, rogorebicaa a)sisuste-Zliereba (fsiqea susti gogona-pepelaa, romelic
mZime gamocdis Semdeg ukvdavebas moipovebs), b)emociuri simSrale-vneba (fsiqea mzrunvelobis pasiuri obieqti iyo jadosnur
sasaxleSi da Semdeg ki, ori samyaro moiara siyvarulis ZiebaSi.
fsiqea kvdeba da amboriT cocxldeba), g)sibnele(sibrmave)-sinaTle(xedva)(uxilavTa Soris moqceuli fsiqea, veravis xedavs garSemo da Secnobis mizniT, lampars anTebs), d)sikvdili-sicocxle
(stiqsis wrebrunvis analogiurad, fsiqea Cadis hadesSi da iqidan uvnebeli brundeba), e)fizikuri-samyaro- metafizikuri samyaro (mokvdavi qali eziareba miRmier samyarosa (hadess) da bolos _ ukvdavi RmerTebis savanes (olimpos).
literatura:
homerosi 2013: homerosi, iliada, Tb.
apuleusi 1963: apuleusi, metamorfozebi an oqros saxedari; Tb.
gelovani 1983: ak. gelovani, moTologiuri leqsikoni; Tb.
kuni 2013: n. kuni, Zveli berZnuli miTologia; Tb.
noimani 1971: . , :
, -.
jonsoni 2002: . ""
, .
van der broki 1972: Van der Broek, The Myth of the Phoenix, Seeger,
I trans, EJ Brill.
genepi 1999: . , - . .
viSniakovi 2014: . , .. andrey vi@mail.ru

`fsiqes semiotika: qaosidan kosmosisken~

101
Rusudan Mirtskhulava

`Semiotics of Psyche: from Chaos to Cosmos


The term `Psychology (soul science) for the first time was used by
Q. Wolf in the18-th century, but the Greek `Psyche is rather older and
contains deep knowledge. The first notifications of Psyche are
represented in Homer poems. Later Apuleius gathered the Greek Myths
and created full story about Psyche in his `Metamorphoses. The Greek
word `Psyche has three meanings: soul, butterfly and breathing. In
ancient Greece Psyche was pictured as the butterfly-winged girl or the
girl with the butterfly in her hands and was interpreted in connection with
love (Amur, Cupid). Fire was the unavoidable element of Psyche-Amur
connection, that provokes association of the moth, that strives for the fire
and sacrifices in the `fire of love. The positive pattern of fire-wing unit
is phoenix (fire-bird). Phoenix is associated with the sun and is the
metaphor of the regeneration. As phoenix Psyche goes down to Hades
(dies) and after regenerates. There are various interpretations of Psyche
myth. By the one of these interpretations myth represents the personal
growth and the psychotherapeutic process; Psyche (human soul) searches
for identity and wholeness (love, Amur) and gets over the obstacles on
this way. Myth of Psyche has stimulated psychologists for the formation
of the corresponding training-programs.

nana mrevliSvili

samyaros kosmologiuri
mTlianoba, rogorc
agiografiuli teqstis
semiotikuri sistemis
erTgvari maxasiaTebeli
sasuliero mwerlobaSi samyaros
kosmologiuri modeli warmodgenilia,
rogorc orad ganwiluli mTeli, xolo
am nawilTa urTierTmimarTeba ganixileba, rogorc erTgvari opoziciuri Tanaarseboba sofeli da zesTasofeli, realuri da irealuri, miwa da zeca. agiografiul teqstSi miwa zecis mimarT
iZens konkretul mniSvnelobas _ miwa,
rogorc gamocdis sivrce sakuTari droiTi ganzomilebiT. gamomdinare aqedan,
yvela ZiriTadi veqtori am Janris teqstebSi zeaRmavalia, xolo metafizikuri
sivrce agiografiul teqstSi gaiazreba,
rogorc konceptualuri sivrce, romelic moicavs irealuri sivrcis komponentebs. es sivrce (samoTxe, sasufeveli)
pirvel igi kacTa sayofelia (mrevliSvili 2001:35) anu aTvlis saTavea. imavdroulad, is kacTa ganswrafebis saboloo wertilicaa. amdenad, metafizikuri
sivrcidan gamosvlisa (gamoZevebis) da
masSi ukuqcevis veqtorebi gansazRvraven
im mistikuri wris Tvisobriobas, romelic maradiulobidan gamosvlasa da ma-

samyaros kosmologiuri mTlianoba, rogorc agiografiuli teqstis


semiotikuri sistemis erTgvari maxasiaTebeli

103

radiulobis wiaRSi dabrunebas gulisxmobs. grigol noseli metafizikuri da fizikuri sivrcis urTierTSedarebisas SeniSnavs:
xolo RvTismsaxurebisa saidumlosa Sina erTi mamuli pativcemul ars, romel ars samoTxe, pirvel igi kacTa naTesavisa sayofeli da erTi qalaqi, cxovelTa qvaTa mier aSenebuli, romlisa
xuroTmoZRuar da Semoqmed RmerTi ars... xolo Cuensa amas mamulsa warmoTquma ara exmarebis, ufrosRa ara mamuli, aramed
mwirobisa da eqsoriobisa Cuenisa adgili (mrevliSvili
2001:35).
metafizikuri sivrcis konceptualurobis ganmsazRvrelia
rigi faqtorebisa: a) es sivrce TavisTavad aris agiografiuli
teqstis ideuri plastis substanti da b) fizikur da mentalur sivrceebTan xdomilebaSi gansazRvravs gmiris moqmedebas.
es ki Sepirobebulia im garemoebiT, rom am konceptualuri sivrcis RerZi uzenaesi arsebaa, xolo agiografiuli teqstis ideur-ideologiuri plasti swored am mimarTulebiT funqcionirebs (agiografiul teqstSi sivrceTa kategoriebis Sesaxeb detalurad ix Cvenive werili mrevliSvili 2016:169-202).
agiografiuli teqstebis koncepti adamianis fizikur sivrceSi myofobas erTi mTliani dro-sivrculi mdinarebis mcire
fragmentad warmoaCens, xorci, miwisagan qmnili, miwadve unda
miiqces, xolo suli wardges uflis samsjavroze, anu dabrundes zecis wiaR, Tumca RvTisagan miniWebuli Tavisufali neba
kacisTvis sasjeladac SeiZleba iqces da uflis wiaR mibrunebis
saSualebadac. amdenad, agiografiul teqstSi es ori Zireuli
kategoria fozikuri da metafizikuri sivrce gaSualebulia
mentaluri sivrciT, romlis meSveobiTac unda moxdes orad gawiluli samyaros gamTlianeba, realur da irealur sivrceTa
Tanxvedra da Serwyma. sagulisxmoa, rom Tu kacTaTvis uflis
samsjavroze wardgomisa da sasufevlis damkvidrebis Sedgom SeiZleba gaxdes samyaro, rogorc mTeli, agiografi avtori mkiTxvels TvalnaTliv daanaxebs, rom wmindanebi amgvar gancdas
(madls) miwazeve moipoveben, anu RvTisgan wmindanad gamorCeuli
gmirisTvis metafizikuri samyaroc iseTive realuri xdeba, rogoric fizikuria. amis damadasturebelia saswaulebi/gamocxadebebi, romlebsac wmindans RmerTi mouvlens, an saswaulebi,
romlebsac wmindani Tavad ganaxorcielebs RvTis meoxebiT.

104

nana mrevliSvili

TavisTavad agiografiuli teqstis mTavari personaJis (wmindanis) mentaluri sivrce rTuli substanciaa, romelSic sinTezirdeba rigi komponentebisa:
1. bunebiTi rjuli _ pirovnebis TviTbunebovnoba + intuiciuri swrafva;
2. goniTi percefcia _ realobis aRqma-gaanalizeba; ganaTleba/winare codna;
3. saRmrTo ganbrZnoba (Teosofia) _ ganaTlebis religiuri
mimarTuleba + mistiuri konteqsti;
4. Tavisufali nebeloba
agiografiuli teqstis centraluri figuris mentaluri
sivrcis plastikur xazebs qmnis misive bunebiTi rjulis, bunebiTi TviTgvarovnebisa da identobis dadgenis mimarTuleba-ragvarobis sinTezi. bunebiTi rjuli pirveladia, arsebiTi da, amasTan
_ ganmsazRvreli identobis formirebis procesisa. bunebiTi
rjuli moicavs intuiciur swrafvas WeSmaritebisaken. amasTan,
agiografi gmiris mentaluri sivrce Tavad aris qristes samkvidrebeli (Sdr. grigol xanZTeli cxovreba: qristesa ganekuTvna
suli Tvisi samkvidrebelad (Zeglebi 1963:49); abos wameba: viTarca Tqua wmidaman mociqulman pavle, moZRuarman eklesiaTaman,
viTarmed: `taZarni xarT RmrTisani da suli wmida damkdrebul ars Tquen Soris~; da ufali itys winaswarmetyuelisa
mier: `me movide da davimkdro Tquen Soris~, da wmidasa Sina
saxarebasa itys, viTarmed `sasufeveli RmrTisa gulTa Sina
TquenTa ars~ (Zeglebi 1963:49).
mentaluri sivrcis formirebisTvis, misi srulqmnisTvis
(sulieri wrTobisTvis) wmindani moiZiebs garemos, romelic fizikur sivrceSi SemosazRvrulia, rogorc misi samoRvaweo areali _ samkvidro sivrce. es sivrce ar aris oden denotaciuri
mocemuloba, es sivrce niSanTa mTeli sistemaa Tavisi mistikuri
konotaciiT. amitom samkvidro sivrcis funqciiT ganisazRvreba
mxolod winaswar gamorCeuli, konkretuli toposi da ara _
SemTxveviTi garemo, Tundac is am sivrcisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
yvela garegani niSniT iyos aRbeWdili. samkvidro sivrce RvTis
mieraa gankuTvnili moRvawisadmi, amgvari sivrce Tavisi arsiT
sakraluria, raki masSi RvTis sufevaa ganfenili, magram amgvari
sivrcis aqtvizaciisaTvis saWiroa uflis mier gamorCeuli adamianis Zalisxmeva. es aris sivrce, romelic mikro (sivrce, rogorc adamiani) da makro (sivrce, rogorc samyaro) kosmosis er-

samyaros kosmologiuri mTlianoba, rogorc agiografiuli teqstis


semiotikuri sistemis erTgvari maxasiaTebeli

105

Tgvari modelia, sivrce-wesrigi, romelsac qmnis RvTisa da kacis Tananebeloba. cxovrebaTa Janris agiografiul teqstebSi
samkvidro sivrced ZiriTadad udabno gvevlineba, sadac berebi
anaqoretuli an kenobituri moRvaweobis formiT cdiloben zeSTa soflis damkvidrebas, wamebaTa Janris Zeglebi ki am TvalsazrisiT araerTgvarovania.
grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi saRmrTo CvenebiT uwyebul
sivrces (auwya qristeman sanatrelsa mamasa grigols... adgilisa
mis migebad misa, Zeglebi 1963:253) winamZRvrobiTa sulisa
wmidisaTa miakvlevs wmindani.
araerTi dabrkolebis gadalaxva mouwevT wminda serapionsa
da mis sulier Zmebs, vidre gamoarCeven sivrces zarzmis savanisTvis, romelic savsea saswaulebiT da romelic maTTvis samkvidro sivrced iqceva.
abos wamebaSi qarTli erTsa da imave dros gvevlineba droebiT samoRvaweo sivrcedac da samkvidro sivrcedac. droebiTi
samoRvaweo sivrcidan gamosvlisa da eqsoriobis mcire wris gavlis Semdeg abo brundeba qarTlSi, romelic misi, rogorc wmindanis dedaa da amgvari dabrunebiT is brundeba samkvidros wiaRSi. amasTan, misTvis mosvla qarTlSi, rogorc dedis wiaRSi,
aris erTaderTi gza samudamo samkvidro sivrcisken, zeSTasivrcisken, es aris gza sasufevlisaken.
SuSanikis wamebaSi vxedavT, rom gmiri ver gamodis arqesivrcidan, anu im samyofelidan, romelSic is wmindanobis gzaze
dadgomamde cxovrobda, magram SemosazRvravs sakuTar samoRvaweo
areals. es areali Tavdapirvelad aris eklesiasTan mdebare mcire nageboba (saxlaki erTi mcire pova maxlobelad eklesiasa,
Zeglebi 1963:13), Semdeg _ patara senaki, romelSi gancalkevebasac cdilobs sasaxleSi iZulebiT mobrunebuli dedofali (ara
dajda igi Tssa mas galiaksa, aramed senaksa Sina mciresa, Zeglebi 1963:16), didmarxvaSi _ isev patara senaki da isev eklesiasTan axlos (mivida netari igi SuSanik maxlobelad wmidasa
eklesiasa da iZia mcir senaki da mun daeyuda~, Zeglebi
1963:19). gmiris Sinagani ganwyobilebis, sulieri swrafvis gamokveTis mizniT avtori mkiTxvels mianiSnebs, rogor cdilobs
personaJi, es sivrce metad miamsgavsos samoRvaweo sivrces, mwirobis, ucxoobis garemos (da iyo senaksa mas mcir sarkumeli
da dayo igi. da iyo bnelsa mas Sina marxviT da locviT da tiriliT... alizaki erTi daidvis sasTunal. da quesagebelad iyo

106

nana mrevliSvili

girjaki erTi Zueli. da kacTa Tualsa sasTaulaki erTi xalenisa ucn sasTunliT kerZo. da Tayuanis-sacemelad kiliki erTi
mcire que warugdebied... Zeglebi 1963:21), mkiTxveli xedavs,
rom cixis es sakani, rogorc fizikuri sivrce, sxvadasxvagvarad
mniSvnelobs Jamier ganzomilebaSi. xolo sabolood igi Tavisi
yvela niSniT SuSanikisaTvis funqcionirebs, rogorc samoRvaweo
sivrce, romelSic igi, viTarca sZali (qristesi), Semkuli sakrvelTa maTgan... wesierebiTa saRmrToTa yuaoda: marxviTa maradis, mRZarebiTa, zedgomiTa, Tayuanis-cemiTa uwyinod da kiTxviTa wignTaTa mouwyinebelad (Zeglebi 1963:22). aqve gadadis
igi fazaSi, romelSi myofobac niSnavs universumSi myofobas, anu
wmindanisTvis samyaro aRar ganixileba, rogorc realurisa da
irealuris opozicia, misTvis is ukve erTi ganuyofeli mTelia,
universumia da es universumia qceuli yofierebis yvelaze realur formad. am sivrceSi gasruldeba wminda SuSanikis sulieri
mosagreoba da gadava igi saRmrTo moqalaqeobis fazaSi _ zeSTa sivrceSi.
agiografiul teqstSi samkvidro sivrceSi wmindanis moRvaweoba SegviZlia or etapad ganvixiloT: 1. sawyisi da 2. gviandeli, koherentuli.
sawyis etapze xdeba 1. garestruqturis mowesrigeba/masTan
adaptireba _ cxovrebaTa Janris teqstebSi _ taZris, keliis,
satrapezos mSenebloba, wamebaTa Janris teqstebSi _ samyofelis
samoRvaweo sivrcisTvis mimsgavseba, Rvawlis formis damZimeba
da 2. Sidastruqturis Camoyalibeba: cxovrebaTa Janris teqstebSi _ sasuliero pirTa urTierTobebi, samonastro komunis wesgangebis SemuSaveba, wamebaTa Janris teqstebSi _ urTierToba
sociumTan, mis calkeul wevrebTan). meore, anu gviandeli etapi,
romelsac koherentuli vuwodeT, praqtikulad sulieri mosagreobis sasruli fazaa, romlis Semdegac wmindani zeSTa sivrceSi gadadis. ramdenadac koherentul etapze wmindanisaTvis samyaro ganixileba, rogorc ganuwilveli mTlianoba, mas, rogorc
xorciel adamians, uSualo kavSiri aqvs zeSTa sivrcesTan. koherentuli etapi gajerebulia saswaulebiT, romlebic xorcieldeba wmindanis mier/misi SuamdgomlobiT RvTis winaSe (SuSanikis
wameba uSviloTa da brmaTa gankurneba, mogvi dedakacis epizodi; grigol xanZTelis cxovreba mosyiduli mkvlelis, bagrat
kurapalatis siZvis diacis, cqiris... epizodebi), an gaSualebulad saswaulmoqmedi xdeba moRvawis wminda nawili an is ad-

samyaros kosmologiuri mTlianoba, rogorc agiografiuli teqstis


semiotikuri sistemis erTgvari maxasiaTebeli

107

gili, sadac mowameobrivi aqti aRsrulda (abos wameba sagodebelTan, sadac martvilis gvami dawves, `yovelnive sixaruliTa
da madlobiTa qristsiTa mividodes da aRiRebdes miwasaca mis
adgilisasa, da mravalni senTagan Sepyrobilni mihyvandes da masve dResa Sina ganikurnebodes~ Zeglebi 1963:74) da amdenad ikvreba rkali agiografiuli teqstis protagonisti realizdeba
wmindanad sakralur sivrceSi da sivrcis sakralizacia gacxaddeba protagonistis Rvawlis Sedegad.
samkvidro sivrceSi qristeze dawinduli adamiani isev sulieri mosagrea, isev `sofelSia~, magram koherentul etapze ukve aRdgenilia darRveuli kavSiri RmerTsa da adamians Soris. es
etapi saswaulebis siuxviT gamoirCeva. wmindani am aRdgenil
kosmologiur mTlianobaSi myofobs da Tanaarsobs am samyaros
mkvidrebTan. grigol xanZTeli werils swers gardacvlil dedebs da sTxovs miiRon akldamaSi Sesvenebuli codvili dedakaci, romelic `sacTur eqmna ege RmrTismsaxursa xelmwifesa da
sarwmuno coli misi ganaSora.~ grigolis werilis Sedegad
gardacvlilma monazvnebma `miiRes mkvdari igi Tssa mas pirvelsa adgilsa, sadaca samgzis dadebul iyo. da arRara icvala mier
dRiTgan~ (Zeglebi 1963:284).
koherentul etapze RvTisa da kacis TanaSearsebebis procesi fizikur sivrceSi sasrul kondicias uaxlovdeba, es praqtikulad iniciaciis, sulierebis gzaze zesvlis bolo safexuria,
romelic gansruldeba gardacvalebiT. gardacvalebamde wmindani
sakuTar arsebobas maradisobaSi ganWvrets da iwinaswarmetyvelebs sakuTari gardacvalebis dros, RvTisagan uwyebuls (SuSaniki, abo, grigol xanZTeli...).
koherentul etapze wmindanisTvis droisa da sivrcis mijnebi pirobiTi xdeba. wminda abosaTvis dro aris is, rac masSia,
rac misi individualuri gancdis kategoriaa da ara _ obieqturi, fizikuri, da sivrcec warmodgenilia, rogorc drosTan SeTanadebuli subieqturi kategoria Tavad personaJis orad ganwiluli fizikuri da arafizikuri subsantidan diminantis
mniSvnelobas iZens meore da personaJi TiToqos ukve miRmuri
samyarodan Wvrets sakuTari sxeulis gadaadgilebas fizikur
sivrceSi da is, rac momavalia, rac momavlis nawilia, wmindanisTvis cxadi da saCinoa maSinac, roca is jer kidev ar momxdara:
xolo igi mividoda, viTarca vin mogzaur eqmnis mkudarsa, egre
xedvida Tssa mas guamsa; da suliTa TsiTa mogzaur qmnuli

nana mrevliSvili

108

TT ityoda fsalmunsa amas as da meaTrvametesa: `netar arian


ubiwoni gzasa, romelni vlenan rjulsa uflisasa~ (Zeglebi
1963:70).
amgvarad, rogorc davinaxeT, samyaros kosmologiuri mTlianoba agiografiul teqstSi individualizebulia da miiRweva
konkretuli personaJis (wmindanis) mentaluri sivrcis srulqmnis Sedegad.
literatura:
mrevliSvili 2001: nana mrevliSvili, grigol noselis grigol
sakvirvelTmoqmedis cxovrebis qarTuli redaqciebi, Tb.
Zeglebi 1963: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi. wigni I (V-X ss.), redaqtori ilia abulaZe, Tb.
mrevliSvili 2016: nana mrevliSvili, sivrcis ontologiuri kategoria da agiografiuli teqsti ioane sabanisZis abos wamebis mixedviT krebulidan `erovnuli TviTSemecnebis saTaveebTan. ioane sabanisZe, `martviloba habo tfilelisa~;
Tb.
internetresursi:
WeliZe, ediSer - gza sameufo - http://library.church.ge/

Nana Mrevlishvili
Cosmological unity of the universe as hagiographic text semiotic
system characteristics
Cosmological model of the universe in ecclesiastic writing is
presented in a form of double-divided ensemble, but relation between
these parts is considered as oppositional co-existence real and unreal,
land and heaven. In hagiographic text, land with regards to the heaven
acquires concrete meaning land as a space of examination with private
time dimension. Hence, all basic vectors in texts of this genre are topping,
but metaphysical space in hagiographic text is interpreted as conceptual
space, which includes components of unreal space. However, vectors
outgoing (driving out) from metaphysical space and retreating therein
determine quality of that mystic circle, which means going out from

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semiotikuri sistemis erTgvari maxasiaTebeli

109

eternity and returning to the eternity. But, cosmological unity of the


universe is presented by hagiographic author as a result of individualized
process, which is achieved as a result of upgrading the mental space of
concrete character (saint).

nino gogiaSvili

qaosis wesrigi da wesrigis


qaosi qarTul
postmodernul poeziaSi
wesrigze saubari mxolod qaosis
Semdeg an mis paraleluradaa SesaZlebeli. Tu ar arsebobs qaosi, verc
wesrigi damyardeba, Zalian mkveTri
da martivi kontrastidan gamomdinare. Tumca, fasaduri _ garegnuli qaosi an wesrigi, xSirad, Sinaganis sapirispiroa an, sulac, naxevartonebad
_ qaosian wesrigad an wesrigian qaosad iSleba zedapirze. qaosis gareSe
sicocxle da ganviTareba wydeba.
poezia mowesrigebuli metyvelebaa, uxsovar droSi is poeziad swored amis gamo iqna saxeldebuli.
leqsis winamorbedi velur tomebSi
Tavdapirvelad arsebobda musikasa da
cekvis ileTebTan erTad, rogorc
sinkretuli movlena. adamianebma SeZles, rom pirvelyofili qaosidan xelovnebis winare movlenebi SeeqmnaT,
rac sacekvao ileTebSi, Tvlad,
taqts ayolil rokvaSi, damaxasiaTebeli, ritmul bgeriTa da mowesrigebul metyvelebiT gamoixateboda. qaosidan amozrdili wesrigi raRacas

qaosis wesrigi da wesrigis qaosi qarTul postmodernul poeziaSi

111

niSnavda da isev samyaroseuli wesrigisa da qaosis niSnebis axsnas emsaxureboda.


gamomdinare sxvadasxva saleqso formidan, saleqso
wesrigi aseve mJRavndeba tropul metyvelebaSi ganfenil
tempo-ritmSi, metrSi, prosodiaSi, riTmasa da intonaciaSi.
postmodernul epoqaSi dairRva grandnarativebi, rac, cxadia, leqszec aisaxa. metafora metonimiam Caanacvla, riTmis
moTxovnileba ukiduresobamde Semcirda, an, TiTqmis, sul
gaqra (evropul Tanamedrove poeziaSi), metris SegrZneba
gaidRabna da mas mkafio konturebi aRar gaaCnia. Tanamedrove leqsma yvelaze ukeT Sinagani ritmi, intonacia da logikuri maxvilebi SeinarCuna, rac saxarbielo Strixia performansisTvis. leqsis dinamika uaxlovdeba prozaul narativs da mTeli aqcenti gadatanilia Sinaarsze. leqsis narativi gacilebiT dawuruli, minimalisturi da mozomili
gaxda. frangi simbolisti poetis pol verlenis cnobili
slogani _ musika upirveles yovlisa _ modernizmma
STanTqa da postmodernul epoqaSi metonimiur rakursebad
da Strixebad gardaqmna.
leqsSi dairRva yvelanairi adre dakanonebuli wesrigi
da, miuxedavad amisa, damkvidrda axali _ qaosis wesrigi.
postmodernizmi arRvevs yovelgvar sistemas, wess, Slis
yvela Senobas da qaosis wesrigiT Semodis cnobierebaSi.
Tumca asistemuroba da kanonebis uaryofac garkveul kanonebs awesebs da Tavisebur sistemebsac qmnis. postmodernistuli qaosi garkveuli saxis wesrigia. globaluri masStabiT ase vlindeba postmodernizmiseuli wesrigis qaosi da
qaosis wesrigi.
qarTuli avangardi Tavisi esTetikuri gamovlinebebiT
TiTqmis mTlianad postmodernistul iers atarebs. amasTan
qarTuli postmodernizmi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba dasavlurisagan, sadac postmoderni xangrZlivi, dialeqtikuri
ganviTarebis Sedegia, CvenSi ki _ dasavluri tradiciis Taviseburi, met-naklebad gacnobierebuli da gaTavisebuli
tradiciis SeRzudul vadebSi Camoyalibebuli araTanmimdevruli sinTezi (janjibuxaSvili 2003:17). swored amitom

112

nino gogiaSvili

jer qarTuli avangardis warmomadgenelze, karlo kaWaravaze visaubrebT. mkvlevar Tamar barbaqaZis klasifikaciiT,
karlo kaWarava Taviseburad agrZelebs qarTuli romantizmis tradiciebs qarTul xelovnebaSi. misi statiis saTauric amgvaria: postmodernidan win _ romantizmisaken!
ramdenime xnis win mxolod imis/wera daviwye,/rac ver
ikiTxeba/ radgan aq araferia sakiTxavi/ da spontanur xatebSi neba mkvdari/ vwer absurdisa da sasowarkveTilebisagan/ _ gulubryvilod cdeba is, vinc fiqrobs/rom absurdists araferi stkiva/ zurgis, Tavis an yuris garda.
(rudaqi, absurduli poema, 1987) (barbaqaZe 2008:96).
aq SeiZleba simulacia da simulakrebi SevniSnoT, avtori wers imas, rac ver ikiTxeba anu simulakrs dedani
ar gaaCnia. da spontanur xatebSi neba mkvdari _ SeiZleba
iTargmnos, rogorc grandnarativis sikvdili da spontanur xatebSi usubstanciod, usayrdenod yofna. vwer absurdisa da sasowarkveTilebisagan _ wers karlo kaWarava
da es absurdi da sasowarkveTileba dekadansia, romelic
aris postmodernis bunebaSi, Tumca am faqts postmodernistebi naklebad an ar aRiareben. logikurad, sasowarkveTa
gardauvalia, Tu adamiani ar eyrdnoba raime metanarativs,
romelic, SesaZlebelia, tanjvis wyarocaa, Tumca ucilobeli gravitaciis rolsac asrulebs. taepis bolo striqonebi ki zustad imisi dasturia, rac misi analizisas gamoikveTa.
rodesac postmodernistul literaturaze vsaubrobT,
unda gamovyoT misi interteqstualuri Tviseba. am SemTxvevaSi, upriani iqneba visaubroT Tanamedrove poeziaSi erTerT yvelaze gamorCeul saxeze _ zviad ratianze. poeti
SoTa iaTaSvili masze wers: mis leqsebSi gadamuSavebulia
masala, aRebuli sul sxva poetebis teqstebidan. aq aluziebze araa laparaki, aluziebi da reminiscenciebi ratianTan
TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba, is citirebs, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, leqswerisa da pirad gamocdilebasTan damokidebulebis sxvadasxva tipebs. amasTan ratiani sruliad ar gamoiyeneba meoradad(iaTaSvili 2004:7), da aq avtori agrZelebs

qaosis wesrigi da wesrigis qaosi qarTul postmodernul poeziaSi

113

dasaxelebas im poetebisas, romlebsac citirebs ratiani.


eseni, mis mier naTargmni robert loueli da iosif brodski arian. amgvar SemTxvevas Teoriulad ayalibebs r. barti: interteqsti anonimuri formulirebis zogadi velia,
romlis warmomavlobis dadgena iSviaT SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli. citacia, romelsac xelovani iyenebs, sulac ar
niSnavs SemoqmedebiT uunarobas. piriqiT, is dRemde motanili xelovnebis nimuSebis kargad gadamuSavebas, dekonstruqcias da rekonstruqcias gulisxmobs. xelovneba aris dausrulebeli gardasaxva _ ambobs kirhneri. frazebi ratianis leqsidan: negativi. 20 wlis Semdeg:
Svilo, Cven gana gaCenidan ase viyaviT,/dedis muclidan, akvnidanve ki ar Segvaxma/SuSis TvalebiT gawyobili
cvilis niRabi,/Sen es Tvalebi oci wlis win unda genaxa
/anTebulebi siamayiT, Sav-mewamuli/droSebis qarSi, bnel
quCebSi, rodesac qSeniT/xmis CaxleCamde gavyvirodiT, ena,
mamuli,/sarwmunoeba/Savleg, Seni/sul Seni, Seni,/Seni bralia yvelaferi! Cvens cas, mxiaruls,/Sen waafare Seni Savi
Coxis kalTebi... (ratiani z.)
erovnul gmirze, Salva axlacixelze Seqmnili xalxuri simReris bgerwerulad yvelaze Zliermoqmed, sensitiur
frazebs citirebs avtori da es erovnuli siamayiT, identobiT gajerebuli emocia momentalurad qarwyldeba da
iSleba momdevno sityvebiT : Seni... Seni bralia... da aq
ar aris mxolod braldeba, aq sasowarkveTaa, sruli frustracia da agresia im Taobisa, romelic daikarga qarTuli
heroizmis legendebsa da sufrasTan warmoTqmul SeuCerebel sadRegrZloebSi. mkvlevari zoia cxadaia aRniSnavs:
misTvis SemoqmedebiTi procesi ar iTxovs raRac gansakuTrebul dro-sivrces, miT umetes _ gansakuTrebul idealebs. igi yofierebis kvaldakval aCveulebrivebs poetur
saTqmels. uwyveti monologebi da dialogebi sakuTar TavTan, ise miemarTba teqstidan teqstSi, rogorc yoveldRiuri yofa: gulidan TiTqmis uneblieT gadmocvenili sityvebiTa da im yvelafriT, rasac malaven an ver malaven es
sityvebi. (gzebi) (cxadaia 2008)

114

nino gogiaSvili

naSromSi yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT givi alxaziSvilis


poeziaze, romelic evropeizmis esTetikas agrZelebs da,
rogorc misi bolo poeturi krebulis, Cemi dReebis miwa, boloTqmaSi mkvlevari nana trapaiZe aRniSnavs, es wigni fenomenologiuri esTetikis nimuSia, romlis saazrovni
mizani fenomenologiuri daeWvebis poeturi gaSlaa. Cven
erTad CavalT, saidanac amovediT/da radgan CavalT/samyaros
yvela WuWrutana agvexileba.../es igivea/yvelafridan rom
iyurebi/da sxva veravin gxedavs...(alxaziSvili g.) es aris
zedrouli poeturi diskursi, romelSic vlindeba yvelganmyofobis fenomenologiuri xdomileba.
postmodernuli literaturis damaxasiaTebeli literaturuli dekonstruqcia deridaseuli filosofiis mixedviT teqstis wakiTxvas niSnavs, farTo gagebiT, ki ZiriTadi literaturuli wesebis rRvevas. mkvlevari zeinab
kikviZe aRniSnavs, rom swored Sinagani dialogia postmodernuli literaturis is Tviseba, romelic postmodernizmis dekonstruqcias gamokveTs da gamoaaSkaravebs; am
mxriv poeziam sagrZnoblad gauswro prozas. leqsisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli meditaciur-mistikuri funqcia Sinaganma
monologma itvirTa. leqsalobis erT-erTi niSani _ liriuloba, lirikuli gmiris gamosvla Ria mxatvrul sivrceSi
mTlianad daemyara me-s gasagnebas Sinagan monologSi. (kikviZe 2009:321) nebismieri postmodernisti avtori Sinagani
dialogiTaa daRdasmuli da aRweriTobis nacvlad Tavis
TavTan saubarSi aRwevs im kognitur sazriss, ris gamoc
iwereba yvela leqsi da poema.
postmodernuli xelovneba krizisuli xelovnebaa, sadac dekonstruqciiT, ucxos fenomeniT, Sinagani dialogebiT, simulaciebiT, hiperrealizmiT, ironiiT da interteqstebiT, grandnarativebis rRveviT, antianTropocentrizmiT
da antilogocentrizmiT xdeba im qaosis Seqmna da dabalanseba, rasac TviTonve iwvevs. fsiqologebi postmodernizmSi xedaven sazogadoebis panikuri mdgomareobis simptomebs, individis esqatologiur wuxils (janjibuxaSvili
2003:62).

qaosis wesrigi da wesrigis qaosi qarTul postmodernul poeziaSi

115

mkvlevari TinaTin biganiSvili aRniSnavs: CemTvis arsebiTia ara marto imis mtkiceba, rom postmodernizmis idea
aris nonidea, gnebavT _ araidea, igive _ araferi da Sesabamisad _ nihilizmi, romelic Tvalsa da xels Sua gatotalurda da pannihilizmad transformirda, aramed postmodernizmis sazRvrebSi alternativis ararseboba da alternatiuli ideis vakuumi. (biganiSvili 2012:146) postmodernizmi garemoSi da TavisTavSi aRarafers eZebs, miuxedavad amboxisa da qaosisa, da nihilizmiTa da ironiiT gamsWvaluli, amorful simulaciebsa da realobad SemoCeCebul ararsebul hiperrealizmze tivtivebs. swored amdagvari qaosis wesrigiTa da wesrigis qaosiT fiqsirdeba postmodernuli poezia da, zogadad, literatura, da es zedmiwevniT kargadaa asaxuli qarTveli postmodernisti avtorebis SemoqmedebaSi.
literatura
janjibuxaSvili 2003: janjibuxaSvili m. kulturologia.
gamomcemloba wyarosTvali. Tbilisi 2003
barbaqaZe 2008: barbaqaZe T. postmodernizmidan win - romantizmisaken! J. kritika N3. literaturis institutis gamomcemloba. Tbilisi 2008
iaTaSvili 2004: iaTaSvili S. hafizis vardi me prudomis
Cavrge vazaSi (qarTuli poeziis kulturuli orientaciis Secvlis Sesaxeb). arili 3-4. Tbilisi
2004
ratiani z: negativi. 20 wlis Semdeg.
(http://litklubi.ge/biblioteka/view-nawarmoebi.php?id=2599) el. J. litklubi
cxadaia 2008: cxadaia z. mogzauroba sakuTari sulis
garSemo. kritika N3 (http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gsdl/cgibin/library.exe?e=d-01000-00---off-0period--00-1----0-100---0---0prompt-10---4-------0-1l--11-ka-50---20-about--00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-800&a=d&c=period&cl=CL4.5&d=HASH01b28cd53927c6

nino gogiaSvili

116

331fbfc99e.3.4) saqarTvelos parlamentis erovnuli


biblioTeka. el. J. 2008
biganiSvili 2012: biganiSvili T. nihilizmi, rogorc postmodernizmis Teoriis erT-erTi panidea da axali
Teoriis vakuumi. literaturuli Ziebani XXXIII.
literaturis institutis gamomcemloba 2012
kikviZe 2009: kikviZe z. Sinagani monologi, rogorc postmodernizmis dekonstruqciis maxasiaTebeli. literaturaTmcodneobis Tanamedrove problemebi. II saerTaSoriso simpoziumis masalebi, nawili I. literaturis institutis gamomcemloba. Tbilisi 2009

Nino Gogiashvili
Order of the Chaos and the Chaos of the Order in the
Georgian Post-modern Poetry
In order to speak about the chaos it is only possible to do it after the
chaos or its parallel. Due to very sharp and easy contrast if there is no
chaos, no order is established. In the post-modern era meta-narrative and
grand narratives have been violated. It is, of course, is reflected on the
poetry. The metaphor has been replaced by the metonymy. The demand
of the rhythm has been extremely reduced or almost entirely disappeared.
The dynamic of the poem is approaching prose narrative and the focus is
made on the content. In this article we discuss the works of the avantgarde writer Karlo Kacharava and the works of the modern poets Zviad
Ratioani and Givi Alkhazishvili in order to highlight the main features of
the postmodern: Simulations and simulacres, violated grand narratives,
meta-texts, citation, Internal dialogue, foreign phenomenon, hyperrealism, irony and etc. " In the Postmodernism the psychologists see the
panic symptoms of the society, individual eschatological anxiety.
(Mako Janjubukhashvili)

rusudan saRinaZe

enis SesaZleblobaTa
realizeba da norma
nebismieri enis ganviTarebis sxvadasxva etapze yovelTvis iCens Tavs
formaTa Ziebisa da SerCevis procesi.
Cndeba variantebi, romlebic garkveuli
drois ganmavlobaSi arsebobs da xSirad
mizezia saliteraturo enis normaTa aRrevisa da darRvevisa. imavdroulad, enis
ganviTarebis procesSi yovelTvis SeimCneva enobriv formaTa damkvidrebis tendenciac. cvlilebebi bunebrivad xdeba,
enaSi arsebuli meqanizmi Sesabamisad
gvawvdis normebs, romelTac migneba,
amocnoba da dakanoneba sWirdeba. maSin
iqneba saliteraturo ena naklebad xelovnuri.
Tanamedrove qarTulSi, ufro metad
ki zepir metyvelebasa da internetsivrceSi, sagrZnobia axali tendencia enis
formalur da funqciur SesaZleblobaTa
realizebisa, rac Sepirobebulia ara
marto gramatikuli an sazogadoebrivpolitikuri faqtorebiT, aramed adamianis cnobierebaSi arsebuli ukmarisobis
grZnobiT. enobriv cvlilebaTa analizisas Cven vxelmZRvanelobT k. danelias
mosazrebiT imis Taobaze, rom: adamianis
winswrafiTi goni met-naklebad yovelTvis grZnobs garkveul ukmarisobas, rom

118

rusudan saRinaZe

man Tavis nafiqrals adekvaturi gamoxatuleba ver moupova. aseTi gancda miT ufro mwvavea, rac ufro Zlieria am ukmarisobis
daZlevis survili. migvaCnia, rom swored amgvari ukmarisobis
Sedegia Tanamedrove qarTulSi arsebuli sruliad axali enobrivi formebi.
dRes cvlilebebi aRiniSneba ara marto calkeul gamoTqmebsa da sintaqsur konstruqciebSi, aramed myar SesityvebebSic.
asea, magaliTad, misalmebis formulebSi, romlebSic an mTlianad
irRveva formulis rogorc struqtura, ise Sinaarsi, an iqmneba
sruliad axali, qarTuli enobrivi samyarosTvis uCveulo gamoTqmebi. es Sepirobebuli unda iyos sakuTriv qarTulis an ucxouris analogiiT. magaliTad, zogjer darRveulia misalmebis formulis dila mSvidobisa! orTografia, gvxvdeba erTad dawerili: dilamSvidobis gogonebo (Nana Gogodze, fb, 28.04.2016,
08:05), zogjer dilis misalmebaSi gamoxatulia adresatis mravlobiToba: dila mSvidobisaT (naTia aa, jgufi yvavilnari,
fb, 06.10.2016,10:01). xSirad socialuri qselebis momxmarebelTa
fantaziiTaa Seqmnili dilis misalmebis formebi: dila mzisobisa (Manana Mancho Ioseliani, fb, 01.06.2016, 07:32); dilisa da
mzis mSvidoba (Talale WiWinaZe, mTargmn., 30.10.2016); zafxulis sio-dila mSvidobisa!.. (Nana Kobakhidze, fb, 24.08.2016,
13:00)... analogiurad, garkveul emociur fonze iqmneba sxva saxis formulebic: SuadRemSvidobisa! gazafxulmSvidobisa!..
misalmebis zogierTi formula mkveTrad motivirebulia, magaliTad, 17maisdilamSvidobisa, romelic Seqmnilia r. amaSukelis saCvidmetmaisos analogiiT (qeTi gegiaZe, fb, 17.05.2016,
11:28), zogierTi ki politikuri viTarebidan gamomdinare iqmneba:
amJamindeli mmarTveli partiis ocnebis saarCevno nomeria asaxuli misalmebaSi ormocdaerTjer dila mSvidobisa (Manana
Mancho Ioseliani, fb, 24.10.2016, 08:59).
emociuri foni udevs safuZvlad aseve zedsarTavi saxelis
mzardi xarisxis, Warbi emociis gamomxatvel gamoTqmebs:
uuuzarmazari: siamovnebiT SegviZlia mogipatiJoT UG musikis akademiis uuuzarmazar ojaxSi (maia CavleiSvili, fb,
2016); orjer myavda uuzarmazarebi da orive momikvda, rogor
miyvars (lia arabuli, fb, jg. yvavilnari, 18.02.2015, 11:51)...
miuTiTeben, rom mzardi xarisxis formebi karga xania gaCnda ena-

enis SesaZleblobaTa realizeba da norma

119

Si, gansakuTrebiT dialeqtebSi (feiqriSvili, 2008: 85). dRes es


movlena gacilebiT Sors aris wasuli.
saerTod, Tanamedrove qarTulSi momravlda u-es yalibis
mqone metobis gamomxatveli derivatebi: udaxvewilesi, uZaanmagresi (Guliko Benashvili, 08.06.2016, 12:14). Sdr. Zaan magaria, magaria, umagresia.... am mxriv sainteresoa masala facebook-is momxmarebelTa komentarebidan:
aba gamodiT, uxunZuresebo, ulezgiuresebo, uxaTuresebo
yvelas ver CamogTvliT. mapatieT (nino abesaZe, fb, 28.06.2016,
12:54.
uqarTveluresebs riT SegviZlia daxmareba? (miSa labaZe, iqve, 13:45)
araferSi, ena gavitexoT, ubretonulesi, ukelturesi,
ulaTinuresi da a.S.... kidev imeds vitoveb, rom am Cems ironiul
posts ukan waviReb, eh, batono ministro! (n. abesaZe, iqve).
posti, rogorc avtori miuTiTebs, ironiiTa Seqmnili.
u-es yalibis formebSic xSiria metobis gamomxatveli xmovnis ganmeoreba: uuuuuubednieresi: uuuuuubednieresi... yofiliyos mudam! (Maka Xetsuriani, fb, 18.07.2016, 11:48)... am formebSi
ufro metad Cans mzardi xarisxis semantikis sizustiT gamoxatvis SesaZleblobis realizeba.
Warb emocias individebi sxvadasxvagvarad gadmoscemen.
gvxvdeba:
a) xmovanTa ganmeoreba:
a: ra kargiaaaa!.. ra lamazobaaa!.. ra sayvarlobaa!.. mixariaaaaaaaaaa!.. momewonaaaaaaaaaaa (Qeti Tsereteli, fb, 27.04.2016, 09:56)...
e: megobreboooo gacnobeeebT 24 ivnisidan 27 ivnisamde...
gaiTiSeba bunebrivi airi (natali kikvaZe, fb, 14.06.2016, 11:15);
xvaleeee, male modi xvaleeeev (TamTa TalakvaZe, fb, 14.06.2016,
09:45); gavgiJdi gadavirieeee... es ro daiSleba davdgebi da suul vuyureb (Natia Yavelashvili, fb, 28.04.2016, 11:53); meec mec...
mec minda gavfrindeeeeeeeeee (Marina Vashadze, fb, 26.04, 08:59)...
es movlena aisaxeba mwerlobaSic: rogor metirebaaa... gadareuli awvims Cems sarkmels, mec cremli ar meleva, guli mecremleba (nugeSa gagniZe, fb, 18.10.2014)...
i: magram xom iqnebiiii (lia barabaZe, 24.10.2016, 15:06);
Cemiiiiiii monatrebaaaaaaaaaaaa (salo zarnaZe, fb, 25.10.2016,
09:25); aris ariiiiiis!!!!.. ))))) (bela saRinaZe, fb, 24.10.2016,

120

rusudan saRinaZe

12:49). es komentari axlavs saunjis (saiti) gverdze dadebul


fotos, romelsac aweria martin luTer kingis warwera: aris
wuTebi, rodesac dumili Ralats niSnavs...
o: ulamazesoooooooo (darina jimSeraZe, fb, 19.10.2016,
13:46)...
u: uuf, ra magariaaaa...)))) (bela saRinaZe, fb, 25.10.2016,
13:30); auu vis gaxsovT es filmi? (irma varSalomiZe, fb,
24.10.2016, 13:00)...
xmovanTa ganmeoreba sareklamodac aris gamoyenebuli:
vin varT Cveeen? qalebiiiiiiiiiii!
ras viwyeeeeeebT? dietaaaaaaaaaaas!
rodidaaaaan? xvalidaaaaaaaaaaaaan! (Malvi Mar, fb, saiti
jansaRi cxovreba swori kveba, 15.06.2016, 09:06)...
b) TanxmovanTa ganmeoreba: araCveulebriviaaa! da ZZZalian
miyvarxar! (nunuka SeyrilaZe, fb, 05.10.2016, 03:54); suliko biZias uTxari rom Zalian miyvarsssssssssssss (Nino Farulava, fb,
07.06.2016. 14:54); Cems raWunikeebs venacvale. sxierlebooo,
togoniZeebo, burdilaZeebo, eraZeebooooo genacvaleTTTTTTTT
(Madona Fanchulidze-nijaradze, fb, 27.04.2016)... es movlena damaxasiaTebelia
sxva
enebisTvisac,
magaliTad,
TurqulisTvis:
selammmmmmmmmmm, teekklerrrr saolun (Unal. Kar., fb,
23.20.2016)...
g) anTroponimebSi xmovanTa ganmeoreba: aniiiii, rogor miyvarxaaaar; gaixare niiiii (Nino Latibashvili, fb, 06.10.2016,
10:50); lalikooooooo, dagvianebiT gilocav... (Maia Lomia, fb,
06.10.2016. 12:15)...
gvxvdeba erTi komponentis cvlilebiT miRebuli sinonimuri
variantebi: mrudsityvaoba (= WeSmaritebas acdenili usafuZvlo
saubari. kompozitis struqtura analogiuria sityvebisa Warbsityvaoba, bilwsityvaoba), sityva Seubruna (|| ena Seubruna)
(Vladimer Glonti: fb, 25.04.2016, 09:43, 15 sT-s win )...
Tanamedrove qarTulisTvis ucxo ar aris arc frazuli
darRvevebi:
eleqtorati Tavs afarebda pasuxebs: ar vici, ver gipasuxebT... (iago kaWkaWiSvili, vin gadaamowmebs NDI-s kvlevebs?!
politika, kviris palitra, 18.04.2016);
gakoceb! (myof.); gakoce bevri! (wyvet.) nacvlad gamoTqmisa: gkocni bevrs!

enis SesaZleblobaTa realizeba da norma

121

yuradRebis miqcevas unda mivaqcioT yuradReba (mama ioane,


2016)...
Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebiT, nacvalsaxeli Tavad gamoiyeneba mxolod adamianis aRmniSvnel saxelebTan: Tavad gansajeT; Tavad mogaxsenebT... xSirad es wesi darRveulia. Tavad gamoyenebulia usulo sagnis aRmniSvnel saxelebTanac, nacvlad TviT nacvalsaxelisa: ...Tavad bina ki naTelia
(Gia Edzgveradze, fb, 29.04.2016, 07:28); vgiJdebi ise miyvars Tavad zubalaSvilis quCa (Tinatin Salukvadze's Corner, iqve,
29.04.2016, 10:28)...
enis SesaZleblobaTa realizeba vlindeba analogiis SemTxvevebSic. analogias yovelTvis didi gasaqani aqvs enaSi. miyvarxar
tipis zmnaTa analogiiT gaCnda qarTulSi mixarixarT (me Tqven):
mixarixarT da vamayob TqveniT, Cemo kargebo (Qetevan Gurchiani,
fb, 13.03.2016, 11:03)... sasubieqto qcevis arastandartuli formaa
mocemuli winadadebaSi: gamixardi, dee!!!! (bela saRinaZe, fb,
10.10.2016, 02:15)...
aalebadi tipis formaTa analogiiT aris miRebuli sityvebi:
gaxarebadi: aris xarisxiani da jansaRi nergi. rac mTavaria, gaxarebadia 100% (http:/www.mymarket.ge, 02.06.2016, 13:10); gakeTebadi: umaRles saswavlebelSi saatestato da erovnuli gamocdebis optimizacia 2017 wlisTvis ukve gakeTebadi iqneba
(Tamar sanikiZe (18.04.2015), fb, 27.06:2016)...
cvlilebebi SeimCneva Tanamedrove sintaqsSic. daaxloebiT
oTxi wlis win, 2012 wlis oqtombris saparlamento arCevnebis
Semdeg, qarTulSi gaCnda axali hipotaqsuri konstruqciebi, moxda is, rac moxda tipisa. amgvar konstruqciebSi damokidebul
winadadebas Cven vuwodeT sxvadasxva saxis tavtologiurSemasmenliani winadadeba. magaliTad: movismineT is, rac movismineT (e.
beselia, telekomp. maestro, 09.02.2013). aq gvaqvs pirdapir
damatebiTi tavtologiurSemasmenliani damokidebuli winadadeba.
Tu amgvari konstruqciebi daaxloebiT oTxi wlis win ZiriTadad politikur diskursSi gvxvdeboda, TandaTan es sintaqsuri movlena gavrcelda sxvadasxva profesiis adamianTa metyvelebaSic: ...ar moeloda, magram moxda is, rac moxda oqtomberSi
(cira baramiZe, Tsu warmom. sabWos sxdomaze warmoTqmuli sityva, 09.09.2013: fb, 31.03.2016); vTqvi is, rac vTqvi; es yvelaferi gadaicema iq, sadac gadaicema (giorgi xeCinaSvili, medic.
mecn. doqt., prof.); mokled, varT iq, sadac varT (zaza fira-

rusudan saRinaZe

122

liSvili, fb, 10.10.2016, 17:33)... sainteresoa, rom amgvari sintaqsuri konstruqcia am bolo xanebSi dadasturda sasuliero piris metyvelebaSic: mere xdeba is, rac xdeba (mama serafime)...
vfiqrobT, moxda is, rac moxda tipis konstruqciaTa Semapirobebeli faqtoric enisadmi pragmatuli midgomis Sedegia.
Cven mier warmodgenili masala gviCvenebs, rogor xdeba enis
bunebriv SesaZleblobaTa realizeba Tanamedrove qarTulSi, metwilad masmediisa da internetenaSi. es iwvevs TiTqosda qaoss
enaSi, magram swored amgvar qaosur movlenebSi ikveTeba ara marto saliteraturo enis normaTa darRvevisa da aRrevis faqtebi,
aramed cvlileba enaSi da tendencia axal formaTa sanqcirebisa,
miswrafeba kosmosisaken.
literatura
danelia 1998: korneli danelia, narkvevebi qarTuli samwerlobo
enis istoriidan, Tbilisi.
Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi 1986: Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi, kreb. I, Tbilisi.
feiqriSvili 2008: JuJuna feiqriSvili, xarisxis formaTa warmoeba Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulsa da dialeqtebSi: saxelTa derivacia Tanamedrove qarTulSi, Tbilisi.
https://www.facebook.com/
www.kvirispalita.ge/politic

Rusudan Saghinadze
Doctor of philology, Professor
Akaki Tsereteli State University
Realization of Language Capabilities and The Norm
In various stages of development of any language, there always
emerges the process of searching and selecting the forms. There come
lots of variants that have been out there for some time and they often
cause confusion and violation of the norms of literary language.
Simultaneously, the tendency of establishing linguistic forms can always
be observed in the process of language development.

enis SesaZleblobaTa realizeba da norma

123

In modern Georgian, mostly in oral speech and on the internet, the


new tendency of realizing formal and functional capabilities of language
can clearly be seen, which is conditioned not only by the grammatical or
socio-political factors, but also by the sense of insufficiency existed in the
consciousness of human mind. We believe that as a result of this
insufficiency we get new linguistic forms existed in modern Georgian,
such as:
1) Greeting formulas: shuadgemshvidobisa! (Good Afternoon),
gazafxulmshvidobisa! (Spring Peace), zafxulis sio-dilamshvidobisa!
(Summer Breeze-Good Morning)
2) Expressions of increasing quality, expressing emotions:
uuuuuubednieresi (The happiest), udzaanmagresi (The best)
mixariaaaaaaaaaa! (Im glad), miyvarsssssssssssss (I love)
3) Synonymous variants received by the change of one component:
mrudsityvaoba (inappropriate language) (= groundless and inaccurate
speech. The structure of composite is similar to the words
tsharbsityvaoba (abundant speech), biltssityvaoba (profanity)), sityva
sheubruna (replied back) || ena sheubruna (chattered)...
4) Phrasal disorders: electorate sheltered itself behind the
answers: we dont know, we cant answer; Attention should be paid
attention to ...
5) The new hypotaxic structures: ...whatever happened
happened; All this will be transmitted wherever it is transmitted...
The article implies more extensive material about the realization of
natural capabilities of language. The facts of confusion of the norms are
separated and the tendency of sanction the new forms is revealed. The
pathos from the chaos of aspitarion to cosmos.

maka saxuria

qaosisa da kosmiuri
wesrigis semiotika
`vefxistyaosanSi~
mxatvrul teqstze odnavi dakvirvebisa da analizis unaris mqone mkiTxvelic ki
gvetyvis, raSi gamoixateba `vefxistayosnis~ umTavresi idea _ `borotsa sZlia keTilman, arseba misi grZelia~. samyaros ganviTarebis istoria, miTosi da literatura
swored am ori Zalis dapirispirebis asaxvaa, xolo rusTvelma uRrmesi msoflmxedvelobrivi da filosofiuri qveteqstebis,
alegoriebis da mistifikaciis poemaSi,
upirvelesad, es Tema wamoswia. man Seqmna
modelebi: saxelmwifoebrivi, pirovnuli
da ideologiuri, romlebSic realizebulia dakvirvebani kosmiur wesrigsa da kacobriobis ganviTarebis gzaze, inovaciur,
renesansul azrovnebaze.
mxatvruli teqsti yovelTvis realobis SemoqmedebiTi proeqciaa, amitom
iseve, rogorc cxovrebaSi, `vefxistyaosnis~ siuJetsa da koliziebSic, es ori
Zala ase gamoisaxa _ mze-gmirebis mier Seqmnili samyaro (indoeT-arabeTi da maT mier
gakeTilSobilebuli sxva sivrceebi) da qajeTi, rogorc borotebis imperia. pirveli
ganasaxierebs kosmiur wesrigs, romelsac
gmirebi mieltvian, qmnian da sxvebsac uwi-

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125

ladeben. avTandils ase warmoudgenia: `miT viswavlebiT, mogveces


SerTva zesT mwyobrTa wyobisa~ (anu adamians codna samyaros kosmiur wesrigTan SesaerTeblad sWirdebao). xolo qajeTi borotebis
transcendentuli gansxeulebaa da Sesabamisad is gamosaxavs qaoss,
keTili sawyisis CaxSobas, dapirispirebas sinaTlesTan, kacobriobisTvis axali, ezoTeruli codna-Semecnebis (rasac poemaSi ganasaxierebs nestan-darejani) warTmevas, mzis dabnelebas.
qaosisa da kosmiuri wesrigis rusTveliseuli semiotikuri xatebi mkveTri da eqspresiulia, Tuki odnav mainc CavukvirdebiT siuJetur konteqstebsa da qveteqstebs. renesansis saTaveSi rusTveli
upirvelesad im gagebiT dgas, rom man amaRlebulis esTetikuri idealebi Seqmna. misi gmirebi, maTi qcevebi da motivaciebi, qveynebi, romlebSic moqmedeben, samodelo da uzadoa. hiperbolebiT daxatuli
indoeTis da arabeTis samefoebi ganasaxiereben avtoris saocnebo
kosmoss. yovelive es poemis arqiteqtonikul qargaSi cnaurdeba. poemis dasawyisSi arabeTSi TinaTinis gamefebis, nadirobisa da ucxo
moymis naxvis TavebSi ikveTeba avtoris da gmirebis wyurvili idealebis Ziebisken. arabeTi, marTalia, socialuri samarTlianobis, keTildReobis da sulieri simaRlis saufloa, magram mas mainc sWirdeba ganviTareba, axlis Semecneba, axal, renesansul fazaSi gadasvla. taxtidan gadadgoma rostevan mefisa, romelsac `jerT vardi
ar dasWnobia~, swored imaze mianiSnebs, rom is Tavis mze, manaTobel
qaliSvilSi im siaxles da progresul ganviTarebas xedavs, rac Tavad aklia. amitomac ambobs vazirebTan rostevani: `mze Cagvisvenda,
bnelsa vsWvretT Ramesa umTenarosa~. xolo sinaTle arad varga, Tuki bneli axlavs. am bnels gaanaTebs mxolod TinaTini (~Cemi Ze davsvaT xelmwifed, visgan mze sawunelia~). TinaTinis gamefebis Semdeg
sanadirod wasvla axlis Ziebis da Seucnoblis Secnobis simboluralegoriuli aqtia, rasac moyveba Sexvedra ucxo moymesTan. nadiroba, velze mxecis srva, velis sisxliT SeRebva ganasaxierebs adamianur `srbas~, ltolvas, brZolas miuRwevlis miRwevisken. semiotikuri niSnebi ase `metyveleben~: orasi nadiri rostevanis da avTandilis srulyofilebis simboluri xatebia. rostevanma 90 nadiri mokla, anu srulyofilebamde mas raRac aklia, misi bevri isari, mizansacdenili, miwaSi umisamarTod CarWobili naxes monebma. 12 mona ganasaxierebs ufliseul gzas. 12 sakraluri ricxvia. 12 nawilad iyofa cis TaRi, 12 Tvea weliwadSi, 12 mociquli hyavda qristes, 12-is

