You are on page 1of 312

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti

humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakulteti

ilias saxelmwifo universiteti


semiotikis kvleviTi centri

semiotikis
VII saerTaSoriso samecniero konferencia

humanitaruli kvlevebi
nawili meore

semiotika

samecniero Jurnali

XVI

SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL
Tbilisi
Tbilisi
2016

UDC 8122

nomris mTavari redaqtori


marine giorgaZe
redaqtorebi:
nana cecxlaZe
cira barbaqaZe
Tamar siraZe

semiotikis kvleviTi centri 2016

konferencia da konferenciis masalebis dabeWdva daafinansa


aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis
ganaTlebis, kulturisa da sportis saministrom

ISSN 1512-2409
dagvikavSirdiT:
E-mail: semiotics@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi

naTia abaSiZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asistent-profesori

emociis (sixaruli da mwuxareba) semantikuri veli


da metaforuli struqtura frangul da
qarTul enebSi............................................................. 11
Teona abulaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

aWaraSi mcxovreb pontoel berZenTa metyvelebis


zogierTi Tavisebureba .............................................. 16

.

.................................. 22

nino aroSiZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asocirebuli profesori

kinoteqstis Targmnis semiotikuri problemebi ..... 28


asmaT arZenaZe (asoc. prof.), medea imnaZe

(doqtoranti) baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo


universiteti

sazRvao komunikaciis simboluri universumi ........... 32


zeinab axvlediani

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

Tanamedrove leqsikografia da semiotika............. 38

malxaz balaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

sinanulisa da monaniebis problema


akaki wereTlis prozaSi............................................. 42
guram baxtaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asocirebuli profesori

`naperwklis~ saxe-simbolo ilias SemoqmedebaSi ... 49


xaTuna beriZe (asoc. prof.), marine giorgaZe (prof.),
baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti
medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi...... 54

xaTuna bolqvaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

kultura da semiotika................................................ 72
oTar gogoliSvili

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

ramdenime saarqivo dokumenti berZnebis Sesaxeb


baTumis olqSi ............................................................. 77
irine goSxeTeliani

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

sivrce da dro yovlismomcvel ideaSi ................... 80


JuJuna gumbariZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asistent-profesori

aluzia, rogorc interteqsturi dialogis


warmarTvis saSualeba saprezidento sajaro
gamosvlebSi ................................................................ 84

nino gurgeniZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


filologiis doqtori

toponimebis emociuri aspeqtebi frangul da


qarTul enebSi............................................................. 89
Tamila daviTaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asistent-profesori

filip roTi _ `avtori~ da `mTxrobeli~ ................ 94


nino dvaliZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asocirebuli profesori

samyaros qaosuri metaforebi lingvistur


WrilSi ......................................................................... 99
ivdiT diasamiZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asistent-profesori

`ieroglifuri gaformeba,~ rogorc teqstis


grafikuli ilustrirebis erT-erTi forma .......... 104
xaTuna diasamiZe,

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti asistentprofesori

me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebis balkaneTis krizisi ... 108


lali TavaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asistent- profesori

sivrce da deiqsisi. lokaluri semantikis mqone


leqsikuri erTeulebi................................................ 114

rusudan TurmaniZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

implicituri informaciis Targmnis semiotikuri


Taviseburebani............................................................. 119
ciala lagvilava

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo


universiteti, doqtoranti

koncept `sikvdilis~ sakiTxisaTvis........................... 124


Tamar lomiZe

ilias saxelmwifo universiteti, asoc. profesori

qaosi da kosmosi cisferyanwelTa trioletebSi .. 129


nana mazmiSvili

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo


universiteti, asistent-profesori

intersemiotikuri Targmani _ reklamis gzavnilis


gagebis winapiroba....................................................... 136
emzar makaraZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

`samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partiis


brZola TurqeTSi demokratiuli principebis
ganmtkicebisaTvis ....................................................... 141
Tamar maWutaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


filologiis doqtori

`RmerTis~ metaforuli saxe qarTul-frangul