126

maka saxuria

Semadgeneli ricxvebi 1 da 2 ganasaxiereben sawyiss, starts, 12 yvelaze `wesieri~ ricxvia, radgan yvelaze met ricxvze iyofa. nadiroba iyo ganRmrTobis eqstazi, rostevanma da avTandilma `caTa RmerTi
ganarisxes~, ganibannen sisxlSi da miadgnen wyals, anu gansawmendels, axlis Semecnebis, wyurvilis mokvlis, ufalTan miaxloebis
simbolos, sadac gamoCnda kidevac ucxo moyme, romlis saxelTanac
dakavSirebuli iyo siaxle. is aravis hgavda. saocari iyo sanaxavad.
Tavzardamcemi, gamaognebeli. rostevan mefem bevri itira ucxo moymesTan momxdari incidentis Semdeg. 12 monis daxocva uflis sasjeli iyo misTvis, xolo novatori TinaTini mixvda, rom am WabukTan raRac kosmiuri saidumlo iyo dakavSirebuli da ideafiqsed misi povna
dausaxa satrfos. daTmo yvelaze sanukvari, raTa is kosmiuri saidumlo aexsna. es saidumlo ki nestan-darejanis saxeSia saZiebeli.
nestani ganasaxierebs ezoTerul sibrZnes, axal wesrigs, renesansul
azrovnebas, romelTac avTandili da TinaTinic mieltvian. nestaniseul wesrigs xorci Seesxmis misi qajeTis cixidan gamoxsnis da indoeTSi dabrunebis Semdeg. rogori samyaro aaSenes gmirebma? poemis finaluri strofebi naTlad upasuxebs am kiTxvas:
~yovlTa sworadwyalobasaviTaTovlsamoaTovdes,
obolqvrivnidaamdidrnesdaglaxakniariTxovdes,
avTamqmnelnidaaSinnes,kravnicxvarTaveruwovdes,
SiganmaTTasabrZanisTaTxadamgelierTganZovdes~. (1657)
indoeTmac arabeTTan erTad, miuxedavad arsebuli keTildReobisa, axali kosmiuri wesrigi unda Seqmnas, da es codna nestans hqonda. amitomac aris is dafaruli, mudam mofardagulSi zis, mamiseul
koSkSic, romlis semiotikuri niSnebi alegoriulad miuTiTeben nestanis RvTaebriv bunebaze. ai, rogor aRwers nestanis koSks tarieli:
`mefeman koSki aaago, Sigan sayofi qalisa: qvad fazari sxda, kubo dga
iagundisa, lalisa, pirsa baRCa da sabanlad saraji vardis wyalisa,
igi mun iyvis, medebis visgan saxmili alisa!~ (334) an kidev: `sra edga
mofardaguli oqsinoTa da SardiTa, vervin vxedevdiT, Seiqmna piriTa
mina-vardiTa~... nestani mudam kuboSia. roca mamis mier aSenebul fazaris qvis koSkSi ijda, fardagiT iyo mudam yvelasTvis dafaruli
(hipostasi ezoTeruli codnisa), Semdeg qajebma mofardagul kidobanSi Casves da zRva_zRva daacurebdnen... mxolod RamiT gaiyvandnen
napirze, rom aravis moekra Tvali... Semdeg fatmans hyavda mofardagul oTaxSi, Semdeg _ meliq_surxavs, cxra xadumiT (saWurisi mone-

qaosisa da kosmiuri wesrigis semiotika `vefxistyaosanSi~

127

bi) daculi, xolo bolos qajma mekobre roSaqma axada saxeze Camofarebuli ajiRa da qajeTis cixes gamoamwyvdies, mokvdavTaTvis SeuRwevel sivrceSi...
axal wesrigs, ezoTerul codnas, romelsac ganasaxierebs nestani, poemaSi upirispirdeba boroti Zala, qaosis simbolo, qajeTi,
romelsac surs, rom kacobriobas mostacos es codna, raTa civilizaciam ver SeZlos ganviTarebis axal etapze gadasvla, raTa pirovnebis individualizmi ugulebelyofili iyos koleqtivizmis principebiT.
qajuri qaosis gasaazreblad upirvelesad unda moxdes davaris
mxatvruli saxis dekodireba. aq unda gaviazroT mamidis saxe qarTul miTossa da yofiT kulturaSi. `vefxistyaosnis~ samyaro nasazrdoebia religiiT, filosofiiTa da miTosiT. qarTuli jadosnuri anu sakraluri zRaprebi rusTvelis STagonebis wyaroa. is
bevr aluzias moixmobs jadosnuri zRaprebis samyarodan, bevr saxesimboloSi acocxlebs miTosur arqetipebs. davaris saxis dekodirebis gzaze umniSvnelovanesia poemis finalSi, indoeTSi dabrunebul gmirebTan vaWarTa Sexvedris scena... Saosani vaWrebi uyvebian
sam gmirs indoT mefis sikvdilisa da nestanis gadakargvis ambebs...
enawyliani vaWarTuxucesi ambobs, rom svian farsadan mefes `esva qali mnaTobi, mzisaca ufro mziani, kbil_margaliti, tan_alva, RawvbalaxS, yoran-Tmiani~... wlebis ganmavlobaSi `indoxataelTa ambis~
saxelwodebiT cnobili ori Tavis rusTveliseuloba sadavo iyo da
poemis Zvel gamocemebSi isini aRarc iyo, magram CemTvis am eWvs sruliad aqarwylebs zemoT dasaxelebuli scena. gavixsenoT, rogor amboben misridan (egviptidan) mosuli meqaravneni indoxataelTa ambis
epizodSi davar qajis da nestanis dapirispirebaze:
`igi qali patarai mamidasa gaezarda,
buqTa misgan monaqrolTa indoeTi gardaqarda.
mamidai qaji iyo, grZneuloba icis karga,
miT SemarTa saSineli, mze xmeleTsa daukarga...
TviTca mokvda ubeduri, marT sacocxlod arad varga;
igi qali qajTa misca, alva morCi sxvagan darga~.
moyvanili citata naTlad gvimxels rusTvelis damokidebulebas qajTa mier nestanis gatacebis aqtisadmi: rom qajma mamidam saSineleba SemarTa, qajebs misca nestani, xmeleTs mze daukarga, alvis xe
(uflis metaforuli hipostasi qarTul miTosSi) nestanis fazaris

128

maka saxuria

koSkidan (RvTaebrivi wesrigis sauflo) sxvagan anu qaosis sivrceSi


gadargo. grZneulma da borotma davar qajma ezoTeruli sibrZnis matarebeli qalRmerTi Suasknels CamoaSora da qvesknelSi gadakarga,
`Jami kruli~ daayena indoeTSi, aRasrula qajTa Savbneli misia, rasac Tavisi gauazrebeli nabijebis wyalobiT Seewira farsadan mefe...
is uRonoqmnili eZebda nestansa da tariels, cota xans gauZlo saxmilTa gznebas da `aw TviTca mokvda, Seiqmna bolo srvisa da tkebnisa~... anu farsadani da misi mziuri samefo iqcnen msxverplad qajebisa da maTi misioneris _ davar qajis `srvisa da tkebnis~, anu sikeTis damxobis winaswarve kargad dagegmili politikisa...
roca tarielma sasiZo mokla, ganrisxebuli farsadan mefe davars daemuqra, tarielisa da nestanis siyvarulis xelSemwyobad is
CaTvala. yvelam icoda, rom mefe ficis Semsrulebeli iyo. es muqara
moismina vinme `RvTisa mterman~ da davars amcno. amiT aSkarad cnaurdeba,rom indoeTis karze bneli Zalebis mociqulebi moqmedeben da
rom am kacis qmedeba kargad gaazrebuli gegmis nawilia. davars viTom SeeSinda, Cemi Zma ar damindobso da nestanze Zaladoba daiwyo,
Semdeg ki daibara qaji monebi da sakvirveli davaleba gasca:
`ubrZana: wadiT, dakargeT mun, sada zRvisa Wipia,
wmidisa wylisa ver naxos myinvare, verca lipia~...
Semdegi sakvirveleba qaji monebis reaqciaa: `maT gaexarnes, xmamaRla iyivles `ipi-ipia~... ra uxariaT qajebs? samudamod zRvis WipSi qalis gamomwyvdeva? cxadia, es iyo maTi umTavresi mizani da Tu
vinme ityvis, barem moeklaT qajebs nestanio, nu egoneba, rom gonebamaxvilia: moklavdnen, rasakvirvelia, mas rom mokvdavi buneba hqondes,magram am TvalismomWreli qalis miRma filosofiur planSi
dgas ara xorcSesxmuli arseba, aramed _ kacobriobis renesansi,
axali sityva, axali era, dafaruli sibrZne, kosmiuri, iniciaciuri,
mistikuri azrovneba, ezoTeruli codna, romelic mxolod rCeulebs, gandobilebs eZlevaT da romelic ar kvdeba. mis mosapoveblad
RvTiuri da satanuri Zalebi erTmaneTs ebrZvian xolme. Semdeg periodulad dgeba `Jami kruli~, roca kacobrioba am satanuri Zalebis
gavlenis qveS eqceva, mere ki kvlav aRmoxdebis naTeli, radgan RvTaebrivi kanonzomiereba swored esaa. ra miusaja davarma nestans?
zRvis SuagulSi samaradJamo tyveoba da wminda wylisgan mowyveta.
zRva mxatvrul teqstebSi, miTossa da religiaSi borotebis sauflod iTvleba, radgan is mrisxane da boboqaria, xolo mariliani wyali _ sasicocxlod uvargisi. zRvis samyaroSi avsulebi binadroben,
zRvis RmerTi poseidonic berZnul miTosSi samkapiT SeiaraRebuli,

qaosisa da kosmiuri wesrigis semiotika `vefxistyaosanSi~

129

saSiSi RmerTia... xolo wminda wyali sicocxlis, naTlisRebis, aRdgomisa da amaRlebis simboloa... nestanma wminda wyali ver unda naxos, verc gayinuli da verc gamdnari.
qajebi TiTqos uZlevelni arian, gavixsenoT, rogor acnobs maT
fatmani avTandils:
`qajni saxelad miT qvian, arian erTad krebulni,
kacni, grZnebisa mcodneni, zeda gaxelovnebulni,
yovelTa kacTa mavneni, igi vervisgan vnebulni,
maTni Sembmelni wamovlen dambrmalni, dawbilebulni~...
poemis mTeli siuJeti dafuZnebulia am dapirispirebis, anu nestanis qajeTis cixidan gamoxsnis, mTvaris gvelisagan gaTavisuflebis narativze.
qajuri sawyisis qaosuri bunebis sailustraciod sakmarisia
poemis 1257-e strofis damowmeba (fatmani avTandils ase uxatavs qajebs):
~iqman rasme sakvirvelsa, mtersa Tvalsa daubrmoben,
qarTa aRsZrven saSinelsa, navsa zRva-zRva daamxoben,
viTa xmelsa gairbenen, wyalsa wmindad daaSroben,
swaddes _ dResa bnelad iqman, swaddes _ bnelsa anaToben~...
rusTveliseuli mxatvruli qronotopis _ misi qaosisa da
kosmiuri wesrigis simboluri xatebis garSemoa akinZuli `vefxistyaosanSi~ mTeli siuJeturi qarga. rusTvelis ostatoba am
Canafiqrs ganumeorebel momxibvlelobas sZens. vfiqrob, `vefxistyaosani~ swored amitom iqca qarTuli sulieri kulturis mwvervalad. SesaZloa, farTo mkiTxvels Rrma mecnieruli kvlevebiT gacnobierebuli ar hqonoda poemis es plastebi, litmcodneoba arqmevs saxelebs mxatvruli teqstis komponentebs, magram swored es siRrme
da mistikuroba izidavs mkiTxvels, swored am qveteqstebma, Tundac
mkiTxvelisTvis Seucnobelma, aqcia `vefxistyaosani~ qarTuli
mwerlobis yvela drois yvelaze popularul teqstad.

maka saxuria

130
literatura:

rusTveli 2014: nodar naTaZis redaqciiT, vefxistyaosnis saskolo


gamocema; Tbilisi.
gamsaxurdia 1991: zviad gamsaxurdia, `vefxistyaosnis~ saxismetyveleba, Tbilisi.
nozaZe 1953: viqtor nozaZe, `vefxistyaosnis~ ferTametyveleba, buenos-airesi.
abulaZe 1967: iustine abulaZe, rusTvelologiuri naSromebi, Tbilisi.
vaJa-fSavela 1953: vaJa-fSavela, fiqrebi `vefxistyaosnis~ Sesaxeb,
rCeuli, Tbilisi.
naTaZe, caiSvili 1966: nodar naTaZe, sargis caiSvili, SoTa rusTaveli da misi poema, Tbilisi.
siraZe 1982: revaz siraZe, saxismetyveleba, Tbilisi.
Maka Sakhuria
Semiotics of Chaos and Cosmic
Order in the ~Knight in Panthers Skin~
Even the reader with the ability of slight observation and analysis on
literary text will let us what the main idea of the ~Knight in Panthers
Skin~ is expressed in _ "Good hath overcome ill; the essence of is
lasting". The history of development of the universe, mythos and
literature is just the reflection of confrontation of these two powers.
Rustaveli promotes this topic in the poem of the deepestworldview and
philosophic sub-texts, allegories and mystifications. He created the
models: state-based, personal and ideological, where the authors
observations oncosmic order and the way of human development,
innovative, renaissance thinking are reflected.
As literary text is always a creative projection of reality, in real life,
as well as in the plot and collisions of the ~Knight in Panthers Skin~,
these two powers were formulated the following way: the world, created
by the sun-heroes (India and Arabia and other spaces, ennobled by them
and devils residence (~Kajeti~), as the empire of evil. The first
personifies cosmic order, which the heroes strive form create and share
with others. E.g. in Avtandils opinion, a man needs knowledge for
connection to the cosmic order of the universe, and Kajeti is transcendent

qaosisa da kosmiuri wesrigis semiotika `vefxistyaosanSi~

131

embodiment of evil and consequently, it expresses chaos, suppression of


good initiation, confrontation with the light, taking away from humans
the new, esoteric knowledge-perception (personified by Nestan- Darejan
in the poem).
It follows from subtextsthat the aunt-devil did terrible thing gave
Nestan to devils, took the Sun away from the Earth, planted the poplar
tree (the Gods metaphoric hypostasis in Georgian Mythos) Nestan from
Pazari tower (the kingdom of divine order) to other space space of
chaos.
The whole plot of the poem is based on the narration of this
confrontation, i.e. rescuing of Nestanfrom Kajeti castle, snake of the
Moon. The whole plot is arranged around Rustavelis literary chronotype
_ symbolic icons of its chaos and cosmic order. Rustavelis mastership
adds unprecedented charm to this idea. In my opinion, thats why the
~Knight in the Panthers Skin~ became the highest peak of Georgian
spiritual culture.

marina qavTaraZe

qaosis da kosmosis
konceptebi musikaSi
(me-20 saukunis musikis magaliTze)

Sesavali
qaosisa da wesrigis antinomia musikaSi sxvadasxva epoqaSi sxvadasxva saxiT
iCens Tavs. antikuri xanidan cnobili
opozicia qaosi/kosmosi, anu dapirispirebidan samyaros pirvelsawyis stiqiur
mdgomareobasa da wesrigs, harmonias Soris, adamiani meore polusisken iltvis.
musikaSi wesrigi vlindeba mravalferovani formiT: rogorc mxatvruli azrovnebis integrirebuli modeli,
musikaluri nawarmoebis droiTi kontiniumis struqturirebis saSualeba, klasikuri simfoniis organizaciis Tavisebureba.
zogadad, stili SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc umaRlesi mxatvruli wesrigis niSani, romelic yovelTvis Seicavs garkveuli doziT indeterminirebulobas, araprognozirebadobas. sakompozitoro teqnika wesrigis formalur-logikur, sqematur-konstruqciuli niSania.
XVII-XIX saukuneebSi, Kklasikur epoqaSi, romelic idealuri wesrigis princips emyareboda, qaoss ar SeeZlo Riad
gamovlena. XX saukuneSi suraTi Seicva-

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133

la magram musikismcodneebma qaosis sruluflebianobis aRiareba


daiwyes mxolod aleatorikasTan mimarTebiT, isic arc Tu didi enTuziazmiT maSin, rodesac XX saukuneSi qaosis Sesaxeb Zalian bevri ram iyo Tqmuli zusti mecnierebebis warmomadgenlebis _ maTematikosebisa da fizikosebis mier (Termodinamika, kvanturi meqanika, sinergetika da sxv.). qaoss eniWeba fundamenturi
roli bunebasa da mis Semswavlel sabunebismetyvelo TeoriebSi,
rogorc wesrigis wyaroSi. cxadia, aseTi gagebis pirdapiri gadatana mxatvrul Semoqmedebaze SeuZlebelia.
stilebis tipologiis Semqmneli Gg. velflini, romelic
yofs maT klasikur (dominirebuli wesrigiT) da aklasikurad
(sadac qaosi aSkarad iwevs wina planze), mainc Tavs aridebs mocemuli diqotomiis gamoyenebas da uwodebs maT `teqtonurs~ da
`ateqtonurs~, Tumca mis tipologias safuZvlad udevs swored
opozicia `wesrigi _ qaosi~ (velflini, 2009). samyaros, xelovnebis da gansakuTrebiT musikis qaosurobis Sesaxeb bevrs fiqrobdnen romantikosebi.
axali drois evropulma musikam bevri ram gaakeTa Tavisi
pirvelsawyisi qaosuri bunebis aRmosafxvrelad (stabilurteqstiani nawarmoebis fenomenis Seqmna; mwyobri, dasrulebuli
forma, tonalur-harmoniuli principebi, metro-ritmi da sxv.).
Mmagram rogori mwyobric unda iyos forma klasikosTa SemoqmedebaSi, rogori logikuric gveCvenebodes is, masSi yovelTvis
aris improvizaciul-spontanuri, araprognozirebadi sawyisi, anu
qaosuri. Eevropuli musika barokodan gvian romantizmamde determinirebulia, magram mis Tematur ganviTarebasa da formaSi yovelTvis aris aradeterminirebuli zonebi anu mxatvruli formis wesrigi, klasikuric ki, genetikurad qaosis `kvals~ atarebs
(zenkin, 2003).
XX saukunis damdegs musikaluri teqstis organizaciis
qaosuri principi sul ufro mzardi xdeba. postmodernistuli
nomadologiis konteqstSi ki `qaosi~ iZens fundamentur statuss. postmodernizms axasiaTebs qaoturobis Segnebulad Seqmna;
qaosis, rogorc mizandasaxuli proceduris Sedegis gageba dawyebuli a. Jaris mier SemoTavazebuli principidan `qaosis Setana
wesrigSi~, damTavrebuli d. fokemis mier formulirebuli `nonseleqciis~ principiT, winaswarganzraxuli teqsturi qaosis SeqmniT.
M

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`musikaluri kosmosi~ XX saukuneSi


mxatvruli aqtis interpretacia erTi mxriv, aris kompozitoris adaptacia garemo samyarosTan, meore mxriv, stimuls aZlevs mas individualuri SemoqmedebiTi samyaros Sesaqmnelad,
romelic am samyaros modelirebis cdaa da asocirdeba cnebasTan
mxatvruli kosmosi.
me-20 saukuneSi wesrigi da musikaluri kosmosi movlenebis, obieqtebis, sivrcis da drois, kosmiuri energiis modelirebas axdens, rac xSirad nawarmoebebis saTaurebSic aisaxeba (j.
krambis makrokosmosi, o. mesianis kanionidan varskvlavebisaken, ligetis atmosferoebi, j. keijis metamorfozebi, k.
pendereckis droisa da siCumis sazomi, k. Stokhauzenis kosmiuri musika, `mantra~ da sxv.).
Tanamedrove musikaSi kosmosis SemoqmedebiTi interpretacia
afarToebs nawarmoebis semantikuri interpretaciis sazRvrebs da
badebs Tanamedrove musikis gagebis axal rakurss. Mam epoqis musikaluri xelovneba Tvisobrivad axali xerxebiT gadmoscems Tavad kosmiur realobas. Ees mosazreba emyareba im faqts, rom am
nawarmoebebis zogierTi epizodebi pirdapir analogias badebs fizikuri kosmosis xmovanebasa da avangards Soris (geomagnituri
talRebis Canaweri gakeTebuli amerikeli mecnierebis mier), riTac garkveul wilad amsxvrevs miTs misi abstraqtulobis Sesaxeb. Msivrcul-droiT mxatvrul modelebSi, specifikur simboloebsa da saxeebSi, struqturebsa da calkeul elementebSi gamoxatuli `musikaluri kosmosi~, asaxavs kosmiur realobas,
kerZod: energetikul informacias, drosa da maradisobas, makro
da mikrokosmosis erTianobas.
`musikaluri qaosi~ XX saukuneSi
magram aris Tu ara SesaZlebeli analogiurad qaosis problemaze msjeloba musikasTan dakavSirebiT? J. Bbalandies socialur-antropologiuri Teoriis safuZvelze (balandie, 2001),
musikaluri qaosi SesaZlebelia ganvixiloT, rogorc mudmiv
cvalebadi da permanentuli ganaxlebis procesSi myofi mocemuloba. Aam poziciidan gacilebiT ufro Sedegiania qaosis problemas SevxedoT ara rogorc bunebriv qaosur movlenas, aramed

`qaosis~ da `kosmosis~ konceptebi musikaSi

135

qaoss modelirebuls, vinaidan XX saukunis musikalur xelovnebaSi is swored rom modelirebulia.


qaosis saxe Tanamedrove nonklasikur epoqaSi iqmneba ara
qaosuri, aramed mkacri racionalisturi xerxebiT anu gadmoscems samyaros qaosurobas Segnebulad organizebuli racionaluri xerxebiT, fragmentuli Txrobis meSveobiT.
60-ani wlebis damdegs Mmravalricxovan axal ideas Soris
wina planze wamoiwia k. Stokhauzenis forma-momentis principma,
romlis arsia, rom nawarmoebis epizodebis Tanmimdevroba ara
mkacrad fiqsirebulia, aramed damokidebulia Semsruleblis arCevanze. Mmsgavsi struqturis arseboba dakavSirebulia imasTan,
rom yoveli forma-momenti TviTkmaria da ar iTxovs winamdebares an Semdgoms. Aase daiZleva tradiciuli musikaluri formis
procesualuri naratiuloba. struqtura ixsneba da Stokhauzenis Tanaxmad, koncentracia yovel momentSi qmnis maradiulobis
gancdas. Nnawarmoebi emsgavseba kaleidoskops, romlis Semadgenlebi qmnian usasrulo variantebs. samyaros suraTi, Seqmnili moment-kompoziciaSi aRiqmeba rogorc qaosis sarke, Seqmnili da
organizebuli xelovanis mier. aRniSnuli moment-forma, ganekuTvneba XX saukunis musikaluri kompoziciis meTods _ aleatorikas, romelic musikaluri teqstis arafiqsirebulobasa da mobilurobas emyareba (cenova, 2005: 412). iqmneba Ria struqtura,
romelic, Stokhauzenis Tanaxmad, yovel momentSi qmnis gancdas
miaxlovebuls maradisobasTan.
Aaleatorikas ukavSirdeba SemTxveviToba, musikis filosofiis erTerTi fundamenturi idea, romlis gareSec warmoudgenelia qaosis Sesaxeb msjeloba. rogorc cnobilia, jon keiji ar
iyo aleatorikis gamomgonebeli, misi pirveli nimuSebi gvxvdeba
misi ufrosi Tanamedroves, Carlz aivzis safortepiano sonatebSi, magram WeSmariti istoria aleatorikuli teqnikisa iwyeba
keijis `cvlilebaTa musikidan~ fortepianosTvis (Music of
Changes, 1951). masSi gamoyenebulia Stokhauzenisagan gansxvavebuli aleatorika: SemoqmedebiTi procesis aleatorika, romelsac
Tavad keiji uwodebda araprognozirebads (indeterminacy). musikaluri qsovili, anu bgeris simaRle, grZlioba, dinamika da elementebis gamoCenis Tanmimdevroba avtoris mier ganisazRvreboda
Cinuri `cvlilebaTa wignis~ (iZinis) SemTxveviTi manipulaciebiT
an monetis gagorebiT. miRebuli Sedegi fiqsirdeboda da Sesru-

136

marina qavTaraZe

lebis dros ar icvleboda. Pparadoqsulia, rom qaosis skrupuliozur CanawerSi keiji xedavda umaRles sazriss.
Uudao, rom XX saukunis kompozitorTa Soris jon keiji
yvelaze axlosaa qaosis problema da qaologiis mecnierebasTan.
Mmagram ara imitom, rom man gandevna wesrigis idea Tavisi Semoqmedebidan, rac SeuZlebeli iyo TavisTavad. keijma Secvala paradigmebi qaosisa da kosmosis poliusebTan mimarTebiT. Dda es man
SeZlo Zen-budizmis meSveobiT. `me ar SemeZlo mimeRo akademiuri
idea imis Sesaxeb, rom musikis mizani komunikacia, radgan SevniSne, rom roca Segnebulad sevdians vwerdi, adamianebi da kritikosebi icinodnen. Mme gadavwyvite, ar Semeqmna saerTod musika,
Tuki sxva mizezs ver movnaxavdi, vidre komunikaciaa. Mme vipove
aseTi mizezi <>, musikis mizania, gamoafxizlos da daamSvidos
goneba, raTa man ufro advilad aRiqvas RvTaebrivi~ (keiji,
2016).
Tanamedrove evropeli kolegebisagan gansxvavebiT, keijTan
qaosis idea iZens dasrulebul saxes da Sesabamis gansxeulebas.
Qqaosi xdeba keijisaTvis kosmosis, RvTaebrivi wesrigis gamovlinebis forma; Uufro metic, erTaderTi SesaZlebeli forma.
Stokhauzenisa da sxva radikalebisaTvis, aseT gagebas ewinaaRmdegeba evropuli avangardis dogma: `swrafva Seqmnan TviTkmari,
xelovnebis nawarmoebebis avtonomiuri samyaro, romlis Segnebuli mowesrigebuloba upirispirdeba realur samyaros, aRqmuls
rogorc tradiciuli faseulobebis kraxi da qaosi. Ees aris
idea, Tu rogor daicva xelovneba cxovrebisagan~ (ilini, 2001 :
134). Kkeijis Tanaxmad ki, xelovanma uari unda Tqvas axali samyaroebis Seqnis pretenziaze; misi amocanaa, dainaxos samyaro ise,
rogoricaa is realrad. (dubinec 2006 : 338)
wesrigisa da qaosis konceptebi qarTul musikaSi
Tanamedrove qarTul musikaSi wesrigisa da qaosis konceptebi yvelaze mkafiod gia yanCelis SemoqmedebaSi vlindeba. gansxvavebiT evropeli avangardistebisa da keijisagan, ZiriTadi
idea yanCelis nawarmoebebis mxatvruli samyarosi, ambivalenturi
saxeobrivi polusebi emyareba ori sawyisis dapirispirebas _ sulierebiT aRbeWdil harmoniasa da dauZleveli winaRmdegobebiT
mocul qaoss. TiToeul maTgans yanCeli ganasaxierebs mxatvruli
xerxebiT, romelic nawarmoebis erTiani sistemis SigniT badebs

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137

gansxvavebul semiotikur struqturebs (qavTaraZe, 2016). Kkompozitori virtuozulad flobs xmovani wertilis, JReradi siCumis, tembruli CarTvebis da miqstebis kanonebs. Mmis nawarmoebebs axasiaTebs mxatvruli procesis simboluroba, droisa da
sivrcis, zedroulobis gansakuTrebuli SegrZneba. es rTul disharmoniaSi myofi Tanamedrove samyaros mxatvrulad gamTlianebuli suraTia. yanCelis intonaciuri fabula avtonomiuria, eqvemdebareba ganviTarebis musikalur logikas. igi gamoxatavs nawarmoebis siRrmiseul azrs. es aris zogadsakacobrio problemebis
da samyaros ambivalenturi bunebis amsaxveli musikaluri `eqokamera~ (barti). Aase `muSaobs~ yanCelis nawarmoebebSi polivalenturi mravalSriani semiotikuri teqsti.

literatura:
velflini 2009: . .
.
zenkini 2003: K. k . 21israelmusic.com
balandie 2001: . ,
cenova 2005: (redaqtori), .
keiji 2016: John Cage: An Autobiographical Statement.
http://www.johncage.org/autobiographical_statement.html
ilini, 2001: . : .
dubinec 2006: . Made in the USA. - ,
.
qavTaraZe 2016: marina qavTaraZe, gia YyanCelis Semoqmedebis semantikuri aspeqtebi
http://gesj.internet-academy.org.ge/en/list_artic_en.php?b_sec=muz
Kavtaradze Mariam
The Cosmos and Chaos concepts in music
(on the example of Music of 20th century)
The Antinomy of Chaos and Order are expressed variously within
different epochs. From well-known opposition of Chaos vs Cosmic Order
of antique epoch, i.e contradiction between initial spontaneous state and
order, humans strive to reach the latter.

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In music order and harmony are displayed in different forms: as


integrated model of artistic thinking, as tool of structuring time
continuum of musical piece, as singularity of organizing classic
symphony.
In 20th century the musical cosmic space creates conceptual models of
events, objects, cosmic energy space and time. It expands the borders of
semantic interpretation of musical piece and creates the new viewpoint of
understanding contemporary music. Unlike previous periods in history, in
20th century the modelled chaos often becomes the object of art although
chaos as an artistic image in modern non-classic epoch is created by
strictly rational tools.
Defined problems are discussed within the article on the example of
20th century music, including the works of Georgian Composers.

nino qimeriZe

gramatikuli qaosi VS
teqsturi wesrigi
(teqsti-konstalaciaTa
lingvistikuri analizisaTvis)
gasuli saukunis meore naxevari
teqnologiuri siaxleebis fonze aCqarebuli tempiT amkvidrebs literaturuli
da aramxolod literaturuli, aseve
yoveldRiuri teqstis saxeobebis mravalferovan speqtrs. teqstebis CarCoebi
irRveva da sxvadasxva niSanTa Sereuli
wnuli qmnis teqsturas, enobrivi warmonaqmnis substrats.
imave periodSi konkretuli Zvrebia
lingvistikaSi, kerZod, enis sistemuri
kvlevebi scdeba sintaqsis farglebs da
enis stratifikacul modelSi teqstis
doneze gadadis, rac, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobs winadadebaTaSoris aramxolod
koneqtorebis da koreferenciul fenomenTa kvlevas, aramed teqstis calkeuli
Semadgeneli elementebis, konkretuli
teqstis saxeobaTa calkeuli markerebis,
teqstis funqciaTa analizs da am analizis Sedegebis gaazrebas teqstis recefciis procesebSi.
teqstis kvlevebis gafarToeba da
misi aqtualoba dRemde teqstis saxeobaTa progresulma zrdam ganapiroba, rac
aseve uSualod ukavSirdeba teqnologie-

140

nino qimeriZe

bis ganviTarebasa da mediaTa gamravalferovnebas. teqstis saxeobaTa kvlevebis mniSvnelobam, Tavis mxriv, dRis wesrigidan moxsna 90-ian wlebis lingvistTa ritorikuli kiTxva: quo vadis
textlinguistik? (hainemani/fivegeri 1991: 83), anu, teqstis lingvistikis Semdgomi ganviTarebis sakiTxi.
teqstis kvlevebis calke lingvistur disciplinad Camoyalibebam xeli Seuwyo teqstis cnebis gafarToebas da misi
sxvadasxva rakursiT ganxilvas. teqsti ukve aRar ganixileba,
rogorc mxolod verbaluri komunikaciis Sedegi. Sesabamisad,
teqstis cneba, romelsac h.vainrixi iZleva: teqstebi droSi
wrfivi TanmimdevrobiT ganlagebuli enobriv niSanTa azrobrivi
bmaa (vainrihi 1993: 17), ufro masStaburadaa danaxuli r.pozneris kvlevebSi, romelic teqsts kodirebul niSanTa kompleqsad
ganmartavs da im SemTxvevaSi ganixilavs teqstad, Tu is: a) artefaqtia, anu gamiznuli qmedebis Sedegi; b) instrumentia, Sesabamisad, unda arsebobdes kultura, romlis farglebSi konvenciurobis safuZvelze teqsts konkretuli funqcia miewereba da g)
is kodirebulia, anu konkretuli kulturis farglebSi mas ramdenime mniSvneloba aqvs (pozneri 1991: 46). msgavsi msjeloba
gvxvdeba lingvistTa SromebSic, maT Soris, upirveles yovlisa,
unda davasaxeloT ula fiqsi (fiqsi 2007: 254-276), romelic
artefaqtad da instrumentad uSualod teqstis saxeobas asaxelebs, radgan sakomunikacio procesis monawileebi warmoqmnian
konkretuli funqciiT datvirTul garkveuli teqstis saxeobebs
da ara ubralod teqstebs.
r.pozneri, ul.fiqsisgan gansxvavebiT, romelic artefaqtad
teqstis saxeobas miiCnevs, roca teqstSi artefaqtebis niSnebs
eZebs, msjelobs teqstis tipze, romlis rogorc producireba,
ise reproducirebaa SesaZlebeli (pozneri 1991: 48). enobrivi
qmnadobis procesSi ki gansazRvruli kodebi warmoiqmneba, romelTa dekodireba teqstis gagebis winmswrebi procesia.
j.a batermani im teqstebs ganixilavs artefaqtebad, romelTac teqstualobis maRali kriteriumi aqvT. rac ufro maRalia
teqstualobis xarisxi, analizis procesSi miT ufro produqtiulia artefaqtis, Sesabamisad, teqstis gageba (batermani 2013:
254).
gamomdinare iqidan, rom teqsti Tavad aris maRalorganizebuli enobrivi niSani, romelic enobriv niSanTa wrfiv (linearul) organizebas eqvemdebareba lingvistebi msjeloben rogorc

gramatikuli qaosi vs teqsturi wesrigi

141

sityvis, ise winadadebis, momdevno etapze ki - teqstis mniSvnelobaze. teqstis gagebas d.buse niSanTa am jaWvSi ganixilavs
kognitiurad mimdinare sakomunikacio procesis erTaderT fizikur substratad. avtori aseve ganmartavs, rom es procesi enis
fsiqologiaSi cnobilia, rogorc bottom-up-procesi (buse 2015:
369).
amrigad, komunikacia gulisxmobs triadas avtori-teqsti-interpretatori, Tu avtors teqstis Seqmnis procesSi garkveuli
mizani da intencia aqvs, interpretatori recefciis procesSi
winarecodnaze damyarebul molodinze amaxvilebs yuradRebas,
xolo teqsti konkretul niSanTa kombinaciiT warmoqmnili kodebis qselia. aqedan gamomdinare, teqstis saxeoba rogorc artefaqti, instrumenti da konkretuli funqciiT datvirTuli enobrivi warmonaqmni, erTgvari kodebis erTobliobaa, romelTa dekodireba teqstis gagebis winapirobaa. teqstis gagebis procesis
sirTule ganpirobebulia, uwinaresad, imiT, Tu ragvari kodebi
warmoqmnis teqstis sazrisis qsovils.
teqstis gagebisa da Semdgom interpretaciis procesi Tvisobrivad gansxvavebulia literaturuli teqstisaTvis, rac imiT
aixsneba, rom sakuTriv literaturuli teqstia modelis warmomqmneli meoradi semiotikuri sistema (lotmani 1972: 22,
cit. titcmanis 1993: 69 mixedviT), romelsac ar gaaCnia sakuTari mediumi, aramed es privilegirebuli niSanTa sistema mediumad enas iyenebs, raTa Seqmnas axali niSanTa sistema, axali SesaZlebloba enobrivi, logikuri da kulturuli mniSvnelobebis
aRsaniSnad. aqedan gamomdinare, m. ticmani dasZens, rom literaturuli teqsti aris enobrivi warmonaqmni, romelic am meorad
niSanTa sistemis farglebSia Seqmnili (titcman 1993: 70). aqve
unda aRiniSnos isic, rom literaturuli teqstebi teqstualobis yvela parametrs gulisxmobs, rac kidev ufro farTo masStabebs sZens gagebis process. d. buse gagebas ar miiCnevs enobriv qmedebad, is ufro intuiciaze dafuZnebuli procesia, romelic gansxvavdeba interpretaciisagan. interpretacia aqtiuri manipulaciaa teqstiT, TavisTavad - enobrivi qmedeba, ris Sedegadac axali teqsti warmoiqmneba (buse 1992: 187). winamdebare
msjelobidan Cans, rom teqstis gageba martivdeba, Tu teqstSi
teqstualobis kriteriumebi srulyofilad aris warmodgenili,
rac, Tavis mxriv, niSnavs, rom interpretatoris winaSe warmodgenilia teqstualobis kriteriumebis sruli formatiT. amas de

142

nino qimeriZe

bogrand/dresleri (de bograndi/dresleri 1981: 13) gvTavazobs


kvlevebSi da damatebiT, bogrand/dresleris kriteriumTa CamonaTvals emateba ul. fiqsis (fiqsi 2010: 7) mier SemoTavazebuli
merve kriteriumi. Sesabamisad, enobrivi qmedebis, anu gateqstebis
(Vertextung) procesi iTvaliswinebs sul rva kriteriums, maT
Soris: kohezia, koherentuloba, misaReboba, informaciuloba,
ganzraxuloba, situaciuroba, teqstTaSorisi mimarTebebi+kulturis refleqsia. winamdebare kriteriumebi ayalibeben teqstis
rogorc formalur, ise Sinaarsobriv mxares. mkvlevari a.noiberti gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom Tundac erTi kriteriumis kleba
teqsturaSi TavisTavad miuTiTebs imaze, rom es ukanaskneli sakomunikacio procesebisaTvis miuRebelia (noiberti 1982: 30).
mocemuli Tezisi warmoaCens am periodis kvlevebis prioritetul debulebas. teqstis analizis mravaldoniani modeli srulyofilad moicavs teqstualobis yvela kriteriums rogorc gamoyenebiTi, ise literaturuli teqstis saxeobaTa analizisas.
teqstis saxeobaTa siWrele naklebad Seimneva literaturuli teqstis SemTxvevaSi, Tumca am teqstebisaTvis niSandoblivia
maTi formebisa da maTSi gamoyenebuli enobrivi saSualebebis variaciuloba, rac ganpirobebulia imiT, rom avtori sakuTari intenciis gadmosacemad Tavad qmnis teqstis warmoqmnis wesebs.
teqstis qmnadobis procesSi, rogorc Semdgom vnaxavT, sruliad
Tavisufalia konkretuli poeziis warmomadgenlebTan.
gasuli saukunis meore naxevris germanulenovan literaturul teqstebSi enobrivi niSnebis gvediT Cndeba araenobrivi semiotikuri sistemebidan gadmotanili calkeuli niSnebi, romlebic monawileobas Rebuloben teqstis warmoqmnis procesSi. literaturaSi teqstis qmnadobis procesi eqsperimentuli TamaSis
elfers iZens, romelic konkretuli poeziis saxeliT xdeba
mogvianebiT cnobili. eqsperimentuli teqstebi ki Tavis mxriv
gulisxmobs TamaSs: a) mniSvnelobebiT, b) tipografiuli niSnebis kombinaciiT sivrcis sxvadasxva ganzomilebasa da g) aso-niSnebisa da leqsemebis pozicionirebiT sivrceSi. enobrivi niSnebiT
TamaSis wesebs Tavad avtorebi ayalibeben, rogoricaa e.gomringeri (gomringeri 1966: 8), romelic acxadebda, rom saWiroa daingres sintaqsi, arsebiTi saxeli da zmna sawyis formebSi warmovadginoT, uari vTqvaT zedsarTavsa da zmnizedaze, uarvyoT punqtuacia. manifestis am detalidanac kargad Cans, rom gramatikuli qaosis momwyobni imTaviTve uars acxadeben enis strati-

gramatikuli qaosi vs teqsturi wesrigi

143

fikaciul modelSi sintaqsis doneze. tradiciuli wesrigi irRveva, rac niSnavs imas, rom enobrivi da araenobrivi niSnebi Tavisufldebian enaSi damkvidrebuli wesebisa da wesrigisagan, maTi ganlageba sibrtyeze nebismieria, es ki gramatikuli struqturebis rRvevis dasawyisia. konkretul poezias Tavisuflad SeiZleba ewodos gramatikuli qaosi.
teqsturis am wesebiT Seqmna mxolod teqnikur progress ar
daumkvidrebia literaturis istoriaSi, uZvelesi droidan, antikurobis, Suasaukuneebisa Tu axali drois literatura msgavs
teqstebs qmnis da amisaTvis teqsturis formirebis sxvadasxva
teqnikas mimarTavs. teqsturis simetriuli marTkuTxa CarCo,
Tavdapirvelad figurebis formas iRebs, xolo mogvianebiT saerTod irRveva da Tanamedrove teqstura varskvlavur konstelacias emsgavseba. amrigad, gamoirCeva Semdegi tipis teqsturebi:
figura-teqstebi (antikurobidan dRemde SesaZloa daiZebnos, gansakuTrebiT mravalferovania barokos periodis figura-teqstebi), konkretuli teqstebi (gasuli saukunis 20-50 wlebSi) da
eqsperimentuli teqstebi (gasuli saukunis 70 wlebidan dRemde). yvelaze metad antigramatikul teqstebad konstelacebi iTvleba, sadac teqstis agebis normebi minimumamdea dayvanili.
konkretuli poeziisaTvis ena mxolod mediumi ar aris, igi
imavdroulad poeziis sagania da is amkvidrebs enisa da poeziis
axal gagebas. teqsti Canacvlebulia konstelaciiT, sadac enaSi
arsebuli sistemuri kanonebi aRar moqmedebs. maSin ris safuZvelze agebs konstelacia teqsturas? rogor wesrigdeba teqstinternulad moqmedi enobrivi qaosi? ikiTxeba Tu ara raime
wesrigi konstelaciis substratSi da ris safuZvvelze miiRweva
es wesrigi?
im sami tipis teqstebis saanalizod SerCeuli korpusidan
SeirCa tipobrivi teqstis nimuSebi, maT Sorisaa me-17 saukunis
germaneli mwerli iohan karstis akvani (karsti 1667/1988).
teqsti Cawerilia ori tipis semiotikuri niSnebiT: erTi mxriv,
vxvdebiT klasicisturi fraqturis rogorc maiuskulebs aseve
minuskulebs, meore mxriv, ki beWduri moxazulobis maiuskulebs.
teqsturis agebaSi monawileobs agreTve singrafemebi anu arabuli ricxvebi, aseve gvxvdeba damwerlobis araanbanuri niSnebic,
kerZod, iribi Strixi, romelic damwerlobis sawyis etapze dasrulebuli azris gamosaxatavad gamoiyeneboda wertilisa da mZimis nacvlad. figuruli teqstis dasasruli markirebulia wer-

144

nino qimeriZe

tiliT. aseve wertiliTaa dasrulebuli figuris qveda ukanaskneli xazi. teqstis agebaSi CarTulia agreTve grafikuli ornamentebi. teqsts erTianobaSi akvnis forma aqvs. akvnis dasrulebuli suraTis misaRebad ZiriTad teqsturaze darTulia erTi
winadadeba, romelSic moqmedebiT gvarSia warmodgenili Semasmeneli Wird nach den Zahlen gelesen. da winadadebas imperatiulobis elfers aZlevs (ix.danarTi). is erTgvar instruqcias, rekomendacias gamoxatavs, Tu rogor unda iqnas teqsti wakiTxuli.
teqsti ikiTxeba yvela mimarTulebiT, kerZod: 1-7 xazi marcxnidan marjvniv, Tumca am winadadebebSi zogierTi grafemis mimarTuleba Secvlilia, radgan am aso-niSnebze ikveTeba vertikalurad wasakiTxi winadadebebi. 8-10 bwkari zevidan qveviT ikiTxeba,
magram maTi Tanmimdevroba miemarTeba ara marcxnidan marjvniv,
aramed marjvnidan marcxniv. am mimarTulebiT kiTxvisas anbanur
niSanTa ganlageba erTgvarovania. 12 da 13 xazebi kvlav horizontaluri ganlagebisaa da aseve marcxnidan marjvniv ikiTxeba.
vxvdebiT 90 Semobrunebul calkeul grafemebsac. ukanaskneli
winadadeba, romelzec ukve zemoT gvqonda msjeloba, marTalia,
semantikurad ar aris figura-teqstis Semadgeneli nawili, magram mas teqstis struqturis ganmartebis funqcia aqvs dakisrebuli. sivrcis sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT teqstiT daqselva emsaxureba figuris mniSvnelobis grafikul gamosaxvas, radgan avtors miznad dasaxuli aqvs Seqmnas akvnis figura, romelsac Zilispirulisas arweven. rwevis efeqti gadmoicema aseve fonetikurad, ritmuli rweva gamoxata erTgvarovani marcvlis Tanamimdevrulad ganmeorebam: NUNUNU/nu schweig - akvanTan Camomjdari deda ZilisTvis amzadebs Svils. Zilispirulis teqstis calkeuli mikrostruqturebis ganlagebiT isaxeba figuris konturebi. rogorc mosalodneli iyo, teqsts saTauri ara aqvs, rac
figura-teqstebisaTvis tipobrivi movlenaa, saTauris funqcias,
am SemTxvevaSi figura iTavsebs.
leqsi miekuTvneba iavnanebis jgufs, romelsac simReriT ambobs deda bavSvis akvanTan da erTgvari Selocvis tolfasia. musikalur literaturaSi iavnana miekuTvneba samkurnalo simReraTa jgufs (sxva am tipis simRera-SelocvebTan erTad). qarTul
iavnanaSi, magaliTad, pirvelive striqonebi iwyeba: iav nana, vardov, nana... ia qarTuli warmarTuli panTeonis mixedviT mamaRmerTis simboloa, xolo vardSi dedis sawyisia Cadebuli, rac
mogvianebiT qristianul religiaSi RvTismSobels ukavSirdeba da

gramatikuli qaosi vs teqsturi wesrigi

145

siyvarulisa da mitevebis simbolos warmoadgens. rac Seexeba


leqsemas nana, igi sulxan-sabas leqsikonSi ganmartebulia rogorc sandomi, saamo sayvareli (sulxan-saba 1991: 575). amrigad, qarTuli iavnanis teqstSi avtori Selocvas iwyebs RvTisadmi mimarTviT, rasac mosdevs dedis locva pirmSosaTvis. igulisxmeba, rom locvis formulam Cvils simSvide unda mihgvaros
da daicvas igi avisa da borotisagan, daumkvidros mSvidi Zili
da mosveneba. karstis figuruli teqsti akvani Tavisi SinaarsiT axlos dgas am tipis leqsebTan, magram am SemTxvevaSi kidev
ufro xazgasmulia leqsis sazrisi da arsi misive atipuri topologiuri CarCoTi da arqiteqtonikuri formiT, romelsac akvnis forma aqvs. teqstis figura presignalis rols asrulebs,
vinaidan am tipis teqstebSi, rogorc zemoT ukve aRvniSneT figura saTaurs anacvlebs. Tu qarTul iavnanaSi deda mReris Cvilis akvanTan, germanul teqstSi avtori puantirebuli maiuskulebiT xazs usvams imas, rom iavnanas mReris rogorc deda, aseve
mama. karstis leqsSi jer mama umReris Svils, Semdeg ki deda.
orive SemTxvevaSi klasikuri maiuskuliTaa markirebuli mama da
deda leqsemebis pirveli da meore grafema. fraqturiTaa puantirebuli ori saxeli, kerZod iosebi Zlevamosili mzrunveli, romelic ifaravs Cvils jojoxeTis monadirisagan; es ukanaskneli leqsemac frakturiTaa puantirebuli. am SemTxvevaSi
leqsis arsis puantireba xdeba grafemebiT, romlis Caweris
sxvadasxva teqnika saSualebas iZleva naTlad Camoyalibdes teqstis sazrisi. mamisa da dedis iavnanaSi gadmocemuli locviT
Cvils imqveyniuri monadirisagan icavs iosebi, romelic Tavisi
mfarvelobis ZaliT bibliuri iosebis sworia.
teqstura mTliania yovelgvari danawevrebis gareSe da
mTlianad teqsts apelaciuri funqcia aqvs, rac enobriviad mkafiod aris gamoxatuli brZanebiTi kilos mxolobiTi ricxvis
meore
piris
formebiT,
rogoricaa:
schlaff/ruhe/
thu/mAche/schweig/HOERE/behte dich. mSoblis erTgvari locvaa
gamoxatuli am mimarTvis formebSi. calkeul sintaqsur erTeulebs Soris sustia zedapirul doneze bma, romelic Cveulebriv
teqsturaSi koneqtorebiTa da makavSirebeli sityvebiT xorcieldeba. rac Seexeba teqstis koherentulobas, Tematuri bmuloba implicituri gameorebis saxiT kulturaze dafuZnebul kognitiur mimarTebebSia realizebuli, rac figurisa da teqsturis
verbaluri nawilis erTianobaSi gamoixateba, vinaidan, akvani -

146

nino qimeriZe

Zilispiruli - Zilispirulis momRerali mSoblebi - mSvidi Zili - siCume - erTguli mfarveli mwyemsi Ziliswina Selocvis,
dalocvis rituals warmoudgens mkiTxvels.
teqsturis leqsikuri masala mTlianad qmnis im emociur
suraTs, rac simSvidis, mSobliuri siyvarulis, pirmSosadmi
mSoblis nazi damokidebulebis emocias aRZravs msmenelSi: zartes
Bei/ Zeit zur Ruh/ruhe/ guldner Sohne/sanfft/ ein schne Rassel/
Mein Vielgeliebtes Herz/nu schweig/ SCHallet die Geig. emociuri Seferilobis metaforis saSualebiT mimarTavs Svils mSobeli:
Mein vielgeliebtes Herz/thu deine Liechter zU (Cemi gulis nawilo
daxuWe Tvalebi!). situaciurobis pirdapiri asaxva teqstSi ar
xdeba, misi implicituri kodireba xdeba calkeuli leqsemebisa
da metaferobis meSveobiT. sainteresoa teqstis kidev erTi detali, kerZod, ES SCHallet die Geig/HOERE DAS VAtterle singt/DA
DA DAS MUtterle singt, - gaismis violinos xma/usmine amas mama
gimReris/amas deda gimReris. literaturul semiotikaSi violino sikvdilis simboloa (lit. simboloTa ... 2012: 1462), Zilsac
moqavs simSvide, Tumca arasamudamo.
gamomdinare teqsti-figuris arsidan, sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT sxivebiviT Casmul sintaqsur erTeulebs susti bmuloba
aqvT, aseve dabalia informaciulobis xarisxi, romelic aseve
ganpirobebulia teqsturis monoTematurobiT.
sainteresoa teqstTaSorisi mimarTebebis asaxvis xarisxis
ganxilva, rac mocemul teqsturaSi teqstis zedapirze ikiTxeba.
winamdebare Zilispiruli calkeuli leqsikuri erTeulebiT, rogoricaa Du zartes Bei/du guldner Sohne/Mein Vielgeliebtes Herz qmnis teqstTaSoris xatebs axali aRTqmis konkretuli epizodTan: akvanSi mwoliare yrma, mis sawolTan deda da mama da aseve
erTguli mwyemsi iosebi, romelic zrunavs Cvilze da mas mudam
icavs jojoxeTis monadireTagan.
mocemuli teqstis analizidan cxada ikveTeba: teqsti-figura, romelSic avtori arRvevs punqtuaciisa da orTografiis
normebs, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, cdilobs sintaqsis normebis
parafrazirebas, magram teqstis doneze inarCuebs teqstis warmomqmnel markerebs vizualuri da verbaluri teqsturis kombinirebis meSveobiT. amdenad, teqstualobis calkeuli kriteriumebis SenarCuneba aratradiciuli formiT, rac am konkretul SemTxvevaSi teqsturis araverbalur substratSi gamoixateba, in-

gramatikuli qaosi vs teqsturi wesrigi

147

terpretators aZlevs saSualebas zustad gaiazros teqstis


sazrisi.
figuruli teqstebi miekuTvneba arastandartuli teqstebis
tips. arastandartulobas ki am kerZo SemTxvevaSi ganapirobebs
teqstis: a) topologiuri CarCosa da b) grafemul-grafikuli
Sris puantireba. puantirebuli topologiuri CarCo Tavis Tavze
iRebs presignalis funqcias. rogorc wesi, am tipis teqstebi
usaTauroa da teqstis presignali saTauris nacvlad figuraSia
gacxadebuli. figuruli teqstis bmuloba mTlianad emyareba mis
singrafemebiT puantirebul arqiteqtonikas. teqstSi sustadaa
koheziis kriteriumi, nacvlad amisa teqstis erTianobis simZimis
centri mTlianad gadadis teqstis koherentulobaze, romelic
teqstSi implicituradaa mocemuli.
Tavisi SemoqmedebiT konkretul poeziasa da eqsperimentul
literaturas Sorisaa evg. gomringeri, romelic gvTavazobs
teqsts bavSvi
kind
s
ma
onne
nn
m
fra
ond
u
s
fra
onne
u
m
ma
ond
nn
s
mo
onne
nd
m
fra
ond
u
k
ind
(gomringeri 1969: 57)
teqstura vertikaluradaa ganlagebuli da aseve ikiTxeba.
avtori leqsemebis Casawerad iyenebs mxolod minuskulebs, rac
germanulisTvis atipuria, gansakuTrebisT ki arsebiTi saxelebis
SemTxvevaSi. teqstSi arc erTi singrafema ar gvxvdeba, is Camoyalibebulia mxolod morfologiur doneze. aqac poeti mxolod
saxelTa jgufs iyenebs, xolo Semasmenlis jgufis nacvlad grafikulad puantirebul teqsturas ekisreba dinamikis ganviTarebis refleqsia, e.i. winadadebis birTvis anu Semasmenlis jgufis

148

nino qimeriZe

teqsturi funqcia konstelaciazea gadatanili. poets damatebiT


metaforebi Semoaqvs mdedri da mamri sawyisis gadmosacemad, es
aris mze (mdedri sawyisi die Sonne Tanxvedraa gramatikuli
sqesis TvalsazrisiTac) da mTvare (mamri sawyisi der Mond
am SemTxvevaSic Tanxvedraa gramatikuli sqesis TvalsazrisiT).
metaforebis saSualebiT avtori leqsikur doneze axdens sazrisis puantirebas, Sesabamisad, mdedri sawyisis mzis gaswvriv
aTavsebs kacs, xolo mamri sawyisis mTvaris gaswvriv ki qals.
es sawyisebi wyvildeba rogorc horizontalur, ise vertikalur
wrfeebze. dawyvilebis Sedegia Svili, bavSvi, romelic gamocalkevebuladaa teqstis bolos mocemuli. teqsti ar aris dasrulebuli, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom Svili kidev erTi Taobis
axali sawyisia. teqstis finalSi mocemuli leqsema SeiZleba
ganxilul iqnas axali dabadebis saTaurad, rac usasrulod SeiZleba gagrZeldes momaval TaobebSi. ganurCevlad imisa, Tu ra
mimarTulebiT wavikiTxavT mas zevidan qveviT Tu piriqiT, am dialeqtikas yvela mimarTulebiT bavSvamde mivyavarT, romelic erTdroulad sawyisic aris da sasrulic.
mocemuli konstelacia grafikuli puantirebiT aRwevs teqstis sazrisis ganviTarebas. masSi ignorirebulia sintaqsi da
grafemebis kombinacia mxolod leqsemis donezea warmodgenili.
sintaqsis ararsebobis niSani pirvel rigSi Semasmenlis birTvis
gaqrobaa teqstSi, xolo meore rigSi singrafemebisa, kerZod,
ki punqtuaciis. am saanalizo teqstSi mxolod koherentulobis
kriteriumia metnaklebad SesamCnevi, rac efuZneba ontologiurad ganpirobebul gameorebas. teqstSi ar muSaobs arc erTi
gramatikuli norma, mkiTxveli, Sesabamisad, interpretatori
cdilobs sakuTari codnis sistemebis organizebas da amis safuZvelze mocemuli enobrivi warmonaqmnis gagebas.
SerCeuli teqsti-konstelaciebis lingvisturi analizis safuZvelze cxadi xdeba, rom miuxedavad gramatikuli qaosisa, winamdebare teqsturaTa substrati efuZneba konkretul wesrigs,
romelic realizebulia teqstualobis calkeuli kriteriumis
safuZvelze. gamomdinare iqidan, rom konstelaciebi teqstisgan
diametralurad gansxvavebuli enobrivi warmonaqmnebia, maTi ageba
da Camoyalibeba avtoris mier dawesebul individualur wesebs
emyareba, mkiTxvelis/interpretatorisaTvis teqstis gagebis procesSi mainc moqmedebs erTgvari teqstSida wesrigi, romelsac
nebismier teqstSi qmnis teqstualobis cnobili Svidi da agreT-

gramatikuli qaosi vs teqsturi wesrigi

149

ve kidev erTi damatebiTi, axali kriteriumi kulturis refleqsia, rac enobriv niSnebs, teqstualobis danarCen kriteriumebTan
erTad, damatebiT mniSvnelobas aniWebs. teqstualobis kriteriumebi am tipis teqsturaSi yovelTvis srulad ar aris warmodgenili. avtori cdilobs teqstualobis romelime kriteriumis saSualebiT Sekras teqstura. xSir SemTxvevaSi teqstis warmomqmnel kriteriumTa Soris yvelaze aqtiurad teqstis warmoqmnaSi teqsturis semantikuri mTlianobis safuZveli koherentuloba iRebs monawileobas. konstelaciis Semadgeneli niSnebis
mniSvnelobaTa urTierTmimarTeba siRrmul struqturebSi Tavis
mxriv ki, konstelaciaTa sazriss warmoqmnis da odesRac sruliad gramatikul qaosad gaazrebuli enobrivi qmedebis Sedegi teqsturi wesrigis nimuSad yalibdeba.
literatura:
batermani 2013: Baterman, John A. Dynamische Diskurssemantik als
ein allgemeines Modell der Semiose. berlegung am Beispiel des
Films. in: Zeitschrift fr Semiotik. Hrsg. v. Roland Posner und
Stephan Debus. Neue Methoden der Diskursanalyse. Hrsg. v.
Martin Siefkes und Doris Schps. B.35. H.3-4. Tbingen:
Satuffenburg Verlag;
buse 1992: Busse, Dietrich Textinterpretation. Sprachtheoretische
Grundlage einer explikativen Semantik. Opladen: Westdeutcher
Verlag;
buse 2015: Busse, Dietrich Sprachverstehen und Textinterpretation.
Grundzge einer verstehenstheoretisch reflektierten interpretativen
Semantik. Wiesbaden: Springer;
gomringeri 1966: Gomringer, Eugen 23 Punkte zum Problem
Dichtung und Gesellschaft. In: serielle menifeste I, H.4 eugen
gomringer. manifeste und darstellungen der konkreten poesie 19541966;
gomringeri 1969: gomringer, eugen worte sind schatten. die
konstellationen.19511968.rowohlt.hamburg;
de bograndi/dresleri 1981: Beaugrande, Robert-Alain de/Dressler,
Wolfgang Ulrich Einfhrung in die Textlinguistik. (Konzepte der
Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft 28).K.Baugrtner (Hrsg.).
Tbingen: Niemeyer;
vainrihi 1993: Weinrich, Harald Textgrammatik der deutschen Sprache.
Mannheim, Leipzig: Duden;

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karsti 1667/1988: Karst Johann, R., Wiege. aus: Deutscher DichtKunst Lust- und Schauplatz. In: Katalog zu einer Ausstellung der
Bibliothek der Universitt Konstanz vom 5. Juli bis 15. August
1988. Zusammengestellt und komentiert von Julika Funk und
Karola Mono. Hrsg. Bibliothek der Universitt Konstanz.
Drckerei der Universitt Konstanz. Konstanz;
literaturul simboloTa leqsikoni 2012: Metzler Lexikon
literarischer Symbole. Gnter Butzer, Joachim Jacob (Hrsg.) 2.
Auflage. StuttgartWeimar: Verlag J.B. Metzler;
noiberti 1982: Neubert, Albrecht Text als linguistischer Gegenstand.
in: Linguistische Arbeitsberichte. Leipzig 36. SS. 25-42;
orbeliani 1991: sulxan-saba orbeliani leqsikoni qarTuli 2
tomad. gamomc. i. abulaZe. Tbilisi: merani;
pozneri 1991: Posner, Roland Kultur als Zeichensystem. Zur
semiotischen Explikation kulturwissenschaftlicher Grundbegriffe.
in: Alleida Assmann/Dietrich Harth (Hg.) Kultur als Lebenswelt
und Moment. Frankfurt/M: Fischer Taschenbuchverlag;
fiqsi 2007: Fix, Ulla Was heit Texte kulturell verstehen. Ein- und
Zuordnungsprozesse beim Verstehen von Texten als kulturellen
Eintitten. In: Hardarik Blhdorn, Eva Breindl und Ulrich
H.Waner (Hrsg.) 2007: Text-Verstehen. Berlin.NY. Walter de
Gruyter;
fiqsi 2010: Fix, Ulla Was ist kulturspezifisch an Texten? Argumente fr
eine kulturwissenschaftlich orientierte Textsortenforschung.
Russischer Germanistentag: "Kulturelle Kodes in Sprache,
Literatur und Wissenschaft", Nishnij Novgorod. 18. November
2010;
unter
URL:
http://home.unileipzig.de/fix/Was%20ist%20kulturspezifisch%20an%20Texten.pd
f (nanaxia: 10.10.2016);
hainemani,
volfgang/fivegeri
diter
1991:
Heinemann,
Wolfgang/Viehweger, Dieter Einfhrung in die Textlinguistik. Eine
Einfhrung. KB 115. Tbingen: Niemeyer;
titcmani, mixaeli 1993: Titzmann, Michael Strukturale Textanalyse.
UTB 582. Mnchen: W. Fink;

gramatikuli qaosi vs teqsturi wesrigi

151
danarTi

bela CekuriSvili

qaosisa da wesrigis
paradigma
moris meterlinkis
erTmoqmedebiani piesa
brmebis mixedviT
1890 wels belgiuri warmoSobis
frangi mwerali moris meterlinki aqveynebs erTmoqmedebian, statikur dramas
brmebi. piesa moqmedebis adgilis aRweriT iwyeba, sadac mwerali, erTmoqmedebiani modernistuli dramis tradiciis
mixedviT, dawvrilebiT aRwers garemos
da
moqmed
pirebs.
konkretulad:
mRvdels da 12 brmas.
moris meterlinki moxuc mRvdelsa
da 12 brmas CrdiloeTis uZveles tyeSi
warmogvidgens, romelsac Tavze maradiulad dahyurebs varskvlavebiT moWedili
ca. cisa da dedamiwis erTianobas avtori xazs usvams sityviT maradisoba. es
is aris, rac arasdros icvleba, rac yovelTvis iyo da iqneba. es kosmiuri wesrigia: uranosi ganfenilia geaze. da am
maradiuli sivrcis Sesabamisad, avtori
Tavis personaJebsac garkveuli sistemis
mixedviT anawilebs: mRvdeli SuaSi zis,
farTo, Sav paltoSi CafuTnuli, Tavi
da torsi ukan msubuqad gadauxria da
mkvdariviT mdumared eyrdnoba muxis
mZlavr, fuRuro tans. saxe saSiSad ga-

qaosisa da wesrigis paradigma moris meterlinkis erTmoqmedebiani


piesa `brmebis~ mixedviT

153

fiTrebia da cvilivis figurasaviT gaunZrevlad mjdoms, galurjebuli piri sanaxevrod dauRia... misi gaSeSebuli Tvalebi
TvalxilulTa maradiuli naxevrisTvis ukve mkvdaria da sisxldakargulad moCanan, rogorc uTvalavi, uxsovari tkivilebisa
da cremlebis Semdeg. TvalSisacemad gamxdari xelebi muxlebze
aqvs dawyobili (meterlinki 1904:33) (Targmani Cemia, b. C.)
piesis es Sesavali erTob ferwerulia da igi zedmiwevniT
gvagonebs saxarebiseuli saidumlo serobis Temaze Seqmnil tiloebs, kedlis mxatvrobisa Tu ikonografiul nimuSebs,
romlebzec avtorTa mier iesos Tu mociqulTa adgili zustadaa
gansazRvruli da ganawilebuli: macxovari mudam SuaSi zis, xolo mociqulebi, sam-samad Tu eqvs-eqvsad dajgufebulni, sxvadasxva emociasa Tu moqmedebas asaxaven.
aseve arian dajgufebulni meterlinkis dramis personaJebic,
romelTa Soris gansxvavebas mxolod sqesi, asaki da sibrmavis
mizezi Tu xangrZilivoba warmoadgens: samni dabadebiT brmani
arian, sami moxuci qalia, erTi brma yvelaze moxucia qalebSi,
erTi ki yvelaze moxucia mamakacebSi, erTi brma axalgazrda qalia, erTic - SeSlili, romelsac ZuZuTa bavSvi Cauxutebia. mexuTe da meeqvse brmas mxolod sqesi aqvT: isini mamakacebi arian.
Tumca ki, meterlinki mxolod amas ar sjerdeba da igi ferweris Seqmnas moqmedi pirebis ganlagebis mixedviTac ganagrZobs:
eqvsi brma, mRvdlis marjvniv zis, eqvsic _ marcxniv. marjvniv
msxdomebs qva, xis tani da foTlebis grova aqvT sajdomad, marcxniv msxdomebs _ kunZebi da kldis natexebi. Tumca gadanawilebas avtori aqac ar amTavrebs: qalebi da mamakacebi erTmaneTisgan
gamijnulebi arian, zustad eqvsi-eqvsze, erTmaneTis pirispir
sxedan. sami qali loculobs da moTqvams. maT gverdiT Rrmad
moxuci qali Camomjdara, romelsac mosdevs giJis usityvo pozaSi mjdomi qali, CaZinebul bavSvs rom arwevs muxlebze, meeqves
ki, Zalian axalgazrdas, mTel tans gaSlili Tma ufaravs. yvela
maTgans farTo, uformo, muqi feris samosi acvia.
avtori bolomde misdevs ferweris kompozicias da moZRvarsa da mis mrevls Soris gansxvavebis warmosaCenad kidev erT detals amatebs: mRvdlis gverdiT asfodelis buCqi yvavis.
meterlinki SesavalSive ramdenjerme xazs usvams, rom moqmedebis suraTi Rameulia, ufro metic, TvalSisacemad bnela, radgan mTvaris sxivebi uRran tyeSi SemoRwevas ver axerxeben.

154

bela CekuriSvili

Tuki saxarebiseul motivs mivyvebiT, razec miniSnebebi aSkaraa, saidumlo serobis simSvides Tavad macxovari arRvevs, romelic mowafeebs auwyebs, rom maT Soris erT-erTi gamcemia. Sesabamisad, mxatvrebi gadmogvcemen saidumlo serobis monawileTa
emociebs maTi gamometyvelebisa Tu sxeulis mdgomareobiT. rogorc lesingi aRniSnavda, ferwera da skulptura sivrcobrivi
xelovnebaa, xolo droisa da moqmedebis asaxva literaturis
prerogativaa. wesrigi, romelsac meterlinki scenaze qmnis, irRveva ara sityviT, aramed imiT, rom moZRvari dums - igi gardacvlilia. qaoss am SemTxvevaSi iwvevs dumili, iq sadac sityva
qreba, gaurkvevloba isadgurebs.
tye, sadac moqmdeba TamaSdeba, kunZulzea, sadac urTxelebi,
tirifebi da kviparosebi aRmarTulan. kunZuli, romelic wyliT
SemosazRvruli, gancalkevebuli sivrcea, simboloTa metyvelebaSi ganixileba rogorc, erTi mxriv, legendaruli adgili, proeqcia dakargul samoTxeze, meore mxriv ki es martoobisa da gadasaxlebis simboloa, cxovrebisgan mowyvetis, sadac sakuTari Tavis Zieba da axlad aRmoCena xdeba, sadac unda moaxerxo da gadarCe. rac Seexeba tyes, igi bodleris simbolisturi gaazrebis
mixedviT, igive samyaros taZaria, sadac sityvebi gaurkvevlad,
areulad aRweven da adamians uwevs simboloTa tyeSi gzisgakvleva. am tyeSi xma, surneli da feri erTmaneTSia areuli, rogorc bneli da naTeli. yvelaferi erTmaneTisken miiswrafis, da
suli da gonebac erTmaneTSi ireva.
roca sityvebi saerTod qreba, rCeba mxolod simboloebi.
meterlinkis brmebSi kunZulze mdebare tyeSi qreba moZRvris xma da mas anacvlebs sxvadasxvagvari xmauri, maT Soris talRebis xmac, romelic zogierTebs aqamde arasdros gaegoT,
Tumca ki, arc kunZulia didi da maTi TavSesafaric zRvisgan
arc Tu ise Sors aris. axla ki, zRvis xmauri ise aRwevs maT
yuramde, TiTqos iqve, gverdiT yofiliyos. talRebi sul ufro
Zlieri da saSiSi xdeba, adamianebi ki _ sul ufro damfrTxalni.
uxucesi brma: xom iciT, rom kunZuli didi ar aris da
ismis, rogorc ki galavans da TavSesafars gavcdebiT.
meore brmadSobili: me arasdros gamigonia.
mesame brmadSobili: dRes isea, TiTqos aqve iyos; ar miyvars
ase axlos misi mosmena (meterlinki 1904:43.).

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piesa `brmebis~ mixedviT

155

moulodnelad Cndeba Rameul frinvelTa gundi, romelic


xmauriT eSveba xeebidan da brmebis Tavze gadaifrens. brmebisTvis ucnobia es xmac: pirveli brmadSobili: am xmebs ar vicnob (meterlinki 1904:43).
Rameuli frinvelebi kvlav da kvlav Cndebian da erTmaneTs
uxmoben. aseve moulodnelad dahqrolavs qari, zRva zvirTdeba,
talRebi ZaliT exeTqeba kldeebs da Stormi iwyeba, cidan ki
didi fantelebi eSvebian.
Tavs iCens paranormaluri movlenebic, rogoricaa, mag., Sexebis SegrZneba, maSin roca yvela TavisTvis zis da erTmaneTamde
xelebis gawvdena ar SeuZliaT, anda ismis tirilis xma, romelic tyeSi myofTa nawils esmis da nawils ara, gaurkvevel arsebaTa nabijebis xma da a.S
qaosis Teoriis mixedviT, bunebaSi arsebobs kauzaluri kavSirebi, momijnave mizezebi momijnave moqmedebas aRZraven. samyaroSi momxdari erTi cvlileba jaWvurad iwvevs meores. edvard
lorenci, masaCusetsis teqnologiuri institutis meteorologi
1960 wels im daskvnamde mivida, rom dinamikur sistemaze gavlenas axdens umniSvnelo cvlilebac ki, Sesabamisad, raimes winaswar gaTvla-ganWvreta SeuZlebelia. lorencis mier metaforulad naTqvami Does the flap of a butterflys wings in Brazil set off a
tornado in Texas ? (SeuZlia braziliaSi peplis frTis erT moqnevas texasSi tornado gamoiwvios?) mogvianebiT peplis efeqtis
saxeliT gaxda cnobili. herbert viseni qaosis Teoriaze msjelobisas aRniSnavs, rom qaosuri procesebis winaswari ganWvreta
SeuZlebelia, magram Tuki maTi gamomwvevi pirobebi cnobilia, maSin dasasrulic SeiZleba gamoiTvalos. dRes am fenomens determinuli qaosis saxeliT uxmoben.
mas Semdeg, rac 12 brma aRmoaCens, rom moZRvari, romelsac
isini elodnen, raTa ukan, TavSesafarSi daebrunebina, gardacvlilia, damoukideblad iwyeben moZraobas. maTTvis mTavaria, im adgils gaecalon, wavidnen. isini mihyvebian im arsebis nabijebis
xmas, romelic TiTqosda bavSvma dainaxa da amitom atirda, faqtobrivad, mihyvebian bavSvis tirilis xmas, romelic Taviswilad,
tirils ar wyvets da umatebs. bolos nabijebis xma sadRac qreba da erTmaneTs adevnebul brmebs tiriliT CabJirebuli bavSvi
rCebaT xelSi.
bibliuri wesrigi, rogorc mocemuloba, meterlinkis mixedviT, SeuZlebeli mdgomareobaa. misi darRveviT dawyebul qaosSi

bela CekuriSvili

156

ki adamiani brmasaviT umweoa, mas gamosavlis moZebna mxolod


simboloTa daxmarebiT SeuZlia, romlebic, zemoT naxsenebi Sarl
bodleris sakulto simbolisturi leqsis Correspondances (1857)
mixedviT, adamianebisgan amoxsnas elian.
dabolos, berZnuli klasikuri miTologiis mixedviT, romlis qargasac araerT sxva kulturaTa miTosSi vxvdebiT, qaossa
da areulobaSi Caisaxa samyaro. qristianuli (bibliuri) swavlebiT, samyaro arafridan Seiqmna, Sesabamisad, qaosidan axlis dabadebis ideac gaqra, rac Suasaukuneebis literaturas gadmoeca
da Tanamedrove azrovnebamde moaRwia. dRes qaosi gaurkvevlobas
da araprognozirebad situacias gulisxmobs, rac safrTxesac
moicavs. simbolisti meterlinkisTvis qaosi araferia, Tu ara
kidev erTi simbolo, romlidanac Tavad literatura ibadeba.
samyarosadmi simbolistTa amgvar damokidebulebas daTanamedrove
fizikam ukeTesad gasca pasuxi, vidre sazogadoebrivma mecnierebebma, romelTaTvisac qaosi dRemde stiqiur ubedurebebsa Tu sazogadoebriv areulobas (revoluciebi, sabirJo krizisi da a.S.)
niSnavs.
literatura:
bodleri 2004: Cahrles Baudelaire, Die Blumen des Bses, Stuttgart.
viseni 2003: Herbert Wiesen, Chaostheorie, Handwrterbuch
Philosophie, Gttingen.
meterlinki 1904: Maurice Maeterlink, Drei Alltagsdramen, Leipzig.
frerixsi 2000: Stefan Frerichs, Grundlagen der Chaostheorie.

Bella Chekurishvili
Eine allgemein verstndliche Einfhrung fr Laien." aus: "Bausteine
einer systemischen Nachrichtentheorie", Wiesbaden.
The one-act drama "Blinds" by Maurice Maeterlinck depicts an
evangelical picture: it presents a priest on an isolated island with his
twelve followers whom the pastor has brought to the woods. But the
priest is dead, and his parish is the group of the blind from the asylum.
According to the Christian iconographic tradition, the priest sits in the
middle and the twelve are placed to his right and left by six. The

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157

iconographic order is ruined when the priest is silent and his voice can no
longer be heard. Chaos begins both in nature, in the form of the wind, the
sea storm, the sudden snowfall, as well as in the human souls. The
Biblical order by Maeterlinck' cannot be established in real life. A human
being is helpless like blind in the chaos which follows its breach. He can
find solution only by means of symbols. For the symbolist Maeterlinck's
chaos is nothing but another symbol from which the literature is born.

naTela Citauri,
Sorena SamanaZe

modernistuli
sazogadoebis wesrigidan
postmodernistul qaosamde
(nino xaratiSvilis merve sicocxlis
mixedviT)
dRevandelma interkulturulma,
globalurma procesebma, postmodernistulma viTarebam diskusiisa da ganxilvis sagnad aqcia bevri TiTqos aqamde yuradRebis miRma darCenili problema.
logikuria Tanamedrove, winaaRmdegobebiT savse samyaroSi interesi qaosisa da
kosmosis mimarT.
miTologiis Tanaxmad, wesrigi anu
kosmosi iqmneba qaosidan. qaosi aris
uformo mdgomareoba, kosmosi ki mowesrigebulobas gulisxmobs. qaosi da
kosmosi gardamavali mdgomareobebia, anu
qaosis mowesrigeba kosmosiT mTavrdeba,
kosmosis Sinagani rRvevis Sedegad ki
isev qaosi warmoiSoba; samyaro maradmoZravia, mas xan mowesrigebuli forma
aqvs, xan mouwesrigebeli.
vfiqrobT, kosmosisa da qaosis opoziciur viTarebas organulad ukavSirdeba gansxvavebani modernistul da postmodernistul mdgomareobebs Soris.
miCneulia, rom modernuloba arsebobs
mxolod wesrigis pirobebSi, xolo pos-

modernistuli sazogadoebis wesrigidan postmodernistul qaosamde

159

tmodernul sazogadoebaSi wesrigis cneba TviTdinebazea


miSvebuli. es mravali aspeqtiT gamoixateba, rogorebicaa Tavisuflebis sakiTxi, socialuri qmedebebis formaTa ganviTareba da
sxv.
ra Tqma unda, wesrigi da qaosuri mdgomareoba gansazRvrulia mocemuli dro/sivrciT, romlis realuri aspeqtebi aisaxeba
adamianis azrovnebasa da msoflmxedvelobaze. am SemTxvevaSi qaosisa da kosmosis ufro rTul fenomenebTan gvaqvs saqme. adamianis sulieri samyaro asaxavs sazogadoebis qaoss da kosmosur,
mowesrigebul mdgomareobas, yvelaferi es ki SemoqmedebiT sferoebSi ganifineba. literatura is sivrcea, romelic yvelaze
mZafrad da mtkivneulad ganicdis sazogadoebis qaoss. Tavad Semoqmedis, mwerlis fenomeni moicavs qaosur aspeqtebs, rac drosivrcul qaosTan erTobaSi ukve xdeba rTuli literaturuli
reprezentaciebis safuZveli.
dRevandeli mwerloba - es aris procesi qaosisaken, ufro
konkretulad, modernistuli wesrigidan postmodernistuli qaosisaken ramdenime mniSvnelovani mizezis gamo.
1. migraciuli qaosi. dRes literaturis qaosuri maxasiaTeblebis yvelaze masStaburi mizezi migraciuli procesebia.
ukanasknel wlebSi mwerloba ukve aRar aris nacionalur literaturaTa Tu kulturaTa mxolod dialogi. migraciulma procesebma literaturul sivrces dRes farTo masStabebi SesZina
rogorc geografiuli, aseve Tvisobrivi TvalsazrisiT. XXI saukunis literatura, maT Soris qarTuli, yalibdeba mwerlobis
axal interkulturul/migraciul modelad. es modeli mimdinare procesebSi asaxavs gzas mowesrigebulobidan qaosur mdgomareobamde, rasac ZiriTadad ganapirobebs:
a) identobaTa dinamikuri cvladoba. migraciulma Senakadebma
literaturaSi, sazRvargareT Seqmnilma teqstebma warmoaCina
identobaTa cvladobis swrafi dinamikuri procesi. identoba ukve aRar aris ucvleli fenomeni. adgili, romelsac mwerali-migrantebi ikaveben literaturul cxovrebaSi, xasiaTdeba Sualeduri sivrceebiT (bhabha 1994: 2). isini floben ormag, gardamaval, hibridul, defisisebur identobebs.migraciisa da, Sesabamisad, migraciuli literaturis gazomva da Sefaseba SesaZlebelia ara mxolod geografiuli gadaadgilebis TvalsazrisiT,
aramed im fsiqologiuri da kulturuli aspeqtebis, identobaTa

160

NnaTela Citauri, Sorena SamanaZe

cvladobis prizmiT, romelic migracias axlavs Tan (tolkaCevi


2013: internetresursi)
b) mravalferovani, araprognozirebadi, filosofiur-fsiqologiuri, socialur-ideologiuri da SemoqmedebiTi aspeqtebi,
romelnic TandaTan yalibdeba ucxo garemosTan gaucxoebis an
adaptaciis procesSi: kulturuli Soki, kulturuli distancia,
kulturuli adaptacia, akulturacia, resentimenti da sxv.
2. postsabWoTa qaosi. sabWoTa literatura stabilurad
ormag - nacionalur da sabWoTa - identobas asaxavda. postsabWoTa periodSi Seicvala kulturuli garemo.postsabWoTa qveynebis umravlesoba ar iyo mzad, mieRo Tavisufleba.sazRvrebis
gaxsnis Semdgom sayovelTao unifikaciis persperqtivam/safrTxem
gaaZliera xalxebis survili, gaexsenebinaT TavianTi enebi da
kultura, nacionaluri tradiciebi, gamocdileba, ramac gamoiwvia tradiciul da Tanamedrove faseulobaTa dapirispireba,identobaTa konfliqtebi, teritoriebis dakargva, devniloba. postabWoTa periodis pirvel etapze ukve SeiniSneba literaturuli
qaosisa da krizisis momenti, romlis safuZvelic swored identobis krizisiT gamowveuli stresia.
3. socialuri qaosi. modernistuli da postmodernistuli
mdgomareobis kosmosuri da qaosuri tendenciebi literaturaSi
gansakuTrebulad vlindeba mwerlobisa da sociumis urTierTobaTa procesebSi. dRes literaturis poziciebi realobasTan da
piruku motivirebulia axleburi ,Tanamedrove aspeqtebiT. aSkaraa literaturis meti socializacia, rasac qmnis identurobis
paradigmebi: cvladoba, dinamika, identobis daqvemdebareba garemos aqtualuri moTxovnebisadmi.
postsabWoTa da migraciuli cvlilebeba. amasTan gakavSirebuli identobaTa modifikaciebi gaaZliera postmodernistuli
viTarebis kulturuli da esTetikuri dominantebis cvladobam.
postmodernistuli diskursi ufro metad SeiWra socialur
sferoSi, vidre aqamde arsebuli romelime literaturuli mimdinareoba, Tundac realizmi an modernizmi. modernisti mwerlisagan gansxvavebiT, postmodernisti mwerali ar cdilobs darRveuli sulieri harmoniis aRdgenas postmodernisti mwerlisaTvis mTavaria sociumis cxovreba, misi mowesrigeba individis
subieqturi Sexedulebebis mixedviT, aqedan gamomdinare, mniSvnelovania sociumis kritika enis, teqstis saSualebiT, sociumSi
Rirebulebebis aRdgenis perspeqtivaTa gaazreba.

modernistuli sazogadoebis wesrigidan postmodernistul qaosamde

161

identobani, postmodernistuli tendenciebi, romelTa modelirebac xdeba dRes interkulturul literaturaSi, ara mxolod cvlis literaturis Tematikas, aramed xdeba qaosur faseulobaTa reprezentaciebis safuZveli. dRes mwerlobaSi sruliad bunebrivad aqtualizdeba da mravalferovani xdeba socialuri, yofiTi Temebi. Tanamedrove literaturaSi, nacvlad heriokuli, patriotuli, amaRlebuli siyvarulis Tematikisa, momravlda socialuri dramebi da mtkivneuli Temebi, magaliTad, omi,
eTnokonfliqtebi da sxv.
4. mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiTi, Janrobrivi qaosi. interkulturul-migraciulma, socialur garemoze orientirebulma, postmodernistulma literaturam qaosis epoqaSi adgilis dasamkvidreblad, realobasTan adaptaciisaTvis moimarjva postmodernistuli mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebani:ironia,simulakri, TamaSi, parodiuli Tu satiruli efeqtebi. Tanamedrove
literaturis diskursSi Zlierdeba aseve biografiuli Janri saojaxo romanis saxiT, rasac aqvs Tavisi mizezebi. Tanamedrove
samyaroSi sxva Rirebulebebis moSlasTan erTad gansakuTrebiT
aqtualuri gaxda ojaxuri institutis rRveva. gaZlierebuli
SromiTi Tu sxva saxis migraciebi, omebi, genderuli balansis
ryeva, cxovrebis daZabuli ritmi nel-nela safuZvels aclis
ojaxis simyares. biografiuli Janri, saojaxo sagebi ganakuTrebiT aqtiurdeba kroskulturul-migraciul literaturaSi. emigrant mwerals ugrovdeba inteleqtualuri, biografiuli kapitali: rogor aRmovCndi emigraciaSi, rogor gadavadne Cemi gamocdileba literaturul teqstad (litovskaia 2013: 436-446).
swored am biografiebis moyoliT SeeZloT maT ucxour toposSi
interesis gaRviveba. avtobiografiuli romanis Janri saukeTesod
moergo emigrantul enas, anu emigraciaSi, saidis azriT, iqmneba
`teritoriis miRmiTi Janri~ (saidi 2003: 43).
modernistuli sazogadoebis wesrigidan postmodernistul
qaosamde - am gzis literaturuli reprezentaciebi yvelaze naTlad warmoCndeba Tanamedrove kroskulturul-migraciul mwerlobaSi. magaliTad SegviZlia davasaxeloT: postsabWoTa qaosi levan beriZis romani fora; socialuri qaosi - nana eqvTimiSvilis romani msxlebis mindori, migraciul-postmodernistuli
qaosi - nino xaratiSvilis romani merve sicocxle brilkasaTvis.

162

NnaTela Citauri, Sorena SamanaZe

amjerad SevCerdebiT nino xaratiSvilis romanze merve sicocxle brilkasaTvis. nino xaratiSvilis, rogorc mwerlis
identoba, aRbeWdilia ori markeriT, erTi: rom is aris migranti
mwerali da meore - qali avtori.
mweralma Tavisi Canafiqris gamosaxatavad airCia saojaxo
romani. xaratiSvili wers germanulad, oRond aRwers saqarTvelos istorias erTi ojaxis magaliTze rogorc qarTveli da am
sistemis monawile.
romani `merve sicocxle~-es aris mZimewoniani wigni pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT. 1280 gverdze mocemulia
jaSebis gvaris istoria, dawyebuli mefis ruseTidan- oqtombris
revolucia, stalinizmi, msoflio omebi, sabWoTa periodi da
postsabWoTa periodebi- vidre dRevandel dRemde. rogorc TviTon ambobs, vxvdebodi, rom CvenTan, rogorc bevr postsabWoTa
qveyanaSi, sazogadoebrivi Sefaseba, analizi ar momxdara. ar gadafasebula realurad araferi, ar dasmula sajarod Zalian bevri SekiTxva, ar uRiarebia aravis Secdomebi. sabWoTa kavSiris
daSlis Semdeg Zalian male moirgo saqarTvelom msxverplis roli, romelic simarTlis mxolod erTi nawilia, xolo sakuTar
cudze, araswor gadawyvetilebebze, oportunizmze aravin saubrobda. raRacnairad vgrZnobdi, rom CemTvis aucilebeli iyo imis
Secnoba, rac Cems ukan idga, aucilebeli iyo gacnobiereba, ra
niadagze dgas dRes saqarTveli, is qveyana, romelic Cemi nawilia. xolo bolo wlebSi es aucilebloba raRacnairad gamimwvavda. es SekiTxvebi rom ara, am wigns ver davwerdi (interviu:
internetresursi).
wigni iwyeba stasias dabadebiT, 1900 wels, rac emTxveva
saukunis dasawyissac da modernistuli epoqis Casaxvasac. Sokoladis fabrikantis ojaxi qarTul zRvispira provinciul qalaqSi am periodSi iyo mowesrigebuli, es samyaro nel-nela ireva
meoce saukunis kataklizmebis kvaldakval, periodulad wynardeba, kosmosi enacvleba qaoss da piriqiT, vidre Tanamedrove postmodernul viTarebamde. romanis mTxrobeli aris stasias SvilTaSvili nica, romelic 1973 wels daibada. man gamoiara oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis saqarTvelos gaWirveba, samoqalaqo omi,
gawyvita kavSiri ojaxTan da cxovrobs germaniaSi. Tumca warmomavlobam Tavi mainc Seaxsena, roca misi Tormeti wlis disSvili amsterdamSi Tavis mocekvaveTa ansambls CamoSorda da TbilisSi ar dabrunda. nica eZebs mas da mTel wigns swored mis-

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Tvis wers, cdilobs, daanaxos me-20 saukunis qartexilSi Cakarguli Tavisi ojaxis bediswera. swored mas uyveba Svidi pirovnebis, maTi ojaxis wevrebis istorias, rom merves brilkas
adgili gamouTavisuflos. bolo wignSi, romelsac brilka~
hqvia, datovebulia carieli furclebi, rom axali cxovreba daiweros.
Zneli saTqmelia, saiT ganviTardeba interkulturul- migraciuli literaturis dRevandeli qaosuri aspeqtebi. yovel
SemTxvevaSi saWiroa migraciuli literaturis adgilis gansazRvra dRevandel kroskulturul sivrceSi, imis kvleva da gaazreba, Tu ra gavlenas axdens literaturuli velis ganviTarebaze postsabWoTa epoqa, migraciuli literaturuli Senakadebi,
masTan dakavSirebuli identobaTa cvladobani, fsiqosocialuri
faqtorebi, mwerlobis socializaciis dRevandeli niSnulebi,
postmodernistuli viTarebis kulturuli da esTetikuri dominantebi.
literatura:
bhabha 1994: BhabhaThe Location of Culture. New York: Routledge
tolkaCevi 2013: .. .
. . . . 2013,
2.http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/problemy-gibridnoyidentichnosti-v-sovremennoy-multikulturnoyliterature#ixzz3me6rStyS
litovskaia 2013: VII saerTaSoriso simpoziumi. literatura
devnilobaSi masalebi .2013 2:436-446.
saidi 2003: , .
1, 2003, accessed 1 September 2013; available from
http://magazines.russ.ru/inostran/2003/1/saide.htm
xaratiSvili 2014: Haratischwili N. Das achte Leben (fr Brilka)
Frankfurter Verlagsanstalt
xaratiSvili 2014: http://lustauflesen.de/gespraech-mit-nino-haratischwili/

164

NnaTela Citauri, Sorena SamanaZe

Natela Chitauri, Shorena Shamanadze


From the order of modernist society to the postmodernist chaos
(Based on Nino Kharatishvilis The Eighth Life for Brilka)
The current intercultural, global processes and the postmodernist
situation of the discussion have made many problems not being under
attention before, the subject to discussion. The interest towards chaos and
the cosmos is interesting in the modern world full of contradictions. We
believe that the differences between the modernist and postmodernist
situations originally relates to the oppositional condition of the cosmos
and the chaos. It is believed that modernism exists only in the conditions
of order, while the definition of order is left unattended in the
postmodernist society. Todays literature is the process towards chaos; to
be more precise, from modernist order towards postmodernist chaos,
which is reasoned by several significant causes. The most extensive
causes for the chaotic features of literature today are the migration
processes. During the last several years, literature is not just the dialogue
between national literatures and cultures. Migration processes have
currently given the literary space the wide scale both in geographic and
qualitative context. The literature of the 21st century, including Georgian,
is being formed as the new intercultural/migration model. To the
background d of ongoing processes the given model reflects the road
from order to chaotic situation, which is mainly reasoned by the
following: the dynamic changeability of identities; the diverse,
unpredictable philosophical and psychological, social and ideological and
creative aspects, which are being formed in the process of estrangement
from the strange environment.
Following types of chaos are defined: migration, post-soviet,
social, creative-expressional, genre
From the order of modernist society to postmodernist chaos the
literary representations of the given path are most clearly reflected in the
modern intercultural and migration writing. As an example we can name:
post-soviet chaos Levan Beridzes novel The Handicap; social chaos
Nana Ekvrimishvilis novel The Peer Field; migration and postmodernist
chaos Nino Kharatishvilis novel The Eighth Life for Brilka.

laSa CxartiSvili

qaosi Tanamedroveobis
romeo da julietaSi
21-e saukunis qarTul TeatrSi intensiurad idgmeba Seqspiris piesebi, maT
Soris, makbeti da romeo da julieta. yvelaze metad radikaluri scenuri
interpretaciebi (speqtaklebis koncefciisa da formis gaTvaliswinebiT) ki romeo da julietas dadgmebSi SeimCneva,
romelic TiTqos gvarianad Sordeba kidec pirvelwyaros, originalur teqsts.
piesaSi, romelSic yvelaferi mizezSedegobriv kavSirSia da saaTiviT aris awyobili movlenaTa Tanmimdevroba, epizodebi
logikuri jaWviT ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs,
Tanamedrove
dadgmebSi
pirvelwyaros
dramaturgiul-konceptualuri
sistema
irRveva da sruliad axali, xSir SemTxvevaSi qaosuri realoba iSleba mayureblis Tvalwin.
areuloba Tanamedroveobis romeo
da julietas sxvadasxva scenur interpretaciaSi gansxvavebuli formiT, motiviT da saxiT gvxdeba. speqtaklebis ganxorcielebisas Tu erTgan reJisorebi
Seqspiris teqsts qaosurad warmogvidgenen, meoregan speqtaklis Janrul uwesrigobas vxvdebiT, an dadgmis stilistikis srul disharmonias.

166

laSa CxartiSvili

dramaturgiuli pirvelwyaros struqturis darRveva, axleburi koncefciebis Seqmna scenuri interpretaciebis saSualebiT,
speqtaklebis Janrul-stilisturi aRreva ganpirobebulia globaluri procesebiT, romelTac TeatrSic SeaRwia, xelovnebis saxeobaSi, romelic cxovrebis sarkea da masSi areklavs mxolod
dRevandelobas.
samyaro, romelSic vcxovrobT, TiTqos harmoniulobis princips gascda da qaosis mdgomareobaSi gadavida. swored am qaosSi
gacilebiT mniSvnelovania da xelsayreli axleburi urTierTobebis, siyvarulisa Tu politikuri bataliebis, dapirispirebebis
danaxva ise, rogorc aqamde aravis ucdia daenaxa, radgan samyaros, Tavisi mdgomareobis sxvadasxva etapze, sxva problemebi
hqonda gadasaWreli. am areulobaSi ki gamoikveTa axali epoqisTvis damaxsiaTebeli problemebis speqtri da ciklebi, romelTa
gadaWras Teatris reJisorebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli meTodiT da principiT cdiloben.
postsabWoTa qarTuli Teatris Seqspiris romeo da julietas scenur interpretaciebSi mniSvnelovani gardatexa reJisor giorgi margvelaSvilis dadgmam - julieta da romeo
(TumaniSvilis Teatri, 2002 w.) moaxdina. aman ubiZga 21-e saukunis axal dadgmebs. Tavad goga margvelaSvilis dadgmis koncefcia Seapiroba TanamedroveobaSi mimdinare procesebma, genderul omSi ZalTa axalma gadanawilebam da im qaosma, romelic am
brZolebma gamoiwvia. giorgi margvelaSvilis speqtaklSi mTavari
Zala julieta (msaxiobi ia suxitaSvili) iyo da ara romeo.
qalTa aqtiurobam sazogadoebriv, socialur-politikur cxovrebaSi asaxva hpova speqtaklSi da is gamoixata ara mxolod saTauris SecvliT, aramed movlenebiT, romlebic julieta da romeo-Si gaTamaSda. genderul qaosSi gamoikveTa axali Taobis da
epoqis problemebi _ mamakacebis gavlenebis Sesusteba, maTi indiferentuloba, nihilizmiT ganmsWvalva da motivaciebisgan dacla.
am fonze gamoikveTa qalis aqtiuroba da Zala, SesaZleblobebi,
romlebic bevrad aRemateba mamakacisas. maT ikisres pasuxismgebloba da funqciebi sazogadoebaSi, ramac erTgvari qaosi Seqmna.
movlenaTa arev-darevis yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTs vxvdebiT mixeil marmarinosis mier ganxorcielebuli dadgmiT R+J;
bediswera dabneulia; romeo da julieta; mesame mexsiereba (TumaniSvilis Teatri; 2012 w.). speqtakli Sinaarsobrivad da siuJeturi konstruqciiTac gvarianad daSorebulia originalur

qaosi Tanamedroveobis `romeo da julietaSi~

167

teqsts. is sulac ar gaxlvaT Seqspiris cnobili tragediis


romeo da julieta axleburi scenuri interpretacia, arc am
tragediis zust da Tanmimedvreul recefciasTan gvaqvs saqme.
(originaluri teqsti berZnulidan Targmna veriko mgelaZem, teqstze muSaobdnen manana anTaZe da daTa TavaZe). es aris marmarinosis sruliad axali fsiqologiurfilosofiuranalitikuri
(SesaZloa, politikuric) gansja aqtualur adamianur problemaTa jaWvisa Seqspiris romeo da julietas mixedviT.
reJisorma am konkretul dadgmaSi Teatraluri xerxebis,
meTodebis, formebis erToblioba Seqmna. maT Soris, performansis forma da interaqtivis meTodi, romlebic logikurad erwymis erTmaneTs speqtaklSi. interaqtiuloba mxolod msaxiobTa
da mayurebelTa Soris gamarTul dialogSi rodi igulisxmeba,
darRveulia darbazSi mayurebelTa tradiciuli ganlagebis sistemac. zRvari mayurebelsa da parters Soris mTlianad moSlilia, nawili scenidan adevnebs Tvals movlenebs, nawili ki parteridan, samoqmedo sivrce Sesabamisad SeuzRudavi aqvs msaxiobebsac. isini xSirad parteris rigebidanac TamaSoben. amiT reJisorma mayurebeli garda imisa, rom speqtaklSi gaTamaSebul movlenaTa epicentrSi moaqcia, am warmodgenis uSualo monawilec
gaxada. garda amisa, reJisorma xazi gausva imas, rom rac TamaSdeba Cveni epoqisa da yofis nawilia, is gmirebi, romlebic Cvens
garSemo trialeben, speqtaklis msvlelobisas Cveni sazogadoebis
wevrebi arian da piriqiT.
speqtaklis moqmedeba Cveni drois saqarTveloSia gadmotanili, Tumca reJisoris mignebuli es xazi Sua speqtaklidan ikargeba, zogadi da aqtualuri problematika ki kidev ufro zogaddeba da garkveul epizodebSi bundovanic xdeba. konkretuli yofiTi da qarTveli mayureblisTvis axlobeli realobidan siuJeti kvlav zogad globalur sibrtyeze inacvlebs. kontrastulobis es principi sainteresod viTardeba speqtaklSi, romelic
vrceldeba ara mxolod siuJetis geografiul arealze, aramed
personaJebis sqeszec ki, magaliTad, romeosa da julietas pirveli Sexvedris epizods qali msaxiobebi: qeTa SaTiriSvili da
kato kalatoziSvili gaiTamaSeben. (yajriSvili g., 2012.) mixeil marmarinosi gvTavazobs rom movlenebi unda viTardebodes
asociaciuri siCqariT fiqrSic da moqmedebaSic da im sasceno
sivrceSi, romelic man aago, asec xdeba. sivrce or donedaa ganlagebuli, pirveli mayurebelTa savarZlebTan axlos, sadac

168

laSa CxartiSvili

aqcentirebulia iseTi intimuri scenebi rogorebicaa pirveli


Rame, sawamlavi da sasaflao. meore ufro mocilebuli
wina rigebidan ZiriTadi asparezia, sadac mimdinareobs danarCeni
qmedeba. mag., cnobili Ramis aivnis scena. es yvelaze romantikuli da lamazi fragmenti u. Seqspiris romeo da julietadan
yvelgan kulminaciuria reJisoruli gadawyvetis TvalsazrisiT.
speqtaklis monawile msaxiobebs TamaSi uxdebaT yofiTobisa
da mistikurobis zRvarze. xSirad vxvdebiT paralelur monologebsa da dialogebs, romlebic qaosSi gadaizrdeba. msaxiobTa sizusteze, intonaciasa da mobilizebulobaze bevri ram aris damokidebuli. gare xmauris rigi, msaxiobTa paraleluri da xSirad gadamkveTi teqsti da aseTive principiT gamoyenebuli musika, romelic qaosis asociacias qmnis, sinTezSi kosmiuri wesrigia, an iluzia, romelic mayureblis gonebaSi warmoiSoba.
2012 welsve vaso abaSiZis saxelobis musikisa da dramis
TeatrSi daviT mRebriSvilma ganaxorciela Seqspiris romeo da
julieta. reJisori keTilsindisierad xdeba dramaturgiuli
pirvelwyaros erTguli. teqstis interpretaciisas ar ereva
uxeSad arc siuJetSi da arc movlenaTa gadajgufebas axdens.
daviT mRebriSvilma samyaro erT did morgad gadaaqcia. is daeyrdno piesas, romlis personaJTa umetesobac kvdeba. amitomac is
speqtakls personaJTa sikvdilis momentidan iwyebs. gardacvlilTa ambavs ZiZa (nanka kalatoziSvili) yveba. daviT mRebriSvili speqtaklSi politikur qaoss gviCvenebs, romelSic, rogorc maxeSi, gaexvivnen Seyvarebuli wyvili da misi megobrebi.
isini politikuri uqesrigobis msxverplni arian. am samyaroSi
xalxi an kvdeba, an mas piri aqvs axveuli, amaze metyvelebs
mTxrobelis, ZiZis kostiumi, ZaZebSi gamoxveul msaxiob nanka kalatoziSvils piri aqvs akruli. mas laparakis ufleba ar aqvs.
amitomac speqtakli pesimistur, sasowarkveTil atmosferoSi
mimdinareobs. gansxvavebulad da aratradiciulad gaazrebulia
grafi parisis mxatvruli saxec, romelsac imeda arabuli
warmoadgens. misi gmiri aracalxazovania, arc miamiti da mokrZalebuli, rogorc mas tradiciulad TamaSobdnen. is sakmaod gavleniani grafia, Sesabamisad Tavdajerebuli da warmatebuli, gazuluqebuli Cinovniki, romelic faqtobrivad yidulobs julietas. parisi monstria, romelmac daalaga samyaro da daamyara
wesrigi gvamebiT.

qaosi Tanamedroveobis `romeo da julietaSi~

169

radikalurad gansxvavebuli koncefcia SesTavaza mayurebels


irakli gogiam axmetelis TeatrSi (premiera Sedga 2015 wels)
ganxorcielebul Seqspiris romeo da julietas dadgmaSi, romelSic reJisori samyaros garkveuli periodebis (Seqspiris xanidan dRemde) monacvleobis fonze RirebulebaTa dacema-gadafasebis process gviCvenebs, romelic warmoCnda mudmivi areulobisa da qaosis Sedegad.
Tanamedroveobis romeo da julieta Ramis klubSi xvdebian
erTmaneTs, sadac eri da beria Sekrebili. speqtaklis saeqspozicio nawili mTlianad gadawyvetilia rogorc amqveyniuri, yofiTi, vnebebiT gaJRenTili sivrce, romelic moicva srulma qaosma.
aq Znelia, gaarCio da daadgino personaJTa identoba. maT arc
niRbebi ukeTiaT da arc gansakuTrebuli kostiumebi acviaT. isini Cveni drois adamianebi arian, magram movlenaTa msvlelobis
paralelurad isini individebad ikveTebian da ukan brundebian
droSi. am areulobaSi ikveTeba swored ori arSemdgari adamianis
daudevrobisa Tu egoistobis Sedegi - romeosa da julietas
tragedia. irakli gogias seqtaklSi anaqronia mTavari xerxia im
problemebis gamosaaSkaraveblad, romlebsac piesaSi avtori
Seexo. reJisori teqstSi Caurevlad cdilobs problemebis gansxvavebulad da Tanamedroved warmoCenas. agoniis piras misuli
samyaros warmoCeniT irakli gogiam aCvena procesi, romelic Seqspiris xanidan moyolebuli dRemde grZeldeba. samyaros ngrevis
da am SedegiT gamowveul qaosis process gviCvenebs axmetelis
Teatris speqtakli romeo da julieta.
gamodis, rom qaoss Tanamedroveobis romeo da julietaSi
sxvadasxva xelovanebi gansxvavbeulad aRiqvamen da gadmoscemen
TavianT speqtaklebSi, magram is namdvilad arsebobs, rogorc
samyaros erT-erTi mTavari maxasiaTebeli yvela drosa da sivrceSi.
literatura:
yajriSvili g., R+J+Z sami ganzomileba.
www.Georgiantheatre.ge; 8-04-2012.
[http://georgiantheatre.ge/58-rjzsamiganzomileba.html#sthash.97BI6JNv.dpuf]

170

laSa CxartiSvili

Lasha Chkhartishvili
The Chaos of Modern times in "Romeo and Juliet"
In Georgian theatre of XXI century intensively is staged
Shakespeare's plays. Between them are "Macbeth" and "Romeo and
Juliet". It's more radical interpretation at the scenic (considering
performances concept and form) in "Romeo and Juliet" performances are
observed in which it turns away from the sources of the original text.
Performance in which everything is related with cause effect and is
assembled with sequence of events, episodes are connected with logical
chain to each other. In modern performances original dramatic conceptual
system is violated and completely new chaotic reality is falling in front of
the viewer quite often.
Mess of modernity of "Romeo and Juliet" in various scenic
interpretation can be found in different motive and form. If one director
presents Shakespeare's text chaotically, another one occurs genre disorder
or performance stylistics full of disharmony.
The dramatic structure of the original violation, create a new
concept with scenic interpretation, performances genre stylistic confusion
are conditioned with global processes, which is infiltrated the theatre, the
art which is a mirror of living and it reflects only current.
World in which we live, however passed the principle of harmony
and moved in chaos condition. Wright now, it's more important enabling
a new relationship of love, to see confrontation of politicians, so far as
anyone tried. As the world with variety of conditions it's various stages
had to solve other problems. In this confusion appeared a new era
characteristic problems and cycles. For this theatres directors are going to
solve this problem from each other with different principle and method.

mindia cecxlaZe

primordialuri qaosis
formaluri niSani Salva
bakuraZis poeziaSi
qaosi, rogorc kosmosis winare
mdgomareoba, rogorc primordialuri
fenomeni, Tanamedrove religiur-filosofiur azrovnebaSi mniSvnelovani konceptualuri niSania. Tanamedrove feministuri moZraoba, e.w. qalRmerTebis
feminizmi aris sinamdvilis erTgvari
feministuri, Tealogiuri xedva, igi arCevs da qmnis sicocxlis dasturmyofel
ginocentrul miTebs, raTa daupirispiros patriarqalur religiur modelebs
(raid-baueni 2007:39). es moZraoba da,
zogadad, ginocentruli diskursi formalurad
emsgavseba
nicSeanur-dekonstruqcionistul paradigmas, maTTvis saerToa qaosis, gaxdomis, qmnadobis, droiTobis da sicocxlis dasturyofa
yofnis fiqsirebuli mdgomareobebis
dasturyofis sapirispirod, aseve saerToa dapirispireba patriarqalur religiur-filosofiur samyarosTan (raid-baueni 2007:127-128). patriarqalur diskursSi qaosi asocirdeba qalurobasTan,
romelic saWiroebs kontrols mamakacuri Zalis mier. miuxedavad imisa, rom qaosi aris warmomSobi wyaro, igi negatiuradaa Sefasebuli. qalRmerTebis femi-

172

mindia cecxlaZe

nizmi rodi uaryofas wesrigs, Tealogiuri gagebiT qaosi warmoSobs wesrigs, oRond igi mudmivi rodia (raid-baueni 2007:129).
aq aSkaraa msgavseba dekonstruqcionistul paradigmasTan,
marTlac feministebma aiTvises deridas mosazreba, rom dasavleTis prezensis metafizikis logocetrizmi aseve SeiZleba gaviazroT, rogorc falocentrizmi. idea, rom mamakaci ufro racionaluria, vidre qali da amitomac imsaxurebs ufro met Zalauflebas, asaxulia dasavluri metafizikisTvis centralur metaforebSi, rogorc feministebma aCvenes, racionalizmis da humanizmis metaforebSi azrovneba falosis Tvisebebs flobs (agresiuli, mtkice) maSin, roca is, rasac azrovneba eufleba warmodgenilia qalis sasqeso organos TvisebebiT (areuli, dabneuli, is,
rac saWiroebs organizebas) (kenedi... 1995:195-196).
qalRmerTebis feminizmi yuradRebas amaxvilebs im religiebze, romlebic qaoss dadebiTad ganixilaven (raid-baueni
2007:129). esenia qalRmerTis religiebi da miTologiebi, romlebic evropaSi yvaoda Zv.w. meSvide aTaswleulSi. saubaria didi dedis kultze, romelic, savarudod, mTels evropaSi dominirebda (limingi 2005:320).
Salva bakuraZis poeziaSi ginocentrul perspeqtivaze saubari ganpirobebulia sicocxlis dasturyofis da feminuri
diskursis niSnebis TanaarsebobiT. ginocentrul TealogiaSi qali da kaci Tanabrad dasturyofilia da, amave dros, seqsualoba
soteriologiis nawilia. ginocentrul religiebad ganixileba
tantra da daoizmi. qalisadmi pozitiuri damokidebulebis konteqstiT nicSe axsenebs zogadad sicocxlis dasturyofis diskurss manus kanonebSi (nicSe 2005:56-57). tantrisa da daoizmis
garda seqsualoba soteriologiis nawilia ebraul kabalaSi, sufizmsa da vajraiana budizmSi. Salva bakuraZis teqstebi moicavs
eqsplicitur miniSnebas aRmosavlur mistikur diskursebze, rogorebicaa daoizmi da vedanta, aRsaniSnavia bhagavadgitas aluzia. teqstebSi miniSnebulia qalis da seqsualobis dasturyofa,
sakralizeba-idealizeba. ginocentrulobis yvelaze TvalsaCino
gamoxatulebaa pasaJi leqsidan iosebi, romelic eqspliciturad, citaciis doneze ukavSirdeba ginocentrul daoizms:
Cvens safuZvels dedaSi vxedav
Cven gviyvars kveba dedisagan
Cvens axlo mdgom dedas veTayvanebi (bakuraZe 2013:31).

primordialuri qaosis formaluri niSani Salva bakuraZis poeziaSi

173

ginocentrulobis niSnebi Salva bakuraZis poeziaSi vrceli argumentaciis sagania, aq Cemi mizania qaosis niSnis konkretuli konceptualuri gaazreba, rac ukavSirdeba zogadad Salva
bakuraZis poeziis hermenevtikul gaazrebas da aseve zemoxsenebul diskursebs.
nicSesTan filosofia, zogadad, ena aris Rirebuli ara
reprezentaciuli, aramed pragmatuli TvalsazrisiT (bunini...
2003:834), aseve deliozi gansazRvravs filosofias rogorc
konceptebis Seqmnas, sadac konceptebi arc WeSmaritia, arc
mcdari. konceptebis sargeblianoba mxolod problemebSia, romlebiTac mas ZaluZs Cveni daintereseba, da azrovnebis axal
gzebSi, romlebsac igi qmnis (gudCaildi, 2002:26). deliozis
azriT, mwerlebi iseTive moazrovneebi arian, rogorebic filosofosebi, ubralod, isini azrovneben ara cnebebis, aramed sityvebis meSveobiT (smiTi... 2013:25).
haidegeris mixedviT, azrovneba da poezia enas ki ar iyeneben gamoxatvisaTvis, aramed swored maTi saSualebiT yalibdeba
ena (eldriji 2009:64). sityva ki ar warmoadgens, aramed qmnis
mniSvnelobebs, sityva qmnis sagnebs, ise, rogorc Cven gvesmis
sagnebi, realobaSi arsebuli sagnebi Cvens gonebaSi Semodis sityvis da ara ramegvari mentaluri Sesatyvisis meSveobiT. sityvis
gareSe ar arsebobs azri. am azriTaa ena yofnis saxli haidegerTan. mentaluri Sesatyvisis ararsebobis gamo, sityvebis mier
mniSvnelobis warmoqmna araa stabiluri da dasrulebuli procesi (eldriji, 2009:68), enas aqvs Tavisi utyuari yofna mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac mniSvnelobaTa axali korelaciebi da
amgvarad - Tumca ara aucileblad - axali sityvebi da frazebi
emateba mas gagebis Sedegad (uotsi 2011:164). Tumca yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi es Tviseba dakargulia (malpasi... 2015:121) da
mxolod poeturi sityva aRidgens mas (uotsi 2011:164).
Sesabamisad, poeturi ena aris polifonia da e.w. orazrovani orazrovneba ara im azriT, rom oridan erT-erTia WeSmariti mniSvneloba, aramed msgavsi orazrovneba or dapirispirebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs arastabilurobas. igi saerTod ar
awarmoebs orazrovnebas arsebuli mniSvnelobebisgan, aramed
aTavsebs orazrovnebas sivrceSi, romelic am mniSvnelobaTa SuaSia da arc erTs warmoadgens da arc meores, haidegerTan
adamiani, sagnebi da ena, yvelaferi moyvanilia moZraobaSi da

174

mindia cecxlaZe

ganZarculia daswrebulobis raimegvari pretenziisgan (dalstromi 2011:226).


haidegeris hermenevtika dekonstruqcionistul paradigmas
afuZnebs metafizikis nicSeanuri dekonstruqciis safuZvelze,
Jak derida aRrmavebs am dekonstruqcias prezensis metafizikis
kritikiT, xolo pol de mans literaturaSi gadmoaqvs deridas
koncefcia, romlis Tanaxmadac, teqstebis kiTxvisas Cven unda
veZioT iseTi niSani, simbolo, metafora, romelic iwvevs orazrovnebas, dabneulobas da sabolood teqstis mniSvnelobas gadauwyvetadobis velSi aqcevs anu teqstis erTaderT swor interpretacias SeuZlebels xdis, es gulisxmobs TviTdamxobis
usasrulo process (kenedi... 1995:173), jonaTan qaleris mixedviT, teqsts, Tavisi marginaluri elementebis ZaliT ZaluZs
daamxos wina wakiTxvebi (kenedi... 1995:191)
wakiTxvis da gagebis msgavsi SeuZlebloba aris dekonstruqciis mTavari debuleba. radikaluri hermenevtika aris
mzaoba icxovro iluziis gareSe (kaputo 1987:146) da igulisxmeba deridanuli gadauwyvetadobis, dionisuri qaosis pirispir
darCena, apolonuri wesrigis iluziis gareSe yofna. mkvlevrebi
am bolo dros saubroben gadamers da deridas Soris dialogis
SesaZleblobaze da akavSireben hermenevtikas da dekonstruqcias,
swored am azriT, radikaluri hermenevtika SeiZleba vuwodoT
midgomas, romelic, marTalia, bolomde ar uaryofs teqstis wakiTxvis SesaZleblobas, magram uaryofs erTaderT swor da ucvlel gagebas anu warmoadgens ramdenime SesaZlo interpretacias, ramdenime perspeqtivas.
Salva bakuraZis leqsSi saidanac unda daviwyoT avtori/lirikuli gmiri sabolood mkiTxvelSi aTavsebs mniSvnelobis
warmoqmnis SesaZleblobas, Tanac warmoqmnis procesi arasodesaa
dasrulebuli, droebiT apolonur wesrigs isev angrevs dionisuri qaosi, Tavad avtori teqstebs qmnis imgvarad, rom warmoiqmneba deridanuli gadauwyvetadoba, xdeba maradiuli dabruneba
teqstebTan, mudmivi TviTdamxoba: mniSvnelobaTa dionisur qaosze dawesebuli apolonuri wesrigi da sazrisi gamudmebiT da
ganmeorebiT ingreva da xelaxla iqmneba:
arasdros gasxla Cemi wigni, masSi verc erTi
sityva ver lerwobs Sens gareSe, didxans veZebdi
Sesafer miwas, Sesafer mzes, Sesafer wvimas
leqsnergebi rom gadmomergo SenSi gulidan

primordialuri qaosis formaluri niSani Salva bakuraZis poeziaSi

175

da axla ukve roca yvavis baRis mecxredi,


vxev cocxal furclebs uangaro siyvaruliT da
Rrma mowiwebiT kvlav gulTan mimaqvs (bakuraZe 2013:39).
haidegeris fraza ena yofnis saxlia teqstSi mcire perifraziTaa warmodgenili:
sityvebi TiTqos balaxia erTi SexedviT,
magram kargad Tu daakvirdi, maTi fexebi
vazis fesviviT cecxlgamZlea da ufro metic,
me maTze vsaxlob, maTze mZinavs, maTze davdivar
da am venaxSi erTxel mainc Tuki Sexvedi
da sityvis suni SeigrZeni, getyvi namdvilad,
mefe ki ara, rom iyo RmerTi,
am silamazes ver daTmobdi albaT advilad.
leqsSi stumris simRera, avtori acxadebs, rom gzaa da
gamtaria mxolod, haidegeris mixedviT, yofnis Secnoba mxolod
Cvens mcdelobaze rodia damokidebuli, aramed yofnis mier
TviTgamxelaze, Sesabamisad, xelovani aris Suamavali, pasiuri
gamtari, xelovnebis nawarmoebSi warmoCndeba yofnis es aRmatebuloba, xelovneba Cveni mniSvnelobebis Tavsmoxvevisgan, yalbi
proecirebis mcdelobisgan gvaTavisuflebs, gvixsnis (roJeviCi
2006:194). nicSes Tanaxmadac, poeti unda iyos pirveladi erTianobis, dionisuri qaosis eqstazuri ganwyobis Suamavali da
gamtari (biSopi 2012:60). leqsSi miniSnebulia, rom avtori
transcendentuli arsis gamtaria:
me mas ver vxedav da yvelaze gabedul fiqrSic,
ver warmovidgen mis arsebas.
apofatika postmodernistul paradigmaSi swored hegemoniuri narativebis dekonstruqciis konteqstSi moiazreba (boeve
1997:420), radgan RmerTi, plotiniseuli erTi, absoluti Tu
uzenaesi WeSmariteba aris yvelaferi yvelaferSi da araferi
romelime maTganSi (perli 2007:31) anu yvela adamianSi sxvadasxvagvaradaa warmodgenili (perli 2007:44).
man ganmimarta poezia, rom Cemi weriT
mimyavs yoveli TqvenTagani axal locvanTan
da am sinaTlis momrev
bnels rom ar vicnob, rom gaxarebT, vsunTqav da vmReri,
igi mamRerebs, Torem
am simReraze fiqric guls amomwvavda (bakuraZe 2013:44).

176

mindia cecxlaZe

haidegeris mixedviT, eqsistencialuri gamocdilebis aRwerisas reifikaciisa da Teoretizaciis aridebis mizniT, saWiroa formaluri miniSneba, rac gulisxmobs ara raRacis mtkicebas Seumcdari da absoluturi codnis miwodebis pretenziiT,
aramed mimarTulebis zomier miniSnebas im movlenisken, romelsac vikvlevT, Sedegis winaswar dadginebis gareSe, imgvarad, rom
darCes Semdgomi dazustebis da Sesworebis SesaZlebloba (malpasi... 2015:109). es ar niSnavs inteleqtualuri sizarmacis waxalisebas da konceptualizmTan dapirispirebas, Tumca igi agvaridebs konceptualur dogmatizms (malpasi... 2015:110).
mkiTxvelis mier warmoqmnili mniSvneloba interpretaciis
Sedegia, xolo interpretacia gulisxmobs e.w. niRbebis Cxvletas, rogorc deliozis aRniSnavs, filosofoss uwevs religiuri niRbis tareba; erTi mxriv, man unda irwmunos am niRbis, romlis damarcxeba mas ZaluZs misTvis axali azris miniWebiT, romelic gamoxatavs namdvilad antireligiur Zalas (deliozi
2002:5). anu religiuri niSani SesaZloa mxolod formaluradaa
religiuri da warmoadgens filosofiur koncepts, Cven ver vendobiT teqstis eqsplicitur aspeqts.
magaliTad, Seucnobadoba misticizmSi transcendentur
realobas da mistikur gamocdilebas mimemarTeba, xolo filosofiaSi - imanenturobas. JorJ batai uwodebs mas Sinagan gamocdilebas, mistikurs gamocdilebas, Tumca batai, mxolod
iyenebs mistikuri mimarTebebis CarCos, raTa gaauqmos igi, batai
blanSos msgavsad, gvTavazobs Seucnobelis axal Teologias,
oRond es Seucnobeli araa RmerTi (kereti 1999:21). deliozTan sicocxlis realoba Seucnobadia, radgan igi miuwvdomelia
saRi azris im kategoriebisTvis, romlebiTac Cven Cveulebriv
SevimecnebT sagnebs. es ki, cxadia ar gulisxmobs transcendentulis mistikur gamocdilebas (heinzi 2012:71).
sagulisxmoa, rom Salva bakuraZis poeziaSi Tavad enis,
poeziis polifoniurobis konceptic formaluri niSania, romelic SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT rogorc dasavlur, ise aRmosavlur
diskursebs, radgan teqstebSi orive maTgania warmodgenili. saubaria haidegeris da daoizmis dialogis SesaZleblobaze am
TvalsazrisiT (Ji 2012:40), amave konteqstSi ganixileba Zen-budizmi (Ji 2012:53), haidegeris ena yofnis saxlia SeiZleba SevadaroT sufi mistikosi hafizis frazas: rasac vsaubrobT,
xdeba saxli, sadac Cven vcxovrobT (murzi 2006:120). filoso-

primordialuri qaosis formaluri niSani Salva bakuraZis poeziaSi

177

fosi daviT andriaZe saubrobs haidegeris mimarTebaze sufiur


konteqstTan swored poeziis gaazrebis TvalsazrisiT (andriaZe
2010:1). aRmosavlur da, zogadad, mistikur diskursebSi bundovanebis funqcia azrovnebis miRma gasvlac aris.
Sesabamisad, Salva bakuraZis teqstebis kiTxva gulisxmobs hegemoniuri narativebis dekonstruqcias da, SesaZloa, azrovnebis mistikur gadalaxvasac, upirvelesad ki dionisuri
qaosis pirispir apolonuri iluziis gareSe darCenas.
literatura:
andriaZe 2010: andriaZe, d.; xelaxali Rendez-Vous (kultursemiologiuri kontaminaciebi); Jurnal semiotikis blogi,
2010.11.30
bakuraZe 2013: bakuraZe S.; dasdebelni wmindisa aRdgomisani.
Tbilisi. gamomc. axali saunje.
biSopi 2012: Bishop P.; A Companion to Friedrich Nietzsche: Life and
Works. Rochester: Camden House.
boeve 1997: Boeve L.; Postmodernism and Negative Theology.
International Journal in Philosophy and Theology "Bijdragen" N
58. Online Journal.
bunini... 2003: Bunnin N.; Tsui-James E.; The Blackwell Companion to
Philosophy. Padstow: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
gudCaildi 2002: Goodchild Ph.; Philosophy. New York: Fordham
University Press.
dalstromi 2011: Dahlstrom D. O. ; Interpreting Heidegger: Critical
Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
deliozi 2002: Deleuze G. ; Nietzsche and Philosophy. Trowbridge:
Continuum.
eldriji 2009: Eldridge R. Th.; The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy
and Literature. New York: Oxford University Press.
kaputo 1987: Caputo, John D.; Radical Hermeneutics: Repetition,
Deconstruction, and the Hermeneutic Project; Indiana University
Press; Bloomington; Indianapolis;
kenedi... 1995: Kennedy, George Alexander; Selden, Raman; The
Cambridge History of Literary Criticism; Volume 8; Cambridge
University Press; Cambridge;
kereti 1999: Carrette, Jeremy R.; Religion and Culture; Routledge;
New York;

178

mindia cecxlaZe

limingi 2005: Leeming, David; The Oxford Companion to World


Mythology; Oxford University Press: New York;
malpasi... 2015: Malpas J.; Gander H.; The Routledge Companion to
Hermeneutics. Abingdon: Routledge.
murzi 2006: Moores, D. J.; ;Mystical Discourse in Wordsworth and
Whitman: A Transatlantic Bridge. Leuven: Peeters.
nicSe 2005: Nietzsche, Friedrich; The Anti-Christ, Ecce Homo, Twilight
of the Idols & Other Writings; Cambridge University Press; New
York;
perli 2007: Perl E.D.; Theophany: The Neoplatonic Philosophy of
Dionysius the Areopagite. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Ji 2012: Zhi Y. ; Poetic Leaps in Zen's Journey of Enlightenment.
Bloomington: iUniverse, Inc.
raid-baueni 2007: Reid-Bowen, Paul; Goddess as Nature: Towards a
Philosophical Thealogy; Ashgate; Bodmin;
roJeviCi 2006: Rojcewicz, Richard; Gods and Technology, The: A
Reading of Heidegger; State University of New York; Albany;
smiTi... 2013: Smith D. W.; Somers-Hall H. ; The Cambridge
Companion to Deleuze.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
uotsi 2011: Watts M.; The Philosophy of Heidegger. Abingdon:
Routledge.
heinzi 2012: Haynes, Patrice; Immanent Transcendence: Reconfiguring
Materialism in Continental Philosophy; Bloomsbary; Chennai.

Mindia Tsetskhladze
Formal Sign of Primordial Chaos In Shalva Bakuradzes Poetry
Chaos, as a pre-cosmic condition, as a primordial phenomenon is
important conceptual sign in a contemporary thought. Modern feminist
movements are reviving old gynocentric religions and mythology to
oppose patriarchal religious paradigm. These gynocentric religions, at
least formally, have something common with contemporary Nietzscheandeconstructionist paradigm, namely, affirmation of chaos, becoming,
temporality and life as opposed to affirmation of fixed states of being.
In Shalva Bakuradzes poetry there is indicated gynocentric
discourse and on the other hand, in his poetries author is indicating that
his poetry should be read in deconstructive manner, which means that

primordialuri qaosis formaluri niSani Salva bakuraZis poeziaSi

179

readings are constantly subverting thereselves and some constant


meaning is never created and established, Apollonian illusion is
constantly destroyed by Dionysian chaos of ambiguity and Derridean
undecidability.
Heideggerian phrase Language is a house of being is slightly
pariphrased in his poetry called Where we should start, indicating that
we should start reading authors poetries by considering Heideggerian
concept of language; texts contain formal indications, as understood by
Heidegger, which means that signs in texts are not clearly established
concepts and can be viewed in contexts of both religious-mystical and
Nietzschean-deconstructionist paradigms, because between these
paradigms there are some formal similarities.

eka WyoiZe

`simdidre: qaosis mizezi Tu


kosmosis safuZveli?~

aristofane ara Tu antikurobis,


aramed yvela epoqis saukeTeso komikos
poetad rCeba dRemde. logikuria, rom
simdidrisa da masTan dakavSirebuli
atributebi (fuli, qoneba, Zvirfaseuloba, fufunebis nivTebi da a.S.), rogorc mniSvnelovani sazogadoebrivi faqtori, ver darCeboda misi yuradRebis
miRma. amave saTauris komedia anu plutosi Cvenamde moRweuli misi ukanaskneli komediaa. TariRdeba Zv. w. a. 388
wliT. aristofane daibada Zv. w. a. 452
an 445 w., anu aTenis brwyinvale, mSvidobian da bednier epoqaSi, roca perikle parTenons aSenebda (gaixsna 432
wels). tradiciis Tanaxmad, aristofanes
44 komedia dauweria maTgan 37-is saTauria cnobili, xolo mTlianad moRweulia 11 (aristofane 2013: 367). plutosic erT-erTi maTgani, anu qronologiurad boloa am 11-Si. aristofane plutosis dadgmis wels gardaicvala. aqve
unda aRiniSnos, rom Sua saukuneebSi
swored `plutosi~ iyo aristofanes
yvelaze ufro popularuli komedia (antikuri literatura 2009: 151). cnobilia, rom amis Semdeg aristofanes kidev
ori komedia dauweria (isterlingi

`simdidre qaosis mizezi Tu kosmosis safuZveli?~

181

2003: 532), romlebsac Cvenamde ar mouRwevia.


rogorc aRvniSneT, plutosi exeba yvela drois, yvela
sazogadoebis, yvela qveynis da yvela civilizaciis adamianis maradiul survilsa da ltolvas keTildReobisa da simdidris
mopovebisaken. SemTxveviTi ar aris is faqti, rom simdidris
RmerTi anu plutosi aristofanesTan brmaa, rac gamoxatavs kacobriobis dauokebel da aseve maradiul Civils misi usamarTlobis gamo; is xom Tavis wyalobas arasamarTlianad anawilebs:
keTilTa nacvlad borot adamianebs umarTavs xels. aristofanes
es komedia zRaprul garemoSi viTardeba. zogi mkvlevari mas miTologiur komediadac ki miiCnevs (isterlingi 2003: 535). aq ar
vxvdebiT misTvis damaxasiTebel uxams gamoTqmebs (TumcaRa, sul
uamisobac ar aris, mag. ukanalis da sxva organoebis `pirdapir~
xseneba (aristofanes 1992: 42) da Tavisi epoqis cnobili adamianebis daundobel kritikas. komediaSi aisaxeba aristofanes survili, gaigos, ra aris swori da ra ara. Sesabamisad, axalgazrdebis zneobrivi aRzrdis Tema am komediaSic erT-erTi centraluria. avtori plutosSi am xazs dasawyisidanve aviTarebs.
komediis dedaazri, rac qaosisa da kosmosis urTierTmimarTebasac emsaxureba, simdidris RmerTis usamarTlobis arsis gaarkvevaa. aris Tu ara am usamarTlobiT gamowveuli qaosi realurad
kosmosis safuZveli? anu ramdenad harmoniuli gaxda samyaro,
roca plutoss Tvalebi aexila da simdidris samarTlianad, damsaxurebisamebr gadanawileba daiwyo. am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad ramdenime sagulisxmo monakveTze gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas.
komedia iwyeba mTavari moqmedi piris, wesieri da Raribi qremilosis delfosis samisnoSi wasvliT, raTa apolonisgan Seityos,
gawvrTnas Tu ara Tavisi Svili usamarTlobaSi. apoloni mas
pirdapir, calsaxad ar upasuxebs, magram urCevs, taZridan gasvlisTanave pirvelive Semxvedri Sin waiyvanos. swored aseTi
pirveli Semxvedria moxuci brma, romelic mas simdidred anu
plutosad gaecnoba. qremilosi mas didi gaWirvebiT daiTanxmebs
Sin wayvanaze. manamde qremilosis dialogia gadmocemuli Tavis
gamWriax mona, karionasTan. swored aq gamoTqvams qremilosi Tavis sayvedurs, romelic savaraudod yvela wesier da keTilSobil adamians aRmoxdenia da Tanac, araerTxel: me, RvTismoSiS
da samarTlian kacs cudi yofa da siRaribe mergo. sxvebi ki gamdidrdnen: RvTismgmobni, ritorni, cilismwamebelni da cbierni
(aristofanes 1992: 32). swored es usamarTloba aiZulebs mas,

182

eka WyoiZe

apolons hkiTxos rCeva ara Tavis sasargeblod, aramed Tavisi


erTaderTi vaJis aRsazrdelad, xom ar unda Secvalos man cxovrebis wesi. da swored am kiTxvaze pasuxad miiRebs, rom pirvelive Semxvedri waiyvanos Sin. cxadia, es pasuxi Caafiqrebs mas
da yvelanairad cdilobs, axsna mouZebnos, da ase gadaeyreba
plutoss. Tavdapirvelad TvalSisacemia, Tu rogor aris aRwerili plutosi: brma, moxuci, daubaneli, mouvleli; misi Semxedvare adamiani Znelad irwmunebs, rom swored is ganagebs samyaros
simdidres da misi gadanawilebac mis xelTaa. qremilossac
uWirs amis dajereba (aristofanes 1992: 36). cxadia, qremiloss
surs gaigos, ratom aris plutosi brma. is zevss dausjia, radgan zevsi moSurneobs kacTa modgmas. plutoss axalgazrdobaSi
zevsi dauSinebia, mxolod keTil da saTno adamianebs davexmarebio da zevsma is daabrmava, raTa veravin gamoerCia. maSin qremilosi mas aseT kiTxvas usvams: Tu daibruneb Tvalis Cins, moeridebi borot adamianebs? plutosi hpirdeba, rom am SemTxvevaSi
mxolod marTalT moumarTavs xels, TumcaRa aRiarebs, rom aseTni karga xania aRar unaxavs. amaze sagulisxmoa qremilosis monis, karionasis pasuxi: isini aRarc me minaxavs karga xania, miuxedavad imisa, rom Sengan gansxvavebiT orive TvaliT mxedveli
varo. plutossac aqvs pretenzia adamianebisadmi: yvela cdilobs
mis gadabirebas, da Caigdeben Tu ara mas xelSi, anu gamdidrdebian Tu ara, aRar aqvs sasruli maT siglaxes; anu plutosi
adamianebs gansakuTrebiT simdidris mimarT gaumaZRrobas sayvedurobs, da amas gamonaklisi ar hqonia arasdros. plutosi uars
ambobs qremilosis SeTavazebaze, kvlav daubrundes Tvalis Cini,
radgan zevsis eSinia. sagulisxmoa qremilosis da karionasis
daskvnac, romelsac, Znelia ar daeTanxmo: plutosi anu simdidre erTaderTia, rac adamians arasdros bezrdeba da unda sul
ufro da ufro meti (CamoTvlili gancxomaTa da nivTebis sia,
romelic adamians odesRac mainc bezrdeba, maT Soris, am CamonaTvalSi pirvelia erosi, aristofane 1992: 47). moipovebs adamiani 13 talants? maSinve unda 16. da Tu moipovebs 16-s, mere
unda 40. is, rom plutoss anu simdidris RmerTs Tvalebi ar
unda aexilos, anu ar unda gaxdes samarTliani, amaze pirvelad
penia anu siRaribis qalRmerTi mianiSnebs. sagulisxmoa misi sityvebi qremilosisa da misi megobris blepsidemosTan warmoTqmuli: plutosi rom mxedveli gaxdeba da yvelas Tanabrad gaunawilebs Tavis wyalobas, aRaravin daxelovndeba araferSi da arc

`simdidre qaosis mizezi Tu kosmosis safuZveli?~

183

aRaravis eqneba sibrZnisken swrafva (aristofane 1992: 76).


amiT is maaniSnebs, rom ugunurebaa plutosisTvis mxedvelobis
dabruneba da aravisTvis es sargeblis momtani ar iqneba, radgan
adamianebis gazarmacebas Seuwyobs xels (aristofanes 1992: 77).
penia ver daarwmunebs maT, da gadis Tu ara, qremilosi da blepsidemosi aCqardebian, plutosi waiyvanon asklepiosis taZarSi,
raTa gankurnon sibrmavisgan. ganikurneba Tu ara plutosi, pirvelad Tayvans mzes scems da mere sajarod bodiSs uxdis yvelas, rom sibrmavisas, TumcaRa Tavis nebis sawinaaRmdegod, magram mainc, marTal adaminebs Cagravda Tavis uyuradRebobiT da
hpirdeba, rom awi yvelaferi Seicvleba da gamoswordeba maT sasargeblod (aristofanes 1992: 99). da ai, plutosis Tvalis
Cinis dabrunebis Semdeg axali realobaa: marTalni mxiarulni da
bednierni arian, maTi saxlebi ukve savsea yvelanairi dovlaTiT
da produqtiT. Semodis marTali, romelic adre sacodavi iyo
da axla bednieria (aristofane 1992: 105). mas surs, RmerTs
madloba gadauxados da karionass uyveba Tavis istorias. mamis
wyalobiT erT dros is sakmaod SeZlebuli yofila. Zalian xelgaSlili iyo megobrebisadmi. exmareboda yvelas, visac da roca
sWirdeboda, radgan miaCnda, rom adamianma ase unda icxovros, da
Tan imedovnebda, rom isinic imaves moimoqmedebndnen, Tu is rodesme maT adgilze aRmoCndeboda. amasobaSi is gaRaribda da misi
wyalobiT gamdidrebuli megobrebi ara Tu exmarebodnen, aramed
misi danaxvisas cdilobdnen, moridebodnen. plutosis Tvalis
axilvis Semdeg ki mis cxovrebaSi yvelaferi Seicvala da is mas
eaxla, rom madloba gadaexada ayvelafrisTvis. Semdeg Semodis
cilismwamebeli, romelic moTqvams, rom samjer, oTxjer, xuTjer, Tormetjer da aTi aTasjer (= berZn. ) metad gaubedurda da yvelaferi dakarga. am monakveTSi marTali da cilismwamebeli erTmaneTs waekinklavebian imis samtkiceblad, marTalia Tu ara plutosi, ase rom moiqca, anu amjerad ramdenad samarTliania misi gadwyvetileba, radgan cilismwamebeli jiqur
ar amxels Tavis Zvel codvebs. Tan cilismwamebeli irwmuneba,
rom is qoneba, rac marTals ergo, swored rom misia. komediaSi
kidev sxvadasxva SemTxvevaa aRwerili, rac mianiSnebs im cvlilebebze, plutosis Tvalis Cinis dabrunebam rom gamoiwvia. ori
dialogia yvelaze sagulisxmo. erTi hermessa da karionass Soris gaimarTeba (aristofane 1992: 127). hermesi (RmerTebis nebis
macne- e.W.) amcnobs mas, rom zevsi erTob ganawyenebulia. mas

184

eka WyoiZe

Semdeg, rac plutoss TvalT aexila, aRaravin aRarc erT


RmerTs aRarafers ar swiravs. sxva RmerTebis o mar s ar
aRelvebs, magram is aSkarad daiRupa. ixsenebs Zvel, sanatrel
dros, roca adamianebi dilidanve iwyebdnen misTvis msxverplis
Sewirvas. axla ki aRaravis axsovs. is sruliad ufunqciod aris
darCenili da aRaravis sWirdeba. amis Semdeg bolo scenaa zevsis
qurumsa da qremiloss Soris. isic imaves Civis. rac plutoss
mxedveloba
daubrunda,
sul
mSieria.
aRaravin
swiravs
msxverpls. adre, roca plutosi brma iyo, midioda vaWari da
madlobda zevss, rom cocxali gadarCa; viRac sawyali sasamrTloSi gaamarTles; viRac saxls swiravda zevss da qurumsac
ergeboda xolme didi gasamrjelo. axla aRaravin arafers swiravs. yvela mdidaria. amis Semdeg qremilosi gadawyvets plutosis isev Zvel adgilze dabrunebas. parTenonis ukan mdebare im
nagebobis dacvas, sadac qalaqis fuli inaxeboda da ormagi kedlebiTa da kariT iyo daculi. qremilosis am gadawyvetilebiT
Cans, rom nel-nela yvelaferi isev Zvel ritms daubrundeba.
nawarmoebis mTavari ideuri gzavnili da ganwyobileba gamoxatulia penias (siRatakis) sityvebiT. aq penia warmodgenilia
ara rogorc maTxovrad qceuli saRaribe, aramed rogorc adamianis saWiroeba fizikuri gadarCenisTvis da am saWiroebidan gamomdinare misi yoveldRiuri sazrunavi da viS-viSi, imuSaos da
moipovos saarsebo minimumi. komediaSi aseve yuradRebas iqcevs
zogadad adamianebis dauokebeli swrafva simdidrisadmi, maTi gaumaZRroba, aseve, sasuliero pirebis gamaTraxeba, romlebic morwmune adamianebis gulibryvilobis wyalobiT sakuTari qonebis
gazrdas emsaxurebian. avtoris mTavari sazrunavi mainc is aris,
gaarkvios, plutosi usamarTlo (anu brma) unda iyos, Tu samarTliani (anu Tvalaxelili), rac gulisxmobs simdidrisa da samarTlianobis urTierTmimarTebisa da urTierTgavlenis gaazrebasac. konteqtsti imasac iTvaliswinebs, rom aristofanesTan
plutosi aris brma (rogorc Temida, samarTlianobis qalRmerTi
gamoisaxeba, tradiciis Tanaxmad), magram ara imitom, rom miukerZoebeli iyos, aramed imitom, rom simdidre usamarTlod anawilos (erTgvari sasjelia adamianebisTvis, maSin, roca Temidas
sibrmave piriqiT, dadebiTad aRiqmeba da adamianebis saTnoyofisken aris mimarTuli). zemoT dasmul kiTxvebze aristofane pirdapir pasuxs ar iZleva, magram urTierTsawinaaRmdego scenebiT
da argumentebiT Cven dagvitova safiqrad: brma plutosis wya-

`simdidre qaosis mizezi Tu kosmosis safuZveli?~

185

lobiT arsebuli qaosi samyaroSi realurad xom ar aris kosmosis safuZveli. amis gadasawyvetad, albaT, gasaTvaliswinebelia
penias pozicia: swored brma, anu usamarTlo plutosi ubiZgebs adamians xelovnebisa da sibrZnis mopovebisken swrafva SeinarCunos. Sesabamisad, xom ar gamodis, rom is, rac adamians qaosad eCveneba, sinamdvileSi kosmosis ganmapirobebelia?
literatura
antikuri literatura 2009: sauniversiteto kursi, r. gordezianisa da n. tonias saerTo redaqciiT, Tb.
aristofane 2013: aristofane, komediebi, mTargmneli l. berZeniSvili, msoflio literaturis biblioTeka t. 11, Tb.
aristofanes 1992:,,
isterlingi 2003: Easterling P.EKnox B.M.W,
(Targmani berZnulad),

Eka Chkoidze
Wealth the reason of chaos or the base of cosmos?
According to the tradition, Aristophanes (452 or 445-386), the
best comic playwright had composed 44 plays, from which only 11
survived. The Ploutos (= Wealth) is the last one among those 11.
Ploutos is the god of wealth who in this work has been presented as a
blind and old man. It is a symbolic way to express humanitys eternal
complaint towards him: the Ploutos is extremely unfair, unbelievably
generous only to bad people and traducers. For this reason the author
decided to cure the protagonist (Ploutos) and to make him able to see. But
in the new reality everything changed in such a manner that the reader
wonders: maybe the chaos caused by the blind and unfair Ploutos, is the
cosmos?

gia joxaZe

`evraziuli wesrigi~ da
qarTuli mwerloba
`evraziulobis Teoriis~ saTaveebi jer
kidev me-19 s. 30-ian wlebSia saZiebeli, Tumca evraziuloba, rogorc Zlieri inteleqtualuri moZraoba, me-20 s. 20-ian wlebSi yalibdeba - es gaxldaT reaqcia 1917 wlis oqtombris socialistur revoluciasa da
proletariatis diqtaturis damyarebaze. evraziulobis doqtrina Seiqmna rus emigrant
mecnierTa mier. eseni arian: lingvistebi nikolai trubeckoi (1890-1938) da roman iakobsoni (1896-1982), ekonomisti da geografosi petre savicki (1895-1968), iuristi da
filosofosi nikolai aleqseevi (1879-1964),
istorikosi jorj vernadski (1887-1973),
religiis filosofosi vladimir ilini
(1891-1974) da sxv. am moZraobis maRali reputacia efuZneboda mis monawileTa samecniero renomes da avtoritets. faqtobrivad, es
gaxldaT rusi xalxis hegemonobiT daRdasmuli politikuri da kulturul-ekonomikuri globalizaciis Teoria, romelic sam
princips emyareboda:
* slavofilTa bizantinizms anu bizantiuri memkvidreobisa da marTlmadidebeli
eklesiis aRiarebas ZiriTad elementad,
rac erwymoda Tanamedrove evropuli civilizaciis miuReblobas;

`evraziuli wesrigi~ da qarTuli mwerloba

187

* `meaRmosavleTeobas~, `aziisken pirmiqcevas~ anu mongolTa


uRlis miCnevas pozitiur fenomenad da rusi da aRmosavleli xalxebis bedisa da kulturis identurobis aRiarebas;
* marqsistul politikur-ekonomikur doqtrinasTan siaxloes
(evrazielebi savsebiT eTanxmebodnen bolSevikTa taqtikas, organizaciuli struqturisa da politikuri wyobis TvalsazrisiT).
kavkasias da, kerZod, saqarTvelos TavianTi adgili eWira evraziul TeoriaSi.
evraziuli kultura, rogorc aseTi
trubeckois Tanaxmad, cnebebi: `slavuri~ da `marTlmadidebluri~ (rusulad sityvaTa TamaSic gamodis:` `, da es kidev ufro amZafrebs mkvlevris intencias)
sulac ar aris identuri. arsobrivad, dasavlur-slavuri kultura
romanul-germanulia maSin, roca Zveli slavuri kultura, rogorc
marTlmadidebluri da ara - slavuri fenomeni, ruseTSi damkvidrda
da ganviTarda. rusuli nacionaluri kultura marTlmadideblobis
gareSe warmoudgenelia.
trubeckoi daJinebiT amtkicebda, rom lingvistur jgufebs maTi
geokulturuli mikuTvnebuloba ayalibebs da ara - warmomavloba. Sesabamisad, rusuli samyaro gamorCeulad ukavSirdeba evraziul `adgilganviTarebas~ ():`xalxis erToblioba, romelic
cxovrobs meurneobrivad TviTkmari (avtarqiuli) adgilganviTarebiT
da erTurTs rasobrivad ki ar ukavSirdeba, aramed istoriuli bedis
erTianobiT, erToblivi SromiT erTi da imave kulturisa da saxelmwifos Sesaqmnelad - ai, es aris mTlianoba~, - werda g. vernadski.
evraziuli kulturis koncefciaSi saxelmwifo `demoturia~,
rac imas niSnavs, rom `saxalxo suverenitetis~ fenomeni organuli
da organizebuli erTianobaa. evrazieli xalxi ar gaxlavT moqalaqeTa SemTxveviTi krebuli. xalxi istoriul TaobaTa - warsulis, awmyosa da momavlis warmomadgenelTa - erTobliobaa, romelic warmoqmnis saxelmwifos mier gaformebuli kulturis erTianobas.
trubeckoisave mtkicebiT, evraziuli saxelmwifosaTvis arsebiTi iyo mmarTveli fenis SerCeva. mas unda Seecvala rogorc aristokratia, ise - demokratia, da am wyobas ideokratia ewodeboda.

gia joxaZe

188

ideokratiisas mmarTveli fena Sedgeba adamianebisagan, romlebsac


msoflWvreta aerTianebs.
amasTan, trubeckois azriT, evraziuli kulturuli erTianoba
gulisxmobs calkeul nawilTa ise Serwymas, rom mTelis gareSe
TviTmyofoba ver SeinarCunon. es kultura aRmosavleTsa da samxreT
aRmosavleTSi emezobleba stepurs anu Turqul-mongolurs, ris
wyalobiTac eziareba aziur kulturas.
evraziuli kulturis ukanasknel markerad unda miviCnioT
trubeckois idea, rom evraziis sxva xalxTa kulturuli elementebiT gamdidrebuli rusuli kultura iqceva zenacionaluri evraziuli kulturis bazisad.
amgvarad, trubeckois `evraziul~ memkvidreobaSi iZebneba evraziuli kulturis, rogorc aseTis, ZiriTadi markerebi: marTlmadidebloba, avtarqiuloba, demoturoba, ideokratiuloba, aziuroba.
saqarTvelo`sabWoTaJurnalebSi~
evraziaSi saqarTvelos adgili ergo rogorc ruseTis, 1921
wlidanki,sabWoTaimperiisSemadgenelnawils.
mokled,rocaevraziulobagaformda,saqarTveloukvesabWoTa
sivrceSimoeqciaT.
Tumca Cven gansakuTrebulad gvainteresebs 1929 wlis saqarTvelo.
saqmeisgaxlavT,rom2013welssamecnieromivlinebiTpraRaSi
yofnisas slavur biblioTekaSi mivakvlieT gazeT `evraziis~ 1929
wlis nomrebs. aq, sxva masalebTan erTad, sabWoeTis kulturuli
cxovrebisamsaxvelicnobebicSegvxvda.CveniyuradRebamiipyro`evrazielTa~gansakuTrebulmadainteresebamsabWoTakavSirSigaerTianebuli nacionaluri kulturebiT da kerZod qarTvel mweralTa
literaturuliproduqciiT.
gazeT `evrazias~ e.w. memarcxene evrazielebi gamoscemdnen parizSi 1929 wels, romlis yvela nomerSi gaxldaT rubrika `
~. am rubrikiT daebeWdaT CvenTvis saintereso
mimoxilvac,romelsacxelsvinmes.i.(rusulad:..)awerda.
evraziulobismkvlevarTaerTijgufis azriT,memarcxeneevraziulidajgufebiswarmoqmnaukavSirdebamoskovisagents,sergeiiakobis
Zeefrons(18931941),zedmetsaxeliTserioJa,romelicrusipoeti,
TeTrgvardielioficeridamarinacvetaevasmeuRle gaxldaT.

`evraziuli wesrigi~ da qarTuli mwerloba

189

dainteresebuli piri specialur literaturaSi am debulebis


sawinaaRmdego mtkicebasac waawydeba: efroni `gpu~s (saxelmwifo
politikuri sammarTvelo) nebayoflobiT agenti mxolod 1931 Tu
1932wlebSigaxdao.
esargaxlavTCvenikvlevissagani,Tumcaiskicxadia,romsergeiiakobisZeefroniparizissamxreTdasavleTiT,gareubanklamarSidaarsebulseminarebsjerkidev19271928ww.eswreboda.gazeTi
`evraziac~19271929ww.gamodioda.efronipoeti,poetisqmarida
literaturis sakiTxebSi kargad garkveuli pirovneba gaxldaT da,
Cveni frTxili varaudis Tanaxmad, mas SeeZlo kulturasa da literaturasTandakavSirebulimasalebiskomentireba.TuesmxolodeWvi ar aris, statiis avtori .. savsebiT SesaZlebelia,
sgulisxmobdes.

statia iwyeba cnobiT, romlis Tanaxmadac, proletar mweralTa


sakavSiro asociaciaTa gaerTianebis (rusuli abreviaturiT:
) plenumma muSaoba daasrula. es organizacia 1928 wels Seiqmna proletar mweralTa pirvel sakavSiro yrilobaze da masSi,
ruseTis xelmZRvanelobiT, yvela asociacia (maT Soris, amierkavkasiisa) gaerTianda.
statiaSi weria, rom `plenumma dasva calkeul nacionalur literaturaTa - ukrainuli, belorusuli, qarTuli~ da sxv. - sakiTxi. am
respublikaTa da maTi literaturis gamoyofa Cven imis iribi markeri
gvgonia, rom, sabWoTa mimomxilvelis azriT, aq yvelaferi Zlier cudad, `evrazieli~ analitikosis TvalTaxedviT, ki Zlier kargad aris!
.. wers:
`moxsenebaTagan vigebT saintereso () da niSandobliv () mimdinareobaTa Taobaze, romlebic, sabWoTa mimomxilvelis TqmiT, `ayalbeben~ () nacionaluri kulturebis sabWoTa lozungebs~.
SeiZleba davamatoT, rom sabWoTa xelisuflebis gamarjvebis
Semdeg, ssrk-s saxelmwifoebrivi wyobis xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT,
misma adeptebma odnav Seamsubuqes nacionaluri kulturis adrindeli maTeuli Sefaseba, rogorc mxolod burJuaziuli kulturisa:

gia joxaZe

190

sabWoTa kultura ganimarteboda formiT nacionalurad, SinaarsiT


ki - socialisturad.
unda vivaraudoT, rom zemoT gamoyofil respublikebsa da literaturaSi swored es lozungi `gaayalbes~ da `daamaxinjes~.
gamomsvlelebi Sexebian e.w. `literaturul Tanamgzavrobas~
( ).
es termini naxevrad politikuria da aRniSnavs mweralTa im
jgufs, romelic wvrili burJuaziuli inteligenciis ideologias
gamoxatavs. `TanamgzavrebisaTvis~ niSandoblivi iyo politikuri
meryeoba, Tumca proletariatTan TanamSromlobasac eswrafodnen .
rogorc gavarkvieT, plenumze saqarTvelos saxeliT kritikosi,
saqarTvelos proletar mweralTa lideri benito buaCiZe (19051937) gamosula. moxsenebas rqmevia `saqarTvelos Tanamedrove literatura~. b. buaCiZes uTqvams, rom memarjvene qarTuli literaturis
warmomadgenlebi aSkarad mtrulad arian ganwyobilni oqtombris
revoluciisadmi. Zveli qarTuli mwerloba - xan aqtiurad, xanac pasiurad - gamoxatavs am mtrul ganwyobas. magaliTad, Zveli mwerlebis umravlesoba Tavis reaqciul ideebs `evropeizebuli~ saxiT
gvawvdis. zogierTSi kvlavac mZlavrobs feodalur-aznauruli gadmonaSTebi. xSirad aqvs adgili (stili daculia, g.j.) warsulis
sruliad daufarav idealizacias. gansakuTrebiT saSiSni arian mwerlebi - da es erTnairad exeba rogorc qarTul, ise ukrainul da belorusul literaturas - romlebic TavianT meSCanur, reaqciul
arsebas vardisferi saburvliT niRbaven.
`abiZe~
modi, mivubrundeT adre dawyebul saubars da gavarkvioT, vin
arian sinamdvileSi is poetebi, romelTa saxelebs statiis avtori
asaxelebs: `poeti abiZe (sic!) wers, rom `oqtombris revoluciam
`mSrali balRamiT gadaufisa guli~ (
).
mavans qarTuli literaturis zedapiruli nacnobobac ki aTqmevinebs, rom `abiZe~ ucilod `tabiZea~; magram romeli - galaktioni
Tu ticiani? am kiTxvaze pasuxs tician tabiZis leqsebSi ipovniT.
Tumca statiaSi citata mainc SecdomiTaa moyvanili: Zneli dasadgenia, es visi bralia, s.i.-sa Tu sabWoTa mimomxilvelisa, magram

`evraziuli wesrigi~ da qarTuli mwerloba

191

originalSi `oqtombris revoluciis~ xsenebac ar aris.


mainc vfiqrobT, rom am striqonis amgvarad citireba momdinareobs benito buaCiZis moxsenebidan, rasac es pasaJi adasturebs: `
:
! , , : !.
rogorc vxedavT, imas, rac poetma igulisxma da ar Tqva, kritikosi
upasuxebs. ar aris gamoricxuli, misi ritorika mimomxilvels saTavisod gamoeyenebina da poetis leqsSi is Caewera, rac kritikosma amoicno!
`ilaiali~
`vin gadafisa ase guli mSrali balRamiT
da ar gvaRirsa STagonebis davaJkaceba!~
es gaxlavT is `avadsaxsenebeli~ striqoni, romelic tician tabiZis leqs `ilaialidanaa~. leqsi `ilaiali~ poets Tavisi Tanamokalme ali gaTamaSebulia mebobris saxelisa da leqsis saTauris
bolokiduri marcvlis damTxveva, g. j. arseniSvilisTvis (18921939) miuZRvnia, saTauri ki - `ilaiali~ - knut hamsunis (1859-1952)
cnobili romanis - `SimSilis~ (1890) protagonistis saxelia.
gavixsenoT: pirvel pirSi mTxrobeli protagonisti, usaxelo
mawanwala inteleqtualuri midrekilebebiT, savaraudod - ocs gadacilebuli, norvegiis dedaqalaq kristianiaSi (oslo) daxetialobs sarCos mosapoveblad. xvdeba metnaklebad misteriul pirovnebebs, romelTagan yvelaze gamorCeulia ilaiali, qaliSvili: misadmi
protagonisti msubuq fizikur ltolvas grZnobs.
leqsi, romelic ticians anapaSi (krasnodaris mxaris qalaqi, Savi zRvis Crdilo sanapiroze, azovis zRvis maxloblad) dauweria da
1925 wels daubeWdavs kidec, Zveli tkbili droebis reminiscenciaa.
maSin poeti ufro axalgazrda iyo, Tavisufal qveyanaSi cxovrobda, megobrebiTa da leqsebiT garSemortymuli. narativis aRdgenis
Cvenmier cdas ramdenadme xels uwyobs leqsSi moxseniebuli ticianis
poema `18 weli~, romelsac meore saTauric aqvs: `alexandro de kastilia~. poema 1920 wliT TariRdeba da eZRvneba gorel telegrafists, aleqsandre tatiSvils. rogorc epigrafidan vigebT, aleqsandres miutovebia `mravalricxovani col-Svili~ (t. tabiZe) da samxreT amerikaSi wasula. argentinaSi 16 weli ucxovria. ` revoluciis
dros dabrunda saqarTveloSi da gaawyo `kolonialuri duqani~, `bue-

gia joxaZe

192

nos airesis~ saxelwodebiT, Teatralur SesaxvevSi. aleqsandredan


saxeli kastiliurad alexandrod gamoicvala. guls uklavda maSindeli Tbilisis SimSiloba da amdeni wuxilisagan gakotrda kidec~.
axla, imedia, nakleb moulodneli iqneba leqsSi `ilaiali~ iseTi amoZaxilni, rogorebicaa: `alexandro de kastilia!~ an `buenos
aires~... erTi kia: maT is ironia daukargavT, romliTac ase msubuqad
kmazavs poeti zemoT moyvanil fragmentSi.
iqneb ticiani sakuTar Tavs hamsunis personaJs uigivebda; iqneb
isic Sexvda Tavis ilaialis (saTauris garda, saxeli leqsSi orjer
kidev ixsenieba); iqneb swored maSin waikiTxa hamsunis Sedevri; iqneb
TviTonac SimSilobda... iqneb maSin moismina `loengrini~ da `mfrinavi holandieli~; mousmina operis momReral Talia sabaneevas; ase iyo
Tu ise, rogorc leqsidan Cans, maSin `Wabukoba da gataceba~ axlda,
da bednieri iyo...
leqsSi amoikiTxavT aseT striqons: `Tvrameti weli dasawvavi
Tvrameti weli... Cven husarebi... gafrenili holandieli...~
dameTanxmebiT, am fragmentidan TiTqmis SeuZlebelia raime narativis rekonstruqcia, magram iseTi toposi, rogoric `1918 welia~,
qarTvelisTvis yovelTvis ufro mets niSnavs, vidre - TariRs; maSin
saqarTvelo damoukidebeli iyo, xolo poeti husarad qceuliyo: gavixsenoT, rom 1458 wels ungreTis mefem, matiaS korvinma TurqTagan
Tavdasacavad gansakuTrebuli laSqari Seqmna. simbolurad, iqneb lirikuli gmiric am laSqris wevrad grZnobda Tavs, raTa daecva Tavisi
samSoblo, romelic legendarul, fantomur gemad qceuliyo, bedisweriT, unavsadguroba da okeaneSi maradiuli curva rom aqvs misjili!
diax, vcadeT ramdenime pasaJis interpretireba, magram, rogorc
vnaxeT, aq mkafiod arc antisabWoTa motivi Cans, arc - proevraziuli
STagoneba.
yvelaferi es ki imis bralia, rom jerac ar gvixsenebia kardinaluri xat-saxeebi, romlebic leqsis intencias iolad amosacnobs xdis.
`skifiaSi var...~
`skifiaSi var... qimeriis mwuxriT damwvari~, - am striqonebiT iwyeba
leqsi. da es metaforulad ruseTis xsenebis pirveli markerebia (bedis
ironiaa, rom `skifia~, yirimi maSinac da axlac ruseTma miitaca, g.j.).

`evraziuli wesrigi~ da qarTuli mwerloba

193

kargadaa cnobili, rom skviTebi, iranulenovani nomadi xalxi,


centraluri aziidan samxreT ruseTSi qristeSobamde me-8 Tu me-7
ss. movidnen da xSirad rusebs uigivdebian .
ras niSnavs leqsSi naxsenebi `qimeria?~
antikur istoriaSi ase uwodebdnen imdroindeli oikumenas
Crdilo olqebs, kerZod, Crdilo Savi zRvispireTsa da azovispira
miwa-wyals (Tanamedrove yirimis naxevarkunZuli, ukrainis samxr.
olqebi, rostovis olqi da karsnodaris mxare).
ise Cans, kimeriis legendarul-fantomurma idumalebam poets
STagoneba gauZliera: zRvam, siTbom, mTebma Tavisi zRva, siTbo da
mTebigaaxsena,romelTacferiecvalaT:
`davekiTxebiamdaburulskviTebisRames:
raiqnaCveniWabukobadagataceba?
vingadafisaasegulimwarebalRamiT
daargvacalaSTagonebisdavaJkaceba?~
an:
`magramleqsebzemetimomaqvsmaincnaRveli,
aseuCemodsamSobloSiromgamileses~.
an:
`TiTqosgugunebsamaRamacdaviTiszari
daesskifiasizmaria,mxolodsizmari~.
naZaladevi kiTxva
magram, statiis avtori egeb imas gulisxmobda, rom skviTeTi
Zalze xSirad bunebriv evraziadaa aRqmuli? vgulisxmobT qrestomaTiul cnobas imis Taobaze, rom klasikur epoqaSi skviTeTi iyo centraluri aziis mravalerovani regioni, romelic moicavda SavizRvispira stepebs, centralur azias, aRmosavleT evropas, da misi
xsenebiT, rogorc es statiis avtors SeeZlo efiqra, qarTveli poeti raimenair mxardaWeras gamoxatavda evraziuli moZraobisadmi.
es yvelaze ararelevanturi argumenti iqneboda. poetis mxcovanma samefom da ymawvilma respublikam, saSinao da sagareo problemebiT Tavgabezrebulma, ver gauZlo wiTeli armiis - metaforulad,
skviTebis - Semosevas, 1921 wlis Teberval-martSi daemxo da sabWoTa respublikad iqca.

gia joxaZe

194
daskvnis magier

uwinaresad, leqsSi `ilaiali~ arsadaa naxsenebi evrazia an evraziuloba. piriqiT: lirikul gmiri naRvelsa da sasowarkveTas gauTangavs imis gamo, rac iyo da damTavrda, daikarga... SeiniSneba ramdenime markeri, xatovnad rom vTqvaT, am viTarebis Semoqmedisa: es skviTeTia, ruseTis metafora.
qarTvel poetebs utopiuri evraziisaTvis ar ecalaT. maT TavianTi samSoblos dakarguli damoukidebloba anaRvlebdaT. rac Seexeba sabWoTa kavSirs, evraziuli moZraobis ideologebi yovelnairad
cdilobdnen misi xelmZRvanelobisaTvis politikur-ekonomikuri da
kulturuli inversia SeeTavazebinaT, rasac Cven mier mikvleuli masalac adasturebs.
Gia Joxadze
Eurasian Cosmos and Georgian Men of Letters

The article discusses the fundamental markers of the Eurasian


Culture: orthodoxy as a paradigm of Eastern Slavs, culture and language
defined based on the principle of locality, demotic and idiocratic
state, autarchy, unity of diversity and the correlation between the
Eurasianism and Georgian culture.
We found a newspaper series with the title The Eurasia (1929) at
Slavonic Library in Prague with publications about the Soviet literary
life. Among the articles included in the series we singled out the one
showing a particular interest of Eurasianists in the works of the poets and
prozaics of Soviet Georgia (G. Kikodze, T. Tabidze, I. Grishashvili). We
think neither these articles nor the fragments from the works of the
aforementioned writers can allow one to assert that the confrontation of
the writers of Soviet Georgia with the official course of the Soviet
Culture resulted in the birth of the Eurasian (Georgian) Culture. The
truth is that Georgian men of letters never wished Georgia to be part of
the utopian Eurasia; their yearning was to restore its independence. As for
the ideologists of Eurasianism, their endeavors concerning the Soviet
Union, as testified by the new material discovered by us, were aimed at
achieving the political, economic, and cultural inversion.

qeTevan mayaSvili,
ivane murusiZe

qaosi
antikuri berZnuli
miTologiidan Tanamedrove
maTematikur Teoriamde
miTiuri kosmogoniis qaosi
Cveni yoveldRiuri leqsikaSi sityva `qaosi~, rogorc mouwesrigeblobis
da destruqciis sinonimi, CvenSi aRiqmeba, rogorc regularuli struqturis
sruli da zogjer Seuqcevadi moSlisa
da gadagvarebis xati. magram `qaosi~
Cvens cnobierebaSi aseve acocxlebs antikur kosmogoniur miTs samyaros warmoSobisa da evoluciis Sesaxeb. es miTi,
erTi SexedviT gulubryvilo da aramecnieruli, Tavisi siRrmiT da niuansebiT
ufro axlos aRmoCnda Tanamedrove mecnierul warmodgenebTan qaosis Sesaxeb,
vidre Cveni emociiT dabindul intuiciaze dayrdnobili zerele warmodgena `qaosze~.
gavixsenoT miTosuri kosmogoniuri
suraTi hesiodes Teogoniis mixedviT
(hesiode: 1914):
Tavdapirvelad iyo mxolod dausabamo, usazRvro, bneli qaosi. qaosi iyo
sicocxlis wyaro samyaroSi. mTeli samyaro da ukvdavi RmerTebi gaCndnen usasrulo qaosisagan.

196

qeTevan mayaSvili, ivane murusiZe

misgan iSva gea_dedamiwa; qaosidan warmodga sicocxlismomcemi Zala ltolvisa _erosi; usazRvro qaosisgan gaCnda tartarosi_qveskneli; Ramis wyvdiadisgan iSva saukuno sinaTle. sinaTle moefina mTel samyaros da daibada naTeli dRe. mas Semdeg
dRe da Rame mosdeven erTmaneTs; Tgeam Seqmna miwa, mTagrexilebi
da zRvebi da Sva uranosi_zeca; gea da uranosi_miwa da zeca_SeuRldnen da Sves titanebi da kiklopebi, maT Soris kronosi da rea _ olimpos RmerTTa mSoblebi. kronosma dedis, geas
STagonebiT daamxo mamis, uranosis Zalaufleba. Semdeg igi irTavs reas da maT eyolebaT sami asuli, hestia, demetre da hera,
da sami vaJi: hadesi, poseidoni da zevsi. zevsi imeorebs mamis
gzas da ebrZvis kronoss da sabolood daamxobs mas, ris Semdegac mkvidrdeba olimpoze rogorc uzenaesi RmerTi, da a. S.
amrigad, miTosuri kosmogonia iZleva qaosisgan gaCenili
samyaros dinamikuri evoluciis farTe suraTs, rac ganpirobebulia misi elementebis Zlieri urTierqmedebiTa da mravalmxrivi
kavSirebiT. Tanamedrove qaosis Teoriis terminebiT Tu vityviT,
igi warmogvidgens samyaros, sadac arawrfivi urTierTqmedeba da
ukukavSiri mis elementebs Soris aris samyaros evoluciis mamoZravebeli Zala. es urTierTganpirobebuloba da Zlieri evoluciuri impulsi, rac ase organulia antikuri kosmogoniuri
miTisaTvis, ganamtkicebs im azrs, rom antikuri kosmogonia gulubryvilo, zRaprul narativs rodi warmoadgens, aramed igi
aris bunebrivi samyaros universalobisa da misi evoluciis imanenturobis rwmeniT aRbeWdili alegoriuli xati. es asaxvas
hpovebs qaosis, rogorc pirveladi mediumis da universaluri
kreaciuli Zalis atributikaSic, iseve rogorc samyaros ganviTarebis suraTSi, rac misi calkeuli nawilebis, elementebis
urTierTqmedebiTa da kavSirebiT aris warmodgenili. aqve unda
iTqvas bibliur da miTosur kosmogonias Soris fundamentur
gansxvavebaze: bibliuri kosmogoniis mixedviT RmerTi aris uzenaesi universaluri Zala, ganmwesrigebeli mTeli samyarosi. berZnul kosmogoniaSi ki TviT RmerTebi iSvnen qaosidan. aq RmerTebic ki uzenaes bedisweras emorCilebian. es aris bunebis universaluri sayovelTao kanonzomierebis gancdis anarekli antikur
kosmogoniaSi, rac mas warmogvidgens rogorc Canasaxs samyaros
racionaluri mecnieruli Semecnebis mcdelobisa.

qaosi antikuri berZnuli miTologiidan Tanamedrove maTematikur Teoriamde 197

qaosis maTematikuri Teoria


is uaryofiTi konotacia, rac axlavs yoveldRiurobaSi
sityva `qaoss, rogorc mouwesrigeblobis, destruqciis, dekadansis sinonims, arafriT exmaureba imas, rasac Tanamedrove
arawrfivi dinamikuri sistemebis maTematikuri Teoria gulisxmobs qaosSi. am Teoriis mixedviT:
qaosi aris deterministuli arawrfivi sistemis, aperioduli xangrZlivi evolucia, romelic sawyis pirobebis mimarT
mgrZnobiare damokidebulebas avlens. am evoluciisas qaosi, rogorc fenomeni, SeiZleba aRmocendes lokalurad moulodnelad,
amave dros gamovlindes rogorc globalurad stabiluri, (sivrceSi da droSi) SemosazRvruli mdgomareoba, romlis winaswarmetyveleba sawyisi (amosavali) monacemebis TviT umciresi cvlilebebis mimarT mgrZnobiarobis gamo SeuZlebelia. radgan aseTi
cvlilebebi ki kompleqsuri sistemebis evoluciisas garduvalia,
Sesabamisad, rogorc amboben, `dgeba qaosi~.
qaosis am ganmartebis mixedviT TviT umcires gadaxrebs sistemis wonasworuli mdgomareobidan mosdevs sistemis xangrZlivi
qaoturi evolucia wonasworobidan Zlier daSorebul traeqtoriebze. am konteqstSi xSirad mohyavT aristoteles gamonaTqvami: `umciresi sawyisi gadaxra WeSmaritebisagan gamravldeba Semdeg aTasjer~ (aristotele: 1984).
aqve xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom qaoss adgili aqvs sruliad deterministuli sistemis evoluciisas, sadac gamoricxulia SemTxveviTi faqtorebis gavlena rogorc sawyis monacemebze,
ise evoluciis aRmwer kanonzomierebebze, anu rogorc ityvian,
`dinamikur gantolebebze. aq pirvelad dgeba determinizmisa da
momavlis araprognozirebadobis Tavsebadobis paradigma, rasac
sruliad gamoricxavs klasikur fizikaze dafuZnebuli laplasianuri determinizmi.
arawrfivi dinamikuri sistemebis aseTi qaoturi evolucia
warmoadgens Tanamedrove `qaosis Teoriis~ sagans. es evolucia
SeiZleba atarebdes uwyveti an wyvetili gadasvlebis xasiaTs
sistemis wonasworuli mdgomareobidan daSorebul traeqtoriebze. am ukanasknels (wyvetil gadasvlebs) swavlobs swored `katastrofebis Teoria~. es gadasvlebi, rogorc wesi, xorcieldeba sistemis kvaziperiodul traeqtoriebiT da faqtobrivad war-

198

qeTevan mayaSvili, ivane murusiZe

moadgens arawrfivi sistemis TviTorganizaciis fenomens garkveul mizidvis areebSi, anu atraqtorebis sivrceSi, rac e. w.
`kompleqsurobis Teoriis~ sagans Seadgens.
qaosi gaqra?
maS ase, qaosma dasabami misca samyaros, romelic gvaqvs
u T v a l a v i feriTa, yvelaferma miiRo saxe _ `g a f o r m d a~_ gaaCnia forma, funqcionaloba da mizandasaxuloba, sasruloba da SemosazRvruloba, moqceulia
drois CarCoSi (sapirispirod SevadaroT amas TviT qaosis atributika: dausabamo, SemousazRvreli, usasrulo, uxilavi (`bneli~)). erTi sityviT _ qaosi gaqra! magram gaqra ki qaosi? rogoraa daRdasmuli qaosiT mis mier naSobi samyaro? rogor ver
varCevT `qaosis saxes~, romelic erTi SexedviT mowesrigebuli
formidan an mdgomareobidan `Semogvyurebs~:
a) Tovlis fifqi warmoadgens wesieri geometriuli formis kristalur warmonaqms,
romlis struqtura ganpirobebulia wylis molekulebis
urTierTqmedebis kanonebiT myar agregatul mdgomareobaSi. marTalia es kanonebi universaluria yvela fifqisaTvis, magram
araa aRmoCenili ori erTnairi formis fifqi, isini gvaqvs uTvalavi feriTa, ganumeorebeli formebiT, erTi sityviT,
sruli qaosia. ase rom erTi SexedviT sruliad gamokveTilad
regularuli formis sinamdvile arsebiTad qaosis gamovlinebaa.
b) simetriis darRveva. stumrebi usxedan mrgval magidas.
TiToeuls win udgas TefSi da uwyvia dana-Cangali da xelsaxoci wesisamebr. stumrebi mWidrod sxedan, xolo xelsaxocebi ise
simetriulad awyvia, rom gaugebaria, romeli maTgani ekuTvnis
stumars mis marjvniv Tu mis marcxniv dadebuli. rogorc ki
erTi stumarTagani pirveli irCevs mis marjvniv dadebul xelsaxocs, aqamde arsebuli simetria spontanurad `irRveva~ qreba,
radgan yvela sxva stumari iZulebulia aseve airCios mis marjvniv dadebuli xelsaxoci. abdus salamis am magaliTs, romelic spontanuri simetriis darRvevis sailustraciod mohyavT
xolme (nambu: 1985), SeiZleba SevxedoT asec: Tavidan mdgomareobis maRali simetria erTi SexedviT gamoricxavs yovelgvar qaoss, magram sinamdvileSi swored Tavdapirveli `mowesrigebuli~

qaosi antikuri berZnuli miTologiidan Tanamedrove maTematikur Teoriamde 199

mdgomareobaa qaoturi, swored igi xasiaTdeba qaosisTvis tipuri ganusazRvrelobiT, `gamourkvevlobiT~.


g) maqsvelis ganawileba airis molekulebis siCqareebis
ganawileba maRali simetriis e.w. normaluri ganawilebis kanoniT sinamdvileSi, rogorc maqsvelma aCvena, sruli `molekuluri qaosis~ manifestacias warmoadgens.
qaosi da adamianis fsiqikuri realoba
fsiqikas, rogorc realobis pecifikurad amsaxvel meqanizms
Tavisi pasuxi aqvs samyaros qaotur bunebaze. d. uznaZem eqsperimentulad daasabuTa, rom `subieqtis sinamdvilesTan urTierTobis SemTxvevaSi, pirvel rigSi, misi ganwyoba aqtualizdeba Sesaferisi mimarTulebiT, da mTeli misi qceva, cnobierebis SinaarsebiTurT, swored am ganwyobis safuZvelze Cndeba da viTardeba~
(uznaZe: 2011). erTi mxriv, d. uznaZis mier xazgasmuli, ganwyobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli adapturoba da plastiuroba, warmoadgens or ZiriTad Tvisebas, riTac xasiaTdeba nebismieri arawrfivi dinamikuri sistema. atraqtorisaken swrafva zedmiwevniT esadageba individis ganwyobis dinamikas misi obieqturi viTarebis
Sesatyvis ganwyobad Camoyalibebis gzaze kontrastuli da asimilaciuri iluziebis monacvleobiT garemos adekvaturi Sefasebebisken swrafvisas. meore mxriv, Cveni fsiqikis pasuxi garemoze
SeiZleba misi moqmedebis `mimndobi xasiaTiTac~ davaxasiaToT.
SeiZleba amis mizezi imaSia, rom, rogorc uznaZe aRniSnavda,
ganwyoba `cnobierebis Sinaarsis formis miuReblad aqtivobs . .
.~ rogor mivikvlevT gzas ganwyobis gavliT mizanSewonili qcevisaken realobaSi, romlisTvisac, rogorc aRmoCnda, albaTuri
kauzaloba da `qaoturi determinizmi~ iseve arsebiTia, rogorc
Cveni ganwyobisaTvis aRgznebadoba, diferenciacia da Caqroba,
kontrastuli da asimilaciuri iluziebis monacvleoba? arsebobs Tu ara `ganwyobiswina qaosi~ (antikuri kosmogoniisa da
qaosis Teoriis pozitiur konteqstSi) Cvens aracnobierSi, romelic win uswrebs konkretuli ganwyobis Camoyalibebas? es sakiTxebi axleburad dgeba Cveni fsiqikis, rogorc arawrfivi dinamikuri sistemis evoluciis Suqze. Tanamedrove mimarTuleba,
romlis mixedviTac albaTuri prognozi-varaudi Cveni fsiqikis
yvelaze Rrma Srea (gaseti: 2004), gveubneba, rom igi, Tumca sizustes moklebuli, mainc ukeT aris morgebuli garemos Tanda-

200

qeTevan mayaSvili, ivane murusiZe

yolil ganuzRvrelobas da SeuZlia safuZvlad daedos mizanSewonil qcevas.


literatura
hesiode 1914: Hesiod. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an
English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Theogony.
Cambridge, MA.,Harvard University Press; London, William
Heinemann Ltd. 1914.
aristotele 1984: Aristotle (1984) [OTH], On the Heavens, in: J.
Barnes (ed.), The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised
Oxford Translation, Vol 1. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1984.
strogaci 2014: S. H. Strogatz, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos,
Westview Press, 2nd ed., 2014.
nambu 1985: Y. Nambu, Quarks, World Scientific, 1985.
uznaZe 2011: d. uznaZe, ganwyobis fsiqologia, `saqarTvelos
macne~, 2011.
gaseti 2004 : Jos Ortega y Gasset, Obras Completas, Vol. I. Ed.
Taurus/Fundacin, Madrid, 2004.

Ketevan Makashvili and Ivane Murusidze


Chaos
From Ancient Greek Mythology
to the Modern Mathematical Theory
Abstract
Chaos, as a synonym for disorder, destruction, and decadence in
our consciousness is related to a state rather than to a medium. In this
context it is perceived as a final stage of the complete and sometimes
irreversible destruction and degeneration of a regular structure into an
amorphous, formless, unproductive reality. Contrary to this, the ancient
Greek cosmogony introduces Chaos as an unconditional, limitless
primordial medium with omnipotent creative power which gave birth to
the world.
Psyche, as a mechanism reflecting the existing reality in a specific
way, has its own response to the chaotic nature of the world. This
response is manifested in trustful nature of its activity. An activity based

qaosi antikuri berZnuli miTologiidan Tanamedrove maTematikur Teoriamde 201

on prediction, despite its lack of accuracy, is better suited to the


uncertainty of environment. According to recent studies the probabilistic
prediction-presumption is the deepest layer of our psyche which drives all
the other layers and forms the basis for expedient behavior.
According to the modern mathematical theory, chaos is aperiodic
long-term behavior of a deterministic nonlinear system that exhibits
sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Is there a common core
connecting the modern mathematical idea of chaos with its ancient
conception? Does the mathematical abstraction of the phenomenon of
chaos make its deeper understanding more accessible? Is it possible to
study purposive activity of man in a volatile, chaotic environment from
the point of view of self-organizing nonlinear dynamical systems? These
are the questions which reveal new, not yet explored aspects in the search
of human dimensions of Chaos.

semiotika da sxva

lela avaliani
luiza xaWapuriZe
gulTan dakavSirebuli
frazeologizmebi arabulsa
da qarTulSi
guli saocari organoa. mis muSaobaze aisaxeba organizmSi mimdinare yvela
procesi, gare samyarosTan uwyveti kavSiri. igi pasuxobs adamianis cxovrebis TiToeul movlenas, avsa Tu kargs. guli,
marTlac, unikaluri organoa, garkveulwilad, avtonomiuric, radgan Seswevs
unari, damoukideblad, organizmis sxva
sistemebis dauxmareblad imuSaos. bevr
religiaSi guli WeSmaritebis, sindisisa
da moraluri gambedaobis emblemaa. islamur, iudeur da qristianul religiur
azrovnebaSi guli RvTis taZars an
taxts gamoxatavs.
guls rom gansakuTrebuli adgili
uWiravs qarTul msoflaRqmaSi, araerTgzis aris SeniSnuli. rogorc arn. Ciqobava miuTiTebs: guli warmodgenilia
azrovnebiTi procesebis centrad, grZnobebis wyarod, temperament-xasiaTis ganmsazRvrelad da organuli SegrZnebebis
(gulis reva, gulis Semoyra) amTviseblad. erTi sityviT, mas ekisreba tvinis,
gulis, kuWisa da, nawilobriv, periferiuli nervuli sistemis magivroba gaswios
sicocxlis matarebeli gulia (Ciqobava
1938: 66).

gulTan dakavSirebuli frazeologizmebi arabulsa da qarTulSi

203

xatovan sityva-Tqmebze dakvirvebis safuZvelze T.saxokia aRniSnavs: guli Cvens xalxs miaCnia Cveni nervebis Sesakrebel organod, romelzec uSualod moqmedebs yvela fsiqikuri gancda:
siyvaruli, sixaruli, simamace, siZulvili, mwuxareba, dard-naRveli (saxokia 1979: 119).
bevr religiaSi guli WeSmaritebis, sindisisa da moraluri
gambedaobis emblemaa. islamur, iudeur da qristianul religiur
azrovnebaSi guli RvTis taZars an taxts gamoxatavs(kenWoSvili
2002: 16).
guliT daaqvs adamians SegrZnebebi, gancdebi, wes-CveulebebTan
dakavSirebuli emociebi, rac gamosWvivis kidec im sityvebsa Tu
frazebSi, romlebsac konkretuli sociumi qmnis. nebismieri enis
idiomebSi Tavmoyrilia eris wes-Cveulebebis, Tvisebebis, tradiciebis, rwmena- warmodgenebisa da istoriis amsaxveli cocxali da
naTeli suraTebi.
universalur kategoriad gvevlineba somaturi frazeologizmebi. maTi Sinaarsi TiTqmis bevr enaSi msgavsia. gansxvavebuli
erovnuli realiebis gamoyofa saSualebas gvaZlevs, gamovavlinoT
enebis ganviTarebis saerTo da specifikuri kanonzomierebani.
statiaSi erTmaneTs SevudareT ori gansxvavebuli erovnebisa
da aRmsareblobis xalxis (marTlmadidebeli qarTvelebisa da muslimi arabebis) metyvelebaSi dadasturebuli gulTan dakavSirebuli gamonaTqvamebi.
gasaanalizeblad SevarCieT Cven mier Sekrebili da ganmartebiT leqsikonebSi dadasturebuli frazeologizmebi. aRmoCnda,
rom isini uamravia. aq ar vsaubrobT mweralTa mier Seqmnil mxatvrul formebze. sailustraciod warmovadgineT mxolod nawili.
Cven gvesmis, rom gulTan dakavSirebuli emociebis gamoxatvis
sruli suraTis warmosaCenad Semdgomi kvlevebia saWiro. kerZod,
Tu rogor, ra saSualebebiT gamoixateba TiToeuli emocia, rogoria mimarTeba pirvelad da meoreul, dadebiTi da uaryofiTi emociebis gmoxatvas Soris da mravali sxva sakiTxi.
1. aful qalb susti nebisyofis mqone, uZluri (sityvasityviT: susti gulis mqone): susti guli maqvs da daWrilis movlaSi ver dagexmarebi;
2. qalb karm keTili gulis: keTili gulis kaci iyo da bavSvi gazarda;
3. qs al-qalb gulqva, umowyalo, ulmobeli (sityvasityviT:
uxeSi gulis mqone);

204

Llela avaliani, luiza xaWapuriZe

4. qalb alaf mkacri, ulmobeli, sastiki (sityvasityviT: guliT windaucveTeli). momdinareobs: amisTs amaT itys adonai
ufali: yoveli Ze ucxo naTesavi, windaucveTeli guliTa da windaucueTeli orciTa, ara Sevides wmidaTa mimarT CemTa,
(mcx.bibl. iez., 34, 9). qarTulSi aRniSnuli mniSvnelobiT gvaqvs
ugulo: ugulo kaci ver kacobs, kacTagan ganakidian(S. rusTaveli);
5. amsaka qalbah f yadih simamaciT aivso (sityvasityviT: guli xelSi daiWira). Sdr. qarT.: Tavi xelSi aiyvana, guli gaimagra;
6. biqalb(in) f(in) sufTa guliT . qarTulSic analogiuri
mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba: patiosnad, uborotod, wrfelad me
sufTa guliT movedi TqvenTan;
7. min ammil qalb wrfeli guliT- qarTulSi -wrfeli
guliT miiReT saCuqari Cemgan;
8. fataa qalbahu guli gadauSala, guli gauxsna. qarTulSi:
miendo, yvelaferi uTxra;
9. bikulli qalb (rhi) mTeli suliTa da guliT;
10. tawaqqafa ani-l afqn qalbuh sityvasityviT - gulis cema
Sewyda- gardaicvala .
11. yakul qalbuh al-as mis guls dardi RrRnis (sityvasityviT- auToebs)
12. nna qalb l yart layhi sityvasityviT guls ar uxaria
- guli ar midis masze. qarTulSi: ar moswons, ar surs arc mag
xalxze mimdis guli da arc mag saqmeze;
13. yuqaddimu li a qalbah wa yadah gulsa da xels uwvdis.
qarTulSi gvxvdeba daxmarebis mniSvnelobiT da frazaSi mxolod xeli figurirebs: roca Zalian miWirda, man me xeli gamomiwoda da gadamarCina;
14. irta qalb guli gautyda (imedi gaucruvda): cxovrebaze
guli gautyda
15. albad anil ayn baid anil qalb Tvali Tvals rom moSordeba, guli gadasxvaferdeba ;
16. irta qalbuh gulze moeSva (sityvasityviT - guli daumSvidda). radgan saqme moagvara, guli daumSvidda da dawynarda;
17. inqabaa qalbuh guli daumZimda, damwuxrda, guli SeekumSa.
somatur idiomTa Sinaarsobrivi plani TiTqmis bevr enaSi erTmaneTis msgavsia, magram amas imdenad xSiri xasiaTi aqvs arabul

gulTan dakavSirebuli frazeologizmebi arabulsa da qarTulSi

205

da qarTul frazeologizmebSi, rom savaraudebelia siRrmiseuli


stereotipebis arseboba. qarTulsa da arabulSi dafiqsirebuli
mocemuli idiomebi erTgvarad Camoyalibebuli Sablonuri formebia, Tumca kidev erTxel adasturebs, rom arsebobs universaluri
adamianuri SegrZnebebi, romlebsac yvela kerZo kultura Tavisi
prizmidan aRwers da xSirad Tanxvdeba sruliad daSorebul da
gansxvavebul kulturebSi arsebuls.
literatura:
kenWoSvili 2002: g. kenWoSvili, simboloebi qristianul xelovnebaSi, enciklopedia, Tbilisi
saxokia 1979: T. saxokia, qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani, Tbilisi
qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni (arn. Ciqobavas redaqciiT)
1950-1964
wereTeli 1951: g.wereTeli, arabul-qarTuli leqsikoni, Tbilisi
Ciqobava 1938: arn., Ciqobava Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi
leqsikoni, Tbilisi
1989: .. , - , .
, , 1989: .. , .. ,
- , .
1964: . . , - , .
Lela avaliani
Associate professor of Akaki
Tsereteli State University
Luiza Khachapuridze
Associate professor of Akaki
Tsereteli State University
Phraseologisms dealing with Heart in Arabian and Georgian
Somatic Phraseologisms stand as universal categories, whose
content is almost similar in many languages, but the separation of the
different national realities allows us to show general and specific
regularities of the Language development.

206

Llela avaliani, luiza xaWapuriZe

Despite the fact that we are dealing with radically different cultures,
the reviewed materials reveals that the formulas dealing with the heart are
identical in most cases in Georgian and Arabian.
All this proves that there is a universal human experience, that all
private culture describes through the prism of his own and in many cases
they coincide in the cultures completely isolated and different .
L

magda anikaSvili

axali qarTuli kinoenis


Taviseburebani
pirveli mayureblisTvis kino iyo
cxovrebiseuli scenebis qronika, realobis dokumenturi asaxva. cnobilia pirvel kinoCvenebebTan dakavSirebuli kuriozuli scenebi: panika matareblis moaxloebisas, Soki ekranze,,moWrili kidurebis gamoCenisas. kinematografi moZravi
fotografia iyo da es stereotipi didxans gansazRvravda mayureblis damokidebulebas ekranis mimarT. am gansakuTrebul damokidebulebas, rodesac mayurebels swams ekranis da Tan acnobierebs,
rom xelovanis mier Seqmnil mxatvrul
nawarmoebs uyurebs, iuri lotmani emociur ndobas uwodebda. naSromSi ,,kinos
semiotika da kinoesTetikis problemebi
lotmani ekranis mimarT mayureblis emociuri ndobis sakiTxs kulturis istoriaSi erT-erT yvelaze arsebiT problemad ganixilavs da, Sesabamisad, kinoenas
xelovnebis yvela sxva saxeobasTan SedarebiT yvelaze rTul sakomunikacio saSualebad miiCnevs. ,,kinematografi, rogorc teqnologiuri siaxle, romelic
jer ar iyo xelovneba, miiCneoda moZrav
fotografiad. xolo misi unari, daefiqsirebina moZraoba, zrdida ndobas filmis namdvilobis mimarT. fsiqologiuri

208

magda anikaSvili

kvlevebi adasturebs, rom uZravi fotografiidan moZrav filmze


gadasvla aRiqmeboda, rogorc dokumenturi gamosaxulebisTvis
moculobis damateba. TiTqos, samyaros aRbeWdvis sizustem maqsimums miaRwia1 - werda lotmani. kinos msgavseba realur cxovrebasTan moCvenebiTia da teqnologiuri TaviseburebiT aris ganpirobebuli. is sicxadis cru efeqts qmnis, iyenebs realobisTvis damaxasiaTebel niSan-Tvisebebs, romelTac gansxvavebul
datvirTvas, Sinaarss aZlevs.
kinogamosaxulebis fotografiasTan siaxlovis gamo, mis dokumenturobaze msjeloba iTxovs TviTon fotogamosaxulebis
namdvilobis gaazrebas. Jan bodriaris azriT, fotografiis e.w.
obieqturi gamosaxulebis saswauli araobieqturi samyaros radikaluri formiT gamovlenis SesaZleblobaSia. paradoqsulia, rom
obieqturi samyaros ararseboba fotografiuli obieqtivis daxmarebiT mtkicdeba2 .
rolan barti miiCnevs, rom foto ,,aris absoluturi calkeuloba, suverenuli da suleluri SemTxveviToba. ,,fotografia usasrulod axdens kvlavwarmoebas. fotografireba erTaderTxel moxda. Semdeg ki igi usarulod imeorebs imas, risi gameorebac SeuZlebelia egzistencialuri TvalsazrisiT3 . Sesabamisad, saeWvoa gamosaxulebis sandooba, aRbeWdilis analogia pirvelad obieqtTan, rac kidev erTxel gvafiqrebinebs, rom fotografiasTan teqnologiuri Tu mayureblis aRqmaSi arsebuli kavSiris gamo, kinogamosaxulebis namdviloba mxolod iluzia iyo.
Tanamedrove kinoSi filmis dokumentur da mxatvrul (lumierebis da meliesis) Janrebad dayofa pirobiTia. mxatvrul
masalaSi dokumenturi qronikis CarTvis xerxs araerTi reJisori iyenebs (mag.: ,,persona, i. bergmani, ,,sarke, a. tarkovski).
kinematografiuli sakomunikacio enis specifikaze msjelobisas
andrei tarkovski werda, rom ,,lumierebis matareblis moaxloebis momentSi kinoxelovneba daibada. ara mxolod kinoteqnikis
da samyaros repoduqciis axali teqnikuri saSualeba, aramed
axali esTetikuri principi. es imas niSnavs, rom pirvelad xe
1

. , ,, , " "
, 1973.
2
J. bodriari, naSromi fotografia, anu sinaTliT wera, ciss.org.ge.
3
r. barti, naSromi ,,kamera lusida, ciss.org.ge

axali qarTuli kinoenis Taviseburebani

209

lovnebis istoriaSi, pirvelad kulturis istoriaSi adamianma


miagno drois aRbeWdvis xerxs4 mniSvnelovania, rom tarkovski
amas ,,realur dros uwodebs, romlis dafiqsirebis da Teoriulad samudamod Senaxvis saSualebas adamians aZlevs kino.
Tanamedrove kinoSi mxatvrul-dokumenturi Janri organulad iTvisebs orive, namdvili da warmosaxviTi realobisTvis
damaxasiaTebel niSan-Tvisebebs. damoukidebeli amerikuli kinos
erT-erTi yvelaze gamorCeuli reJisori riCard linkleiteri
,,siyrmes 12 wlis ganmavlobaSi iRebda. suraTi avtobiografiulia. is mozardis cxovrebaze gviyveba. filmma asaxa 6-dan 18
wlamde rogorc gmiris da misi mSoblebis, ise maTi Semsruleblebis istoria. suraTSi mTavar rolebs wlebis ganmavlobaSi
erTi da igive msaxiobebi asrulebdnen. rusi reJisori andrei
konCalovski ,,fostalion andrei triapicinis TeTr Rameebs arxangelskis raionSi, realurad arsebul sofelSi iRebda. filmSi mxolod sami profesionali msaxiobi monawileobs. sxva rolebs, iseve rogorc mTavar gmirs, soflis mcxovreblebi asaxiereben. orive suraTi xazgasmiT miiltvis dokumenturobisken. bunebriobis efeqtis maqsimalurad gaZlierebis mizniT, avtorebi
Segnebulad mimarTaven mxatvruli kinosTvis uCveulo midgomebs,
magram es ar niSnavs imas, rom ekranze realuri samyaro aRibeWda. swored es aris lotmanis ,,cru efeqti, rodesac warmosaxviTi samyaro realobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-TvisebebiT iqmneba.
qarTul kinoSi arsebuli saerTo tendencia bolo wlebis
yvelaze saintereso filmebis analiziT SeiniSneba. gansxvavebuli
xelweris reJisorebis, Tematikis, Janrebis miuxedavad, irkveva,
rom saerTaSoriso kinofestivalebze warmatebuli qarTuli
filmebis did nawils realisturoba, mxatvrul-dokumenturobis
zRvarze yofna da mkveTri socialuri aqcentebi axasiaTebT
(,,manqana, romelic yvelafers gaaqrobs (T. gurCiani), ,,baxmaro
(s. jaSi), nino kirTaZis filmebi. socialuri kinos maxasiaTeblebiT: ,,gaRma napiri (g. ovaSvili), ,,grZeli naTeli dReebi
(n. eqvTimiSvili, s. grosi), ,,SemTxveviTi paemnebi (l. koRuaSvili), ,,moira (l. TuTberiZe), ,,me var beso (l.cqvitiniZe), ,,gaiRimeT (r. Wyonia) da sxva). am filmebSi moTxrobil istoriebs

. , ,, , , 12, 2000.

210

magda anikaSvili

aqvT Zalian myari cxovrebiseuli safuZveli da mWidro kavSiri


socialurad aqtualur problemebTan. garda amisa, swored am
Taobis kinoSi gaCnda axali plasti, romelic calke msjelobas
iTxovs. kinomcodne lela oCiauri axali qarTuli kinos Sefasebisas aRniSnavs: ,,bolo wlebSi saqarTveloSi Seqmnil filmebSi
sxvadasxva kuTxiT airekla is itoriuli movlenebi da maTi Sedegebi, romlebsac saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoria SeiZleba vuwodoT; romlebic gaurkveveli mizezebiT, reJisorebis yuradRebis obieqtivSi karga xani ar moqceulan, Tumca, romlebsac, wesiTa da rigiT, xelovani - reJisori gulgrili ar unda daetovebina. vgulisxmob 90-iani wlebis saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi wyobis, saxelisuflo formaciis cvlilebebs, e.w. Tbilisis
samoqalaqo oms, omebs afxazeTSi, samaCabloSi, procesebs.5 es,
pirobiTad, publicisturi mimarTuleba Zalian saintereso aspeqtia qarTuli kinos istoriaSi. giorgi ovaSvilis ,,gaRma napiri
da ,,simindis kunZuli, levan TuTberiZis ,,gaseirneba yarabaRSi,
zaza uruSaZis mandarinebi da sxva filmebi mcdelobaa, gaiazron, gaaanalizon uaxloes warsulSi qveynis cxovrebaSi momxdari ryevebi da es Zalian mniSvnelovania sazogadoebrivi TvalsazrisiT. magram aranakleb mniSvnelovania, gavigoT, ras gveubneba
es arCevani kinematografiuli sakomunikacio enis transformaciis Sesaxeb. sayuradReboa, rom axali qarTuli filmebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli saerTo sakomunikacio niSnebi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba qarTuli sabWoTa kinos savizito baraTad qceuli igavur-poeturi kinometyvelebisgan. pirvel rigSi uaryofilia pirobiToba, swrafva ganzogadebisken. moqmedeba yovelTvis konkretul drosa da sivrceSi xdeba, xSirad, realuri istoriuli
movlenebis inscenirebiT. yuradReba eTmoba epoqis maidentificirebeli detalebis sizustes. nana eqvTimiSvilis da simon grosis
filmi ,,grZeli naTeli dReebi 90-iani wlebis garemos zusti
da sando rekonstruqciis gamo maRal Sefasebas imsaxurebs. bunebrivia, es arCevani ar aris SemTxveviTi da didwilad Tanamedrove mayureblis aRqmis specifikiT aris gamowveuli. mayureblis
moTxovna karnaxobs avtors, ra tipis sakomunikacio ena unda Se
5

l. oCiauri, ,,saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoria - warmatebuli qarTuli


kinos ,,xarisxis niSani, krebuli ,,tradicia da inovacia, 2016.

axali qarTuli kinoenis Taviseburebani

211

arCios. rogor Cans, postsabWoTa realobaSi did ekrans mowyvetil da patara satelevizio, kompiuterul Tu smartfonis monitorebze koncentrirebul axal mayurebels aRqmis aseTi Tavisebureba aqvs. es mocemuloba lotmanis mier identificirebul,
kulturis istoriaSi erT-erT yvelaze arsebiT problemasTan
gvabrunebs, romelsac igi emociur ndobas uwodebs: mayurebels
swams ekranis da Tan acnobierebs, rom xelovanis mier Seqmnil
mxatvrul nawarmoebs uyurebs. Tumca am efeqtze lotmani gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi werda. dRes ki es orkomponentiani
formula Tavad ganicdis transformacias, radgan rTulia, gwamdes ekranis, rodesac TviTon ekranis arseboba rig SemTxvevebSi
SeumCneveli xdeba. kidev ufro rTulia gaacnobiero, rom xelovanis mier Seqmnil mxatvrul nawarmoebs uyureb, rodesac xandaxan Tavad xdebi viRacis Canafiqris moqmedi piri.

literatura:
. , ,, , "
" , 1973
J. bodriari, naSromi fotografia, anu sinaTliT wera,
ciss.org.ge
r. barti, naSromi ,,kamera lusida, ciss.org.ge
l. oCiauri, ,,saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoria - warmatebuli qarTuli kinos ,,xarisxis niSani, krebuli ,,tradicia da inovacia, 2016w.
. , ,, , , 12, 2000.

212

magda anikaSvili

Magda Anikashvili
Peculiarities of the Language of New Georgian Cinema
For the first audiences the film was a chronicle of scenes from life,
documenting reality.Well known curious scenes are associated with the
first film screenings:panic at the sight of a train approaching and shock
when showing the severed body parts on the screen. Cinematography
was a moving picture and this stereotype has been defining the audiences
relationship with the screen for a long time. This specific relationship when spectatortrusts the screen and simultaneouslyrealizes that this
istheartwork created by an artist has been named the emotional trust by
semioticianJurijLotman.
Similarity of the film with the real life is illusive and is caused by
the technological factor. It creates the false effect, uses the features of
reality giving them other meanings and different content.
Categorization of films in documentary and feature genres is
nominal in modern cinematography. Today the feature-documentary
genre organically combines the characteristics typical to the both
realities.
The analyses showthat despite of the different topics, genres and
directors of the most interesting and successful Georgian films of recent
years there is a common trend - bold realism of feature films and artistry
of documentaries are blurring the nominal lines.
The study of communicative signs of the new Georgian cinema
shows the process of transformation of the film language as well as the
peculiarity of the perceiving abilities of the post-soviet audiences broken
away from the big screen.

Sorena barbaqaZe

sindisierebis sakiTxi Zvel


berZnul mWevrmetyvelebasa
da mxatvrul prozaSi
berZnuli
mwerlobis
istoriaSi
calke literaturul Janrad gamoiyofa
mWevrmetyveleba.
masSi
TavisTavad
igulisxmeba esTetikuri zemoqmedebis,
anu mxatvrulobis principi. igi, rogorc Janri, Zv. w. me-5 saukunidan iwyebs
ganviTarebas aTenis demokratiuli saxelmwifos zrdasTan erTad. Tavad demokratiuli saxelmwifos struqtura
iTxovda TiTqmis yvela moqalaqisagan
mWevrmetyvelebis Cvevebs, radgan maT
xSirad uxdebodaT gamosvla sasamarTlo
procesebze, saxalxo krebebze, sazeimo
Sexvedrebze, dResaswaulebze da a.S. Sesabamisad, isini exebodnen mimdinare, saWirboroto, aqtualur, mwvave sakiTxebs
(tejera 1997:432437). maT gamosvlebs
xSirad SehqondaT koreqtura procesTa
mimdinareobasa da gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi. xSirad oratorTa msjelobis sagani adamianTa zneoba iyo. sainteresoa,
ramdenad exebodnen isini sindisierebis
sakiTxs? samagaliTod movitanT mTels
antikur samyaroSi erTerTi udidesi
mWevrmetyvelis,
demosTenesis
(Zv.w.
384/322) sityvebs. igi Tavis sityvebSi
erTnairad exeboda politikas, morals

214

Sorena barbaqaZe

da ekonomikas; ukompromisod amxelda qveynis politikur cxovrebaSi gadadgmul yvela mcdar nabijs. am dros aTenSi didi Tanxebi ixarjeboda daqiravebuli jaris Senaxvaze. aman gamoiwvia
xazinis dacarieleba. mokavSireebi aTens fuls aRar uxdidnen.
gamdidrdnen isini, vinc kargad auRo alRo Seqmnil mdgomareobas. mdidrebi mzad iyvnen, sakuTari keTildReobis mizniT piri
SeekraT mterTan. demosTenesi maT moRalateebad Tvlida, moralur degradaciaze alaparakda da am sens gadamdebs uwodebda
(simoriebis Sesaxeb, XVIII, XIX). demosTenesi ar erideboda konkretuli pirebisa da faqtebis gamoaSkaravebas. man sworad anu
sindisierad icxovra. amis Sesafaseblad moviyvanT misi cxovrebis kredos, sityvidan gvirgvinis Sesaxeb. demosTenesi miiCnevs,
rom a) yovel wesier moqalaqes ori Tviseba unda axasiaTebdes
znekeTiloba da erTguleba: me mudamJams eTguli viyavi... TqvenTvis arasodes miRalatia...;
b) yvelam unda airCios politikuri moRvawis pirdapiri da
samarTliani gza.
me Tavidanve avirCie aseTi gza Cemi samSolos Rirsebis,
Zlierebisa da keTili saxelis dacva ; g) ar unda gixarodes
sxvebis (mtris) warmatebebi: me ar vulocav zeaweuli marjveniT saamo ambavs (gamarjvebas) imaT, romelnic am saqcielis Sesaxeb auwyeben, visac jer ars...arc Cveni saxelmwifos warmatebebi
momismenia gulisxeTqviT, TavCaqindruls, rogorc am uwmindurebs, romlebic dascinian qveyanas; d) ar unda waxvide Seni
qveynis winaaRmdeg. es uRirsi saqcielia. amiT dascini sakuTar
Tavsac: ganadideben imas, rac sxvaTa Zlierebas aZlevs xels
bedkruli berZnebis xarjze. isini amtkiceben, rom maradJams aseTi viTareba unda SevinarCunoT (demosT. gvirgv. Ses.321324).
mxatvruli proza. berZnuli romani emijneba Tavis sinamdviles, ukve am faqtiT, sinamdvilisagan gamijvniT, igi Tavisi epoqis dokumentia, epoqis damaxasiaTebeli tendenciis asaxvas (ginzburgi 1991:144150). es ukve Rirsebaa misi. magram berZnul
romans aqvs ufro mniSvnelovani Rirsebac: rogorc ar cdilobs,
igi gaeqces sinamdviles, amas yovelTvis ver axerxebs (stiuarti
1990; 201202). sagangebod unda aRiniSnos, rom mkiTxvelis
cnobismoyvareobis dapyroba arasdros Seadgens berZnuli romanis
TviTmizans (dawvr.ix. heinesi 2002). efeqturi scenebi, mZafri
koliziebi aq arasdros iqmneba ideuri kompromisis, zneobrivi
principebis daqveiTebis xarjze. piriqiT, saxaliso fabula gamo-

sindisierebis sakiTxi Zvel berZnul mWevrmetyvelebasa da mxatvrul prozaSi 215

yenebulia yovelTvis moralur faseulobaTa gasarkvevad sikeTisa da siavis, saTnoebisa da mzakvrobis, WeSmariti siyvarulisa
da avxorculi vnebebis gasamijnad. sainteresoa, imijneba Tu ara
berZnul romanSi sindisiereba da usindisoba; ramdenad Seesabameba WeSmaritebas nicSes gancxadeba: romani sxva araferia, Tu
ara ,,berZnuli literaturis saboloo degradirebuli forma.
,,isini morals arafrad agdeben, pirovnebis ukvdavebis Sesaxeb
survilebs klaven CvenSi imiT, rom gviCveneben ,,kargi bedisweris gamarjvebas faqtebze (nicSe 2000:109)? amis garkvevas heliodorosis eTiopikis magaliTze Sevecdebi. unda vaRiaroT,
rom am mxriv, heliodorosi, sxva berZeni romanistebis msgavsad,
yovelTvis ver aRwevs Tavs garkveul sqematizms, gmirTa keTilebad da borotebad dayofis martiv Tvalsazriss. ritorikis siWarbec afermkrTalebs gmirTa individualurobas, magram saxeebi
mainc cocxalia da saintereso. aq Janris kanoni muSaobs pirobiToba, misi specifika, romelic gulisxmobs ara realuri sinamdvilis aRweras, aramed gansakuTrebuli sinamdvilis Seqmnas,
roca realuri da irealuri uCveuloba Seexameba erTmaneTs.
pirvelad demenetem miiqcia Cemi yuradReba. es iyo kekluci,
magram avsuli qali, romelic flobda cdunebis iSviaT xelovnebas da qalTa Soris yvelaze metad mas SeeZlo mamakacis mojadoeba. igi, sakuTari Svilis movlis mizniT da misi silamaziT
moxiblulma, colad SeirTo berikacma, knemonis mamam. qali ki
gers gaumijnurda da yvelanairad cdilobda yuradRebis miqcevas. veraferi rom ver gaawyo, Surisgebas Seudga: jer loginSi
Cawva da Sin dabrunebul qmars mouyva, rogor Cascxo wixli mucelSi germa da scema muStebiT. knemonma mamis risxva daitexa
Tavs. magram aman qalis guli ver daacxro da xelaxla daugo
maxe. msaxuris gamoyenebiT knemoni daarwmuna, rom demenetes sawolSi sayvareli hyavda da Seaguliana, rom ojaxis Semrcxvens
gasworeboda. saZinebelSi Sevardnil knemons ki iq sakuTari mama
daxvda da dedinacvali, romelic gulwrfel cremlebs Rvrida,
Tan qmars arwmunebda, ai, rom ar gjeroda, magisagan yvelanair
safrTxes unda velodoTo. amas Sedegad mohyva is, rom mamam sabolood moiZula Svili da gaagdo qalaqidan (2460). mTel am
istoriaSi CemTvis saintereso iyo ambis gagrZeleba: 1. erT dResac demenetem igrZno sindisis qenjna, qmars gamoutyda sakuTar
danaSaulSi da dasja Tavadve Txova 2. sanam knemonis mama dasjida avsuls, RmerTebma dasajes igi imiT, rom Rrma WaSi Cavar-

216

Sorena barbaqaZe

da da CaixrCo.
Tesbe. ukeTesi xvedri arc Tesbes ergo. es is Tesbea, romelic unamusod uwyobda xels, erTi mxriv, sakuTari qalbatonis
avxorcobasa da, meore mxriv, knemonis intrigaTa qselSi gaxlarTvas. swored misi monawileobiT daSorda mamaSvili
erTurTs. magram aqac mniSvnelovani CemTvis is faqti iyo, rom
raRac periodis gavlis Semdeg isic sindisis qenjnam Seawuxa.
sakuTari danaSaulis gamosworebas imiT Seecada, rom knemonis
mamasTan aRiara, rogor mouwyo vaJs yvelaferi, xolo Semdeg gaeSura mis mosaZebnad da sakuTar qveyanaSi, sakuTari mamisaTvis
dasabruneblad. Tesbesac Tavisi qalbatonis xvedri ergo. aRiara,
magram mainc daisaja maxviliT ganigmira ucxo qveyanaSi, ucxos xeliT, velze, ise, rom damtirebelic aravin hyavda.
Tiamisi. ra gasakviradac unda mogveCvenos, Tiamisi, yaCaRTa
ufrosi, erTerTi yvelaze simpaTiuri personaJia mTels am romanSi. igi ki Zarcvavs xalxs, magram samarTlianadac iqceva, wessa da kanons ar arRvevs, rac misi ar aris, xels ar axlebs da,
rac yvelaze mTavaria, swored mis da mis TanamebrZolTa mimarT iyenebs heliodorosi sityvas sindisi (3,12,14).
saerTo kanonzomiereba, romelic CvenTvis saintereso problemis TvalsazrisiT, romanis gmirebSi SeiZleba moviZioT, aseT
sqemas efuZneba:
1. sCadis danaSauls (sindisis qenjnis gareSe); ar Cans, rom
dardobs;
2. wlebis mere dardobs (ar Cans, ratom);
3. iTxovs dasjas..... magram sanam kanoni dasjis, RmerTebi
sjian.
aq CvenTvis mTavari is aris, rom gvian, magram mainc, nanobeben gmirebi Cadenil danaSauls, rac sindisis qenjnaze mianiSnebs.
unda vivaraudoT, rom es Sinagani xma imdenad Zlieria, rom
gmirebi Tavadve iTxoven Tavis dasjas.

sindisierebis sakiTxi Zvel berZnul mWevrmetyvelebasa da mxatvrul prozaSi 217

literatura:
gordeziani 2002: gordeziani r. (2002) berZnuli literatura.
gamomcemloba logosi, Tbilisi.
tejera 1997: V. Tejera (1997), Rewriting the History of Ancient Greek
Philosophy, Greenwood Press.
stiuarti 1990: Stewart S.(1990), Greek Sculpture, Volume 1, New
haven and London.
heinesi 2002: Katharine Haynes (2002), Fashioning the Feminine in the
Greek Novel, Publisher: Routledge .
nicSe 1981: Nietzsche F. (1981), Zur Genealogie der Moral, In: Werke in
Zwei Bnden. Mnchen. Band II.
nicSe 2000: Friedich Nietzsche (2000), The Birth of Tragedy, Trans.
Douglas Smith, Oxford.

Shorena Barbakadze
The Phenomenon of Conscience in Ancient
Greek Rhetoric and Fiction
In the History of greek literature rhetoric is distinguished as a
separateliterary genre.
It certainly encompasses the aesthetic effect i.e. the artistry
principle. As a genre It begins to develop in the 5th century BC along
with the development of a democratic state of Athens. The structure of a
democratic state required from almost all the citizens to have rhetorical
skills, as they often had to make speeches at the court hearings, public
and solemn meetings, parties, etc. Consequently, they dealt with the
current, urgent, relevant issues (Tejera 1997: 432-437). Their speeches
often influenced the course of actions and decision-making processes. For
orators human morality often was the topic of discussion. It is interesting
how much they dealt with the issue of probity? And it is also very
interesting whether the Greek novel distinguishes between probity and
shamelessness; whether Nietzsche's statement is true: "The novel is
nothing but "the final degraded form of Greek literature"."They despise
morality; they kill the desire to be immortal by showing the victory of
"good destiny" over facts "(Nietzsche, 2000: 109).

konstantine bregaZe

modernuli mgrZnobeloba
goeTes faustSi: modernis
epoqis diagnozi da
prognozi tragediis meore
nawilSi
es saukune mefistofeli
(galaktioni)

Sesavali
statiaSi SemoTavazebulia goeTes
teqstis modernuli cnobierebis konteqstSi wakiTxva, radgan fausti, da gansakuTrebiT, tragediis meore nawili,
upirveles yovlisa, unda ganvixiloT,
rogorc erTgvari modernuli mgrZnobelobis gamovlineba.
formulireba modernuli mgrZnobeloba Semogvaqvs bodriaris formulirebis postmodernuli mgrZnobeloba
analogiiT. Cvens formulirebaSi modernuli mgrZnobeloba ki vgulisxmobT
Tanamedrove adamianis, kerZod, modernis
epoqis adamianis cnobierebisa da egzistenciis garkveul kondicias, kerZod,
vgulisxmobT modernis epoqis mier waxalisebul totaluri desakralizaciisa
da dehumanizaciis procesebiT gamowveul
egzistencialur SiSs, TviTidentobis
mopovebis SeuZleblobas, usazrisobisa
da gaucxoebis gancdas, rasac modernis

`modernuli mgrZnobeloba~ goeTes `faustSi~: modernis epoqis diagnozi da


prognozi tragediis meore nawilSi

219

epoqis disocirebuli anu pirovnebadaSlili adamiani srulad


eqvemdebareba. es mgrZnobeloba gamowveulia jer kidev me-19
saukunis pirvel naxevarSi Casaxuli da ganviTarebuli politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli modernizaciis
procesebiT (ix. qvemoT).
swored am perspeqtividan ganvixilavT goeTes faustis meore nawils, romelSic, migvaCnia, rom, goeTe, erTi mxriv, swored am mgrZnobelobis vizionsa da prognozs gvTavazobs, meore
mxriv, XIX s. pirveli naxevris istoriul movlenebze miniSnebebiT arsobrivad aanaliizebs modernis epoqis adreul fazasac.

1. istoriuli realiebi da miniSnebebi adreul modernze


faustis meore nawilSi naCvenebia avtonomiuri individis
globaluri istoriiT, upirovno istoriuli procesis stiqiurobiT, istoriis koleqtiuri ZalebiTa da globaluri politikuri kataklizmebiT determineba: kerZod, pirveli nawilis metafizikuri idealebiT Sepyrobili individualisti fausti,
romelsac surs Caswvdes, Tu ra aris arsobrivad samyaro, buneba, meore nawilSi transformirdeba globalur politikaSi CarTul Tu CaTreul teqnokrat kolonizatorad, romelic imTaviTve uerTdeba bunebis aTvisebis globalur scientistur, kapitalistur da teqnicistur procesebs (Sdr., meore nawilis mexuTe
moqmedeba) (matenkloti 2004: 395). tragediis meore nawilSi
faustis modernis epoqis utilitaristi da konzumeri adamianis
erTgvari krebiTi saxea, misi obieqturi ikonaa. ekermanTan saubarSi (17.02.1831) goeTe swored faustis personaJis am mkveTr
transformacias usvams xazs:
pirveli nawili TiTqmis mTlianad subieqtivisturia. aq
yvelaferi enTuziazmiT aRvsili da vnebamoWarbebuli individisagan momdinareobs, romlis bundovani ideebiT Sepyrobiloba adamians siames hgvris. meore nawilSi TiTqmis aRaraferia subieqtivisturi, individualisturi, aq Cndeba ugrZnobeli, ugulo
vrceli da sruliad gamWvirvale samyaro (aq da yvelgan goeTes
citatebis Targmani, aseve faustis meore nawilidan Sesrulebuli pwkareduli Targmanebi Cemia k. b.) (ekermani 1994: 470).

220

konstantine bregaZe

swored es ugrZnobeloba da uenTuziazmobaa modernis


epoqis eTikuri maxasiaTebeli, maTgan momdinareobs modernis
epoqaSi aRmocenebuli totaluri dehumanizacia, totaluri gaucxoeba adamianebs Soris, adamianis eTikuri da metafizikuri
arsis nivelireba da renesansisa da ganmanaTleblobis anTropocentruli paradigmis destruqcia. am modernul mgrZnobelobas
romantikosi da modernisti mxatvrebi da mwerlebi civi gulisa (das kalte Herz) da sicivis (die Klte) metaforiT aRniSnavdnen da asaxavdnen: mag., sicivis metaforikis dominireba k.
d. fridrixis 1820-30-iani wlebis ferweraSi, an sicivisa civi
gulis motivi fr. holderlinis lirikaSi, l. tikis, v. haufis, T. bernhardis prozaSi da a. S. (vieta 1998: 531-537). 1
rogorc iTqva, tragediis meore nawilSi fausti gardaisaxeba modernis epoqis biurgerul-kapitalisturi cnobierebis matarebel subieqtad da modernizebuli sociumis nawilad, igi am
epoqis bazisur kapitalistur, ekonomikur da teqnokratul
dakveTebs asrulebs, romelTa gansaxorcieleblad igi ukve koleqtiur, masobriv da dagegmil gamwevs Zalas (Semdgom proletariatad wodebuls), axal meqanizebul teqnikas da cecxlis
manqanas (Feuermaschine), anu orTqlis Zravas iyenebs (Sdr.,
mexuTe moqmedebaSi zRvisTvis miwis gamotacebisa da sanapiro
zolze arsebuli Waobis amoSrobis mizniT dambebis agebisa da
arxebis gayvanis scenebi:
daavleT xeli xelsawyoebs, niCbebsa da bars,
rac gamovkafeT da gaviyvaneT, SevinarCunoT xams.
mkacri wyobiT da swrafi garjiT,
davimsaxurebT yovladmSvenier jildos;
da rom aRsruldes diadi saqme
kma ars erTis goneba da aTasis xeli.
...........................................................................................

SemTxveviTi araa, rom sicivis metafora nicSes zaratustraSic


gvxvdeba, riTac igi ukanaskneli adamianis (der letzte Mensch), anu
sakuTriv modernis epoqis adamianis, saSualo statistikuri biurgeris
indiferentulobas axasaiTebs: yinuli iyo mis sicilSi (Es war Eis
in seinem Lachen) (nicSe 2000: 21).

`modernuli mgrZnobeloba~ goeTes `faustSi~: modernis epoqis diagnozi da


prognozi tragediis meore nawilSi

221

iq, sadac RamiT dafarfatebdnen cecxlisa alni,


meore dRes im adgilze jebiri aRemarTaT
(taepi: 11505-11510, 11125-11126) (goeTe 2001: 201).
fausti aq ukve iswrafvis ara sakraluri bunebis dafaruli
arsis Sesacnobad, rogorc amas tragediis pirvel nawilSi
vxvdebiT, aramed buneba misTvis ukve mkvdari, desakralizebuli
materiaa, romlis teqnokratuli aTvisebisa da moxmarebis Sedegad (die Tat) igi abevrebs kapitals, afarToebs sakuTrebasa da
politikur Zalauflebas: Zalauflebas movipoveb da sakuTrebas!
/ saqmea yvela, dideba - arara (Herrschaft gewinn ich,
Eigentum! / Die Tat ist alles, nichts der Ruhm) (taepi: 1018710188)(goeTe 2001: 163).
amitomac tragediis meore nawilSi, bunebrivia, gauqmebulia
literaturaSi popularuli tradiciuli konfliqti individualist subieqturobasa da sociums, idealsa da cxovrebas Soris, radgan fausti sruliad ganzavdeba uaxles modernul istoriaSi, atomizdeba adreuli modernis istoriul procesSi da
eqvemdebareba da upasuxebs axal socialur gamowvevebs, rac axali modernuli sazogadoebis biurgerul, kapitalistur da teqnokratul moTxovnilebebs ukavSirdeba. Tuki visaubrebT konfliqtze, maSin esaa civilizatoruli procesebis antogonizmi,
daundobloba da dapirispireba bunebasTan (matenkloti 2004:
396).
fausti swored bunebis gaupatiurebisken mimarTul am axali modernizaciis procesebidan iRebs sargebels: maSin, rodesac
fausti tragediis pirvel nawilSi SezRuduli provinciuli filisterobis daZlevas da romantikosi personaJis msgavsad universumSi transcendirebas cdilobs, mudmivad aqvs metafizikuri
swrafvebi, bunebas, rogorc umaRlesi gonis gamovlinebas, mowiwebiT da aRfrTovanebiT epyroba, meore nawilSi igi sakuTar
universalur pirovnebas biurgerul cnobierebasa da momxmarebluri sazogadoebis interesebs uqvemdebarebs. simptomaturia,
rom pirveli nawilis dasawyisisagan gansxvavebiT, tragediis meore nawilis dasawyisSi fausti imzireba ara zecisken, ara mnaTobebisken, rodesac is aseTi qceviT Tavis metafizikur swrafvebze
mianiSnebda, aramed miwisken (matenkloti 2004: 396) da am
qceviT cxadyofs, rom is ukve mxolod miwis azria, anu mxolod dazain-iT, amqveyniurobiT, anu sagnobrivi da movlenebis
sinamdviliT SemosazRvravs sakuTar egzistencias: maS kvlav

222

konstantine bregaZe

vuWvritoT ama miwas / [...] da darCes mze Cems zurgsa ukan!


(So dass wir wieder nach der Erde blicken, / [] So bleibe denn die
Sonne mir im Rcken!) (taepi: 4713, 4715) (goeTe 2001: 5-6).
ra globalur istoriul movlenebzea faustis meore nawilSi miniSnebuli, romlebic SesaZloa gaviazroT adreuli modernis anu modernis sawyisi etapis gamovlinebad? mesame aqtis
garda tragediis meore nawilSi gvxvdeba Semdegi aluziebi goeTes Tanamedrove masStabur istoriul-politikur movlenebsa da
grandiozul ekonomikur-teqnologiur Zvrebze: kerZod, safrangeTis 1789 wlis e. w. did revoluciasa da 1830 wlis e. w. ivlisis revoluciaze (teqstSi miniSnebulia sityviT miwisZvra/Erdbeben), napoleonis epoqaze (1804-1815), restavraciaze (1815 wlidan moyolebuli da goeTes gardacvalebis Semdgomi
periodis CaTvliT vidre 1848 wlamde); aseve, gvxvdeba miniSnebebi im periodis modernul teqnologiur miRwevebze, romelTac
Tavad goeTe moeswro: jeims vatis orTqlis/cecxlis Zrava
(1782-1784), romelic imxanad inglisSi dainerga gamwev meqanikur-hidravlikur Zalad teqstilis fabrikebSi, aseve samTamadno
warmoebaSi, xvna-Tesvis saqmeSi. orTqlis/cecxlis Zrava Semdgom
gemebzec damontaJda da me-18-me-19 saukuneebis mijnaze pirveli
Tbomavali gemic aigo (e. w. fultonis Tbomavali gemi), xolo
1825 wels inglisSi gamoCnda pirveli orTqlmavali matarebeli.
simptomaturia, rom swored am wels Seudga goeTe faustis
meore nawilze muSaobas (Smidti 2011: 215).
rac Seexeba axal ekonomikur da militaristul Zvrebs,
romlebzec faustis meore nawilSia miniSnebuli, igi ukavSirdeba sabanko-finansur urTierTobaTa modernizebas: 1815 wels
dafuZnda rotSildis sabanko da safinanso saxli, da amiT safuZveli Caeyara Tanamedrove sabanko sistemas (Sdr., pirveli aqti, qaRaldis fulis gaCenis epizodi), xolo samxedro warmoebasa da samxedro xelovnebaSi napoleonis omebis fonze daiwyo
samxedro teqnikis, gansakuTrebiT, artileriis daxvewa, aseve dainerga samxedro mecnierebani, kerZod, savele inJineria, balistikuri gamoTvlebi: tragediis meoTxe aqtSi, romelSic miniSnebebia vaterlooSi napoleonis marcxsa da avstriis imperiis didhercog meternixis mier 1815 wels venis kongresze inicirebul
da ganviTarebul restavratorul procesebze (Sdr.: umaRles
varskvlavTa elvisebr cvena/Blickschnelles Fallen Allerhchsten
Sterne (taepi: 10751) (goeTe 2001: 179), fausti gvevlineba im-

`modernuli mgrZnobeloba~ goeTes `faustSi~: modernis epoqis diagnozi da


prognozi tragediis meore nawilSi

223

peratoris mxareze mebrZol sardlad. is da mefistofeli amboxebuli antiimperatoris (Gegen-Kaiser) winaaRmdeg brZolebSi ukve iyeneben im periodisTvis modernizebul axal samxedrosamrewvelo da samxedro-samecniero miRwevebs - balistikur gaTvlebze dafuZnebul sazarbazne kanonadas, samxedro sainJinro gamoTvlebis mixedviT awyobil sainJinro nagebobebs (mag., saxeldaxelo lojistikuri xidebi) (Smidti 2011: 266).
faustSi aseve aisaxa axali social-politikuri ideebi,
kerZod, franguli adreuli socializmis, e. w. sen-simonizmis
ideebi (Sdr., mexuTe aqti) (Smidti 2011: 216).
faustis meore nawilSi aseve miniSnebebia axal aRmoCenebze bunebismetyvelebaSi: kerZod, miniSnebaa 1828 wels germaneli
bunebismetyvelis, fridrix voleris (Whler) eqsperimentebsa
da aRmoCenebze bioqimiaSi, romelTa Sedegadac SesaZlebeli gaxda araorganuli naerTebisgan miRebuliyo organuli qsovilebi
(kerZod, ZuZumwovrebis cilis molekulebis miReba). Sesabamisad,
gaCnda SesaZlebloba, Semdgom etapze xelovnurad Seqmniliyo
cocxali arsebebi.
faustze muSaobisas fr. voleris am aRmoCenebisa da cdebis Sesaxeb goeTe detalurad iyo informirebuli: informacia
goeTem Tavad voleris maswavleblisagan, stokholmel qimikos
iakob berceliusisagan (Berzelius) miiRo, rodesac isini qalaq
dornburgSi erTmaneTs Sexvdnen imave 1828 wels. swored amis
Semdeg qmnis goeTe meore nawilis meore moqmedebaSi laboratoriis scenas: tragediis meore nawilSi homunkulusis, am xelovnuri liliputi adamianis saxiT, iseT arsebas vxvdebiT, romelic faustis famulusma vagnerma da mefistofelma laboratoriuli cdebis Sedegad kolbaSi in vitro gamoiyvanes swored im
bioqimiuri meTodebis safuZvelze (goeTe-leqsikoni... 2004: 209210).
amgvard, ukve me-19 saukunis pirvel naxevarSi safuZveli eyreba axal industriul, teqnologiur, teqnokratul da scientistur eras, anu sakuTriv istoriuli modernis epoqas, kerZod, am epoqis adreul fazas. modernis epoqis suliskveTebis
simbolod tragediis meore nawilSi gvevlineba Tavad mefistofeli, romelic ganasaxierebs swored totaluri ekonomikuri,
kolonizatoruli, momxmarebluri, militaruli, industriuli
Zvrebisa da procesebis stiqiur Zalas. am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa mefistos Semdegi fraza: omi, vaWroba da mekobreoba,

224

konstantine bregaZe

/sampir aran isini, ganuyofelni (Krieg, Handel und Priraterie, /


Dreieinig sind sie, nicht zu trennen) (taepi: 11187-11188) (goeTe
2001: 192). am samerTianobaSi goeTeEmoiazrebs modernis epoqis
Semdeg apriorul maxasiaTeblebs: oms (Krieg), vaWrobas
(Handel), mekobreobas (Piraterie): anu, omi, rogorc, sakuTriv, axali tipis totaluri teqnologiuri militarizmi;
vaWroba, rogorc axali totaluri sabazro ekonomika; xolo mekobreoba, erTi mxriv, rogorc konkurenciaze, warmatebasa da
warmadobaze orientirebuli axali modernuli sociumis eTikuri maxasiaTebeli, romelic vlindeba daundobel, arahumanuri
savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebiT, rodesac gamZafrebuli konkurenciis pirobebSi sapirispiro mxareebi erTmaneTis ganadgurebis xarjze miaRweven ekonomikur warmatebas, meore mxriv, mekobreoba, rogorc bunebis kolonizatoruli da teqnokratuli aTviseba finansuri mogebis, ekonomikis gafarToebisa da kapitalis
dagrovebis mizniT. es sami faqtori urTierTs ganapirobebs da
avsebs. rac mTavaria, axal xanaSi swored manqanur-teqnikur-ekonomikuri procesebi ganixileba sakacobrio progresad, swored
maT mieniWebaT aqsiologiuri markeri, radgan isini es procesebi
efuZnebian ukve ideologiur konstruqtad gadaqceul scientizms, romlis mixedviTac bunebismetyvelebaTa empiriuli kvlevebis safuZvelze miRebuli samyaros materialistur-pozitivisturi suraTi ganixileba erTaderT WeSmaritebad. yvelaferi es
ki efuZneba mkacrad da zustad gamomTvlel, damaangariSebel da
damgegmav racios, instrumentul gonebas, romlis gansaxierebadac mefistofeli da fausti gvevlinebian: mswrafl Sevadgine
gonebaSi gegma gegmaze (taepi: 10227), rac gavifiqre, myis aRvasrule (taepi: 11501) (Da fasst ich schnell im Geiste Plan auf
Plan, Was ich gedacht, ich eil es zu vollbringen) (goeTe 2001:
164, 201).
SemTxveviTi araa, rom meore nawilSi xSirad gvxvdeba siCqaris, swrafi tempis aRmniSvneli leqsikuri erTeulebi,
romlebic imas mianiSneben, rom me-19 saukuneSi e. w. sivrciTi
kultura (Raumkultur), anu tradiciuli patriarqaluri premodernuli kultura icvleba droiTi kulturiT (Zeitkultur), anu
modernuli kulturiT, rac niSnavs egzistencialuri da socialuri tempis mkveTr aCqarebas, sakralur sivrceze mibmulobis
gauqmebas (Smiti 1999: 95-98). es swored modernis epoqis umTavresi ontologiuri maxasiaTebelia da swored me-19 saukunis

`modernuli mgrZnobeloba~ goeTes `faustSi~: modernis epoqis diagnozi da


prognozi tragediis meore nawilSi

225

pirvelive naxevarSi, modernis epoqis adreul etapze iwyeba. rogorc cnobilia, es kulturuli transformaciis procesi Semdgom imave saukunis meore naxevarSi kidev da kidev aCqarebulia,
xolo meoce saukuneSi Tavis kulminacias aRwevs. SemTxveviTi
araa isic, rom faustis meore nawilSi xSirad gvxvdeba siCqaris
gamomxatveli
leqsikuri
erTeulebi:
blickschnell,
Eilebeute, Habebald , rascher Griff, geschwinde,
aufraffen, Gemeindrang eilt (Smidti 2011: 265). da aqve kargad Cans Tavad faustisa da mefistofelis qcevis Taviseburebani: swrafi, mouTmeneli, gauazrebeli, impulsuri, instinqturi,
TavaSvebuli qmedebis eTika (die Tat), rac ase damaxasiaTebelia momxmarebeli sazogadoebisaTvis da konkurenciaze, warmatebasa da warmadobaze orientirebuli sociumisaTvis: nabrZanebia
swrafad, uswrafesad qmna (Geboten schnell, zu schnell getan!)
(taepi: 11382) (goeTe 2001: 198). 2
am kulturuli transformaciis ukiduresad aCqarebul process da Tavad modernis epoqis swraf temps goeTe aRniSnavs neologizmiT velociferuli (veloziferisch). amiT man, erTi
mxriv, mianiSna procesis manqanur-teqnikur bunebaze, meore
mxriv, Tavad am procesis warmmarTveli politikuri, finansuri
da scientisturi elitebis swrafi da instinqturi qmedebis Taviseburebaze. da Tu am neologizmis Zirs da sufiqss davukvirdebiT, iqve fonemur da leqsikur doneze ikiTxeba sityvis kidev
erTi damatebiTi sema, romelic aRniSnuli procesebis luciferul-mefistofelur anu titanur arsze mianiSnebs (Smidti
2011: 266).

Sdr., maqsimebsa da refleqsiebSi (Maximen und Reflexionen)


(1833 postum) Tanamedrove modernuli Jamisa da Tanamedrove axali Taobis adamianis axladCasaxuli utilitaruli da momxmarebluri buneba,
am bunebiT aprioruli Sepyrobiloba da axali Taobis adamianis e. w.
warmatebaze dageSiloba zustad daaxasiaTa goeTem: aCqarebuli savaWro tempi (Lebhaftigkeit des Handels), qaRaldis fulis gamalebuli
2

Sriali, valebis valebze dadeba, raTa ase iqnas valebi gastumrebuli,


esaa is yovlismomcveli, ukidegano da usasrulo (ungeheuer) elementebi, romelTac axla mudmivad gamodevnebia axalgazrda adamiani (citirebulia i. Smidtis naSromis mixedviT: 2011, 264).

konstantine bregaZe

226

am procesebis Sedegad ki bolo eReba germanuli klasikisa


(goeTe/Sileri/humboldti) da romantizmis farglebSi SemuSavebul humanistur da subiqtivistur individualobas, idealisturi metafizikis gonis apriorulobasa (kanti, fixte, hegeli) da
xelovnebis maRal gagebas (vinkelmani, morici), romlis mixedviTac xelovneba gaiazreba avtonomiur goniT-sulier fenomenad.
xelovnebis am maRali gagebis sapirispirod ki safuZveli eyreba
xelovnebis gardauval komercializacias (Sdr.: erTi xelis
mosmiT [...] erT RameSi aTasma xelovanma gaaTasmagos (mit wenig
Federezgen [] in dieser Nacht / durch Tausendknstler
vertausendfacht) (taepi: 6071) (goeTe 2001: 43).

2. saimperatoro kari
tragediis meore nawilSi (ix. I aqti) swored saimperatoro karia totaluri racionalizaciis, komercializaciisa da
ekonomizaciis sivrce. iq igoneben da iyeneben swored qaRaldis
fuls, rasac fausti da mefistofeli velociferuli manqanebiT axorcieleben. amiT goeTem kidev erTxel mianiSna Tanamedrove ekonomikur da finansur siaxleebze (aRsaniSnavia, rom qaRaldis fuli swored goeTes sicocxleSi, napoleonis epoqaSi gamoigones) (goeTe-leqsikoni... 2004: 329). amasTan, swored am saimperatoro sivrces axasiaTebs aCqarebuli tempi, am sivrceSi yvelaferi myisierad xdeba, maT Soris qaRaldis fulis mimoqceva. saimperatoro kari es swored axali modernuli sociumis
modelia, iq xorcieldeba yofis racionalizaciisa da xelovnebis komercializaciis amocanebi: Sdr., mefistofelis naTqvamze,
aq fuli gvakldeba (hier aber fehlt das Geld) (taepi: 4890),
imperatori myisve pasuxobs: fuli gvakldeba, maS, gaaCine (Es
fehlt das Geld, so schaff es denn) (taepi: 4926) (goeTe 2001: 11).
xolo mefistosadmi faustis am sityvebSi kargad Cans, erTi
mxriv, politikuri elitebis primitiuli fsiqologia da trivialuri Rirebulebebi, meore mxriv, xelovnebis komercializaciis
tendencia axal droSi:
Sen arc ki uwyi, megobaro,
saiT wagviyvans Seni xelovaneba;
Cven is (imperatori - k. b.) jer simdidriT avavseT,
axla ki misi garTobis droa

`modernuli mgrZnobeloba~ goeTes `faustSi~: modernis epoqis diagnozi da


prognozi tragediis meore nawilSi

227

(taepi: 6191) (goeTe 2001: 46).


amgvarad, saimperatoro kari, anu politikuri elitebi jer
orientirebulni arian kapitalis maqsimalur dagrovebaze, rac
Zalauflebis gamyarebisa da gafarToebis garantia; meore mxriv,
am elitebs imavdroulad aqvT esTetikuri sisustec: anu, maT
aqvT moTxovnileba xelovnebaze, oRond is unda iyos TavSesaqcevi (amuzanturi), msubuqi, pompezuri, mogebis momtani da a. S.,
amgvarad, unda Seicavdes yvela im niSans, rac damaxasiaTebelia
e. w. komerciuli xelovnebisaTvis. tragediis pirvel moqmedebaSi
asaxuli saimperatoro karis, anu, zogadad, politikuri elitis
saxelovnebo vnebani swored komerciul, gasarTob xelovnebazea
orientirebuli, saimperatoro karic swored aseT xelovnebas
afinansebs da waaxalisebs. (Sdr.: amave moqmedebaSi mefistos
laterna magika, an faustis inscenirebuli parisisa da elenes
fantasmagoria).
imavdroulad, saimperatoro kari, Sileriseul formulirebas Tu daveyrdnobiT, e. w. bunebiTi saxelmwifos (Naturstaat),
anu
Zaladobrivi
saxelmwifos,
moZalade
saxelmwifos
(Machtstaat) tipuri gamovlinebaa, romlis farglebSic usasrulod warmoCndeba Zalauflebismoyvareobis paTologia, aq verasodes fuZndeba gonebaze (Vernunft) (ganmanaTleblur-kantianuri e.
w. fernunfti, rogorc universaluri moralisa da kategoriuli imperativis dafuZnebis aprioruli winapiroba da sulieri
Zala) damyarebuli maRali zneobrivi ideali da goeTe-Sileriseuli Bildung-is principi, anu antikurobaze orientirebuli adamianis sruli anTropologiuri ganviTarebis koncefcia (e. i.
sxeulebrivi, samSvinveliseuli da gonismieri harmoniuli ganviTarebis koncefcia) (dori 2007: 69-72), romlis praqtikuli
xorcSesxmis motiviT daaarsa vilhelm fon humboldtma berlinis universiteti (1810).

3. faustis teqnokratizmi da socialutopiebi


tragediis mexuTe moqmedebaSi kulminirebulia faustis teqnokratuli vnebebi: aq mocemulia bunebaze Tanamedrove teqnikuri civilizaciis Zaladoba, romlebsac fausti axorcielebs
zRvis sanapiroze arxebis gayvaniTa da dambebis agebiT, riTac mas
surs, zRvas miwa gamostacos. amisTvis fausti iyenebs masobriv

228

konstantine bregaZe

gamwev proletarul cocxal Zalas, romlis moqmedebasac is


afuZnebs SromiTi procesebis mkacri organizebiTa da dagegmviT,
aseve - axali teqnikis, kerZod, cecxlis/orTqlis Zravaze momuSave meqanizmebis, meqanikuri amZravebis (cecxlis manqanebis,
Feuermaschinen) gamoyenebiT. faustis am desakralizebuli instrumentuli racios, anu gamomTvleli gonebis, - romlis farglebSic ukve gauqmebulia bunebis sakraluri gageba, rogoric
hqonda fausts tragediis pirvel nawilSi, - mier warmarTul
teqnokratul procesebs ewireba buneba, Sedegad, irRveva zRvis
sanapiros ekologia, ewireba zRvis piras mcxovrebi moxuci
col-qmris (filemon da baucis) sicocxle, maTi idiliuri saxli da baRi. rac mTavaria, fausti bolomde ver imorCilebs bunebas da zRvis sanapiro zolze arsebul Waobs bolomde mainc
ver amoaSrobs: Waobi miiwevs mTianeTisken, / srul daawylula
yvelaferi, rac movipoveT (Ein Sumpf zieht am Gebirge hin, /
Verpestet alles schon Errungene) (goeTe 2001: 203). amiT ki miniSnebulia, rom Tanamedrove adamianis teqnokratuli vnebebi iwvevs ara kacobriobis progress, eqspertuli scientizmiT
gamyarebuli teqnokratizmi kacobriobis gonis ganviTarebis
umaRlesi gamoxatuleba ki araa, aramed sruli da gardauvali
egzistencialuri finaloba.
imave mexuTe moqmedebaSi masobriv SromiT procesebze miniSnebiT goeTe parodirebs am periodisTvis (XIX s. 30-iani wlebi)
gavrcelebuli adreuli socializmis (e. w. sen-simonizmi) ideebs, romelTac goeTe ecnoboda franguli sen-simonisturi gazeTis Le Globe saSualebiT (Smidti 2011: 216): kerZod, faustis
ukanaskneli, sikvdiliswina monologi swored franguli adreuli socializmis ideebs axmovanebs, romelic eyrdnoba racionalizebuli brZanebisa da morCilebis axal, modernul diqotomias. es gulisxmobs zemodan wamosuli gegmazomieri ekonomikuri
da teqnokratuli dagegmarebis mixedviT masobrivi gamwevi Zalis
organizebas da amis safuZvelze masStaburi sainJinro, ekonomikuri, industriuli da urbanistuli procesebis ganviTarebas,
rasac, saboloo jamSi, ewireba buneba da adamianebis sicocxle.
am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa swored faustis sityvebi, romelTa mixedviTac, Tavad igi daqiravebuli masobrivi muSaxelis
bosad gvevlineba: mxolod batonis sityvas aqvs Zala. / ha,
droze, adeqiT ymebo, qudze kaci! (Des Herren Wort es gibt
allein Gewicht. / Vom Lager auf ihr Knechte! Mann fr Mann!)

`modernuli mgrZnobeloba~ goeTes `faustSi~: modernis epoqis diagnozi da


prognozi tragediis meore nawilSi

229

(11502-11503) (goeTe 2001: 201). am konteqstSi ki faustis cnobili sityvebi gaTavisuflebul xalxTan gaTavisuflebul miwaze dgoma (Auf freiem Grund mit freiem Volke stehen) (taepi:
11580) (goeTe 2001: 203) goeTes ironiuli aluziaa, erTi
mxriv, sen-simonisturi tipis socialistur utopiebze da, meore
mxriv, miniSnebaa swored bunebaze damokidebulebisagan gaTavisuflebaze, rasac es axali modernuli cnobiereba velociferuli gaSmagebiT aviTarebs: Tavisufleba, Tavisufal miwaze dgoma
aq swored bunebis kanonebSi axali magiiT Carevas (anu samecniero da teqnologiur Carevas) da bunebis ZalTa scientisturteqnokratul marTvasa da damorCilebas gulisxmobs (rac bunebis marTvisa da damorCilebis iluzia ufroa), ris Sedegadac
adamiani sabolood Tavisufldeba bunebaze damokidebulebisagan,
Semdgom gabatondeba masze da iwyebs mis teqnokratul-ekonomikur aTvisebas (Smidti 2011: 266).
amgvarad, Tanamedrove droSi teqnokrati faustisTvis adamianis Tavisufleba amis iqiT ar midis: axal modernis epoqaSi
Tavad sociumi politikur-ekonomikurad kvlav morCilebaSia da
misi Semdgomi arseboba damokidebulia bazris moTxovnebsa da
monopolisti damsaqmeblis (am SemTxvevaSi utilitaristi da
pragmatikosi faustis) saWiroebebze. sabolood, tragediis meore nawilis mexuTe moqmedebaSi pirveli nawilis odesRac bunebismoyvaruli da sakralur-metafizikuri cnobierebis matarebeli marad maZiebeli romantikosi fausti reducirdeba tipur
pragmatikos da utilitarist teqnokratad, saSualoebis
(Mittelmssigkeit), masobrivi momxmarebluri sociumis, anu saSualo statistikuri biurgerobis warmomadgenlad da mis liderad.
3

aRsaniSnavia, rom jer kidev faustis meore nawilis dawyebamde


kompozitor da pedagog karl fridrix celterisadmi (6 ivnisi, 1825)
werilSi goeTe swored am axal socialur da mentalur tendenciebze
mianiSnebda, rodesac nel-nela yalibdeboda e. w. saSualo klasi momxmarebluri cnobierebiT; is me-19 saukunidan moyolebuli dRemde sabolood moeqceva bazisisa da zednaSenis dialeqtikis determinebulobaSi: axalgazrda adamianebi adreuli asakidanve arian gaaqtiure-

bulni da drois morevSi CaTreulni; dRes swored simdidriT da aCqarebuli tempiTaa (Schnelligkeit) mTeli msoflio aRtacebuli, riskenac yoveli iswrafvis; rkinigzis matareblebis, safosto eqspres-etle-

konstantine bregaZe

230
CODA

sainteresoa, rom goeTes Tavdapirvelad swored faustis


aRsasruliT surda daemTavrebina tragedia da Tavidan misi sulis gamoxsna, cadamaRleba da maradqaluris wiaRSi Seyvana sulac ar hqonda koncifirebuli (Smidti 2011: 287), is swored
mefistofelis, rogorc maradiuli araras gansaxierebis, wiaRSi
unda ganqarvebuliyo. es garemoeba cxadyofs, rom Rrma moxucebulobaSi skeptikosad qceul goeTes, romelsac istoriis arc
obieqturi gonis mier warmarTuloba swamda da arc Tanamedrove
adreuli modernis epoqis adamianis ganmanaTleblur-kantianuri
gznebis (Tanamedrove adamianis bunebis umTavres boroteul maxasiaTeblad goeTe mis mouTmenlobas (Ungeduld) miiCnevda),
sakacobrio istoriis msvleloba warmoedgina yovelgvar sazrissa da mizans moklebul TviTganadgurebisaken midrekil nekroidul procesad,4 risi simboluri gansaxierebacaa tragediis finalSi faustis dabrmaveba: sibrmave, rogorc sulieri kastraciis simbolo (simboloTa leqsikoni... 2008: 50), aq, pirvel
yovlisa, unda gaviazroT im axali modernuli cnobierebis mdgomareobad, rodesac Tanamedrove modernis adamians totalurad
exSoba metafizikur saganTawyobis wvdomis sulier-goniTi unarebi, ris gamoc misi cnobiereba mxolod empireisken, imanentobiskenaa mimarTuli, xolo misi logosi gamomTvlel raciodaa

bis, Tbomavali gemebis da komunikaciis sxva SesaZlebeli moqnili saSualebebis wyalobiT dRes ganaTlebuli msoflio fons gadis, adamianebi erTmaneTis dajabnas cdiloben, TavisTavs kidev ufro met amocanebs wauyeneben da amis Sedegad saSualoebaSi (Mittelmssigkeit) iyinebian (citirebulia i. Smidtis naSromis mixedviT: 2011 264).
4 Sdr.: "msoflio istoria maRladmxedi moazrovnisaTvis sxva araferia
Tu ar uazrobaTa wyeba, aqedan Znelad Tu SeiZleba sulisTvis raime
sargos swavla. [...] igi (msoflio istoria - k. b.) uzomod Seicavs
mxolod sibriyvesa da ugunurebas. [...] arc ise axalgazrda var, rom
msoflio istoriis gamo zedmetad avitkio Tavi, romelic yvelaze absurduli ram aris, rac ki ram amqveynad arsebobs" (werilebidan kancler, igive vaimaris sahercogos iusticiis ministr fridrix fon miulerisadmi - 11. X. 1824, 17. XII. 1828, 06. III. 1828. kancleri miuleri
goeTes sicocxlis bolo wlebSi mwerlis mdivani da ndobiTaRWurvili piri iyo iuridiul sakiTxebSi) (citirebulia i. Smidtis naSromis
mixedviT: 2011, 187).

`modernuli mgrZnobeloba~ goeTes `faustSi~: modernis epoqis diagnozi da


prognozi tragediis meore nawilSi

231

gardasaxuli. SemTxveviTi araa, rom ukanasknel sikvdiliswina


monologSi gacxadebuli dabrmavebuli faustis vizionebi (Sdr.,
sibrmave aseve, rogorc profetuli naTelxilvis toposi, ix.
simboloTa leqsikoni... 2008: 49) swored masobrivi mSromeli
Zalis mier momavalSi totalurad dafuZnebul manqanur-teqnikur civilizacias ukavSirdeba da ara RvTaebrivi transcendenturobis individualistur-romantikul damkvidrebas: gavuxsni

sivrceebs mraval milionT/da davumkvidreb sanaxebs SemosilT


nayofiT, simwvaniT. [...] am azriTa var Sepyrobili, esaa sibrZne
ukanaskneli (Erffn ich Rume vielen Millionen,/Grn das
Gefilde, fruchtbar; [] Ja, diesem Sinne bin ich ganz ergeben, das ist
der Weisheit letzter Schluss) (goeTe 2001: 203).
literatura:
goeTe 2001: Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Faust. Der Tragdie zweiter Teil,
Stuttgart: Reclam.
goeTe-leqsikoni... 2004: Metzler Goethe Lexikon. Personen Sachen
Begriffe, 2. Aufl., hrsg. von B. Jessing, Stuttgart/Weimar: Metzler.
dori 2007: Volker C. Drr, Weimarer Klassik, Raderborn: Fink.
ekermani 1994: Johann Peter Eckermann, Gesprche mit Goethe,
Stuttgart: Reclam.
vieta 1998: Silvio Vietta, Die Modernekritik der sthetischen Moderne
(S. 531-549); in: sthetische Moderne in Europa. Grundzge und
Problemzusammenhnge seit der Romantik, hrsg. von S. Vietta
und D. Kemper, Mnchen: Fink.
matenkloti 2004: Gert Mattenklott, Goethes Faust II (S. 391-477); in:
Goethe Handbuch, Bd. 2, hrsg. von Th. Buck, Stuttgart/Weimar:
Metzler.
nicSe 2000: Friedrich Nietzsche, Smtliche Werke. Kritische
Studienausgabe in 15 Bnde (KSA), Bd. III, hrsg. von Giorgio Colli
und Mazzino Montinari, 7. Aufl., Mnchen/New York: Deutscher
Taschenbuch Verlag / de Gruyter.
simboloTa leqsikoni... 2008: Metzler Lexikon literarischer Symbole,
hrsg. von G. Butzer, Stuttgart/Weimar: Metzler.
Smidi 1999: Wilhelm Schmid, Philosophie der Lebenskunst. Eine
Grundlegung, 4. Aufl., Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Smidti 2011: Jochen Schmidt, Goethes Faust. Erster und Zweiter Teil:
Grundlagen Werk Wirkung, 3. Aufl., Mnchen: C.H. Beck.

232

konstantine bregaZe

Konstantine Bregadze
Doctor of Philology, Associate Professor
at Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
"The Sense of Modernity" in Faust by W. Goethe:
Diagnosis and Prognosis of the Modern
Epoch in the Second Part of the Tragedy
1. The article deals with the understanding of the proposed text
according to the modern conscious. Faust and especially the second part
of the tragedy should be regarded as an expression of "The Sense of
Modernity".
2. The formula "the sense of modernity" is influenced by Jean
Baudrillard "Post-modern Sensitivity". In our formula we mean the
condition of the modern individual and peculiarities of her/his conscious
and existence; namely the existential fear, impossibility of selfidentification, feeling of despair caused by the total de-sacralisation and
dehumanization characteristic for the modernist epoch and on which the
disassociated and separated individual is fully dependent.
3. Hence, from this point of view is Faust by Goethe being analyzed,
were Goethe gives the reader the vision and prognosis of the sensitivity.

giorgi razmaZe

filmuri Tu fotogenuri?
kinematografSi realuri samyaros
mxatvruli organizeba aris vizualuri
qaosidan mowesrigebuli nakadis Seqmna.
es substancia anu filmi aerTianebs rogorc kinolingvistur models, aseve
XX-e saukunemde kacobriobisTvis ucnob
(Tumca, bela balaSis mixedviT, gamosaxuleba win uswrebda sityvas) metaazrs,
romelic mxolod amoZravebul gamosaxulebebSi SeiZleba arsebobdes. rolan
barti aRniSnavs, rom arsebobs garkveuli mesame azri, mesame Sre, romlis verbaluri artikulaciac SeuZlebelia (maqsimum, Cven SegviZlia masTan miaxloeba).
amis erTaderTi mizezi SeiZleba iyos misi unikaluri (da universaluri) ena
(balaSi 1924: 88), romlis kosmogenuri
unaris meqanizmis Semecneba mxolod vizualuri aRqmis meSveobiT aris SesaZlebeli, Tumc, mainc rCeba misi verbalizaciisa da aRweris garkveuli saSualeba.
filmis dasawyisSi naCvenebi mTa SuaSi aRar iqneba mTa, Tumca finaliSi is
isev Tavis Cveul mniSvnelobas daubrundeba, magram aRar iqneba pirvandeli mTa,
- ase xsnis pol Srederi iasuZiro oZus
transcendentalur
stils
(Srederi
2016: 4-43). aRniSnuli gansazRvreba
gvaZlevs realobis kinoSi konstruirebis sametapian models, romelSic moce-

234

giorgi razmaZe

mulia sagnis metaSinaarsis mqone kinogenur gansazRvrebad gardaqmnis gza. sityva "kinogenuri" samecniero wreebSi ar aris gavrcelebuli termini. faqtobrivad, is arc arsebobs. urban-leqsikonebSi vkiTxulobT: "kinogenuri niSnavs, iyo fotogenuri,
oRond kinosTvis"1. aRniSnuli ganmarteba Tavdayira ayenebs kinos
Teoriis mTel istorias. "fotogenia" (deluki 1924), riCoto
kanudos manifestis (kanudo 1995: 1-30) Semdeg, kinosa da mis
sakomunikacio enis bunebis Sesaxeb Seqmnili rigiT meore Teoriuli naSromia, romelSic lui delukma swored "kinogenurobaze"
isaubra, Tumca mas mainc "fotogenia" uwoda, radgan im momentisTvis aqtualuri iyo fotografiasa da kinos Soris arsebuli gaugebrobis ganmartebis aucilebloba.
zemoxsenebuli yvela avtori iyo kinosemiologi, radgan maT
wilad xvdaT axali xelovnebisTvis Teoriuli fundamentis Cayra, rac sxva dargebisgan mkveTri gamijvnis gareSe ver moxerxdeboda. 1920-iani da 1930-iani wlebi daeTmo kinematografis semantikisa da gramatikis Taviseburebebis ganmartebas. "iuri tinianovi saubrobda kinoze, Tu rogor gvawvdis is xilul samyaros
semantikuri niSnebiT, romelTac iseTi kinematogrfiuli procesebi warmoSobs, rogorebicaa ganaTeba Tu montaJi... kino eixenbaumisTvis, aris "figuraluri enis calkeuli sistema", stilistika, romelmac unda ganmatos kinematografiuli "sintaqsi", kadris "frazaSi" da "winadadebaSi" gadabma" (stemi 1992: 29) - amgvar kompilacias gvTavazobs rusuli formalisturi skolis
wamomadgenlebze saubrisas robert stemi. zemoaRniSnuli mosazrebebi rom SevajamoT, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom kadri=asobgeras,
kadri=sityvas, scena=winadadebas, epizodi=abzacs/ebs da a.S.
gamodis, rom kinematografis ontologiaSi aris lingvisturi pirvelsawyisi miuxedavad imisa, ramdenad universaluric da
unikaluric unda iyos is (vizualurobidan gamomdinare). kanudom, romelmac kinematografi jer meeqvse da Semdgom, meSvide
xelovnebad ganixila (radgan CamonaTvalSi meeqvse xelovnebad
man cekva daamata), argumentad ama Tu im dargis unikaluroba
moiyvana (am mizeziT ar Sevida fotografia aRniSnul manifestSi, rogorc damoukidebeli dargi). maleve, lui deluki Seecada kinos "unikalurobis" ufro zust gansazRvras, misi iseTi

http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Filmogenic

filmuri Tu fotogenuri?

235

maxasiaTeblis moZiebas, romelic realurad arc erT sxva xelovnebas ar gaaCnia. es aris fotogenuroba (Tavad termini kanudos ekuTvnis) da ara - mxolod vizualuri xatebiT metyveleba.
rogorc aRvniSneT, kinematografi samyaros mxatvrul organizebas axdens vizualuri qaosidan mowesrigebuli nakadis Seqmnis gziT, romelic, amave dros, ar aris mxolod teqsturi nakadi, anu ar eqvemdebareba mxolod semiotikur wakiTxvas. amaze
lui delukis Semdeg pirvelad rolan barti dafiqrda. SesaZloa, mkiTxveli daibnes, radgan poststruqturalizmisTvis iseve, rogorc, zogadad, struqturalizmisTvis, samyaros centrSi
dgas movlenisa Tu xelovnebis nimuSis ConCxi, karkasi da ara
misi zedapiri. barts ki kinematografze saubrisas Semoaqvs sruliad axali cneba mesame azri (barti 1984: 176-187), romelic
mesame donea filmis komunikaciuri da simboluri Sris Semdeg.
is TiTqmis ar eqvemdebareba "wakiTxvas" kinematografis dabademade arsebuli nebismieri gamocdilebis mixedviT (iqve: 182).
"mesame azri films gansxavebul struqturas sZens, romelic xels ar uSlis TxrobiT xazs da aRniSnul doneze, SesaZloa, swored amitom Cndeba termini "filmuroba" (Filmique).
filmSi filmuri aris yvelaferi is, risi aRwerac SeuZlebelia,
es aris warmodgena, romlis warmodgenac SeuZlebelia. filmuroba gamomJRavndeba mxolod iq, sadac mTavrdeba ena da artikulirebuli metaena. (filmuri filmisgan gansxvavdeba, ise rogorc romanuli romanisgan)" (iqve: 185). filmurobis ukeT gaazrebisTvis kvleva gamoricxvis meTodiT unda vawarmooT. radgan nebismieri kinonamuSevari Seicavs aRweriT nawils (bartis
mixedviT, komunikaciur donesa da bunebriv mniSvnelobas), yvela
detalis verbalizaciis Semdeg, bolos, rac dagvrCeba e.w. "eniT
auwereli" - swored es iqneba is unikaluroba, mxolod kinos
rom axasiaTebs.
moviyvanoT ramdenime magaliTi: adamianis axlo xedi da detali. gavixsenoT ingmar bergmanis filmi "Semodgomis sonata"
(1978), romelSic naratiuli xazis paralelurad ambavi liv
ulmanisa da ingrid bergmanis saxeTa gamometyvelebaze viTardeba.
aRsaniSnavia maTi emociuri gardasaxvebi, an, vixmaroT sergei eizenSteinis termini - eqstazi (mikroorgazmi) (eizenSteini 2015:
73) - "sakuTari "Tavidan gamosvla" da "urTierTSeRwevisken midrekileba". aRniSnuli mdgomareoba, iqneba es am filmSi Tu, ubralod, empiriulad, realur cxovrebaSi dakvirvebisas, SeuZle-

236

giorgi razmaZe

belia gadmoices sityvebiT. SesaZlebelia misi mxolod zedapiruli aRwera, magaliTad: - "liv ulmanis gmirs pianinoze dakvris scenaSi erTdroulad sZuls da uyvars dedamisi". magram es
aRwera (da arc misi semiotikuri ganxilva - mzeris traeqtoria,
kadrebis urTierTmonacvleoba, simboloebis ganmarteba, pianinos
niSnis "gaxsna" da sxv.) ver mogvcems im emociuri mdgomareobis
srul suraTs, romelic mayurebels am epizodis naxvisas eufleba.
adamianebi komunikacias amyareben sityvebiT da ara gamosaxulebebiT, ambobs pier paolo pazolini, - Tumca, es rom srulyofili debuleba iyos, maSin gamosaxulebis ena gaugebari, abstraqtuli iqneboda. mas mohyavs neapoleli adamianis magaliTi,
romelic saubarSi iyenebs Jestebis enas da amiT srulyofils
xdis im azrs, romlis gadmocemac surs. pazolini wers: - "semiotika niSanTa sistemas erTmaneTisgan ar asxvavebs: magaliTad, is
laparakobs lingvistur niSanTa sistemaze imitom, rom aseTi
sistema arsebobs, magram es faqti saerTod ar gamoricxavs Teoriul SesaZleblobas, rom SeiZleba arsebobdes sxva niSanTa sistemebic - mag. Jestebis niSanTa sistema. saerTodac, realur
cxovrebaSi Jestebis niSanTa sistemis moxmoba saWiroa xolme
salaparako enis srulyofisTvis" (pazolini 2013: 49). gamodis,
rom "gam-niSnebze" saubrisas SeuZlebelia mxolod "en-niSnebis"2
normebiT Semofargvla, Tu movindomebT ingrid bergmanisa da
liv ulmanis saxis gamometyvelebaTa Sesaxeb vinmesTvis moyolas,
bolos aucileblad mogviwevs maTi imitireba, gansaxiereba da
esec ar iqneba bolomde sakmarisi.
Cven mier zemoT moyvanili mosazrebebis mixedviT irkveva,
rom kinos ontologiaze msjelobisas, SesaZloa, kedelTan aRmovCndeT. Tuki sxva xelovnebebi, garda musikisa, met-naklebad,
bolomde eqvemdebareba lingvistur interpretacias, kinematografze msjelobisas yovelTvis rCeba fanjara, romlis miRmac
sxva kanonzomierebaa "mTa aris mTac, imavdroulad, ar aris
is". yvelaze rTul Teologiur movlenebzec ki mocemuli gvaqvs
uamravi komentari da ganmarteba arsebobs, romlebic ama Tu im
movlenas individis azrovnebis CarCoebSi aqcevs. kinematografis

pazolini am statiaSi enobriv niSans SemoklebiT uwodebs en-niSans


(lingesgno - it.) da igonebs termins gamosaxulebis-niSani an gam-niSani (imsegni - it.).

filmuri Tu fotogenuri?

237

SemTxvevaSi es jer-jerobiT SeuZlebelia. lui deluki saubrobs


am problemaze, ganixilavs mas, saxelsac ki uZebnis "fotogenias", Tumca ver gvTavazobs misi bunebisa Tu meqanizmis mocemulobas, aRweras.
deluki ambobs, rom fotogenuria adamiani, misi saxe, gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdobaSi (deluki 1924: 74) da mets arafers - ratom, rogor, risi meSveobiT? - es kiTxvebi pasuxgaucemelia. avtori ufro mets saubrobs imaze, rac ar aris fotogenuri, da cdilobs kontrastis moSveliebiT mkiTxvelSi intuiciuri mixvedrilobis gaRvivebas. mis mixedviT, kinoSi ar unda
iyos gadmocemuli mxolod silamaze, mas unda erTvodes saxasiaTo gamomsaxveloba da bunebrioba, romelic erTad qmnis "fotogenur atmosferos" (iqve: 98). kvlavindeburad, Cven ar gveZleva
am movlenis zusti aRweriloba, msgavsad "aurisa", romelic
valter beniaminis damkvidrebuli terminia (beniamini 2007). misi
azriT, yvela namuSevars aqvs Tavisi aura, romelic reproduqciis dros SeiZleba daikargos. aRniSnuli mosazreba fotogenias
ukavSirdeba. beniamini miiCnevs, rom venera miloselis antikuri
qandakeba sakralurobasTan erTad, garkveul "auras" gulisxmobs,
romelic drois konteqstidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba Seicvalos
an saerTod daikargos. fotogenia ar eqvemdebareba cvlilebas,
radgan is mxolod gamosaxulebaTa samyaroSi warmoiSveba (gonebaSi, sizmrebSi, warmodgenebSi...) Tumca zemoqmedebs rogorc "aura", anu iwvevs sakralur damokidebulebas, aRtacebas, siamovnebas, mZafr STabeWdilebas.
STabeWdileba is bmulia, romelic "fotogenias"
rolan
bartis "mesame azrTan" akavSirebs. bartic, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, ver aRwers im azrobiv-emociur substancias, ufro swori
iqneba - nakads, romelic kulturisTvis, literaturuli enisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sreebis miRma warmoiqmneba. SegviZlia, SemovitanoT axali gansazRvrebac, rom filmSi arsebuli yvela niSani eqvemdebareba semiotikur wakiTxvas, radgan maTi meSveobiT
vizualuri qaosi mowesrigdeba, struqtura iqmneba, informacia
(simbolizmi) kodirdeba da dekodirdeba, Tumca kinematografis
realuri buneba Cndeba am erTeulebis monelebis Semdeg, rodesac
goni lingvisturi Sridan maRldeba da "gam-enis" (gam-niSnis
msgavsad, "gamosaxulebaTa ena". - g.r.) samyaroSi inacvlebs, sadac saliteraturo kulturisTvis erTi SexedviT bundovani,
magram gansxvavebuli kanonebi moqmedeben.

238

giorgi razmaZe

deluki da barti miuaxlovdnen am samyaros, ufro sworad,


mis qveda, momijnave Sres, romelic yofs da aseve aerTianebs enniSanTa da gam-niSanTa sferoebs. barti, delukis msgavsad, ver
gadmogvcems mesame azris srulyofil ganmartebas, Tumca mis
calkeul gamovlinebebze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. sergei eizenSteinis filmebidan is iRebs ramdenime kadrs da cdilobs im niuansebis gamoaSkaravebas, rac ganapirobebs am kadrebis Ria azrs
(Ie sens obtus), rogorebicaa: parikebi, grimi, moxuci qalis piris
Wrili, Tvalebi da sxv. am detalebisgan Semdgari "imijebi" fotogenurebi arian, sxva SemTxvevaSi isini ver iqnebodnen enis
miRmieri azris reprezentantebi.
filmuroba da fotogenia msgavsi, urTierTganmsazRvreli
movlenebia, romlebic gadmoscemen gamosaxulebaTa enis auditoriaze zegavlenis raobas. Tumca aRniSnuli terminebi mxolod
nawilia im samyaros sruli suraTisa, romelsac "gam-ena" vuwodeT. is xorcieldeba rogorc warmosaxviT sferoSi, rogoric
aris sizmrebi (vizualuri azrovneba), ise xelovnebaSi kinoSi (maT Soris: ikonografiaSi, ferweraSi, komiqsebSi, fotografiaSi da a.S.). pirvels ikvleven fsiqologebi da nevrologebi,
meores ki - xelovnebaTmcodneebi da struqturalistebi. Tumca
verc erTma mimarTulebam ver mogvca zusti samecniero gansazRvreba, Tu ra aris, magaliTad, sizmrad nanaxi gam-niSnebis wyeba,
romelic CvenSi iwvevs garkveul STabeWdilebas: rogor Cndeba,
is, rogor miyveba garkveul rigiTobas an ar icavs mas da yvelafris miuxedavad Sinaarsi mainc gasagebi xdeba. kinematografSi
amas kinogenia/kinogenuroba SegviZlia vuwodoT - gam-enis egzistenciurobis ganxorcieleba filmSi.
kinogenuroba ufro metad universaluri gansazRvrebaa, vidre "filmuri" an "fotogenuri". is aRar Semoifargleba mxolod
calkeuli detalebis gamoaSkaravebiT (mesame azris msgavsad) da
arc mxolod mokle ganmartebebiT, rom "yvelaferi bunebrivi
fotogenuria". misi amocana iqneba gamosaxulebis ganzogadebis,
misi geniis, anu auris gadmocema ufro farTo konteqstSi. liv
ulmanis saxis kinogenurobis mixedviT interpretacia SesaZlebelobas mogvcems, misi mniSvneloba da Sedegi (mayurebelSi aRZruli emociur-inteleqtuluri moZraobebi), rom SesaZlebeli
gaxdes misi enobriv sibrtyezec garkveuli dekodireba. dabolos,
moviyvanoT kinogenurobis sxva magaliTic: rodesac marlen ditrixs qedmaRali personaJis gansaxiereba surs, tansacmelsa da

239

filmuri Tu fotogenuri?

JestikulaciasTan erTad is mimikasac icvlis: nikaps zemoT


swevs da aRwevs mis da mayureblis gonebaSi arsebul "qedmaRlobis" warmodgenasTan asociacias. filmSi am imijis gadaadgileba
da urTierToba sxva uamrav gam-niSnebTan qmnis azrobriv-emociur
nakads. swored es aris kinogenuroba.
literatura:
beniamini 2007: valter beniamini. xelovnebis nimuSi misi teqnikuri reproducirebadobis epoqaSi. Tb.
eizenSteini 2015: sergei eizenSteini. el greko da kino. jenarielo, #6, seqtemberi.
pazolini 2013: pier paolo pazolini. poeturi kino. jenarielo,
#2, noemberi.
Srederi 2016: pol Srederi. transcendentaluri kino: oZu, bresoni, dreieri. jenarielo, #7, marti.
kanudo 1995: Ricciotto Canudo. Manifeste des Sept Arts suivi de: A
l'ordre du jour: la censure au cinma. Le public et le cinma.
Sguier.
stemi 1992: Robert Stam. New Vocabularies in Film Semiotics:
Structuralism, Poststructuralism and Beyond.
balaSi 1924: . . .
barti 1984: . :
. . .
, .
beluki 1924: . . .

Giorgi Razmadze
Filmic or Photogenic?
The Issue of organizing feature world in cinema is a litmus test,
which gives us to reveal ontology of its communication language.
Ricciotto Canudo designates cinema as a seventh art.. In the manifesto of
him, he noted that the film has a unique language of communication. Bela
Balazs considers this one as a universal language, not only unique and
adds that the imaginative of thinking preceded by the lingua (latin). And
this is why any visual image is equally understandable for a different
culture or languages.

giorgi razmaZe

240

Subsequently, post-structuralist Roland Barthes has revealed the


Third Layer in the cinema. Which being generated beyond the
communication and symbolic levels. The Third Meaning is characteristic
only for cinema. Verbalization of this phenomenon is almost impossible
because it born out of language world's borders and continues to live in
the visual perceptions. Such unspeakable phenomenon is called filmic by
Barthes.
In the cinema existing another non-verbalized thing is photogenia,
which was presented by the first film theorist in the history Louis Delluc.
The goal of this paper is an exploration of filmic and photogenic
phenomena and get symbiosis of these under the new concept, which
might be a filmogenic.

lali daTaSvili

olamuri sulTa sira


(samyaros bibliur-qristianul modeli)
sxvadasxva msoflmxedveloba gansxvavebulad aRiqvams qaossa Tu wesrigs,
Tumca nebismieri mikro Tu makrosamyaros Seqmna qaosis mowesrigebaa. Cveni werilis mizania samyaros bibliur-qristianul modelis asaxva qaossa (destruqciis, areulobis, mouwesrigeblobis) da
kosmosTan (berZn. wesrigi) Sepirispirebis gziT.
bibliuri RvTismetyvelebis leqsikonis mixedviT, ebrauli sityva olami
romelic mravalnairad iTargmneba (saukuno, maradisoba, wuTisofeli...), miuTiTebs adamianur sazomebs aRmatebul xangrZlivobaze, ufali sufevs ukuniTi
ukunisamde mis TvalTa winaSe 1000 weli erT dRes utoldeba: rameTu aTasi
weli winaSe TualTa SenTa, ufalo, viTarca guSindeli dRe, romel warxda da
viTarca saxumilavi erTi Ramesa Sina
(fs. 89, 4), xolo kacis sicocxle aCrdils hgavs: da dReni Cemni viTarca
aCrdili warxdes, da me viTarca Tivai
ganvxem (fs. 101, 11-12) _ (leqsikoni
1998: 194). sergei averincevi ganmartavs:
sityva olamis amosavali mniSvnelobaa dafaruli, aRTqmuli, aqedan
warsuli, dasawyisi, winare dro, aseve
myofadi, drois ori bneli ufskruli

242

lali daTaSvili

adamianisTvis: manamde da mis Semdeg. es sityva niSnavs maradisobas, oRond ara uZravs, aramed savsesa da cvalebads, ufro
zusti TargmaniT msoflio dros (buberisa da rozencveigis
germanuli Targmanis mixedviT Weltzeit), romelic, pirvel rigSi, moZraobs, meore mxriv, SesaZloa damTavrdes da Seicvalos
axali olamiT, arsTa da drois sxvagvari mdgomareobiT; olami aris samyaro, rogorc dro, da dro, rogorc samyaro. TalmudSi arsebobs esqatologiuri olam-xaba, TargmaniT momavali saukune. roca ebrauli (aseve, iranuli) mistikuri istorizmi aRmoCnda berZnul-romaul ideur TvalsawierSi, olami
berZnulad iTargmna, rogorc eoni, laTinurad, rogorc sekulumi (averincevi 1997: 277). olamuri dro-sivrce mikro da
makrokosmosebis erTianobas, adamianis, rogorc sivrculi wertilisa, da mTeli samyaros, rogorc sulTa siras, urTierTkavSirs gulisxmobs. yoveli wertili mTel olams moicavs da
erTgvari rgolisa Tu nawnavis saxiT ukavSirdeba sxva adamianebs. swored am mniSvnelobisaa rusTveliseuli sulTa sira.
SoTa rusTavelis enas, mis leqsikas aSkarad atyvia ioane petriwis didi gavlena. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs petriwiseuli terminebi: kavSirni da sira _ da maTi neoplatonuri filosofiisaTvis damaxasiaTebel konteqstSi xmareba:
damSlian Cemni kavSirni, SevrTvivar sulTa sirasa.
termini kavSirni stiqiebis, oTxi elementis (= safuZvlebis) Sesatyvisad Semoitana petriwma, oTxi elementis gansazRvruli wesrigiT SekavSirebas niSnavs. suli uerTdeba sulTa
siras (berZn. Seira _ jaWvi), rigs. petriwi prokles am termins
xandaxan wyvilSi xmarobs nawnavsa da naqsovTan erTad (meliqiSvili 2009: 113).
olamuri dro igiveobrivia udroobis, zedroulis; sivrce
_ usasrulobis, sazRvari _ usazRvroebis, ixsneba yovelgvari
droiT-sivrciTi barieri. maradiuli droa awmyo, maradiuli sivrce _ aq; awmyo moicavs warsulsac, momavalsac da udris maradisobas, yoveli aqauroba moicavs nebismieri drois mTel
samyaros, istoriis nebismieri epizodi _ metaistorias; am mxriv,
niSandoblivia, awmyosa da warsulis, Zvelisa da mimdinares, iqaurisa da aqauris Tomas maniseuli aRqma: vinaidan moZraoba, risi meSveobiTac dros vzomavT, wriulia da Tavis TavSi Caketili, maSin xom gamudmebiT meordeba axlaSi, aq ki _ cnebaSi
iq. zedroulobis forma arsebobs axla da aq... radgan arsi

olamuri `sulTa sira~

243

cxovrebisa awmyoa (jadosnuri mTa). olami mdinarea, romelic


maradiulad momdinareobs sasufevlidan da isev zesTasofelSi
Seedineba, oRond miwaze kargavs pirvelqmnil ubiwoebas da imRvreva cxovrebiseuli tkivilisa Tu sibilwisagan, mis fskerze
aTasgvari nagavi ileqeba. zurab kiknaZe am leqs Cveni yofis amaoebis samudamo samxilad miiCnevs da ambobs: monologi, romelic saidanRac zemodan ismis, gatialebis sibilwis (wigni danielisa 9, 27) Temaze, TiTqos am fskeris sanaxaobis komentarebia (kiknaZe 2013: 119). Tumca, olamuri mdinare sasufevlis karibWesTan kvlav ganwmendili da cxovrebiseul brZmedSi oqrosaviT gamoxurvebulia. amqveyniuri mdinare mas amiTac hgavs. gergetula mTel sofelze moedineboda. mis fskers wuTisoflis nagavi daeleqa, is ki iseTive wminda rCeboda, rogoric saTaveSi
iyo. gergetula gamonaklisi ar aris (kiknaZe 2013: 119). olamSi cxovreba soflis zRvasTan brZolas, mis talRebSi gzis gakvlevas niSnavs uflis SewevniT, swored man unda gagvipos wuTisofeli, rogorc moses gaupo wiTeli zRva da gadagvarCinos,
rogorc kargma menavem. olami igive istoriaa, samyaros Seqmnidan
esqatologiur aRsasrulamde, istoriis erTian procesad gancdaa, awmyos erTobaa warsulsa da momavalTan, kacobriobis SekavSirebuli da mowesrigebuli msvlelobaa sasufevlidan wuTisofelSi da aqedan _ kvlav sasufevlamde. sayuradReboa, rom
uflis _ axali adamis genealogiasac ki maxareblebi gviCveneben
rogorc daRmavali, ise aRmavali xazebiT _ adamidan iesomdec
da pirukuc. maTe abraamidan moyveba: wigni Sobisa iesu qristesi, Zisa daviTisi, Zisa abrahamisi; abraham Sva isak... (maTe 1, 12), xolo luka iosebidan iwyebs da adamiTa da RmerTiT amTavrebs (ix. luka 3, 23-38). rodesac mosem sTxova ufals, damenaxveo, man zurgi uCvena (ix. gamos. 33, 23) da amiT gaagebina, rom
ukan gahyoloda, israelic amgvarad etarebina sasufevlis pativis mosapoveblad. ase Camoyalibda Sexeduleba, rom marTali
qristiani is aris, vinc maradis xedavs Tavisi winaprisa da uflis zurgs da maT nakvalevs mihyveba. amitom iyo, rom Cveni winaprebi Zalumad grZnobdnen ridsa da valdebulebas sakuTari papebis winaSe, maT fexTa mtvers ylapavdnen da Tavadac winaparTa
fexTa mtvrad warmoidgendnen Tavs.
imasac cdilobdnen, madliani da ganaTlebuli kvali daetovebinaT, radgan wina kaci ukanas xidia da ise unda evloT, rom
Tavi ar mosWrodaT STamomavlobis winaSe. olamuri gzis gavla

244

lali daTaSvili

pasuxismgeblobaa win wasulisa da ukan momavlis winaSe. saocari


Tavmdablobaa winaprisa da siyvaruliT savse ridi STamomavlis
winaSe.
adamians yovelive mimarTuli unda hqondes am gzis sworad
gasavlelad. mas Sevnatri, vinc sworad svliT sawuTros gzas
gahkvalavs, _ brZanebda daviT guramiSvili da swavlis umTavres miznadac olamur erTobaSi cxovrebas miiCnevda, anu soflis
yoveli Svilis mier kacis movaleobisa da daniSnulebis gaazrebas, winaparTa magaliTiT cxovrebas, sworad CarTvas olamur
svlaSi da sakuTari Tavisa Tu STamomavlobisaTvis sawuTrodan
sasufevlisken gzis gakvalvas:
ymawvili unda swavlobdes sacnoblad Tavisadao,
vin aris, sidam mosula, sad aris, wava sadao.
mwerlis swavlebiT, swored esaa uflisaTvis pasuxis migeba, kacisgan misTvis xelfasis gadaxda, adamianis ganmasxvavebeli nebismieri ugunuri arsebisgan, mag., ulagmo da usadavo cxenisgan, romelsac ar moeTxoveba damoukidebeli gadawyvetilebebis miReba, arc cxonebis perspeqtiva aqvs da arc _ olamSi
yofnis bedniereba. adamis Zem amitomac unda moixmaros swavlacodna, dafiqrdes da suli jojoxeTisTvis ar gaswiros:
vinca qmna Tixa WurWelad, ras uZRvnis xelfasadao?
viT rema xnarcvs ar Cavardes ulagmo da usadao?
d. guramiSvilis xatovani metaforiT, adamiani jambazia,
cecxlmodebul mdinareze sawuTrodan samoTxisken mimavali bewvis xidiT rom gadadis:
aq navTT mdinare cecxl monakidi, / zed gasavleli wvril
sablis xidi;
ganiswavleniT, jambazebrT wareT, /rom ar CascvivdeT, daiwvneT mwareT!
xasidebic msgavsad aswavlidnen: am wuTisoflis gza danis
piriviT aris, erT mxaresac qvesknelia da _ meore mxaresac. SuaSi ki sicocxlis gzaa (xasiduri 1994: 28). T. dostoevskis
personaJi ambobs, rom kacobrioba Saragzas miuyveba momavlisken,
adamiani zogjer gadauxvevs da sakuTari bilikiT dadis, Tumca
bolos ubrundeba sayovelTao Saragzas. Zveli aRTqmis kacobrioba svlis sam formas ganarCevda: vinc Zveleburad mihyveba mTavar gzas; vinc axali drois Sesabamisad gverdiT gzas daadga da
vinc damoukideblad amoirCia Tavisi biliki _ da aswavlidnen,
rom sasufevels mxolod pirveli aRwevs (ix. xasiduri 1994:

olamuri `sulTa sira~

245

100). amave dros saukeTeso morwmuneebad imaT miiCnevda, romelTac swamT tradiciiTac da sakuTari gonebiTac, xolo yovelmxriv srulyofili mrwamsis gamoxatuleba iyo fraza: RmerTi
Cveni da RmerTi mamaTa CvenTa (ix. xasiduri 1994: 78). _ amiT
gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeboda winapris magaliTsa da misi gamocdilebis gaziarebas. gr. robaqiZe SeniSnavs: istoria
moiTxovs ara marto winxedvas: saiTken, aramed ukan gaxedvasac:
saidan (robaqiZe 1991: 244). Cveni winaprebisaTvis warsuli
iyo win, momavali _ ukan, amaze TviT am sityvaTa etimologiac
metyvelebs. yvela Taoba mihyveboda winas da winare gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT miikvlevda gzas uflisken. SeiniSneboda
olamuri erToba warsulsa da momavalTan, didi pasuxismgebloba
win wasulisa da ukan momavlis winaSe, saocari Tavmdabloba,
siyvaruli da ridi winaprisa Tu STamomavlis winaSe.
rac Seexeba olamisa da kosmosis urTierTmimarTebas: werilSi wesrigi kosmosisa da wesrigi istoriisa s. averincevi
erTmaneTs adarebs kosmossa da olams: Tu berZnuli miTologiisa da berZnuli poeziisTvis samyaro kosmosia, anu mowesrigebuli da simetriuli sivrciTi struqtura, bibliisTvis samyaro
olamia, anu drois yovlismomcveli nakadi, erTiani istoria.
kosmosSi dro sivrcis modusia. olamSi ki sivrcea drois
dinamikis modusi. berZnuli miTologiis RmerTi zevsi olimpielia, Tavisi adgiliT xasiaTdeba msoflio sivrceSi, bibliurma
RmerTma iaxvem, Seqmna ca da miwa, ris Semdegac daiwyo istoria, amitom igi droisa da istoriis gamgebelia (averincevi
1997: 93). v. biCkovi wers: berZnebi sivrciTi kategoriebiT azrovnebdnen, xolo Zveli ebraelebi _ drouliT... berZens yofiereba esmoda, rogorc kosmosis _ raRac ucvleli sivrculi
struqturis _ gansazRvrul adgilas arseboba. Zveli aRTqmis
adamianisTvis ki yofiereba aris monawileoba movlenaTa cocxal
nakadSi, drois nakadSi, romelic yovlismomcveli ebrauli terminiT olamiT aRiniSneba. olami _ es aris usasrulo nakadi
droisa, romelic sakuTar TavSi itevs yvelafers arsebuls...
kosmosi ucvlelia, misi silamaze SeiZleba ganWvrito, xolo
olami dinamiuria, mis SigniT unda imoqmedo, misi Sinaarsi istoriaa. istoria ki aris moZraoba miznisken, romelic RmerTma
daadgina da adamiani movalea masSi CaerTos... (biCkovi 1981:
139).

246

lali daTaSvili

zurab kiknaZe gviCvenebs gansxvavebas dro-sivrcis aRqmis


elinur da bibliur modelebs Soris: elinuri kosmosi dgas da
samudamod idgeba. is, SesaZloa, daemxos, magram ver daiZreba. ebrauli yolam-mdinaris dineba, erTxelac iqneba, Sewydeba, radgan
mas gezi dasasrulisken aqvs aRebuli. arsebobs miTologema:
gvels Tavisi kudi pirSi uWiravs. wre Sekrulia. alfa da omega
erTarsi Seiqna... kosmosi absoluturi mSvenierebaa, absoluturi
simwyobrea, absoluturi sikeTea, absoluturi WeSmaritebis xatia, amitomac ar eqvemdebareba da arc saWiroebs gaumjobesebas,
arc raime mizani uZevs win, is ganxorcielebuli mizania (telos). ebrauli yolami ki, rogorc ganusrulebeli realoba,
miznisken miemarTeba. (kiknaZe 2013: 193-194...203-204).
am mxriv niSandoblivia galaktionis striqoni, romlebSic
olamuri moZraoba-moqmedeba amoikiTxeba: Jami _ yvelafris
mqmnel-gardamqmneli.
da, sapirispirod, kosmosis ucvaleblobis markus avreliusiseuli rwmena:
vinc ixila awmyo, man ixila yvelaferi: isic, rac iyo miriadi saukunis win da isic, rac iqneba ukunisamde, radgan yvelaferi erTgvarovania da erTferovani (enciklopedia 2013).
zurab kiknaZe wers:
berZnuli kosmos _ struqtura da ebrauli yolam _
dineba, SesaZloa iyos is msoflmxedvelobrivi safuZveli, romelic am ori xalxis kulturaSi mentalur da fenomenologiur
gansxvavebebs qmnis. homerosis gmirebs Sobidanve dahyvaT epiTetebi, rogorc bediswera. abrami da iakobi droJamTan erTad icvlebian da, am cvlilebaTa Sesabamisad, maT axali saxelebi erqmevaT~. (kiknaZe 2013: 223-225). xatweraSic moiZebeba olamuri dinebisa da sasufevliseuli maradiulobis (statikis) magaliTebi.
mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia, rom ebstopfis msoflio rukaze (1235)
dedamiwas, rogorc uflis sxeuls, miwier ierusalims wriuli
forma aqvs, xolo TviT qalaq ierusalims _ zecis, samoTxis qalaqis simbolod _ kvadratuli. rogorc Cans, rukis Semdgeneli
am simboloebs SemTxveviT ar iyenebs, asaxavs samyaros amqveyniur
ganviTareba-moqmedebas, brunvas, cvalebadobas da mis imqveyniur
sasrul, gaCerebul, maradiul formas _ sasufevlis netarebas.
rene genoni werilSi sferodan kubisken msjelobs qristianul kulturaSi mimdinare da maradiuli droisa Tu miwieri da
zeciuri ierusalimis gamoxatvis simbolur formebze, daaskvnis,

olamuri `sulTa sira~

247

rom wre mdinarebas, moqmedebas, msvlelobas Seesabameba, xolo


kvadrati gaCerebas, gamkvrivebas, uZraobasa da maradisobas: miwieri samoTxis forma, romelic am ciklis dasawyiss Seesabameba, wriulia, maSin, roca zeciuri ierusalimis forma, romelic mis dasasruls Seesabameba, kvadratulia... aq kvadrati gamosaxavs ciklis SesaZleblobaTa dasrulebas, romlebic dasawyisis
wriul, organul sartyelSi CanasaxSi imyofebodnen (genoni
1998: 44-45). olamis gareT ki eSmakeulT axo da sxva ezoa,
iq aRmoCndebian cxovarni gzaSecdomilni, eSmas zegavleniT
dakargulni, Ze SecTomilni, olamidan amovardnilni. isini
gansakuTrebiT codoni, martoni da gzaabneulni arian, daexetebian qaosSi, gayinulni, mglis momlodineni da ukan _ Sin, dasabrunebel gzas eZeben. sasinaTloSi dasabruneblad mowyalebis kars unda miagnon. Tavs cudad da ucxod grZnoben, radgan
`ucxoobaSi raa siame, / sadaca ver-vis ikarebs suli / da ars
uTviso, daoblebuli~ (n. baraTaSvili). dakargulobisa da qristianTa sazRvris miRma cxovrebis tkivils gansakuTrebuli simZafriT gamoxatavs daviT guramiSvili. rogorc providencialisti, igi tyvobis simwares codvaTa simravles miawers. amitom godebs viTa cxovari gzaSecdomili, mgelT warsatacad farexTa
gare:
Sevscdi da mwyemssa wauvel, gaudeq mrudad Zovnasa...
ramdenadac codvaTa simravlis gamo TviTon ar ZaluZs,
tyveobas daaRwios Tavi da dabrundes samSobloSi, macxovris
Sewevnas saWiroebs, mzeTa mze-ufals SesTxovs, daixsnas gansacdelisgan, sasinaTlo auxvritos, sajojoxeTod ar gaimetos,
natrobs, rom isev olamSi daabrunos. aseve itanjeba eli gordeliani (niko lorTqifaniZe `Selocva radioTi~). niko samadaSvili leqsSi beTania (ukanaskneli qristianebi) asaxavs umwyemsod darCenil, naxirad gadaqceul adamianebs, romelTa Tvalsa
da gulSi ufali mokvda, romelnic urwmunoebisa da antiTeizmis WaobSi CaZirulni sakuTari nebiT mieqanebodnen jojoxeTisaken. guramiSviliseuli ukruxo wiwilebi olamidan amovardnilni
arian. araswori qmedeba, cxovrebis magaliTad briyvebis dasaxvac iwvevs olamidan amovardnas. amitomacaa, rom mindia gvelismWameli rwmenasTan melaobs, wminda rjuls yidis, cocxlebTanac Sercxvenilia da mkvdrebTanac. TaraS emxvari (konstantine
gamsaxurdia _ mTvaris motaceba), qaravans CamorCenil werod

lali daTaSvili

248

miiCnevs Tavs, darwmunebuli, rom erTi saukuniT adre mainc unda dabadebuliyo, rom amovardnilia mama-papaTa gzidan.
oqtavio pasi don kixots ara mxolod Tavisi droisa Tu
Tanamemamuleebis svlidan, zogadsakacobrio xvedridan amovardnilad miiCnevda, misi azriT, don kixoti qristianuli sazogadoebis yvelaze srulyofili da gamTlianebuli nawarmoebia.
servantesis romanSi adamianis sulzea saubari, magram ara dacemul, aramed gaucxoebul sulze. misi gmiri codvili ki ara,
SeSlilia. igi zogadsakacobrio xvedris miRma dgas, radganac
gawyvita kavSiri samyarosTan. don kixotis istorias ver uwodeb kacobriobis istoriis gansaxierebas. igi gamonaklisia. igi
iseTi araa, rogorc yvela sxva adamiani. lamanCeli raindis xetiali ar aris RmerTis rCeuli xalxis TavgadasavalTa alegoria. esaa gzasacdenili, martoxela adamianis alegoria (pasi
1999: 3), Tumca, Cveni azriT, esec olamidan amovardnili, gzaabneuli adamianis tragediaa. olamSi mcxovrebi mSvidi da bednieria, Tumca am mdgomareobis SesanarCuneblad maradiuli sifrTxile da sworad moqmedeba sWirdeba. qaosis msxverpli kargavs
istoriis erTian procesad gancdas da gzaabneulia, wm. ilia
marTlis Tqmisa ar iyos, `xedvad da smenad uRonoa~. amgvar
mdgomareobas markoz maxarebeli `gulTa sibrmes~ uwodebs (mr.
3, 5) da radgan `sanTeli guamisai ars Tuali~ (maTe 6, 22), nebismieri guliT brma ganwirulia. sasufevlisken mxolod olamuri sulTa sira miemarTeba.
literatura:
averincevi 1997: sergei averincevi, adrebizantiuri literaturis poetika, m.
biCkovi 1981: biCkovi v.i. gviandeli antikurobis esTetika, m.
genoni 1998: rene genoni, kaeni da abeli, Tb.
enciklopedia 2013: sibrZnis enciklopedia, w. III, Tb.
kiknaZe 2013: zurab kiknaZe, sityviTa da saqmiTa (Canawerebi), Tb.
leqsikoni 1998: bibliuri RvTismetyvelebis leqsikoni. k._m.
meliqiSvili 2009: damana meliqiSvili, rusTavelis enobrivi
samyaros wanamZRvrebi, krebulidan mogiTxrobT vefxistyaosnis Sesaxeb, Tb.
pasi 1999: oqtavio pasi, axali analogia. poezia da teqnologia.
gaz. arili, 8-21 aprili

olamuri `sulTa sira~

249

robaqiZe 1991: grigol robaqiZe, saqarTvelos saTaveni, J. literatura da xelovneba, #2


xasiduri 1994: xasiduri swavlani Tb. 1994

Lali Datashvili
Sira of Souls of Olam
(Biblical-Christian Model of the World)
The porpose of our letter is science research of worlds BiblicalChristian model, that is why we compared chaos and Cosmos. Time and
space of Olam is the unity of the micro and macro Cosmoses, persons
and the worlds (as Sira of Souls) connection. Every dot includes whole
Olam and like the link of chain conects to other humans. Present is the
eternal time, here is eternal space. Present includes past and future.
Olam is the history from the worlds creation to the Apocalypse, the way
of mankind from the paradise to the Earth and again from the Earth to the
Paradise.
There is a difference between the Hellenic and Biblical models of
time and space. Cosmos is static and perfect. Olam changes everytime
and becomes better, Paradise is invariable. That is why on Ebstorphs
map (1235) the Earth is circular and Jerusalem (the symbol of Paradise)
is rectangle. The person of Olam is happy, the person outside the Olam is
unhappy, lost and searches the way to home.
Key Words: Olam, Christian, Georgian Literature

nino WalaganiZe,
irina Rvineria

socialuri media rogorc


masobrivi informaciis
saSualebaTa erTerTi
platforma
jer kidev gasuli saukunis 80-n
wlebSi amerikelma futurologma olvin
toflerma, romelmac sabWoTa kavSiris
daSlis SesaZleblobac iwinaswarmetyvela, Tavis wignSi mesame talRa sakmaod
mkafiod Camoayaliba demasificirebuli
mediis koncefcia (tofleri, 1980).
tofleri werda, rom pirveli talRis dros, preindustriul epoqaSi, adamianebs komunikaciis arxebis sakmaod
SezRuduli raodenoba hqondaT. sazogadoebis wevrebi informacias ZiriTadad
erTmaneTTan uSualo kontaqtebis gziT,
saaxloblo wriT Semofargluli piradi
kontaqtebis meSveobiT iRebdnen. am dros
komunikaciis tempi da ritmi dabali
iyo, xSiri pauzebiT da ganmeorebebiT.
vfiqrobT, aseTi komunikaciis pirobebSi
did teritoriebze erTiani msoflmxedvelobisa Tu mentalitetis mqone sazogadoebis Camoyalibeba sakmaod rTuli
iqneboda. meore talRa sainformacio arxebis raodenobis mkveTri zrdiT xasiaTdeba. pirad komunikacias daemata jer
presa, Semdgom radio da televizia. am
axal arxebs TiTqmis unisonSi samauwyeb-

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251

lod iyenebdnen mTavroba, eklesia, ganaTlebis sistema da ojaxi.


masmediis saSulebebi ara marto mowodebuli kontentis retranslirebisTvis gamoiyeneboda: garkveul etapze maT daiwyes sakuTari produqciis warmoeba da gavrceleba, Tumca es produqcia
Tematurad didad ar iyo saerTo konteqstidan amovardnili.
zustad am periods Zalian kargad axasiaTebs sabWoTa partiuli
doqtrina, romlis mixedviTac Jurnalistika aris propagandis
da agitaciis iaraRi, Tumca, es daxasiaTeba marto sabWour presas rodi miesadageba. globaluri masStabiT mediam adamianTa
qcevis standartizaciis ZiriTadi instrumenti gaxda. meore
talRam sagrZnoblad gazarda sainformacio nakadebis moculoba
da tempi. gasuli saukunis 80-Si tempis zrdis magaliTebad
toflers moyavda polariodis momentaluri fotoebi, qseroaslebi, sitkomebi. Tu movaxdenT am realiebis dRevandelebTan eqstrapolireba - selfebi, instagrami, snepCati, tviti, gifebi da
kidev bevri sxva, magram, mesame talRam ara mxolod komunikaciis tempi gazarda - man sagrZnoblad Secvala informaciis siRrmiseuli struqturac.
informaciis matarebelTa TviTRirebulebis gaiafebis logikuri Sedegi masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa demasifikacia
gaxda. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom es Teoria toflerma Cvens
cxovrebaSi internetis Semosvlamde Camoayaliba, savaraudoa,
rom mas warmodgenac ki ar SeeZlo, ra donemde SeiZleboda wasuliyo mediis demasifikaciis procesi.
Tumca, istoriulad, tradiciuli Jurnalebi mediis demasifikaciisaken gadadgmul nabijad SeiZleba miviCnioT - am tipis
gamocemebi saerTo interesebiT gaerTianebul mkiTxvelebs awvdidnen maTTvis saintereso informacias da sakmaod viwro samizne auditoriaze iyvnen gaTvlilni.
1977 wels pirvelad SeerTebuli Statebis istoriaSi telemayurebelTa ricxvi Semcirda: sakabelo da sateliturma televiziebma da video-produqciam mayurebelTa auditoria mcire segmentebad daanawevra. epoqa, roca telearxi Zaldatanebis reJimSi
wyvetda, rodis da risTvis unda eyurebina teleauditorias dasasruls miuaxlovda. mesame talRam principulad axali inosfero Camoayaliba, sadac Cvens Sexedulebebze da warmodgenebze swored rom demasificirebuli media axdens udides gavlenas.
tofleri wers, rom demasificirebuli mediis pirobebSi yoveli calkeuli adamiani Tavad iqneba sakuTari mediis reJisori

252

nino WalaganiZe, irina Rvineria

da TviTon airCevs, ras rodis uyuros Tu mousminos _ dRes es


Cveni cxovrebis absoluturad trivialuri yofiTi detali gaxda.
demasificirebuli mediis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblad SeiZleba
CaiTvalos is garemoeba, rom nacvlad paralelur reJimSi da
unisonSi moqmedi arxebisa, romlebic samyaroze standartizebuli da unificirebuli warmodgenebis propagandas ewevian, Tanamedrove adamianebi informaciis gacilebiT ufro mcire monakveTebs didi raodenobis, xSirad diametralurad gansxvavebuli poziciis arxebidan Rebuloben. aseTi mcire blipebisgan Semdgari
informaciuli nakadi Zalian rTulad eqvemdebareba klasificirebas, radganac xSirad blipebi ar jdebian dominanti koncepciebis
konteqstSi da, metwilad, imitom rom maTi forma fragmentarulad da alogikurad gamoiyureba. informaciis miwodebis formisadmi damokidebulebiT Cven advilad SegviZlia gamovicnoT, romel talRas miekuTvneba adamiani: Tu mas aRizianebs informaciis
miwodebis alogikuroba da araTanmimdevruloba _ es industriuli epoqis mentalitetze migviTiTebs.
mesame talRis media-momxmarebels axasiaTebs sxvadasxa tipis
blipebis uzarmazari nakadis aTvisebis da amis safuZvelze sakuTari koncepciebis SemuSavebis unari _ es mesame talRis adamianis
ganmasxvavebeli niSania. is miRebuli blipebisgan rogorc mozaikis
elementebisgan TviTon qmnis am koncepciebis gasamyarebel garemos.
sazogadoebis yvela wevrs uyalibdeba gansxvavebuli informaciuli interesebi, informaciis moZiebis gansxvavebuli resursebi,
gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba Rirebulebebis, kulturis, tradiciebis, socialuri Tu politikuri institutebisadmi. ukve dRes
Cven vxdebiT ojaxis wevrebis dezintegraciis mowmeebi - yvela
wevrs sakuTari interesebi da informaciis miRebis gansxvavebuli
arxebi aqvs. xSirad urTierToba mxolod yofiTi sakiTxebze msjelobiT Semoifargleba. gamodis, rom rac ufro sustdeba sazogadoebis wevrebis miers standartuli masobrivi informaciis miReba, miT ufro dezintegrirebul da danawevrebul, damsificirebul
sazogadoebas vRebulobT. es safrTxe ukve sakmaod realuria da
am konteqstSi ar SeiZleba ar gavixsenoT masmediis roli sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi.
mogvwons Tu ara masobrivi informaciis Tanamedrove saSualebebi - sxva sakiTxia, magram, is garemoeba, rom maTi meSveobiT
auditoria Rebulobs axali ambebis standartul, yvelasaTvis
erTnair nakrebs, Zalian mniSvnelovania sazogadoebis konsolida-

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253

ciisTvis. is movlenebi, romlebic yoveli moqalaqisTvis aucileblad Sesatyobia, raTa man demosis Tanasworuflebiani wevris
funqcia ar dakargos, masmediam unda gaavrcelos. saxelmwifos
unda hqondes gaazrebuli informaciuli politika, romlis
upirvelesi amocana -sazogadoebis rogorc masobrivi auditoriis rolis SenarCunebaa. amisaTvis, albaT, axali, sinTezuri
platformebis da meTodebis Seqmna aris saWiro. Tanac, umokles
vadebSi. iseTi patara erisTvis rogoric qarTvelebi arian, sazogadoebis dezintegracia nacionaluri identobis dakargvis realur safrTxes qmnis. saerTo mentalitetis arqona, kulturuli konteqstis arcodna - es aris demasifikaciis SesaZlo Sedegi. politikuri Tu socialuri problemebis mimarT naklebi interesi, erovnuli Rirebulebebis yuradRebis miRma darCena,
globaluri pop-kulturis upiratesi moxmareb da bevri sxva
faqtori qmnis pasiuri samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis
safrTxes. aq Cndeba kiTxva: ra SiZleba gakeTdes, rom demasificirebuli mediis pirobebSi sazogadoebam masobrivi auditoriis
funqciac SeinarCunos?
bolo 10 welia Cven, internetis rigiTi momxmareblebi,
varT masobrivi mediasaSualebebis transformirebis mowmeni: internet-teqnologiebma kontentis warmoebis da gavrcelebis
procesSi TandaTanobiT wamyvani adgili daimkvidres. axali ambebis ZiriTadi mimwodeblebis funqcia socialurma qselebma itvirTes. 2015 wels amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi Pew Research
Center da naiTis saxelobis fondma Caatares kvleva, romlis Sedegadac dadginda, rom Twitter-is momxmarebelTa 63% da
Facebook-is momxmarebelTa 63% sazogadoebrivad mniSvnelovani
axali ambebis gasacnobad am qselebs iyeneben. aRmoCnda, rom axalgazrdebisTvis Facebook-i politikuri informaciis mimwodeblad
iqca; amerikelebis 61% swored am platformas miiCnevs axali
ambebis ZiriTad wyarod. kavkasiis saerTaSoriso universitetis
studentTa gamokiTxvam gviCvena, rom axali ambebis gasacnobad
mxolod 5% mimarTavs tradiciul medias, danarCeni 95% ki socialur qselebs iyenebs. Tumca, Facebook-i ufrosebisTvisac Zalian mniSvnelovani resursi gaxda( ru.ejo.ch). Reuters-is 2015
wlis moxsenebis mixedviT, sul ufro meti informaciuli mediasaSualeba mimarTavs socialur qselebs rogorc auditoriasTan
wvdomis saSualebas.

254

nino WalaganiZe, irina Rvineria

aq Cndeba ramdenime kiTxva. daviwyoT iseTi popularuli resursiT, rogoric blogosferoa. blogebi Cveni sainformacio garemos mniSvnelovan nawilad iqca. avtorebi msjeloben bevr saintereso problemaze, xSirad sakmaod seriozul Temebs gvTavazoben, magram, blogi ar aris Jurnalistika - blogerebi ar gvawvdian faqtze dafuZnebul obieqtur informacias, aramed, gvacnoben
sakuTar mosazrebas raRac sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, es ki Janrobrivad ufro publicistikaa vidre axali ambebis Jurnalistika.
socialuri qseli - axali ambebis gavrcelebis Zalian mniSvnelovani saSualebaa, gansakuTrebiT patara erebSi, sadac adamianebs Soris kavSirebi sakmaod mWidroa, rac xels uwyobs informaciis swraf gavrcelebas, magram, socialuri qselis momxmareblebis erToblioba mainc ar Seadgens masobriv auditorias.
ra gansxvavebaa adamianebis am or formatSi gaerTianebis Soris da ratom aris es mniSvnelovani?
masobrivi auditoria - es is auditoriaa, romelic masmediidan - iqneba es gazeTi, Jurnali, telearxi, kino Tu wigni - Rebulobs erTian, unificirebul informacias, romelic yvelasaTvis
nacnobi da gasagebia da qmnis eTnosis kulturul konteqsts.
sxvadasxva wyarodan informaciis blipebis saxiT miReba, ra Tqma
unda, akmayofilebs calkeuli individebis informaciul moTxovnilebebs, magram, erTiani kulturuli konteqstis Seqmnas ver emsaxureba, rac kulturis SigniT gaTiSulobas da dezintegracias
uwyobs xels. socialuri qselebis momxmarebelTa erTobliobasTan mimarTebaSi, Cveni azriT, gacilebiT ufro axlos dgas iurgen
habermasis Teoria (1962), sadac termini sajaro sfero avtorma
wignieri burJuaziuli sazogadoebis da mogvianebiT ki mTliani
sazogadoebis aRsaniSnad gamoiyena. sajaro sferos farglebSi
xdeba sazogadoebrivad mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze msjeloba, rac sazogadoebrivi azris formirebas uwyobs xels. habermasi acnobierebs komunikaciis qselur bunebas da informaciuli nakadebis
rols sajaro sferos SigniT: sajaro sfero... yvelaze ukeTesad
SeiZleba aRvweroT rogorc qseli, romelic gadascems informacias da mosazrebebs...; sakomunikacio nakadebi [kounikaciis] procesSi
ifiltreba da sinTezirdeba ise, rom qmnian kvanZebs an Tematurad
SezRudul sazogadoebriv azrebs. sajaro sfero komunikaciuri
qmedebis gziT xorcieldeba (ecsocman.hse.ru). Tu am Teorias daveTanxmebiT, sajaro sferos xorcieldeba, roca saocialuri qselis momxmarebelTa erToblioba qveyanaSi mimdinare procesebis mi-

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marT sakuTar damokidebulebas gamoxatavs. Tu gavixsenebT gasuli


wlis yvelaze rezonansul Temebs, romlebsac Facebook-is qarTveli momxmareblebis umravlesoba gamoexmaura, es iyo zaza faCuliasTvis xmis micemis kampania, magda papiZis saqme da Sorena begaSvilis qaliSvilis fanjridan gadmovardna. ramdenad mniSvnelovania
aseTi informaciuli nakadi demokratiuli sazogadoebis Segnebuli moqalaqeebis msoflmxedvelobis formirebisTvis - es ukve
sul sxva sakiTxia.
rac Seexeba kontents. masmediis socialuri qselebis momxmareblebTan ufro mWidro kontaqtisTvis korporacia Facebookma Seqmna axali platforma Facebook Media. am axali resursis
Seqmnis miznis Sesaxeb SegviZlia SevityoT nik grudinis
(Facebook -is direqtori masobrivi informaciis saSualebebTan
partniorobis dargSi) piradi blogidan:
yoveldRiurad kontentis Semqmnelebi mTeli msoflios
maStabiT - internet-gamomcemlebiT dawyebuli da sazogado moRvaweebiTa da videos prodiuserebiT damTavrebuli - iyeneben
Facebook-s sakuTar auditoriasTan inoveciuri meTodebiT dasakavSireblad. Cven SevqmeniT platforma, romelic sagrZnoblad
gaafarTovebs, gaamdidrebs da ufro dinamikurs gaxdis am kavSirebs. dRes Cven vTavazobT momxmareblebs Facebook Media-s, raTa
gamovkveToT gamorCeuli magaliTebi da axali trendebi imis sailustraciod, Tu rogor iyeneben Facebook-s sazogado moRvaweebi, organizaciebi da masobrivi informaciis saSualebani sakuTar
auditoriasTan dasakavSireblad (webtun.com).
ramdenime Tvis win Facebook-is mier SemoRebulma axalma
servisma Instant Articles Zalian araerTgavovani gamoxmaureba gamoiwvia. es servisi publikaciebis axal popularul storytelling-is
formatSi Seqmnis da maTi monetizaciis saSualebas iZleva - am
statiebis gayidva pirdapir socialuri qselidanve SeiZleba. erTia, rom es servisi Tavisufal frilanserebs damoukidebeli
biznesis keTebis Sanss aZlevs. meore ki, misi gamoyeneba masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs sakuTari saitis, romlis Senaxvac
did xarjebTan aris dakavSirebuli, aucileblobisagan aTavisuflebs. zogi eqspertis azriT, faqtobrivad, Cven garkveuli saxis
kanibalizmis mowmeebi vxdebiT: Facebook-i ylapavs profesiul
Jurnalistikas da sakuTari uzarmazari auditoriisTvis qmnis
erTgvar usaxlkaro mediasaSualebebs (ru.ejo.ch ).

nino WalaganiZe, irina Rvineria

256

da kvlav gviCndeba kiTxvebi, romlebzec pasuxi jer ar arsebobs: ra principiT moxdeba aseTi mediis mier nawarmoebi informaciis indeqsacia? rogor amovicnoT resursi, romelmac gamoaqveyna masala? savaraudod, avtoroba gamomqveynebel domen
facebook.com.-s miekuTvneba.
rogor unda gaarCios rigiTma momxmarebelma, sandoa masala
Tu ara? aris esa Tu is axali ambavi obieqturi informacia, uwyinari feiki, Tu sazogadoebrivi azriT manipulirebisTvis Segnebulad Seqmnili dezinformacia?
da mTavari: ramdenad realuria sazogadoebis dezintegraciis riski da ra SeiZleba gakeTdes amis Tavidan asacileblad saxelmwifoSi, romelSic ar arsebobs erTiani informaciuli politika an gaazrebuli samoqmedo gegma?
literatura:
http://webtun.com/socialnetworks/facebook/6814-facebook-medianovaya-platforma-dlya-smi-i-obschestvennyh-deyateley.html ;
http://ru.ejo.ch/nashi-novie-statyi/novostnie-smi-i-socialnie-seti;
http://ecsocman.hse.ru/data/2013/02/11/1251419990/Bodrunova_Konz
epziya_%202011_1.pdf;
tofleri. Toffler A. TheThirdWave. N.Y., 1980 (
: . . .: , 1999).
Irina Gvineria, Nino Chalaganidze
Social Medias as a Platform for Mass Medias
This article is devoted to the problem of transformation of Mass
Medias into the content of social networks. Two concepts are used the
concept of demassification of Mass Medias by Alvin Toffler and the
concept of Public Sphere by Jrgen Habermas. The analysis of these two
theories draws to a conclusion that the process of demassification and
transformation of traditional journalistic Medias into an element of public
sphere may lead to the qualitative changes of journalistic Medias
content, abolition of the informative functions of traditional journalistic
Media, disintegration of society and due to the dominant influence of
global Medias upon local, weakening of national identity among the
representatives of small cultures.

maka kaWkaWiSvili

`qebas~ teqstis citirebis,


recipirebisa da komentirebis
algoriTmuli analizi
qarTuli perioduli presis
mixedviT (sakiTxis dasmisaTvis)
algoriTmebze damyarebuli teqstis
Sinaarsobrivi struqturis analizi ukve
ramdenime welia mizanmimarTulad gamoiyeneba antikuri da Suasaukuneebis teqstebis analizisaTvis1. amgvari mimarTeba
avtomaturad moiTxovs ori mecnieruli
disciplinis _ enaTmecnierebis (teqstologiis) da informatikis _ urTierTWdobas. 2008-2010 wlebSi laifcigis
universitetSi ganxorcielda proeqti eAQUA (E xtraktion of structured knowledge
from A ntiken Qu ellen for A ltertumswissenschaft). igi antikuri da kompiuteruli
mecnierebebis didxniani TanamSromromlobis Sedegia da miznad isaxavs Text
Mining-is meTodis gamoyenebiT antikuri
da laTinuri teqstebis gaanalizebas. misi erT-erTi qveproeqtis Sedegis mcire
nawili ix. suraTze 1.

ix. http://www.eaqua.net/ (nanaxia

15.10.2016, 11:30).

maka kaWkaWiSvili

258

suraTi 1. mocemul suraTze asaxulia persoisis citatorebi.


Maurus Servius Honoratus-i dasturdeba, rogorc teqstis yvelaze

xSiri citatori.

zemoT ganxiluli SemTxveva gaxlavT Sinaarsobrivi struqturis mixedviT teqstis ganxilvis magaliTi. teqstis Sinaarsobriv struqturas, ZiriTadad, ukavSirdeba teqnikuri cneba
`Text Mining~. Text Mining-i SegviZlia gavigoT, rogorc `mowinave~ informacia2, romelic, Tavis mxriv, warmoadgens sami Tvisebis kombinacias:
1. relevanturoba,
2. siaxle da
3. sainteresooba.
Text Mining-is meTodur mizania amgvari `mowinave~ informaciis aRmoCena-gamoyofa, kategorizireba da dajgufeba (e.w. klasteringi). Text Mining-is algoriTmebze dafuZnebuli teqstis Sinaarsis analizi adgens Sinaarsobriv taqsonomiebs. damatebiT meTodur upiratesobas, romelic Text Mining-is analizTan erTad

mas, aseve, SesaZloa vuwodoT mTavari sakomunikacio `mesiji~.

`qebas~ teqstis citirebis, recipirebisa da komentirebis


algoriTmuli analizi qarTuli perioduli presis mixedviT

259

damkvidrda, warmoadgens Sinaarsobrivi asociaciebis vizualuri


asaxva.
Text Mining-isaTvis qarTuli literaturidan SevarCieT teqsti: `qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa~. ratom swored es da
ara romelime sxva teqsti?! Cveni kvlevis amosavali hipoTezis
mixedviT, `qeba da dideba~ warmoadgens saqarTvelos uaxlesi
istoriis erT-erT yvelaze xSirad citirebul, recipirebul da
komentirebul teqsts.
Cveni mizania, gavarkvioT, teqstis zustad romel nawils
miemarTeba sazogadoebrivi interesi da teqstis romeli nawili
ganisazRvreba Text Mining-is perspeqtividan `mowinave~ infromaciis matarebelad. e.i. `qebas~ romel nawils vin ra `mesijis~
matareblad aRiqvamda?!
kvlevis mizania, amgvari nawilebis statistikuri meTodiT
dadgena, maTi struqturireba, dajgufeba da vizualizacia (modelireba).
kvevisaTvis gamoviyenebT korpuslingvistikis meTods.
korpuslingvistikis, rogorc kvlevis meTodis, gavrcelebis
Semdeg gvaqvs gadaWrili problema, Tumca jer ar viciT, Tu rogor gamoiyureba Tavad problema. korpusi gvaZlevs im kiTxvebze
pasuxs, romelebic jer ar dasmula. amitom gvaqvs molodini,
rom kvlevisas gairkveva: sad, rodis, visTan, ra konteqststSi,
ra pragmatuli mizniT xdeboda `qebas~ teqstis an misi nawilebis citireba, recipireba da komentireba.
kiTxvebs pasuxi unda gaeces, rogorc statistikur, ise xarisxobriv doneebze. amisaTvis, qarTuli periodikidan Seikribeba
yvela is teqsti, sadac citirebuli, recipirebuli an komentirebulia `qeba da dideba~ rogorc mTliani teqsti, aseve misi
calkeuli nawilebi.
upiratesoba mieniWeba teqstebis cifrul versiebs, Tumca
`qebas korpusSi~ adgils daidebs aqamde gaucifrebeli Sesabamisi teqstebic.
kvlevis bolos Seiqmneba teqstis `qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa~ korpusi, romelic, Cveni varaudiT, xels Seuwyobs
axali sakvlevi Temebis gaCenas magaliTad, iseT mecnierebebSi,
rogorebicaa: literaturaTmcodneoba, istoria, politologia.

260

maka kaWkaWiSvili

am etapisTvis moZiebulia 200-mde eleqtronuli wyaro, sadac gvxvdeba teqstis `qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa~ citireba, recipireba an komentireba. saerTo suraTia aseTia:
Zieba Sesrulebulia frazebisaTvis: `qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa~ da `ioane zosime~.
`qeba~-s citireba, recipireba da perifrazireba ZiriTadad
5 tipis teqstebSi gvxvdeba:
1. qarTuli enis RvTiuri bunebis sailustraciod citirebuli;
2. Tavad teqstsa da teqstis literaturil ganxilvaSi;
3. saeklesio kalendarSi (lazares SabaTi igivea, rac `qeba
da dideba qarTulisa enisa~);
4. saskolo RonisZiebebis saxelwodebebSi;
5. literaturis CamonaTvalSi (sqolio, rekomendirebuli
literatura).
aseve gvxvdeba Semdeg SemTxvevebSi:
1. erT-erTi saprezidento kandidati Tavis saarCevno programis safuZvlad asaxelebs `qeba~-s teqsts.
2. paralelia gavlebuli salvador dalis da frangul
`pleadasTan~.
ZiriTadad citirebulia saTauri (`qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa~) da es nawilebi:
1. `damarxul ars ena qarTuli dRedmde meored moslvisa
misisa, sawameblad, raiTa yovelsa enasa RmerTman amxilos amiT
eniTa~.
2. `yovelive saidumloi amasa enasa Sigan damarxul ars~.
3. `damarxul ars ena qarTuli dRemde meored moslvisa
mesiisa sawameblad, raTa yovelsa enasa RmerTman amxilos amiT
eniTa. da ese ena mZinare ars dResamomde, da saxarebasa Sina
amas enasa lazare hrqvianda megobrobai amisTvis Tqva, rameTu
yoveli saidumlo amas enasa Sina damarxul ars.~
4. xSiria sruli teqstis citirebis SemTxvevebic.
SemTxvevebis, daaxloebiT, 90% aris citirebuli. 10-12% komentirebuli (citireba + komentireba), daaxloebiT, 3% - recipirebuli.
es aris `xeliT~ daTvlili monacemebi. samomavlod ki Seiqnmeba algoriTmi, romelic Tavad gaanalizebs masalas da aseulobiT qaosiT moculi teqstebidan sistemurad daalagebs momxa-

`qebas~ teqstis citirebis, recipirebisa da komentirebis


algoriTmuli analizi qarTuli perioduli presis mixedviT

261

rebilis sxvadasxva saWiroebaze morgebul informacias, specialurad `qeba~-s teqstebisaTvis Seqmnil korpusSi. amisaTvis dagegmilia: teqstis: `qeba da dideba qarTulisa enisa~ beWduri formiT arsebuli teqstebis gacifruleba; algoriTmis gamoyenebiT teqstis yvelaze xSirad citirebuli, komentirebuli da
recipirebuli nawilebis statistikuri meTodiT dadgena; maTi
struqturireba, dajgufeba da vizualizacia (modelireba).
literatura:
buxleri, haieri, grunderi 2010: Buechler M., Heyer G., Grunder
S., eAQUA - Bringing modern Text Mining appraoches to two
thousand years old ancient texts, Germeny
internet wyaroebi:
http://www.eaqua.net/ (nanaxia:15.10.2016, 11:30)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_mining (nanaxia:15.10.2016, 11:30)
Maka Kachkachishvili
Algorithm based text contant structure analysis has been used
deliberately for antique and medieval texts analysis. It is mainly related to
the technical term "Text Mining". "Text Mining" can be understood as
high-quality information. `High quality~ in text mining usually refers to
some combination of relevance, novelty, and interestingness.
Typical text mining tasks include text categorization, text
clustering, concept/entity extraction. Text content analysis based on
`Text Meaning~ algorithms sets contextual taxonomy. Additional
methodological advantage, which is established with `Text Mining~
analysis, represents visual reflection of contextual associations.
For `Text Mining~ from Georgian Literature we selected text:
`"Praise and Glory of the Georgian Language". For the research, we will
use the method of Corpus Linguistics. We have an expectation that the
research will reveal: Where? When? With whom? In which context? And
for what pragmatic purpose occurring quotation, recession and
commenting of the text `Praise~ or its parts. The aim of the research is to
determine such kind of parts by statistical methods and structuring,
grouping and visualization (modelling) of them.

262

maka kaWkaWiSvili

At the end of the research will be set up a corpora of the text "Praise
and Glory of the Georgian Language" which, as we assume, will lead to
new research topics, for example, in the sciences, such as: Literature,
History, Political Science.

nona kupreiSvili

beqa qurxulis romani,


,,samoTxidan gaqceulebi,
rogorc kulturuli travmis
reprezentacia
boloxans sabWouri da postsabWouri kulturis mkvlevrebi aqtiurad ganixilaven mexsierebisa da masTan dakavSirebuli kulturuli travmis problemas.
mexsierebaTa arqivi, koleqtiuri travma,
travmuli
cnobiereba,
kulturuli
travma, Caketili sazogadoeba, mexsierebaTa omebi, xsovnis dezavuireba - ori
saukunis mijnaze warmoqmnili e.w. postkoloniuri Teoriebis samuSao terminebia. am Teoriis erT-erTi translatori
aleqsandre etkindi gvafrTxilebs: Tu
warsuls ar gaviazrebT, masSi marTebulad garkvevaze ar davixarjebiT, igi gaupatiosnebeli cxedariviT swored maSin
mogvadgeba, roca sakuTar Tavs samSvidobos gasulad warmovidgenT. ,,sabWoTa
travmis amgvari axsnis dros mkvlevari
eyrdnoba fsiqo-analitikuri esTetikis
nimuSad miCneul froidis naSroms ,,sazareli da askvnis, rom represirebuli
warsuli marTlac brundeba, rogorc sazareli. imave aleqsandre etkindis da
mark lipoveckis dialogSi, romelic
asea dasaTaurebuli: ,,tritonis dabruneba: sabWoTa katastrofa da postsabWo-

264

nona kupreiSvili

Ta romani (, 2008:) reziumirebulia daTrgunuli mexsierebis Sedegad movlenili literaturuli da araliteraturuli


,,monstrebis mizanmimarTuli agresiuloba, rac istoriuli mexsierebisa da kulturuli travmis gadakveTaze vlindeba.
cnobilia, rom ,,adamianis mexsiereba mravalferovani da
rTulia da igi travmuli kvlebiTaa daserili. travmis reducireba (gadalaxva)... SesaZlebelia swored maTi, anu am travmuli
kvlebis (warsulze warmodgenebis) ganuwyveteli gadamuSavebiT.
travma daiZleva ara misi daviwyebiT da represirebiT, aramed
mudmivi gacnobierebiT, eTikuri SefasebebiT, warmosaxvis daZabuli muSaobiT(kvaWantiraZe, 2013:207). berlinSi mcxovrebma rusma mweralma, vladimer sorokinma, am TvalsazrisiT, sakmaod
mkveTrad Seafasa am mimarTulebiT mis samSobloSi arsebuli
mdgomareoba. man pirdapir ganacxada, rom postsabWoTa adamianma
imedebi ukiduresad gaucrua, mizezad ki travmis daumuSavebloba
da misi Sedegebi daasaxela: ,,damnaSave, rogorc yovelTvis, elitaa. man ar waiRo sabWoTa gvami sasaflaoze _ xelebis gasvra
ar moindoma _ miagdo kuTxeSi im azriT, rom iqneba TviTon dampaliyo, Tumca igi sakmaod sicocxlisunariani aRmoCnda... Cven
axla wreze davdivarT, cxovrebiseuli groteski ki izrdeba da
mravldeba (vl. sorokini, 2007:43 ).
cnobilia, rom kulturuli travmis daZlevis gzaze yvelaze sando mokavSire literaturaa, literatura, rogorc drois
samive ganzomilebis ucdomeli repezentatori. poezia da proza
am problemasTan dakavSirebul amocanas sxvadasxvagvarad wyveten.
,,poezia qmnis emocionalobis axal simbolur modelebs, proza
ki saubrobs istoriuli da socialuri problemebis rezonansulobis Sesaxeb. travmis konceptualizaciam da stilizaciam,
rac qarTuli mwerlobis konteqstSi arc Tu ise bevrma qarTvelma mweralma moaxerxa, warmoaCina TviT travmis gadalaxvis
CvenSi arsebuli kultura, misi miTosuri, istoriul-politikuri, socialuri da fsiqologiuri Zirebis siRrme da masStaburoba. literaturis miRmac, kevin plaTis marTebul mosazrebas
Tu gavixsenebT, swored travmis konceptis saSualebiT rogorc
mexsierebis disciplinireba, ise koleqtiuri TviTSemecnebis gamovlena. amiTomac kulturuli mexsierebis literaturul teqstebSi, da aramarto iq, artikulirebis sakiTxi Zalze mniSvnelovania, amas Tundac 2007 wels kembrijis universitetSi gamarTuli konferenciac adasturebs, romelic am universitetisa

beqa qurxulis romani, `samoTxidan gaqceulebi~, rogorc


kulturuli travmis reprezentacia

265

d Jurnal ,, -s ormxriv , anu rogorc Tavad organizatorebi uwodeben, ,,erToblivi kiTxvis


formatSi Catarda. konferenciaze dominanturi iyo sabWoTa warsulis reprezentirebis sakiTxi Tanamedrove rusul kulturul
mexsierebaSi. momxseneblebma Tqves, rom rusi mwerlebi am SemTxvevaSi ara faqtebs, aramed alegoriebsa da metaforebs mimarTaven (imave vl. sorokinis cnobili romani ,,opriCnikis dRe metaforulia - n.k.). amasTan dakavSirebiT imave al. etkindma msmenelebs ,,magiuri realizmis cnebac ki SesTavaza im motiviT,
rom postkatastrofuli mexsierebis Seswavlis WrilSi naTlad
ikveTeba magiurisa da istoriulis mWidro kavSiri. tragikul
sabWoTa warsuls rusi avtorebi xsnian moCvenebebis, vampirebisa
da sxva fantastiuri arsebebis daxmarebiT, sruliad darwmunebulni alternatiuli, ufro realisturi xerxebis arakompetenurobaSi. es ki mTeli qveynis kulturul diskurss ara imdenad
postmodernistuls, ramdenadac postsabWours xdis (,
2007:101). qarTuli mwerloba, rogorc Cans, gansxvavebul gzebs
eZebs, aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebiT met gambedaobas avlens, da
amas Cveni dRevandeli moxsenebis adresati, axalgazrda mwerali
beqa qurxulic adasturebs. cnobilma mweralma, milan kunderam
zustad Camoayaliba mexsierebasTan muSaobis miseuli formula:
,,adamianis brZola tiraniasTan - esaa xsovnis brZola daviwyebasTan. Cveni avtoris Sesaxebac SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom misTvis
miuRebelia sazogadoebis daviwyebisa da gulgrilobis transSi
yofna da am mizeziT mzadaa mavanTaTvis usiamovno, dasaviwyeblad
gametebuli, ase vTqvaT, uxerxuli ambebis erTgvar Semnaxvelad
da deklamatorad iqces.
kulturuli mexsierebis ,,dalagebis lakapraseul principebs Tu gavixsenebT (warsulis gaazreba da warsulis gadaTamaSeba), boloxaans qarTul mwerlobaSi Seqmnili iseTi mxatvruli
teqstebi, rogorebicaa irakli samsonaZis ,,yurTbaliSi da ,,leas saaTi, marina elbaqiZis ,,gacvla, naira gelaSvilis ,,pirveli ori wre an TamTa melaSvilis ,,gaTvla, gvafiqrebinebs, rom
arCevani warsulis gaazrebis sasargeblod keTdeba. amitomac
kritikos m. xarbedias wignSi ,,teqsti da simarTle saSualeba
eZleva, warmoaCinos e.w. aqtualuri literaturis sakiTxi. pirvelive eseSi ,,romani da ganmeorebebi igi travmis mxatvruli
asaxvis aucileblobaze saubrobs da sagangebod ganixilavs zemodasaxelebul avtorTa warmatebul nabijebs. am sias Tamamad Se-

266

nona kupreiSvili

iZleba davumatoT beqa qurxulis eqvsasgverdiani romani ,,samoTxidan gaqceulebic, romelic ,,sabas wlevandeli literaturuli konkursis gamarjvebulic gaxda.
,,samoTxidan gaqceulebi mwerlis rigiT meSvide romania.
igi moicavs gasuli saukunis dasasrulis lamis ocwlian ,,dreifsa da XX1 saukunis pirvel wlebs. Tumca kulturuli travmis genezisis TvalsazrisiT, Tavisuflad SeiZleboda drois mocemuli lokalis gafarToeba, radgan ,,igi impliciturad moicavs saqarTvelos ruseTTan urTierTobis oraswlovan istorias (kvaWantiraZe, veqtorebi, 2013:196). am mosazrebas adasturebs o. WilaZis romanebis cikli, romelic praqtikulad travmis miTosur, istoriul-politikur, socialursa da fsiqologiur ZirebTan mibrunebaa.
roman ,,samoTxidan gaqceulebis mixedviT, beqa qurxuls mowesrigebul, harmoniul garemoSi ki ar Semoaqvs qaosis narativi, aramed istoriul mexsierebaze dayrdnobiT mis, ase vTqvaT,
axal da gadamwyvet fazas amuSavebs. sagangebo aniSvnis irsia
is, rom man, rogorc avtorma, msgavsi teqstis Sesaqmnelad garkveuli mosamzadebeli periodi gaiara (rogorc ,,dilis gazeTisa da Jurnal ,,liberaliskorespondentma moiara avRaneTisa da
afxazeT-samaCablos ,,cxeli wertilebi, daicva disertacia Temaze ,,molaSqreoba, mekobreoba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi), anu jer travmis narativi Seiswavla, Semdgom ki misi
mxatvruli reprezentireba moaxdina. Sesabamisad, kompoziciurad
teqsti mxatvruli da dokumenturi prozis Janrobrivi monacvleobiTaa warmodgenili, Tumca imdenad ostaturad, rom amgvari
gadasvlebi mkiTxvels arc Rlis da arc Zabavs. mxatvruli nawilis morigi monakveTis dasrulebisTanave sruli organulobiT
Semodis wlebis ganvamlobaSi damuSavebuli masala, faqtebi,
cnobebi, Sefasebebi, romelTa umravlesobac saSualo Taobis
mkiTxvelisTvis nacnobia, axal Taobas ki travmasTan marTebulad
muSaobis masalad gamoadgeba. mwerali am masalas ar efareba,
orazrovnebas farad ar iyenebs. piriqiT, Riad da mkafiod yveba
imis Sesaxeb, ramac Tavis droze masze didi STabeWdileba moaxdina, datvirTa da iZulebuli gaxada, efiqra im mxatvrul formaze, romelSic nanax-gancdils moaqcevda. mwerlis mizania Cveni
uaxlesi istoriis, ufro zustad ki sabWoTa kavSiris ngrevis
dasawyisidan, vidre postsabWouri periodis pirvel wlebamde
ganviTarebuli movlenebis maqsimalurad obieqturi suraTis war-

beqa qurxulis romani, `samoTxidan gaqceulebi~, rogorc


kulturuli travmis reprezentacia

267

moCena, magram ara tlanqi sworxazovnebiT an miT ufro WeSmaritebis uzurpirebiT, aramed misi mkiTxvelTan erTad ZiebiTa da
mikvleviT. TviTon mwerali Tavis Tavs e.w. dakargul Taobas miakuTvnebs. marTlac, Znelia, sxvagvari definicia mouZebno axalgazrdebs, romlebmac cxovrebis saukeTeso wlebi im umZimes 90ianebSi gaatares. erT-erT interviuSi mwerali acnobierebs am
damTxvevis tragikulobas da SesaSuri didsulovnebiT acxadebs:
ubralod, Cveni da Cveni qveynis gardatexis wlebi erTmaneTs daemTxvao. qaosursa da ukiduresad saSiS sivrceSi miebuli egzistencialuri gamocdilebis miuxedavad teqsti avtoris sicocxlis absoluturad ulogiko siyvarulis deklarirebas emsaxureba. TiTqos iqmneba axali substancia qarTvelisa, romelic
morigi damarcxebis Semdegac motivirebulia axali cxovrebis
dasawebad.
romanis avtori ara marto awesrigebs, alagebs mexsierebas
da amiT momxdaris Sesaxeb arsebuli stereotipebs amsxvrevs,
aramed sakuTar TavTan, sakuTar TanamemamuleebTan ukompromiso
,,brZoliT Semgueblobaze, aryofnze gamarjvebis rwmenas gvinergavs, da es exeba ara marto konkretul adamians, aramed, faqtobrivad, mTel qveyanas, romlis, Cven mier ukve naxsenebi, sicocxlis gagrZelebis neba mwerlisTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania:
,,yvelafers aitans kaci - nebismier tkivils da tanjvas, miT
ufro, Tu mSvenivrad icis, rom ukeTesi araferi daumsaxurebia,
magram aryofnas, arsad yofnas, ararsebobas namdvilad ver gadaaitan... unda gabrazde, magrad unda gaafrino da ubedurad ajanyde bolomde!... (qurxuli, 2015:305).qaosidan TavdaRweuli qarTvelis vitaluri energiis amofrqveva es is axali formaa,
romelsac mwerali Tavad igonebs da, imavdroulad, akanonebs kidec.
cnobilia, rom individualuri travma, romelsac qaosurobis konteqstSi TiToeuli moazrovne adamiani iRebs, iqceva koleqtiur travmad, is ki, Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba iqces socialurfsiqologiur problemad. dausrulebel travmas aqvs kidev erTi
Tviseba: ar darCes erTi Taobis kuTvnilebad, aramed ganicados
delegireba Semdeg TaobebSi. am movlenas mecnierebi koleqtiuri
travmis transgeneraciul gadacemas uwodeben. romanSi sami saburTaloeli Zmakacis istoriis paralelurad viTardeba asakiT
maTze umcrosi biWis (igi, nawilobriv, avtoris prototipia) da
misi megobrebis siuJeturi xazi. es patara biWebi yvela niSniT

268

nona kupreiSvili

ufrosebis umzeo atmosferos gamziareblebi arian. moxda travmis delegireba da amitomac bevri ram romanSi swored maTi TvaliTaa danaxuli.
romanis warmatebas, imas, rom igi literaturul movlenad
iqca, cxadia, xeli Seuwyo (Tu ar ganapiroba) enam, romelic imdenad cocxali da dinamikuria, rom imTaviTve scildeba personaJTa sakomunikacio funqcias da im konkretuli drois, epoqis
sisxlian movlenebSi Cakarguli qveynisa da misi axalgazrdobis
cxovrebis ara fiqsatorad, aramed aqtiur Tanamonawiled, metic,
namdvil personaJad gvevlineba. es ena ,,yvela sistemis, Zaladobis protestis gamomxatveli mTavari gmiris saxelsac imsaxurebs, da es rigiTi movlena ar gaxlavT. iqneb swored ase zustad mignebuli eniTa da intonaciebiT (m. cetaeva aki ambobda,
Cveni saukeTeso sityvebi Cveni intonaciebiao) upasuxebs mwerali
kiTxvaze, rogor transkrifcias SeiZleba daeqvemdebaros msgavsi
movlenebis mxatvruli reprezentireba.
rac Seexeba reportiorobas, rogorc Cans, am romanma araerTi maSindeli werilis masala Seisruta da amiT meti mxatvruli damajerebloba SeiZina. mTavaria, mwerlis refleqsia ar
qceuliyo e.w. ,,muyaos gmiris TviTgamoxatvad. rogorc viciT,
swored ase uwodes XX saukunis omebis yvelaze did reportiors, ernest hemingueis, romelic pirveli marTali frazisTvis,
romelic misTvis momavali teqstis umTavresi sayrdeni unda gamxdariyo, omSi yofnasac ki ar erideboda. miuxedavad omis, imave
kacTakvlis, aSkara deheroizaciisa, es iyo am konkretuli mwerlisa da omis ucnauri urTierTmijaWvulobis demonstrireba,romelic SemoqmedebiTi nayofierebis TvalsazrisiT Zalze warmatebuli aRmoCnda. ,,samoTxidan gaqceulebis erT-erTi pirveli recenzenti, nino sadRobelaSvili, sagangebod amaxvilebs yuradRebas Txrobis eqspresiulobis, romanis zedinamizmisa da Tavad avtoris meomruli temporitmis damTxvevaze. aq ki unda gavixsenoT beqa qurxulis samecniero interesis sagnad qceuli aRmosavleT saqarTvelos laSqrobebisa da mekobreobis istoriebi,
romlebSic mas uTuod izidavda udreki, Tavisuflebis moyvare
sulisa da amtanobis gamovlineba. romanSi uSualod naxsenebi heminguei ki ar ixsneba (Tumca Cveni mwerlisTvis igi srulebiTac
ar aris ucxo), aramed kurt voneguti, romelmac Tavisi sasaklaoTi meore msoflio omis dauviwyari metaforuli saxe Seqmna.
am yvelafers beqa qurxuli pativs miagebs, axsovs, magram, rode-

beqa qurxulis romani, `samoTxidan gaqceulebi~, rogorc


kulturuli travmis reprezentacia

269

sac uSualod qarTuli istoriebis moyolas iwyebs, iqmneba iseTi STabeWdileba, rom werisTvis saWiro energias igi konkretuli, mexsierebebiTa da travmebiT lokalizebuli sivrcidan,
mSobliuri kavkasiidan iRebs. SesaZloa, es iyos am regionis
kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli, memkvidreobiT kodirebuli da
rogorRac Semonaxuli meomruli suli, an erovnulobis damRaniSani, romelic adamians brbosgan gamoarCevs. faqtia, rom aqaa
beqa qurxulis mwerluri individualobis saidumlo, da rodesac mweralma es icis, swori mimarTulebiT moZraobs.
,,samoTxidan gaqceulebis politikuri konteqsti ssrk-s
ngrevis, Tavisuflebis pirispir mdgari da amisTvis sruliad moumzadebeli qveynis TiTqmis ocwliani ,,dreifis istoriaa. mwerali Tavisi personaJebis yoveldRiuri cxovrebiT, CvevebiTa da
midrekilebebiT axdens travmis simbolizebas, mis siRrmiseul
warmoCenas. ,,Txrobis sisavse, megobruli urTierTobebis simyare,
socialuri poziciebis mkveTri cvlilebebi, imedgacruebebi piradsa da sazogadoebriv sarbielze, omebSi miRebuli gamocdileba, mSobliur uperspeqtivo qalaqTan mijaWvuloba, politikosTa manipulaciebis zustad wakiTxvis unari qmnis travmis
TandaTanobiTi, mizanmimarTuli reducirebis iluzias; iluzias
arSemdgari gmirebisTvis, radgan isini narkotikis zedozirebiT,
TviTmkvlelobiT, soxumis ,,sovminis SenobaSi daRupviT Tu ubralod galoTebiT provocirebuli degradirebiT mtkivneuli
gardamavali xanis msxverplni arian maSin, rodesac TviT avtori
(usaxelo personaJi, biWi, romelic pirvel nabijebs dgams Cabnelebul da tyviebis zuzuniT gabruebul qalaqSi) sabolood mainc veSapis muclidan amosul ionasaviT ganaxlebuli warmogvidgeba. TviT is, Tavisi axali vitaluri Zal-RoniT travmisgan gaTavisuflebis, misi gonivruli daZlevis met-naklebad warmatebuli magaliTia. mwerali Cvenc, misi romanis mkiTxvelebs, msgavsi
an ukeTesi metamorfozisken mogviwodebs.
dabolos, saTauris poetikis gaxsnas, gaSifvras Tu vecdebiT,
aSkarad davinaxavT samoTxis, anu harmoniisa da ssrk-s nangrevebqveS moyolili qveynis, imave qaosis samflobelos diqotomiurobas. samoTxe, wesrigi, harmonia im cxovrebis erTgvari proeqciaa,
romelic ar Sedga, Caikarga sxva kulturuli mexsierebis matarebeli, Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobisaTvis Cveni damsjeli
uxeSi Zalis mier Seqmnil katakombebSi. SesaZloa, saTaurSi gamotanili ,,samoTxis cneba sulac antisamoTxis mniSvnelobiTac

nona kupreiSvili

270

iyos gamoyenebuli. swored ise, rogorc es kote jandieris moTxroba ,globalizaciaSia warmodgenili (n. popiaSvili). asea Tu
ise, samoTxidan gaqceva kulturuli travmis miRebis im mtkivneul process ukavSirdeba, romelic Cven, ,marTalia, mTeli sisruliT ganvicadeT, magram jerovnad ver davamuSaveT. beqa qurxulis
romani am gadacdomis gasworebaSi, masTan erTad ki warsulis
recidivebisgan gaTavisuflebaSi gvexmareba.
literatura:
kvaWantiraZe 2013: kvaWantiraZe m., travmuli xsovna postsabWoTa qarTul narativSi, veqtorebi, Tb. 2013
xarbedia 2015: xarbedia m. teqsti da simarTle, Tb. 2015
wifuria 2013: wifuria b. qarTuli teqsti sabWoTa /postsabWoTa/ postmodernul konteqstSi, Tb. 2016
2006: . . ,
. 2006
- 2008: . , . -
, , 2008 94
2001: . 2001, , 2001, 2
2007: . , .
2007

Nona Kupreishvili
Beka Kurkhulis novel Escaped from Paradise , as cultural injury
representation
In the last period modern Georgian prose grappled the most
complicated issue of procession cultural trauma. Critic M. Kharbedia
called such literature actual, but those who compose it as an authors with
more self-identification and responsibility.
Among such authors is Beka Kurkhuli with his new novel Escaped
from Paradise (2015). It is an Odyssey full of perils and too long related
to the fall of USSR, permanent wars taken place in Afghanistan,
Abkhazia and Samachablo and civil wars at the end of the 2th century

beqa qurxulis romani, `samoTxidan gaqceulebi~, rogorc


kulturuli travmis reprezentacia

271

that ruins not only infrastructure, but more important generations. Poetics
of the title of novel may be explained as follows: former paradise (or
similar to paradise) and currently as anti-paradise so called country
transformed to the possession of chaos that mercilessly sacrifices its
children, or ruins their life.
Despite of tragic facts the author manages to escape despair and
scepticism and create energy of defeated Georgian striving to new life
that by the help of live and dynamic language of novel motivates the
reader to be active. Together with Ir. Samsonidze, N. Gelashvili, M.
Elbakidze, T. Meshveliani and others Beka Kurkhuli shows the culture of
working with a memory found in us and adequately presents importance
of this process for the future generations.

irine maniJaSvili

ena, rogorc eris kulturis


realizacia
ena eTnosis identifikaciis yvelaze
mkveTri niSania. eris materialuri da
sulieri kultura gansxeulebulia enaSi. enaSi aisaxeba da yalibdeba Rirebulebebi, idealebi da adamianTa miswrafebebi. enis umTavresi maxasiaTebelia, Seinaxos da Taobidan Taobas gadasces kultura.
Tanamedrove lingvistur kvlevebSi
gamoikveTa erTiani midgoma: ena gaigeba
rogorc adamianis fsiqikuri da sazogadoebriv-kulturuli cxovrebis makavSirebeli rgoli. aqedan gamomdinare, ena
SeuZlebelia ganixilebodes, rogorc
adamianisagan damoukidebeli sistema. is
unda Seiswavlebodes rogorc anTropologiuri fenomeni, rodesac yuradRebis
centrSi adamiania. enisadmi aseTi midgoma saTaves iRebs enaTmecnierebis erT-erTi fuZemdeblis, v.fon humboldtis memkvidreobidan. jer kidev XIX saukuneSi
humboldti amtkicebda, rom enis niSnebis miRma dgas ama Tu im eTnosis suliTganpirobebuli samyaros aRqma(humboldti 1984:68). sosiuri, romelic
iTvleba Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebis fuZemdeblad, swored am mimarTulebiT ikvlevda enis sakiTxebs. amitomac mis na-

ena, rogorc eris kulturis realizacia

273

azrevs aqvs enis filosofiuri da SemecnebiT-Teoriuli mniSvneloba da misi gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia nebismieri humanitaruli kvlevisas.
nebismier enaSi arsebobs konkretuli leqsikuri erTeulebi,
romlebic nominaciuri formiT warmoadgenen materialursa da
socialur kulturas, xolo sulieri da qceviTi kultura leqsikur semantikaSi konotaciebis saxiT gvevlineba.
eris kulturis realizaciisTvis udidesi funqcia aqvs enis
konceptur sferos. konceptis semantikaSi gamoiyofa cnebiTi, xatovani da RirebulebiTi komponentebi. mTlianad koncepti ki moicavs komunikaciurad mniSvnelovan mTel informacias. amgvar
konceptTa erToblioba qmnis enis konceptur sferos, romelmac
koncentrirebulia eris kultura, anu igi enobriv-kulturul
codnaTa erTobliobaa. metic, konceptosferodan igeba enis
mflobelis msoflgageba. enis simdidre ganisazRvreba ara marto
leqsikuri maragisa da gramatikuli SesaZleblobebis mixedviT,
aramed konceptosferos simdidriT, romelSic yalibdeba erovnuli enobrivi pirovneba (maslova 2001:17).
enisa da kulturis kavSirebi, rogorc kvlevis ZiriTadi
obieqti, Seiswavleba lingvokulturologiaSi. lingvistikis es
mimarTuleba XXsaukunis 90-ian wlebSi Camoyalibda, rogorc
eTnolingvistikisa da sociolingvistikis ganviTarebis axali
etapi. is Seiswavlis, Tu rogor aisaxeba kultura enaSi, iyenebs
enobriv masalas da ikvlevs kulturis im gamovlinebebs, romelic aisaxa da damagrda enaSi. am sakiTxebiT jer kidev XX saukunis 80-ian wlebSi dainteresda cnobili enaTmecnieri besarion
jorbenaZe. misi didi ZalisxmeviT da moTxovniT axali saleqcio
kursi damkvidrda iv. javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis
filologiis fakultetze. am kursis saxelwodeba iyo ena da
kultura, romelic TviTon moamzada mecnierma da 1982 wlidan
Tavadve kiTxulobda leqciebs. enisa da kulturis sakiTxebi
mTeli siRrmiTa da profesionalizmiT aris gaSuqebuli. sailustracio uxvi masala mTlianad qarTuli enis wiaRidan aris amoRebuli. es kursi kidev erTi dasturia imisa, ramdenad mWidro
da erTmaneTisgan ganuyofelia enisa da kulturis sakiTxebi da
ukavSirdeba eris ganviTarebas. aseTi kvlevis Catareba SeuZlebelia enis konceptualuri sferos gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. swored konceptebis da konotaciebis kategoriebiT aris SesaZlebe-

274

irine maniJaSvili

li enisa da kulturis urTierTkavSiris yvelaze ufro zusti


analizi.
enis funqciebidan erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovania azris
gamoxatvis funqcia. magaliTad, raseli Tvlida, rom enas ori
urTierTdakavSirebuli Rirseba aqvs: pirvel rigSi is aris socialuri, meore mxriv ki sajaro gamoxatulebas aniWebs azrebs, romlebic sxva SemTxvevaSi mxolod piraduli iqneboda
ena ara mxolod azris gamoxatvis, aramed maTi warmoqmnis saSualebacaa, romlebic sxva mxriv arc iarsebebdnen(raseli
1948:60). ena aris azrovnebis ganuyofeli nawili, amitom is monawileobs sulieri Semoqmedebis yvela sferoSi imisda miuxedavad, aris Tu ara sityva xelovnebis uSualo iaraRi. enobriv niSanTa sistemis meSveobiT sazogadoebrivi cnobiereba materializdeba. kulturuli normebi da enobrivi modelebi urTierTdakavSirebulia. niSanTa sistema- ena adamianTa azrovnebisa da komunikaciis saSualebaa, is aris kulturis warmoqmnis, Senaxvisa da
ganviTarebis iaraRi. Sesabamisad, ena da kultura mWidrod arian
erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli da ver iarsebeben erTmaneTis gareSe.
enisa da kulturis subieqti ki adamiania.
eri sruliad bunebrivi warmonaqmnia adamianTa urTierTkavSirisa. is ufro didi erTobis, kacobriobis konkretuli gamovlenaa, misi arsebobis erT-erTi formaa, romelic mowodebulia
Taviseburad, mxolod misTvis Cveuli saxiT asaxos, ganaviTaros
sakacobrio Rirebulebebi. TiToeul ers gansakuTrebuli misia
akisria kacobriobis winaSe. is Tavisi msoflmxedvelobiT, tradiciebiT, xelovnebiT amdidrebs mTlianad kacobriobis saerTo
potencials. goeTe, Sileri, Seqspiri, rusTaveli, vaJa scildebian erovnulobis CarCoebs da emsaxurebian mTeli kacobriobis
progress.
enaSi iCens Tavs erovnuli gamoxatulebis yvela forma(erovnuli xasiaTi, kultura, fsiqikuri wyoba, erovnuli
kulturis Camoyalibebis mTavari pirobaa erTiani ena. es is Zalaa, romelic ayalibebs ers erad, uzrunvelyofs erovnuli xasiaTis ganmtkicebas, eris gonebrivi, sulieri unaris warmoCenas.
erovnuli Taviseburebis nebismieri Seswavla, - wers humboldti -, rome;lic ar iyenebs enas, rogorc damxmare saSualebas,
iqneboda amao, vinaidan mxolod enaSia STabeWdili mTeli erovnuli xasiaTi, da amasTan, masSi, rogorc mocemuli enis urTier-

ena, rogorc eris kulturis realizacia

275

Tobis saSualebaSi, qrebian individualobebi, raTa gamomJRavndes


sayovelTao(uznaZe 1940:353).
ena gvevlineba eris damaxasiaTebel umTavres niSnad: swored
amitom iyo, rom istoriis manZilze, dampyrobels jer enasa da
sarwmunoebaze mihqonda ieriSi. didma iliam eris gadarCenis
gzad sami saunje gaaerTiana: ena, mamuli, sarwmunoeba: sami
RvTaebrivi saunje dagvrCa mama-papaTaganmamuli, ena, sarwmunoeba. Tu amaTac ar vupatroneT, raRa kacebi viqnebiT, ra pasuxs
gavcemT STamomavlobas(WavWavaZe 1984:925). ilia mTeli cxovreba iRvwoda enis siwmindis dacvisTvis, misi ganviTarebisTvis. man
mniSvnelovani reformebi Caatara enis sferoSic da gza gauxsna
mis ganviTarebas. ra ena waxdes, eric daeceso,-- esec ilias
sityvebia da, sruliad bunebrivia, rom enis sikvdili eris sikvdils moaswavebs. amis araerTi magaliTi moiZiebneba msoflio
istoriaSi.
qarTuli ena mravalsaukunovani damwerlobis mqone da mkacrad normalizebuli erT-erTi uZvelesi enaa. qarTuli damwerlobis kerebi iyo: tao-klarjeTis, afxazeT-egrisis, lazeT-WaneTis, svaneT-Takveris, qarTl-kaxeTis, guria-aWaris, mTuileT-xevis, TuSeT-fSav-xevsureTis, hereTis sasuliero centrebi. eklesia-monastrebSi Camoyalibebul qarTul samwignobro enas arsebiTi cvlileba dRemde ar ganucdia. igi dResac gasagebia Tanamedrove qarTvelisTvis. amJamadac saqarTvelos eklesiebSi wirvalocva aResruleba saukuneebis win SemuSavebuli enobrivi normebis dacviT (kanonikuria nusxa-xucuri anbaniT dawerili saxareba, daviTni). es faqti imiT aixsneba, rom qarTuli anbanis sami safexuri evoluciuri xasiaTisaa, erTmaneTis ganviTarebis,
daxvewis Sedegadaa miRebuli da ara erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad. amas asabuTebda iv. javaxiSvili Tavis naSromSi qarTuli damwerlobaTmcodneoba anu paleografia.
samwignobro enis arsebiT metamorfozas iwvevs radikaluri
enobrivi reforma, an sabazo enobrivi erTeulis(koine, dialeqti) Secvla, rogorc es moxda berZnulis, somxurisa da sxva
SemTxvevebSi. droTa ganmavlobaSi yovel enaSi Cndeba axali leqsika da gramatikuli normebis daxvewis aucilebloba, Tumca gansxvavebulia cvlilebaTa tempi. drois erT monakveTSi erTma
konkretulma enam SesaZloa swrafi cvlilebebi ganicados, meorem ki-ara. es procesebi bevri sxvadasxva faqtoriTaa ganpirobebuli(istoriuli, socialur- ekonomikuri da sxv.), magram didi

276

irine maniJaSvili

tradiciebis ena yovelTvis inarCunebs Tavis kalapots. erovnuli sulis simdidre da siZliere arsad ise naTlad ar ixateba,
rogorc enaSi. geronti qiqoZe marTebulad SeniSnavda:ena aaSkaravebs rogorc azrTa morWmulobas da grZnobaTa mravalferovnebas, ise erovnuli temperamentis sicxovelesac. es imitom, rom
ena ar aris sityvaTa da gamoTqmaTa mkvdari leqsikoni, is cocxali salaroa ideaTa da emociaTa(qiqoZe 1914).
enis SemweobiT erovnuli energia udides koncentracias aRwevs. is akavSirebs ara marto cocxal Taobebs, aramed erTmaneTs uaxloebs warsuls, awmyosa da momavalsac. rac ufro mdidaria eris istoriuli warsuli, miT ufro mdidaria misi suli
da miT ufro mravalferovania misi ena. is aaSkaravebs ZvelisZvel Cveulebebs, dromoWmul tradiciebs. amitomaa, rom Segnebuli eri arcerT Tavis simdidres ar eqceva iseTi sifrTxiliTa
da yuradRebiT, rogorc mSobliur enas. qarTuli saliteraturo ena mdidaria dialeqtebiT. misi fuZe dialeqtebia qarTluri
da kaxuri. cnobilia, rom literaturuli ena sazrdoobs xalxuri kiloebidan da prioriteti eniWeba im dialeqts, romelic
istoriuli, socialuri da esTetikuri upiratesobiT aris aRWurvili. samwerlo enis ZiriTadi fondi ivseba qarTluridan da
kaxuridan. saRi azrovneba yovelTvis gansazRvruli, naTlad gamokveTili enis terminebSi yalibdeba. dRevandeli qarTuli ena
gaRaribebulia da pirdapir adekvaturia eris sulieri mdgomareobis. misi sulieri krizisi, kulturis deficiti pirdapir
aisaxeba enaze. am mdgomareobidan gamosvlis saukeTeso gzaa, rogorc Cveni klasikiuri mwerlobis Seswavla, ise-xalxuri enis
gacnobaa. ena mudmivad unda ivsebodes cocxali xalxuri metyvelebidan. enisadmi amgvari midgoma xels Seuwyobs Zlieri erovnuli azrovnebis ganviTarebas.
qarTuli enis Sesaxeb araerTi werili da mecnieruli kvleva arsebobs. jer marto rad Rirs ioane zosimes qebai da didebai qarTulisa enisai, romelSic qarTuli enis siRrme da maStaburoba RvTiur simaRleebs aRwevs. TiTqmis yvela qarTvel
klasikoss Tavisi faqizi damokidebuleba aqvs mSobliuri enisadmi, magram aq davimowmeb geronti qiqoZis amomwurav Sefasebas
qarTuli enisa: wminda qarTuli imdenad mdidari, kulturuli
da keTilxmovania, rom is WeSmaritad Rirsia meti pativiscemisa.
is mzadaa, gamoxatos umZimesi filosofiuri ideebi da umsubuqesi erotuli sensaciebi. is xan mkveTri da Zlieria, viT grdem-

277

ena, rogorc eris kulturis realizacia

lis da kveris Sexvedra, xan nazi da tkbili, viT pirveli Rimili, Seyvarebuli qal-vaJisa. is xatavs Cvens moRuSul mTebs da
moRimare mdeloebs, veSapisxmian Cvens CanCqerebsa da Cxriala
mdinareebs, Cvens uRran tyeebsa da pitalo kldeebs. mis ritmSi
Cven gvesmis Soreuli simRera omSi mimavali raindebisa(qiqoZe
1914:6).
amdenad, enas arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWeba sazogadoebis
formirebisa da ganviTarebisTvis. ena eris kulturis produqticaa da misi Semdgomi ganviTarebis safuZvelic. is erTgvarad gansazRvravs mas, eris TviTgamoxatvis pirobaa.
literatura:
maslova 2001: .. . ., 2001.
leqsikonebi:
ramiSvili 1984: .
//
. . . .,
uznaZe 1940: uznaZe d. zogadi fsiqologia. Tb.
raseli 1948: Russell B. Human knowledge: Its scope and limits. N.Y.
javaxiSvili 1926: javaxiSvili iv. qarTuli damwerlobaTmcodneoba anu paleografia, Tb.
WavWavaZe 1984: WavWavaZe i. Txzulebani, Tb.
qiqoZe 1914: qiqoZe g. ena da erovnuli energia, gaz.saxalxo
furceli
Irine Manijashvili,
DAUG, Associate Professor
Language as the realization of a nations culture
Language is the most notable sign of ethnic identity. A nations
material and spiritual culture is embodied inlanguage. Values, ideals and
peoples aspirations are reflected and formed in language. The main
characteristic feature of language is preservation and passing on culture
from one generation to the next.
In linguistics the analysis of language implies the study of the
mechanisms and intercommunication aspects of language and thinking
where the man is the main figure. It is impossible to consider a language
as a system existing independentlyof man. In modern philology language

278

irine maniJaSvili

is studied as ,,an anthropological phenomenon and such an approach is


quite right.
The system of signs language is the means of mens
communication and thinking. Thus, it is the tool of creating culture,
preserving it and developing as well. Accordingly, language and culture
cannot exist without each other. As it has been stated above, the main
subject of language and culture is man. Language reflects mans personal
features.
Nation, as well as nationality, is a natural formation of mens
intercommunication. It is the specific reflection of a higher union,
mankind. Each nation has its own, peculiar mission. In the history of a
nation, its values and ideology can be observed which change and
develop throughout a nations life. Language is not only the means of
communication. It is the most important form of the manifestation of a
nations essence. If united language does not exist, the conceptof national
culture loses its idea. Language is the repository of a nations
culture.Language is the sphere were nations soul, national character and
national culture are expressed most vividly.

mariam marjaniSvili

semiotikis raoba
xelovnebaSi
yvela drosa da epoqaSi xelovneba
arc karCaketili yofila da arc mcire
wrisaTvis ar arsebobda. igi arc Zalian
ganaTlebuli mcirericxovani adamianebisTvis iyo gamiznuli. xelovneba Tavisi
arsiT mudam mTeli xalxis kuTvnileba
gaxldaT.
rogorc
didi
ilia
miiCnevda:
,,cxovreba Ziria, xelovneba da mecniereba maszed amosuli Stoebi arian~...
mecnierebisa da xelovnebis mWidro
kavSiri, kulturul-SemoqmedebiTi urTierToba yovelTvis angrevda kedlebs da
erTa Soris debda xidebs.aqedan gamomdinare, xelovnebas arasodes hqonda sazRvari.
swored, mecnierebisa da xelovnebis
srulyofilebisaken swrafvam gaaerTiana
ori eris Svilebi da germaniis miwaze
apovnina erTmaneTi qarTvel emigrants,
nikoloz janeliZesa da germanel reJisors, herman vedekinds.
sruliad moulodnelad, 1972 wels,
pirvelad sabWoTa kavSirSi mowveuli vedekindi germaniis Teatralur moRvawe
jgufTan erTad saqarTveloSi aRmoCnda:
,,am qveyanaze araviTari warmodgena ar
hqonda, raRac egzotikurs eZebda. Camo-

280

mariam marjaniSvili

vida da, rogorc TviTon ambobs, guli dakarga.


aq daxvda yvelaferi, razec manamde ocnebobda: gulRia, gonieri, stumarTmoyvare, mxiaruli, iumoriT aRsavse, mocinari, xalisiani, momRerali adamianebi - reJisorisTvis WeSmariti saganZuri~ (Jur.,,xelovneba~ 1998:95-101).
am dRidan moyolebuli herman vedekindma Tavisi meore samSoblo ipova, sadac sulmouTqmelad gaatara 25 weli. swored
aq gaigo man me-17 saukunis germaneli mwerlisa da dramaturgis
andreas grifiusis ,,qeTevan qarTvelis~ qarTuli Targmanis arseboba.
herman vedekindma piesa jer qarTulad dadga, Semdeg ki igi
dasavleT germaniaSi aCvena.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom grifiusis ,,qeTevan qarTvelis~
germanuli gamocema saqarTveloSi pirvelad nikoloz janeliZem
gamogzavna.
Tbilisidan gamgzavrebamde herman vedekindma moaswro tragediis wakiTxva da ganacxada: ,,es tragedia me aqac unda davdga
da iqac~. am erTi frazis miRma imaleboda saqarTveloze uzomod
Seyvarebuli kacis qeTevanis pirovnebiT, misi uCveulo sulieri
grZnobiTa da usazRvro momxibvlelobiT gamowveuli aRfrTovaneba.
qarTveli da saqarTvelo herman vedekindma ise gaiTavisa,
rom man germaniis miwaze daiwyo am eris SvilTa daaxloeba. iRblianTa Soris aRmoCnda itcehoeSi moRvawe qarTveli emigranti
nikoloz janeliZe.
,,gamofenisTvis vemzadebodi, roca telefonis zaris xma gaisma. Sevwuxdi, radgan xSirad rekaven. me ki filtvebis anTebis
Semdeg bevri laparaki miWirs. aviRe yurmili da mesmis: ,,vedekindi!~ lamis davmunjdi: ,,batoni vedekindi? hermani? ,,me var. itcehoeSi Camovedi, Svili mixaeli maxlavs, imas Tavisi Svili~...
kidev ufro amaRlda Cems TvalSi saqarTvelos didi megobari.
gamofenis gaxsna zebevri ilaparaka ,,qeTevan qarTvelis~
Targmanze, Tavis dadgmaze, Cemze da sxva qarTvel megobrebze...
es iyo marTlac istoriuli Sexvedra, radgan hermani didia.
,,mzis Zalam itcehoeSi momiyvanao~, _ Tqva, _ mzeao saqarTvelos
xalxis mSobeli...~(gaz. ,,Tbilisi~ 1982:3).
herman vedekinds sofel kirfboirenSi qarTuli muzeumi da
patara scena hqonda, sadac imarTeboda qarTuli saRamoebi.ezoSi

semiotikis raoba xelovnebaSi

281

patara ekvders irakli oCiauris Weduroba amSvenebda, romelic


kirfboirenSi yofnisas gaakeTa.
Semdeg vedekindi Tavis sofel vedernSi gadasaxlda. mis
ezoSi dResac dgas merab berZeniSvilis mier gakeTebuli da hermanis usayvarlesi gmiri qalis qeTevan wamebulis qandakeba.
vedekindi xSirad xumrobiT ambobda: ,,ukurnebeli seni Semeyara. mas saqarTvelos siyvaruli hqvia da, rac mTavaria, Zalian
sasiamovno da gamabednierebeli seniao~.
amboben, WeSmarit istorias pirovnebebi qmniano. nikoloz
janeliZisa da herman vedekindis mowodeba iyo xelovnebisa da
kulturis meSveobiT sikeTis Cadena da amitomac aRniSnavdnen saubrisas xSirad, rom ,,xelovnebam ar icis sazRvrebi~ da ,,xelovneba aaxlovebs xalxebs~, romelsac nikolozi maSinve akakis
sityvebs daumatebda xolme: ,,xelovnebas ar aqvs sakuTreba _
sazRvari! is yovel xalxs ekuTvnis~, rac maT araerTxel daamtkices.
ucxoeTSi moRvawe patrioti, mTargmneli, gamomcemeli, hamburgisa da kilis universitetebis profesori, qarTuli kulturis, xelovnebis, literaturis, qarTuli yofis mgznebare propagandisti nikoloz janeliZe ara marto holStainSi, aramed
mTels germaniaSi iyo cnobili.
igi xSirad gamodioda germaneli msmenelebis winaSe moxsenebebiTa da sityvebiT. awyobda gamofenebs, qarTuli xalxuri musikis saRamoebs, dgamda speqtaklebs.
nikoloz janeliZe aqtiurad cdilobda erovnuli musikis
germanuli xelovnebis sivrceSi damkvidrebas: ,,koncerti baxis
mimarT iyo gamarTuli. iq, saqarTveloze moxseneba wavikiTxe da
germanelebma qarTulad imReren! damswreTa ricxvi 500-mde iyo~
(janeliZe, itcehoe 10.09.1990).
qarTul-germanul kulturis ganviTarebis saqmeSi n. janeliZes CarTuli hyavda samSoblodan SemoqmedebiTi inteligenciis
farTo wreebi. maT Soris iyo kompozitori andria balanCivaZe.
,,batonma andriam dawera musika Cvens zRapar _ ,,fanTela~ze, romelic daidgmeba sabavSvo TeatrSi 1978 wlis 19 oqtombers~ (janeliZe, itcehoe 16.04.1978).
germanel bavSvTa Soris didi popularobiT sargeblobda
radio gadacema ,,janesis qarTuli zRaprebis saaTi~. amis Sesaxeb
germaneli korespondenti erT sagazeTo statiaSi aRniSnavda:
,,gurian sbegis kaTolikur sabavSvo baRSi jadosnuri zRapruli

282

mariam marjaniSvili

saaTebia. janesi, kaci saqarTvelodan, Cajda bavSvTa wreSi Tavze


oqros gvirgviniT, aiRo feradad ilustrirebuli wigni da daiwyo: ,,iyo da ara iyo ra~, - radgan ase iwyeba yvela qarTuli
zRapari. janesma bavSvebi Soreuli saqarTvelos zRaprul samyaroSi Seiyvana~ (Itzehoe 29.02.1984).
ase acnobda ,,qarTveli dendi~, _ rogorc nikolozi Tavis
Tavs uwodebda misi samSoblos kulturas germanelebs. maSin,
roca amave mizniT meore ,,dends~ herman vedekinds saqarTvelo
da misi kultura germanuli kulturis samyaroSi Sehyavda da
piriqiTac.
man didi Rvawli dasdo germaniis federaciuli respublikis
zaaris mxarisa da saqarTvelos damegobrebas. gamoCenilma reJisorma Tbilisis saopero TeatrSi araerTi germanuli speqtakli
dadga, aseve zaarbriukens gaacno saukeTeso qarTuli sasceno
qmnilebani.
germaneli reJisoris survili iyo, qarTuli scenis ostatebs mis samSobloSi gamarTul festivalSi mieRoT monawileoba,
sadac Catardeboda qarTuli kulturis dReebi. masSi Teatraluri xelovnebis garda warmodgenili iqneboda xalxuri simRerisa
da cekvis ansambli, irakli oCiauris personaluri gamofena da,
rac mTavaria, gaformdeboda megobruli xelSekruleba mSobliur
sofel kirfboirensa da firosmanis mirzaans Soris. es ukanaskneli survili ki vedekinds auxdenel ocnebad darCa.
saqarTvelosa da germaniaSi yoveli triumfaluri warmatebebis Semdeg vedekindi acxadebda: ,,mxatvruli qmnileba zogadkacobriuli ver gaxdeba, Tu igi upirvelesad erovnul niadagze
araa aRmocenebuli...
Cven gvWirdeba kulturul faseulobaTa ufro meti gacvla,
rac aaxlovebs xalxebs. Cven gvWirdeba megobroba, radgan swored megobrobaa yoveli sikeTis sawindari da am sityvebs yovelTvis SoTas genialuri aforizmiT ,,Wer nicht Freunde sucht auf
Erden, ist sich selbst der argste Feind! ,,vinc moyvaresa ar eZebs, igi
Tavisa mteria~ jer germanulad, Semdeg ki qarTulad amTavrebda~.
ocdaxuTi wlis manganmavlobaSi Zilze vedekindis xelmZRvanelobiT uamravi kulturuli RonisZieba Catarda Tbilissa, Tu
zaarbriukenSi.

semiotikis raoba xelovnebaSi

283

1990 wels operis TeatrSi sazeimod aRiniSna herman vedekindis 80 wlisTavi. bavSviviT uxaroda, roca gadaWedil darbazs scenidan gadahyurebda.
madlianma saqarTvelom mas Tbilisis, Telavis, quTaisis da
bolos saqarTvelos sapatio moqalaqis wodeba uboZa, riTic
Zlier amayobda.
,,yvelaferi an araferi, xelovnebis gziT xalxebs Soris xidebia gadebuli~, amas fiqrobda hermani, amas axorcielebda
cxovrebaSic~(Jur.,,xelovneba~ 1998:98).
germaniaSi Catarebuli qarTuli kulturis dReebze vedekindma pirvelma aCvena da moasmenina evropas ansambli ,,rusTavi~ da
rusTavelis Teatri. kulturis dReebi ,,yvelaze metad qarTvel
emigrantebs gaexardaT, sul tirodnen da yvelafers magnitofonze iwerdnen. Camovidnen germaniidan, safrangeTidan, belgiidan,
TurqeTidan~(Jur.,,xelovneba~ 1998:105).
emigrant nikoloz janeliZisaTvisac es iyo bednierebis warmtaci wuTebi. man ramdenjerme mimarTa werilobiT germaniis televizias, raTa gaemeorebiaT qarTuli kulturis kvireulis
programa.
igi cocxlobda saqarTveloTi da saqarTvelosTvis.
did erovnul saqmianobaSi CarTuli nikoloz janeliZe saqarTvelos siyvaruls aswavlida germanelebs, swored iseT siyvaruls, germanel mwerals artur laists rom hqonda didi
iliasa da XIX saukunis gamoCenil mamuliSvilTa mimarT. mis
moRvaweobas germaniaSi mxolod qarTuli kulturis popularizacia aZlevda mizansa da Sinaarss.
n. janeliZis pirveli germanulad Targmnili wigni ,,nino
mociquli~ 1961 wels daibeWda kita Cxenkelis gamomcemloba
,,amiranSi.~ wignis anotaciiT irkveva, rom mas germanulad gadmoTargmnaSi exmareboda cnobili qarTveli mecnieri, profesori miqel TarxniSvili. n. janeliZem wigni Rirseul Tanamemamules,
omis dros da Semdgom mis mfarvelsa da maswavlebels, miqel
TarxniSvils miuZRvna.
nikoliz janeliZem itcehoeSi daarsa gamomcemloba ,,saqarTvelo~, sadac 1970 wels dabeWda germanulad Targmnili wigni
,,qarTuli samzareulo~. wignSi 333 recepti iyo mocemuli.
aqve, 1974 wels, germanul enaze gamoca man ,,qarTuli zRaprebi~. krebulSi 29 qarTuli zRapari gaxldaT warmodgenili.
qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebis gverdiT wignSi Setanili iyo akaki

284

mariam marjaniSvili

wereTlis ,,ymawvili da pepela~ da otia ioselianis ,,daCis


zRaprebi~. wignis mxatvroba qarTuli motivebis mixedviT da garekani ekuTvnoda iohanes klotcs, romelsac gotfrid dirsenis
bolosityvaoba erTvoda.
1976 wels aseve gamomcemloba ,,saqarTveloSi~ germanul
enaze daibeWda qarTuli patara moTxrobebi: vaJa-fSavelas
,,Svlis nukris naambobi~ _ Targmani lucia qurdianisa. ilia
WavWavaZe - nawyveti ,,glaxis naambobidan~ ,,monadire~ da ,,buneba~
- Targmnili lili pape-gegelaSvilisa da nikoloz janeliZis
mier.
1983 wels kvlav itcehoes gamomcemloba ,,saqarTveloSi~,
germanul enaze gamoica ,,deda ena~, romelic iakob gogebaSvilis
mixedviT iyo Sedgenili da qarTuli enis Semswavlel studentTaTvis gamiznuli. mis SedgenaSi n.janeliZesTan erTad monawileobdnen kilis universitetidan ulrik iungi da hans hainrih
nimani.
1984 wels ki gamomcemloba ,,saqarTveloSi daibeWda ,,vefxistyaosnis~ Semoklebuli germanuli prozauli Txroba, romelic aw gansvenebul lili pape-gegelaSvilTan erTad SeTanxmebuli hqonda aseTi saTauriT: - ,,Altgeorgisches epos der Recke im Tigerfell von Schota Rustaveli.
nikoloz janeliZis literaturuli moRvaweobis nusxaSi
Sedis aseve ,,germanul-qarTuli sasaubro~. misive mxardaWeriTa
da daxmarebiT ,,germanul-qarTuli~ da ,,qarTul-germanuli~ sasaubro gamosca misma studentma v.langem.
vedekindis msgavsad nikoloz janeliZesac daufasda SemoqmedebiTi saqmianoba germaniaSi. misi dauRalavi Rvawli ,,ori qveynis megobrobis saqmeSi Setanili didi wvlilisaTvis~ 1983
wels albert Svaiceris saxelobis mSvidobis medliT aRiniSna.
igi iyo pirveli qarTveli, romelmac didi mecnieris, Svaiceris premia miiRo. itcehoeSi Cavida romis papis warmomadgeneli, romelmac jildo piradad gadasca da miuloca.
ori eris kulturis msaxuris herman vedekindisa da nikoloz janeliZis survili axda: ,,Cven CavrgeT megobrobis xe, romelmac didebuli nayofi gamoiRo. Cvenma Svilebma erTad unda
imReron~.
amrigad, zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba Tamamad ganvacxadoT, rom xelovneba aris adamianTa gaerTianebis erT-erTi
saSualeba. misi saerTo maxasiaTebeli niSan-Tvisebebia: ,,xelovne-

semiotikis raoba xelovnebaSi

285

bas ara aqvs sazRvari~... ,,xelovnebis gziT xalxebs Soris xidebia gadebuli~... xelovneba arasodes ar stovebs adamians, yovelTvis pasuxobs mis moTxovnebsa Tu idealebs, ibadeba adamianTan
da viTardeba mis istoriul cxovrebasTan erTad.
literatura:
amaSukeli 1998: amaSukeli n. herman vedekindis cxovreba da
moRvaweoba: Jurnali ,,xelovneba~, N3-4. Tb.
gelovani 1977 (seqtemberi): gelovani a.,,qarTuli zRapari hailigenStedtenSi.~ ,,samSoblo~.Tb.
gelovani 1982 (seqtemberi 13): gelovani a. ,,saqarTveloSi stumari RvTisaa.~ ,,Tbilisi~.Tb.
WavWavaZe1987: WavWavaZe i. ,,mogonebebi gardasul dReTa~. Tb.
janeliZe1993: janeliZe n. piradi werilebi. itcehoe.
herman vedekindis piradi nivTebi - qim. 10063/F763
Eine zauberhaft Marchenstunde gab es im katholischen Kindergarten
am Coriansberg. Itzehoe. (1984, Februar 29)

Mariam Marjanishvili
Doctor of Philology,
Scientific worker at Kutaisi
State Historical Museum
The essence of semiotics
Each persons step is a history which continues its life even after
their death and lasts according to how well they served the needs of their
country.
In promoting cultural relationships between the two nations,a great
contribution was made by a great German film director Hermann
Wedekind and a Georgian emigrant NikolozJanelidze (Janesi).
For 25 years, Hermann Wedekind staged Georgian, German and
world literary masterpieces both in Georgia and Germany. Saarbrcken
and Tbilisi were twinned with his initiative. He became an honorary
citizen of our country for his invaluable contribution for Georgia.
Wedekind was deeply in love with Georgia. In a small town of
Itzehoe, he met NikolozJanelidze, who had been living and working in

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mariam marjaniSvili

Western Germany for almost half a century after being taken hostage in
1942.
In Ikzehoe, he founded the publishing house Sakartvelo where he
regularly published German translations of the best works of Georgian
writing.
The first book translated into German was Die Apostolin Nino
which was published in 1961. In 1970, Sakartvelo published The
Georgian Cuisine, translated by LiliPapegegelashvili, Ulrich Papes and
Nikoloz-Janezi.
His creative list includes: the German translation of Georgian
Tales published in Sakartvelo in 1974, Georgian short stories: VazhaPshavelas The story of the roebuck, Nature, passages from Ilia
Chavchavadzes The hermit, The Hunter published in 1976; in 1983
DedaEna and in 1984 a short prosaic version of The Knight in the
Panthers Skin in German and other.
He was the first Georgian whose great contribution was awarded a
medal of Albert Schweizer in 1983.
We can certainly say that NikolozJanelidze belonged to the group of
Georgian creative people who devoted their lives and creative work to
their nation.
The creative work of these two men proves that art has no limits, it
belongs to everybody.

TinaTin maWaraSvili

foto, araverbaluri
mediakodi, Tanamedrove
qarTul beWdviT mediaSi
2012-2014 wlebis
gamocdileba
Tanamedrove teqnologiebis ganviTarebam warmoSva vizualuri kulturis
epoqa, romelSic verbalur informaciaze
didi mniSvneloba vizualur informacias
eniWeba. es ukanaskneli aqtiurad ipyrobs beWdviT medias. foto informaciis vizualizebis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani saxea, amitom moikida ase myarad fexi JurnalistikaSi da calke mimdinareobadac fotoJurnalistikad Camoyalibda. swored amitom SevaCereT Cveni arCevani fotos, rogorc araverbaluri mediakodis Seswavlaze, rac semiotikur analizze dayrdnobiT, kerZod ki,
frangi semiologis r. bartis mier Camoyalibebuli konotaciebis eqvsi xerxis
mixedviT warvmarTeT.
r. bartma fotos mniSvnelobis detaluri analizis mizniT Camoayaliba eqvsi xerxi, romelTa meSveobiTac xdeba
konotaciebis warmoSoba. TiToeuli xerxis ganxilvamde unda aRiniSnos, rom
pirveli sami xerxiT kodirebuli fotoebi ZiriTadad axlavs axal ambebs (niu-

288

TinaTin maWaraSvili

sebs), xolo momdevno sami xerxi ufro sareklamo xasiaTisaa.


pirveli konotaciuri xerxi gaxlavT xrikebis efeqti
(trick effects), rac gulisxmobs fotos specifikur gardaqmnas
konkretuli miTuri mniSvnelobis formirebis mizniT. magaliTad,
fotoze aRbeWdili pirovnebis saxis gamometyvelebis Secvla imgvarad, rom mas damnaSvis saSiSi ieri mieces. msgavs meTods mimarTaven sensaciuri danaSaulis amsaxveli axali ambebis gasaformeblad. am dros xrikebis efeqti ereva denotaciis funqciebSi, apelirebs mkiTxvelis rwmenaze, rom foto arsebuli realobis anabeWdia da gamosaxulebas sasurveli konotaciebiT
tvirTavs, axdens ra mis kodirebas romelime konkretuli niSniT.
konotaciebis Sesaqmneli meore xerxi iyenebs pozas. fotoze gamosaxuli adamianis fizikuri mdgomareoba xSirad zegavlenas axdens suraTis aRqmaze da aRZravs pirovnebasTan dakavSirebul miTs. mkiTxvelisTvis Jestebi, poza da saxis gamometyveleba mravlismetyvelia, radgan isini miekuTvnebian im kodebs,
romlebic damkvidrebuli da aRiarebulia romelime konkretuli
eris kulturaSi. suraTSi, konotirebuli mniSvnelobebi xels
uwyobs teqstSi nagulisxmevi konotaciebis gamyarebas. specialurad SerCeul pozaSi pirovnebis gadaReba ara marto imas aRniSnavs, rogori denotaciis matarebeli iqneba es foto gazeTSi
gamoqveynebisas, aramed migvaniSnebs Tu romeli kulturuli kodebi SeirCa fotosuraTSi konotirebuli mniSvnelobebis kodirebisas.
mesame xerxi gaxlavT fotokolaJi, romelic mimarTavs
fotoSi konkretuli obieqtebis denotacias, romlebic ukve
floben garkveul kulturul konotaciebs, rac saSualebas iZleva, obieqtTan dakavSirebuli konotaciebi niusis Sinaarszec
gaavrcelon.
meoTxe fotogeniurobaa. denotirebulia gadaRebis maRali
xarisxi, an fotoze pirovnebis saukeTeso saxiT warmoCena. am
xerxes ZiriTadad portretis profilis gasaformeblad mimarTaven.
mexuTe gaxlavT esTetiuroba, rodesac fotoebi xelovnebis sxva dargis kodur elementebs iyeneben da amiT suraTs aniWeben esTetur an artistul mniSvnelobas. esTetikur kodebs
axali ambebis gasaformeblad iSviaTad iyeneben, radgan isini ewinaaRmdegebian obieqturibas.

foto, araverbalri mediakodi, Tanamedrove qarTul


beWdviT mediaSi 2012-2014 wlebis gamocdileba

289

bolos r. barti ganixilavs sintaqss, konotaciis xerxs,


romelic gulisxmobs ramdenime fotos erTmaneTis gverdiT ganTavsebas msgavsad sityvebis erTobliobisa, romelic emorCileba
enis sintaqsis kanonebs. Tanmimdevruli fotoebi gvxvdeba gazeTSi maSin, roca dramatuli movlenebis amsaxvel reportaJebs aqveyneben.
amrigad, pirveli sami xerxi aRniSnavs, Tu ra aris denotirebuli fotoSi da maT konotaciebs. momdevno sami ki gulisxmobs fotos gadaRebis manerasa da mis konteqsts.
fotodatvirTva Tavisi funqciis mkiTxvelze zemoqmedebisa da meti damajereblobis SeZenis Sesrulebas miTis SeqmniT
aRwevs. miTis Sesaqmnelad ki mimarTavs r. bartis mier Camoyalibebul konotaciur eqvs xerxs. dakvirvebam cxadyo, rom Cven mier Seswavlili mediasaSualebebi bartiseul pirvel, meore da
mesame xerxs xrikebis efeqts, pozasa da fotogenurobasumravles SemTxevaSi portretisa da teqnikuri anu mediagzavnilTan konceptualurad dakavSirebuli fotos gamoyenebisas mimarTaven. Tumca, am ukanasknelis Seqmnisas aseve iyeneben fotokolaJsa da iSviaTad esTetikurobasac, rac Seexeba konotaciur meeqvse xerxs, sintaqss, mas situaciuri fotoilustraciisas vxvdebiT.
Cven mier Seswavlili oTxive gamocema feradia. ferebi zemoqmedeben recipientze rogorc mkiTxvelis yuradRebis mipyrobis TvalsazrisiT, aseve Setyobinebis dekodirebisas konotaciebis aRqmis procesSi. feri, romelic Warbobs ama Tu im JurnalgazeTis furclebze, gansazRvravs publikaciis konteqsts, rac
r. bartis mixedviT mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs miTis aRqmaSi,
amitom saWirod CavTvaleT, am kuTxiTac Segveswavla sakvlevi
masala. gamoikveTa, rom Cven mier Seswavlili oTxi gamocemidan
samis: tabula, liberali, praim taimi saxelwodeba wiTelisa da TeTris kombinaciiT aris Seqmnili.
v. kandinskis naSromis sulierebis Sesaxeb xelovnebaSi mixedviT, wiTeli amaRelveblad moqmedebs da asociaciebis mixedviT sxvadasxva sulier vibraciebs iwvevs, xolo rac Seexeba
TeTrs, is fsiqeze dumilis msgavsad moqmedebs. erTis mxriv,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRniSnuli gamocemebi wiTelisa da TeTris
kombinaciiT, mkiTxvelis interess aRviZebs da amzadebs mas amaRelvebeli, sensaciuri informaciis misaRebad. meores mxriv, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT ferTa Sexamebis lokalur kods sakvlev pe-

290

TinaTin maWaraSvili

riodTan mimarTebaSi, is sazogadoebaSi erTian nacionalur moZraobasTan asocirdeba.


rac Seexeba kviris palitras, misi saxelwodeba yviTel
fonze cisferi warweriT aris aRniSnuli. v. kandinskis mixedviT,
lurji warmoSobs ra simSvidis elements, adamians usasrulobisken mouwodebs, aRviZebs masSi amaRlebulobisaken swrafvas.
mocemul ferTa simboluri datvirTa SesaZloa, ase gadmovceT:
yviTeli foni momabezrebeli realobis simboluri saxea, aqedan
ki Tavis daRwevasa da simSvidis mopovebas cisferi SiftiT gamosaxuli kviris palitra gvpirdeba. Tumca, gazeTis mTavari
gverdis dizainis analizma gamokveTa, rom meTaur gverdze Warbobs wiTeli feri, romelic gamoiyeneba citirebisas, sakvanZo
sityvebisa da mTavari fotos gamokveTisas. es ki erTgvar paradoqss warmoSobs: cisferi feriT aRniSnuli saxelwodeba
kviris palitra, romelic siSvidis mopovebas pirdeba mkiTxvels, upirispirdeba mTavari gverdis grafikul gaformebas, romelic gamoxatulia wiTeli feriT, rac, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, mRelvarebas iwvevs Styobinebis mimRebSi.
amrigad, im ferebis analizis safuZvelze, romelic sakvlevi
gamocemebis saxelwodebis gasaformeblad gamoiyeneba, SeiZleba,
davaskvnaT, rom liberali, tabula da praim taimi mkiTxvels informacias iseTi saxiT miawvdis, rom masSi sulier
SfoTs gamoiwvevs, am kuTxiT ki kviris palitra mkiTxvelis
molodins ferebis kombinaciiT calsaxad ar gansazRvravs.
rac Seexeba sakvlevi masalis furclebze ferTa gadanawilebas, aRsanisnavia, rom oTxive gamocemaSi Warbobs wiTeli feri,
romelsac statiebis saTaurebis, citirebis, sakvanZo sityvebisa
da frazebis gamosakveTad mimarTaven.
dasasruls, fotos miTologiuri analizis sailustraciod
warmogidgenT erTi magaliTis ganxilvas. es gaxlavT vizualuri
metafora, romelsac Seswavlili Jurnal-gazeTebi teqnikuri
fotos Seqmnisas mimarTaven.
dRevandeli fotoJurnalistika sareklamo fotografiis
teqnikas sesxulobs abstraqtul ideebze damyarebuli azris
ilusrtirebisTvis, - wers k. koubre naSromSi fotoJurnalistika, profesiuli midgoma (2005, 172) da mas saredaqcio
ilustracias uwodebs, rac beWdviT mediaSi axalma tendeciam
faqtis aRweridan mis analizze gadasvlam warmoSva. Jurnalistur gamomsaxvelobaSi momxdarma cvlilebam saredaqcio koncef-

foto, araverbalri mediakodi, Tanamedrove qarTul


beWdviT mediaSi 2012-2014 wlebis gamocdileba

291

ciis ilustrirebisas ideis vizualizebisTvis vizualuri metaforebi Seqmna. vizualuri metafora gulisxmobs erTi sagnis meoreTi Secvlas, raTa aCvenos maT Soris msgavseba. magaliTad
gTavazobT, gazeT kviris palitris 2013 wlis 4-10 noembris nomerSi gamoqveynebuli fotos miTologiur analizs.
am sagazeTo Setyobinebis araverbaluri da verbaluri nawilebis urTierTmimarTeba naTeli magalTia imisa, Tu rogor zRudavs
vizualuri gamosaxulebis konotaciebis
potenciur
mozRvavebas
lingvisturi teqsti.
marTlmsajulebis
simbolo
CaquCi d mglis daJinebuli mzera
amZafrebs
wiTlad
daweril
frTxilad axalaiebo!-s. verbaluri teqstis - samegrelos samalavebSi napovnma sazarelma kadrebma ar gamoJonos(!)- mimagreba vizualur saxesTan zrudavs araverbaluri gamosaxulebis konotaciebis potenciur simravles: samalavebSi napovni sazareli
kardebi fotoze denotirebulia mglis gamosaxulebiT. sazareli mglis atributia, xolo samalavi misi samyofeli. cxvris
niRbiT gamoxatulia sazareli kadrebis damalva, rasac amyarebs mglis enis poza, romelic sicruis aRmniSvnelia. fotos
minaweri TiTo mgeliaSvili TqvenTvisac moiZebneba! mglis
gamosaxulebas mosamarTlis datvirTvas sZens. lingvisturi
gzavnili mkiTxvels exmareba gansazRvros vizualuri gamosaxulebis denotaciuri mniSvneloba.
amrigad, miTis mniSvneloba, romelsac kviris palitra
qmnis aris mcdeloba, daanaxos mkiTxvels, rom axalaiebs samalavebSi napovni sazareli kadrebi gaasamarTlebT.
kvlevam cxadyo, rom mediasaSualebebis mier informaciis sailustraciod gamoqveynebuli fotoebi Seicavs qveteqstebs, simbolizebulad gadmoscems saTqmels da amgvarad, impliciturad
gamoxatavs ara marto statiis avtoris pozicias, aramed, zogadad, saredaqcio politikas. amasTanave, unda aRiniSnos, rom gansakuTrebiT konteqstualuri da teqnikuri fotoebis analizma
gviCvena, rom verbaluri nawilis Semcireba vizualuris xarjze,

TinaTin maWaraSvili

292

araTu amcirebs da inarCunebs, piriqiT, afarToebs sainformacio


vels. masSi gadmocemuli qveteqsturi informacia ki zrdis recipientze faruli zemoqmedebis xarisxs.
literatura:
Barthes, R. (1961). Le message photographique. Communications.
kandinski, v. (2012). sulierebis Sesaxeb xelovnebaSi. Tbilisi:
ilias saxelmwifo universiteti.
koubre, k. (2005). fotoJurnalistika: profesiuli midgoma.
Tbilisi: diogene.
barti, r. (2011). miTologiebi. Tbilisi: agora
Barthes, R. (1980). La chambre claire Note sur la photographie. Paris:
Gallimard.
Tinatin Macharashvili
foto, araverbaluri mediakodi, Tanamedrove qarTul beWdviT
mediaSi -2012-2014 wlebis gamocdileba
The study refers to the semiotic analysis of newspapers photos. The
empirical basis include the Georgian press in 2012-2014, in particular,
the following newspapers: "Kviris Palitra", "Prime Time", "Tabula,
"Liberal". For the study period we choose politically active years. The
newspapers have selected by the following criteria: high-circulation and
stability of publications, extending over the entire territory;
Communication by different functions and purposes; Varying degrees of
independence; Abundance of expressive means.
The research aims to study the photos published in the modern
Georgian press according to semiotic analysis, at the same time, based on
historical, political, cultural and social contexts.
Our planned exploration work focused on finding how the media
information is illustrate by photos, how visual material is symbolized, the
illustration express or not the author's position and, in general, the
editorial policy.
We believe that the research, which is explained by the increasing
of the visual information in the press, will be considerably interesting for
the specialists.

ana WankvetaZe

koncepti `dro~ inglisuri


enis frazeologiaSi
qarTulTan SepirispirebiT
- freimi - `drois cikluri
struqturuli organizacia~
freimi - ,,drois cikluri struqturuli organizacia warmoadgens naSromis ,,koncepti ,,dro inglisuri enis
frazeologiasi qarTulTan SepirispirebiT erT nawils. naSromis mizans warmoadgens Tanamedrove inglisur da qarTul enebs Soris arsebuli msgavsebagansxvavebis gamovlena ,,drois konceptis freimuli reprezentaciis, enaSi
sakvlevi konceptis obieqtivizaciisaTvis
saWiro elementebisa da freimTa sityvareprezentaciis, enaSi sakvlevi konceptis obieqtivizaciisaTvis saWiro elelmentebisa da freimTa sityva reprezentatorebis nominaciuri velebis TaviseburebaTa identificirebis gziT.
naSromSi warmodgenilia ,,drois
fenomenis interpretaciis Tavisebureba
sxvadasxva saazrovno sivrceSi da gamovlenilia ,,drois freimuli qselis konfiguracia Tanamedrove inglisur da
qarTul enebSi.
Tanamedrove inglisur da qarTul
enebSi ,,drois konceptis enaSi obieqtivizaciis TaviseburebaTa analizis Sede-

294

ana WankvetaZe

gad gamoikveTa ,,drois freimTa qselis Semdegnairi struqtura:


,,drois xangrZlivobis freimi, ,,momentis freimi, ,,drois cikluri struqturuli organizaciis freimi, ,,drois linearuli
struqturuli organizaciis freimi.
freimis -,,drois cikluri struqturuli organizaciis
leqsikalizacia xdeba iseTi frazeologiuri erTeulebis meSveobiT, romelTac aerTianebs Semdegi saerTo semantikuri mniSvnelebi: ,,mudmivad, ,,xSirad, ,,iSviaTad, ,,zogjer, ,,yovelTvis,
,,arasdros.
aRniSnul naSromSi - ,,koncepti ,,dro inglisuri enis frazeologiaSi qarTulTan SepirispirebiT ufro farTod aris ganxiluli, rogorc es freimi, ise misi erTeulebi.
gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs am freimSi Semavali Semdegi
frazeologiuri erTeuli - To pass the camel through the eye of a
needle, romlis qarTuli Sesatyvisi aris ,,aqlemi ufro advilad gaZvreba nemsis yunwSi, vidre mdidari Seva RvTis sasufevelSi:
Then Jesus said to His disciples, Truly I tell you, it is difficult for
a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven.
Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a
needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.
When the disciples heard this they were greatly astonished and
asked, Who then can be saved? (Matthew 19:24)1
igive fraza gamoyenebulia aramarto maTes saxarebaSi, agreTve lukas saxarebasa (18:22-25) da markozis saxarebaSic (10:24).
ierusalimis Sesasvlels iseTi viwro WiSkari hqonda rom
mas uwodebdnen the eye of the needle, anu nemsis yunws. rodesac
aqlemebi datvirTuli iyo, maT uWirdaT am viwro karebSi gasvla amitomac tvirTs xsnidnen da ise gaivlidnen. religiaSi es
fraza - ,,aqlemi ufro advilad gaZvreba nemsis yunwSi, vidre
mdidari Seva RvTis sasufevelSi, aixsneba Semdgenairad - rogorc tvirTiT datvirTuli aqlemi ver Seva ierusalimSi, ise
codvebiT damZimebuli kaci ver daimkvidrebs adgils RvTis sasufevelSi. xolo ratom aqlemi da ara sxva cxoveli? - am kiTxvaze pasuxi sakmaod martivia. palestinaSi yvelaze didi cxoveli
swored aqlemia.

http://biblehub.com/matthew/19-24.htm

koncepti `dro~ inglisuri enis frazeologiaSi qarTulTan SepirispirebiT


freimi `drois cikluri struqturuli organizacia~

295

frazeologiuri erTeuli - Jam tomorrow, romelic niSnavs ,,tkbili dapireba, misTvis qarTuli analogis moZieba gagviWirda. pirvelad es fraza gamoCnda luis kerolis (1871)
Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There:
I'm sure I'll take you with pleasure!' the Queen said. 'Two pence
a week, and jam every other day.'Alice couldn't help laughing, as she
said, 'I don't want you to hire ME - and I don't care for jam.''It's very
good jam,' said the Queen.'Well, I don't want any TO-DAY, at any
rate.''You couldn't have it if you DID want it,' the Queen said. 'The
rule is, jam to-morrow and jam yesterday - but never jam to-day. 2
alisas wignebis popularobis Semdeg, me-20 saukuneSi es
frazac sxva frazebTan erTad damkvidrda saliteraturo enaSi.
socialistebi xSirad gamoiyenebdnen am frazas kapitalistebis
masxrad asagdebad, TiTqos isini xalxs tyuil dapirebebs aZleven. 1969 wels, leiboristma politikosma toni benma ganacxada
- "Some of the jam we thought was for tomorrow, we've already
eaten." 3
frazeologiuri
erTeulis Tomorrow never comes
Ziebisas gadavawydiT mahaTma gandis sityvebs, romelic zustad asaxavs am frazeologiuri erTeulis
mniSvnelobas: ,,xvalindeli dRe arasdros dadgeba, xolo guSindeli dRe ukve warsulia.4
kidev erTi frazeologiuri erTeuli aris from time to
time, romlis qarTuli Sesatyvisi aris ,,drodadro.
In the pools of sky, between broken clouds, a few stars
shone, and half of a thin moon was seen f r o m t i m e t o t i m e, like
the fragment of a silver horn held up there in an invisible hand,
waiting to be blown (John Galsworthy Another Sheaf - The Road). 5
,,cecxlis irgvlis rokavda gaZvaltyavebuli, didmucliani dedaberi da meCxeri, gazintluli Tma ewebeboda, robic mouxeSavi xtunviT dasdevda, sanaxevrod frTagaSlili. drodadro
SeCerdeboda, zemoT aiRebda Tavs, ganze iyureboda, Tvalebabrialebuli, da xeebSua gaasxletili ali zRvazedac mzimed iweleboda (guram doCanaSvili, ,,Tavfaravneli Wabuki, Tavi 4).

https://birrell.org/andrew/alice/lGlass.pdf
http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/jam-tomorrow.html
4
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/mahatma_gandhi.html
5
http://www.online-literature.com/john-galsworthy/another-sheaf/1/
3

296

ana WankvetaZe

Semdegi frazeologiuri erTeulebi orive ukavSirdeba mTvares da SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom sakvlevi enebisaTvis universaluri mTvaris xati. frazeologiuri erTeulis - Once in a blue
moon qarTuli Sesatyvisi aris ,,axal mTvaresaviT gamoCena.
rogorc inglisur, ise qarTul enebSi frazeologizmi gamoiyeneba im movlenebis aRsaniSnavad, romelic Zalian iSviTad xdeba.
xolo, rac Seexeba frazeoliur erTeulebs - a blue moon
da the moon is made of green cheese (pirdapiri Targmani - ,,mTavre mwvane yvelisgan aris damzadebuli) gamosaxavs absurds,
ararealur faqts. es frazebi jer kidev Sua saukuneebSi gamoiyena uiliam barloum (1528) Tavis nawarmoebSi - Treatyse of the
Buryall of the Masse.
1819 wels robinson danielma Tavis wignSi The Maine
Farmers' Almanac CamoTvala lurji mTvaris TariRebi. almanaxis
Semdgenlebs Tavisi ganmarteba gaaCndaT, Tu ra aris lurji
mTvare. gamomdinare iqidan, rom mTvaris da kalendaruli Tveebi
ar aris erTi da igive da rom zogierT wlebs aqvT 13 sruli
mTvare, tipiuri Tormet mTvarian weliwadSi TiToeul mTvares
Tavisi saxeli gaaCnia. magaliTad, Harvest Moon (mosavlis aRebis mTvare), Hunter's Moon (nadirobis mTvare) da a.S. camet
mTvariani wlis zedmeti mTvaris periods ki ewodeba -Blue
Moon. jeims prustma waikiTxa es gamocema, magram arasworad
ganmarta sistema da 1946 wlis gamocemaSi dabeWda ,,TveSi meore
sruli mTvaris versia. 6
mTvaresTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs sxva mosazrebac, rom es
gamoTqma momdinareobs mTvaris metaforuli gamoxatvidan, rom
is TiTqos hgavs yvels. am mosazrebis fesvebi momdinareobs fabulidan, rom TiTqosda meamiti adamiani, vinc wyalSi Caixedavs
da mTvares dainaxavs mas miamgvanebs yvels. es Tanamedrove samyaroSic ki sakmaod gavrcelebuli azria, folkloris motivebze
dafuZnebuli. xolo ratom mwvane feri da ara sxva feri, es ubralod axali yvelis feris gamoxatvis formaa. aqve aRvniSnavdiT, rom kosmosidan gadaRebul suraTSi mTvares swored rom

http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/once-in-a-blue-moon.html

koncepti `dro~ inglisuri enis frazeologiaSi qarTulTan SepirispirebiT


freimi `drois cikluri struqturuli organizacia~

aseTi forma aqvs, Zalian hgavs yvels.

297

frazeologiuri erTeuli pigs might fly aris iumoristuli an sarkastuli fraza. misi qarTuli Sesatyvisi aris ,,roca
viri xeze ava.
adreuli Canaweri am frazisa aris Carlz vaiThedis mier
(1835), rodesac Tavis nawarmoebSi ,,jek keTCis avtobiografia
wers: Yes, pigs may fly, but theyre very unlikely birds. mogvianebiT
es fraza gamoCnda 1855 wels gazeT - Illustrated Times: pigs
might fly. An elephant, too, might dance on the tight-rope . 1865
wels ki luis kerolis wignSi ,,alias saocrebaTa qveyanaSi
gvxvdeba: - : Ive a right to think,
said Alice sharply Just about as much right, said the Duchess, as
pigs have to fly.8
saintereso faqti moxda 1909 wels, rodesac baron brazonma, xumaram, aiyvana goWi Tavis biplanze, romelic TasmebiT damagrebuli hyavda qaRaldis urnaze. urnaze ki
iyo warwera: ,,me pirveli goWi viqnebi, vinc gafrindeba.
kvlevis Sedegad SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom sakvlevs
enebsa da kulturebs Soris
arsebuli msgavseba fiqsirdeba konceptualuri analizis freimuli modelirebis Sedegad

https://lightsinthedark.com/2015/11/23/why-do-people-say-the-moon-ismade-of-green-cheese/
8
http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/pigs-might-fly.html

ana WankvetaZe

298

miRebul monacemTa doneze, analizis centrirebulobas anTropocentrizmze da ara eTnocentrizmze.


sakvlev enebsa da kulturebs Soris sxvaoba ki fiqsirdeba
semantikuri analizis Sedegad miRebul monacemTa doneze, rac
adasturebs semantikuri analizisa da eqsplonatoruli principis informatiulobas eris msoflgancdis specifikis kvlevisaTvis universaluri kategoriebis SemTxvevaSic ki.
da bolos, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom frazeologia sakmaod saintereso sferos warmoadgens da frazeologiuri erTeulebis
kvleva kidev ufro didi siamovneba, vidre es erTi SexedviT
Cans.
literatura:
biblia http://biblehub.com/matthew/19-24.htm
inglisuri literaturis saiti http://www.onlineliterature.com/john-galsworthy/another-sheaf/1/
inglisuri frazebis ganmartebis saiti
http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/jam-tomorrow.html
inglisuri frazebis ganmartebis saiti
http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/once-in-a-blue-moon.html
inglisuri frazebis ganmartebis saiti
http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/pigs-might-fly.html
keroli 1871 https://birrell.org/andrew/alice/lGlass.pdf
WankvetaZe 2016: ana WankvetaZe, disertacia - ,,koncepti dro
qarTuli enis frazeologiaSi qarTulTan SepirispirebiT
http://doc.atsu.edu.ge/geo/sadoqtoro%20disertacia/diseratcia_chan
kvetadze.pdf
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/mahatma_gandhi.html
https://lightsinthedark.com/2015/11/23/why-do-people-say-the-moon-ismade-of-green-cheese/
Anna Chankvetadze
The paper deals with the framework of concept time and particularly
frame - Cyclic structural organization of time in modern Georgian
and English language phraseology
Lexicalization of the frame happens with such kind of phraseological units, which brings together the following common semantic

koncepti `dro~ inglisuri enis frazeologiaSi qarTulTan SepirispirebiT


freimi `drois cikluri struqturuli organizacia~

299

denominators:Forever, Often, Seldom, Sometimes, Always,


Never. The paper presents some pharseologica units, translates them,
discusses its roots, compares in both languages and makes some
conclusions.
The novelty of this papers is identification similarities and differences in modern English and Georgian languages, from Anthropocentrism,
namely, lingo-cognitive and lingo-cultural perspectives of the concept
time.
The author concludes that similarities between study languages and
its cultures is emphasized by conceptual analysis, on the data level
derived from frames modeling, which confirms conceptual analysis
centralization on Antropotsentrizm not on Ethnotsentrizm in the terms of
universal categories; as for the differences between study languages and
its cultures is emphasized by semantic analysis on the data level derived
from the semantic analysis, which confirms informative nature of
semantic analysis and explores principle for the study of specific
character of the nations disposition; even for the universal categories.

maia jaliaSvili

samyaros dabadeba leqsis


sulidan (niko samadaSvilis poezia)
niko samadaSvilis poeturi azrovnebis drosivrculi areali samyaros pirvelsawyisebs swvdeba da warmoaCens, rogor ibadeba qaosidan kosmosi, rogorc
mxatvrul saxeTa sistema: sadRac mnaTe
zecis TaRs reks, wuTisoflis karga gaRmiT,/ qaosebi gzebs kenkaven, ase xdeba yovel RamiT. mas aqvs kosmiuri smena da
ynosva, amitomac SeigrZnobs planetarul
musikas, romelic uSoresi sivrceebidan
moesmis da sicocxlisa da sikvdilis,
siyvarulisa da siZulvilis, sikeTisa da
borotebis Widilis qariSxlian da sastik brZolas swored am egzistencialuri sakiTxebis WrilSi xatavs:
zeca sivrceebs azanzarebda/ da mze
yviroda qveynis bolodan.
misi leqsebis striqonebidan, ucnauri da idumali energiiT damuxtuli,
Tavbrudamxvevi mxatvruli saxeebidan,
warmosaxvis uxilavi ganzomilebidan samyaro TiTqos axlidan ibadeba, gamoarRvevs usaxelobisa da uarsobis sibneles
da sinaTliT ivseba:
warmarTTa Zvlebze idga taZari,/zeviT legenda mihqondaT mTiebs,
Zirs wminda ninos nafexurebi/ hgavdnen sisxamze mokrefil iebs.

samyaros dabadeba leqsis sulidan

301

samadaSvilis yoveli leqsi misi sulieri apokalifsia, _


sakuTar TavTan Widilsa da mis meurve uaryofili qveynebis winaSe pirispir dgomis dokumenti. pirquS xilvebTan erTad masSi
aRnusxulia misi Sinagani cxovrebis bevri naTeli wami,_wers
zurab kiknaZe (kiknaZe 2010). niko samadaSvilis metaforebis TvalismomWrel sinaTleSi mkiTxveli SeigrZnobs RvTis mzerasac da
wuTisoflis amaoeba, yoveldRiuri wvrilmanebiT gaTanguli adamianuri yofa, Tanamedrove civilizaciis sulieri krizisi, umiznobis, uimedobisa jojoxeTuri qaosi poeziiT daiZleva:
mze gadioda cas boraniviT,/ tyeSi SiSveli qari kioda,
leqss iZaxoda xidan yorani,/ qriste moCanda saiqiodan.
revaz siraZe erT werilSi, niko samadaSvils rom eZRvneba,
svams kiTxvas: aris ki saerTod Rirsi poeziisa adamiani? da
ase upasuxebs: Tu yovlismomcvelia is daskvna, rom _ am dasaqcev dedamiwaze bednierebac dasagmobia (aqerclili miniaturebi), da Tu mainc mieswrafvis pirovneba poezias, es imitom,
rom poezia arCevani ki ar aris, poezia bedisweraa. aq mainc aris
raRac wesrigi, Tundac efemeruli, magram amasac afermkrTalebs
qaosi... roca verafriT ver daiZleva qaosi, is SeiZleba poeziam
daZlios (siraZe 2006: 8).
niko samadaSvilis uCveulo da ucnauri mxatvruli saxeebi
iwveven mkiTxvelis sulier SeZvras. rogorc zurab kiknaZe wers:
igi TiTqos sxeulis forebidan denida gareT saTqmels, aucilebels da es iyo misi erTaderTi nugeSi, sulis daameba, gulze
momSvebi kaTarzisi am ezoterul saidumloebas Semoqmedebisas
Tavad amxels igi sakuTari Tavisadmi mimarTul leqsSi (niko
samadaSvils): avadmyofoba egonaT, biWo,/ leqsebi, tanze gamonayari (kiknaZe 2010).
amas kargad grZnobdnen misi poeziis damfaseblebi: erekle
tatiSvili, galaktion tabiZe, geronti qiqoZe, vaxtang kotetiSvili. swored maTi Sefasebebi iyo mZlavri stimuli imisa, rom
ewera, Tundac verasodes dabeWdiliyo. sabWoTa epoqaSi misi leqsebi verc gamoicemoda, radgan aSkara iqneboda avtoris protesti
da im mxatvruli enis miuRebloba, romelsac ideologia ara mxolod karnaxobda, aramed ubrZanebda, rom gamoeyenebina. Tamaz Cxenkelis azriT, mis mimarT de-kuinsis sityvebi iqneboda zedgamoWrili: amrigad, man ixila sagnebi, romelTa xilva ara xams. man
ixila gulisamrevi, amazrzeni sanaxaoba da eniT uTqmeli saidum-

302

maia jaliaSvili

loeba. man waikiTxa uZvelesi WeSmaritebebi, damaRonebeli WeSmaritebebi, diadi da Semzaravi WeSmaritebebi (Cxenkeli 2010).
niko samadaSvili TiTqos axlidan arqmevs saxelebs sagnebsa
da movlenebs, romlebsac wyvdiads gamostacebs, ganwmends da
gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebiT avsebs: dedamiwa ukuneTis qarafebis win injRreoda. xufayrili vulkanebi yvirodnen. usazRvroebis gauval xriokebSi eldanacemi planetebi bRaodnen. is TiTqos aTavisuflebs sxvadasxva CarCosa da sazRvarSi moqceulsa
da datyvevebul adamianis suls da RvTaebriv kanonebs aziarebs.
amitomac wers revaz siraZe: iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom
niko samadaSvilis poeturi saxeldebani sagnebisa da xdomilebisa, sityvaTa meoradi modelireba ki araa, aramed maTi pirvelyofili, adamuri gancdaa. sityvebi kargaven metaforulobas da
mistikur saxeldebad iqcevian (siraZe 2006: 11). mis poeziaSi
modelirebuli samyaro gascdeba racionaluri aRqmis sazRvrebs
da mistikuri SegrZnebebiT itvirTeba. mkiTxveli grZnobs, rogor
SemoiWreba warmosaxvaSi sizmrisa da xilvis darad ucnauri,
ucxo sanaxebi da logosis ZaliT lazaresaviT aRdgeba sityvis
dafaruli Sinaarsebi. poeti varskvlavTa kiafSi xedavs miRma
samyarosken gamaval gzebs:
da kiafobdnen Sors varskvlavebi _ maradisobis WuWrutanebi.

misi poeziis nicSeanuri motivebi, romlebic, erTi mxriv, absurduli yofis amaoebas, adamianis RvTisgan mitovebulobas gamoxataven, (quCebSi marto da gacrecili,/ gzebgadamcdari nicSe
bRaoda, bnel geTsimanis baRSi didxans trubadurobdi, RmerTebis jogi golgoTaze gelandeboda, daswyevlos Wirma, raRa nislebs daumegobrdi!), meore mxriv, sadRac, qaosis miRma arsebuli
kosmosis povnis imedsac aRZraven. mis poeziaSi ixateba warmarTuli, miTebisa da legendebis ucnobi samyaro, saidanac gamoikveTeba
qristes naTeli saxe, rogorc xsnis gza: miwa gairRva, TiTqos
qvesknelma amoisrola taZris gumbaTi, saukuneebs macxovari gahyveba mexred, saukuneebs _ dasabami rom moaZova. misTvisac, rogorc nicSesTvis, samyaros arseboba gamarTlebulia mxolod rogorc esTetikuri fenomenisa (nicSe 2016: 39). Tamaz Cxenkeli
wers: misi poeziis formismieri masala an garexedi fesveulad
erovnulia (eTnikuric ki) umcires detalebamde da igi saTaves
xalxuri azrovnebis wiaRidan iRebs, romelSic organulad iyo
Serwymuli warmarTuli kosmizmis warmodgenebi da qristianuli
dResaswaulebisa da zne-Cveulebebis paTetikuri silamaze, xolo

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Sinaarsi universaluri, amave dros, uaRresad Tanadroulia da


zogad xazebSi dasavleTis axal poezias enaTesaveba.
poezia simindis qoCoCi rodia. is gulamoskvnili simRera
aris, is xelovnebis ciskris cimcimze da maradisobis atexil
zarebis hangebze rokavs, poeti qariviT amovardeba, rom samyaros
nislmodebuli kalTebi SeaSrialos; Tu ginda dausabamobis kideebamde gaubi yore, is Tavis swrafvas rodi Seicvlis, is qnaris
simebs agiwkrialebs, Tu gaqvavia, _ wers niko samadaSvili novelaSi qaragma. amgvarad, poezia aTavisuflebs adamians sxeulebrivi, materialuri samyaros tyveobidan, CarCoebs amsxvrevs
da suls ukidegano sivrceebSi amogzaurebs. mkiTxvels poezia
aviTarebs unars, poetTan erTad SeigrZnos arsebobis idumali
sazrisi da astralur ganzomilebaSi SeRwevis gancda. niko samadaSvilis poeziaSi erTmaneTs erwymis dionisuri da apolonuri
sawyisebi da uCveulo emociiT imuxteba striqonebi. dionisuria
cxovreba, romelic SemTxveviTobaTa dausrulebel TamaSze, erTgvar karnavalur struqturazea agebuli. misTvisac, rogorc
galaktionisTvis, maxlobelia gancda, igi trialebs viT Tvali
qoris, es saukune _ mefistofeli. misTvisac dro demonizebulia, rogorc galaktionsa da bodlerTan, dro anadgurebs yovelive Zvirfassa da sanukvars. am SemTxvevaSi, vgulisxmobT rogorc egzistencialur dros (albaT avdrebic Tan waiReben /saukuneTa xSir kenweroebs), romelic gulgrilad miedineba, aseve
poetis sakuTar dros, romelic am saerTo mdinarebas erTvis,
magram poeti warmosaxviTi samyaros SeqmniT cdilobs, Tavisi
dro poeziiT gaaukvdavos: SeaReb karebs, dagaviwydebi /da Jruanteli bolos momiRebs (agaraki).
niko samadaSvilis leqsebis kiTxvisas Cndeba aseTi fiqri:
miwa kargavs naTel-mirons da camde aRwevs urwmunoeba. amitom
haeri unda aRivsos angelozebiT, rogorc es siqstis madonas
haerovan fonSia da suli unda aRivsos warmodgenebiT, romlebic
ganimsWvaleba sulieri saqarTvelos saxeebiT, rogoricaa, Tundac, mcxeTis-jvris karibWis bareliefi, sadac frTosan angelosebs zecad miaqvT tolferda jvari, Casmuli maradisobis wreSi.
vfiqrobT, aseTi warmodgenebi xdeboda wyaro niko samadaSvilis
saxismetyvelebisa: qarebi mTvares asweven maRla (qedi sivrceSi) (siraZe 2006: 4).
mis poeziaSi drois winaaRmdeg amboxi gulisxmobs ara mxolod ukvdavebis wyurvils, aramed im konkretuli epoqis gada-

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maia jaliaSvili

laxvasac, romelic totalitarizmis niSniT iyo aRbeWdili. diqtatura harmoniis mesaflavea, is aris demonuri, qaoturi Zala,
romelsac niko samadaSvili qristianuli religiis rwmeniT upirispirdeboda, qriste, RvTismSobeli Tu angelozebi mis poetur
xilvaSi imgvarad ganicdebian, TiTqos maT Soris cxovrobdes. es
mkiTxvelsa amgvarsave gancdas uCens:
viT ukvdaveba, wyaro ankara,/aciskrovnebda irmebis ferdobs.
qristem bavSvoba aq gaatara/da RvTismSobeli ugvida ezos
(atenis sioni).

Sopenhaueris azriT, musika sagnebis sulis mxilebaa da maTi uSualo eqspresia (tatiSvili 1993: 7). am eqspresias SeigrZnobs niko sadaSvili da uCveulo mxatvruli saxeebiT gadmoscems. is aRmerTebda Tavis moZRvars, erekle tatiSvils, romelTanac grZnobda sulier naTesaobas. leqsSi misi portretis xatvisas Tavissave Sinagan samyarosac gamokveTs: qveynierebas ucqerodi aTasnairad,/warmarT Tvalebze qristes wyevla gqonda akruli. bnel geTsimanis baRSi didxans trubadurobdi,/ RmerTebis jogi golgoTaze gelandeboda. niko samadaSvilisTvis erekle tatiSvili mouxelTebeli da sizmareuli arsebasaviT iyo:
agekviate, neta ra Wirad?/Sen ras agwerda rembrantis funji./
am dros xelebSi gveli giWiravs,/da Tvalebidan mosCans faskunji (sizmrebis naRverdali). erekle tativili misTvis iyo
uZveles xeTelTa TanamedroveobaSi Semoxetebuli aCrdili:
roca gvxvdebodi, Cems sagonebels,/ vfiqrobdi, vumzer SublmaRal xeTebs.
Sen rom waxvedi, ase mgonia,/mTeli qveyana Tan gaixvete
(erekles).
rogorc vergiliusi miuZRoda dantes jojoxeTis sanaxebis
mosaxilvelad, aseT megzurad iqca igi niko samadaSvilisTvis
cxovrebis jojoxeTSi. mis mier naTrgmnma nicSes ese ityoda
zaratustram didi sulieri sazrdo misca poets, amitomacaa,
rom am wignis gamoZaxili SeigrZnoba mis poeziaSi. roca 10
wlis mTaSi gandegilobis Semdeg barSi daSvebuli zaratustra
moxuc gandegils naxavs da gaesaubreba, masTan ganSorebis Semdeg
ityvis: am moxuc wmindans RmerTis sikvdili jer ar smenia.
niko samadaSvilis poezis lirikul gmirs ki smenia RmerTis
gardacvalebis ambavi da amis gamo glovas Sesdgomia. mas Tvali
miupyria samyarosTvis da iq sxva RmerTebis Zebnas Sesdgomia am

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gancdis amsaxvelia striqonebi: usinanulod vtovebdiT taZars/


ukanaskneli qristianebi.
zaratustra qalaqis moedanze Seyril xalxs eubneba: gaswavliT zekacs. adamiani raobaa, romlis Zleva hxams. amjobinebT kvlav cxovelebad ukuiqceodeT, vidre sZlevdeT adamiansa? ganvleT gza matliT adamianamde da bevri ram aris TqvenSi
matluri (// matl var da ara kac (fsalmuni). odesRac maimunebi iyaviT da axlac adamiani ufro maimunia, vidre TviT maimuni. odesRac RvTis gmoba udidesi gineba iyo, xolo RmerTi
mokvda da masTan erTad misi maginebelnic. adamiani Tokia cxovelsa da zekacs Soris - Toki ufskruls zeda, nicSes azriT,
adamiani gardamavlobaa. qaosis gancda orgvari SeiZleba iyos. garegani samyaros usamarTlobiT, borotebiT, simaxinjiT, amaoebiTa
da aTasgvari ubedurebiT aRZruli da Sinagani _ umiznobiT, gaurkvevlobiT, urwmunoebiT, arCevnis SeuZleblobiT, yoymaniT,
gonebrivi uZlurebisa da usiyvarulobiT warmoSobili. niko samadaSvilis poeziis lirikuli gmiri orives mZafrad ganicdis.
mas erdroulad uyvars da sZags kidevac miwa, materialuri,
xrwnadi. qristes rwmenas drodadro moaqvs Sinagani simSvidis
gancda, romelic garesamyarosac awesrigebs, magram es didxans
ar grZeldeba. fiqrTa nakadebi qariSxlebad iqcevian da harmonias kvlav qaosad aqceven. maSin ibadeba swored aseTi saxeebi:
maTxovari zis rogorc oboba,/ myral jojoxeTis moxdili pkea,
arc zRaparia, aRarc moTxroba,/ is TiTqos Citebs aukenkiaT.

am striqonebze Tamaz Cxenkeli wers: marto pirveli striqoni ikmarebda maTxovris niSandoblivi suraTis dasaxatavad,
maTxovrisa, romelic gatvrinuli da usaxuria da nawyalobevs
xarbad acxreba. meore striqoni pirvelis fsiqovizualur suraTs ynosvismier SegrZnebasac umatebs, amave dros fsiqologiurad kidev ufro aRrmavebs am suraTs. jojoxeTi TavisTavad saSineli da SiSis momgvrelia. simyrale amZafrebs da zizRis niuanss umatebs am niSans. moxdili pke daRvlarWnilobis, saZageli
sisvelis gancdas iwvevs, pke Rvinis obi avadmyofobaa da
igi, rogorc uvargisi, arasasurveli ram, mosaSorebeli da gadasagdebia. mesame striqonSi maTxovari sakvirvelad aris warmosaxuli. igi ar aris mkveTrad garkveuli ram, arc cxadlivia, arc
sizmareuli, arc namdvili, arc moCvenebiTi. igi TiTqos waSlili da bolomde Seucnobelia. meoTxe striqoni fantastikuria.
es adamianTaTvis uvargisi, sazizRari arseba gadagdebulia da

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maia jaliaSvili

mas Citebi kenkaven, rogorc dampal nayofs an cxovelTa skores.


es asociacia aucileblobiT ibadeba, Tumca es ar aris Tqmuli.
meoTxe striqoni faqtiurad mesames xsnis. maTxovari imdenad
usaxo, gaurkveveli ram aris, rom Citebis akenkil rasme hgavs.
es strofi amomwuravad, uCveulod TvalsaCino da xelSesaxeb,
fsiqologiurad Rrma da marTal suraTs iZleva. magram mTavari
es ar aris. igi CvenSi iwvevs raRac saSiSroebis Tu sazarlobis
gancdas da mkiTxvelSi avtoris CanafiqrisaTvis sasurvel ganwyobilebas hqmnis (Cxenkeli 2010). Tamaz Cxenels samadaSvilis
erTgvari gaorebuli, qaoturi yofa (Tan revizor-buRalteri,
Tan poti) fransua viionis cxovrebas agonebda. misi mxatvruli
saxeebi eliots anaTesavebda (futuro adamianebi). zogierT
striqons quinss, iaponur tankebs. amggvarad xazs usvamda misi
poeturi msoflmxedveobis masStabebs, im did energias, romliTac is Tavisi leqsebis saxiT axal poetur ganzomilebebs, axal
poetur samyaroebs qmnida. misi azriT, aris raRac xasiaTismieri angreuloba, raRac Sinagani mouwesrigebloba mis leqsebSi,
rac ucnaur sicocxlisunarianobad Tu impulsur Zalmosilebad
ganicdeba. misi bevri leqsi me magonebs gaucreli Tixisagan gamomwvar asimetriul doqebs, romelTac amCneviaT koJrebi da
zogjer momtvreuli aqvT tuCi an yuri, magram romelSic Seuryvneli, magari Zelgi Rvinoa Casxmuli(Cxenkeli 2010).
qaossac aqvs uCveulo da ucxo silamaze, romelsac didi
poetebi SeigrZnoben da uCeulo mxatvruli saxeebiT warmoaCenen.
Tavis droze es bodlerma `borotebis~ yvavilebSi SesaniSnavad
gamoxata. hugo fridrixi werda: `ubadruks, lpobads, borots,
Rameuls, xelovnurs Tavisi xibli aqvs, romelic poetur aRqmas
imsaxurebs. isini Seicaven idumalebas, romelsac poezia axal
gzebze gahyavs. bodleri didi qalaqis nagavSi misterias grZnobs.
misi lirika am misterias gamoxatavs fosforisebur naTebad~
(fridrixi 1990: 271).
miuxedavad gansxvavebulobisa, niko samadaSvils aqvs Tavisi
kavSiri tradiciasTan da es, upirveles yovlisa, nikoloz baraTaSvilisa da vaJa -fSavelas SemoqmedebasTan naTesaobiT mJRavndeba. arCil sulakauri igonebs ra masTan naTqvam niko samadaSvilis sityvebs: am qaosidan ver gavedi, vera da ver gavedi... _
dasZens: magram gavida da am gaRwevas adastureben misi leqsebi.

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literatura:
kiknaZe 2010: kiknaZe zurab, mudam sinaTlisken gamyivari Zaxili,
internetportali
burusi.
https://burusi.wordpress.com/2010/01/14/niko-samadashvili-4/
nicSe 2016: fridrix nicSe, tragediis dabadeba musikis sulidan, Tbilisi, 2016
siraZe 2006: siraZe revaz, mohqonda jvari, niko samadaSvili100 leqsi. Tb. 2006
tatiSvili 1993: tatiSvili erekle., fridrix nicSe, wignSi:
ese ityoda zaratustra, Tb. 1993
fridrixi 1990: fridrixi hugo, Tanamedrove lirikis struqtura, Jurn. `saunje~, #5, Tb. 1990
Cxenkeli 2010: Cxenkeli Tamaz, niko samadaSvili, eleqtronuli
portali
burusi,
https://burusi.wordpress.com/2010/01/14/niko-samadashvili-6/
Maia Jaliashvili
Genesis of World from the Spirit of Verse
(Niko Samadashvili Poetry)
Niko Samadashvilis poetic thinking paints the vast time and space
of universe. It demonstrates how arises a cosmic system of artistic images
from chaos of space and time. We can say, that he has a cosmic sense of
hearing and sense of smell, that's why he feel planetary music. His
poetry's mysticism and magic causes wonderful impressions in the
readers imagination. Through the unusual artistic images his poetry
depicts such eternal themes, as love, hate, kindness, evil, envy, death, life,
hope, faith, despair and other life issues. Poet portrays existential themes
for self-awareness as well as for reader who must to understand the
universal regularities of the life. Strange and mysterious energetic and
dizzy artistic Imaginations thats arises from Niko Samadashvilis poems
helps readers to believe that everything, external and internal, physical
and spiritual with invisible threads are connected to each other. Poetry is
the force with which poet and reader overcomes the spiritual crisis of
modernity, scary feelings of hellish hopelessness, loneliness and
abandonment.
key words: Niko Samadashvili, Georgian, Poetry, Chaos, Cosmos

gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30
E-mail: universal@internet.ge; universal505@ymail.com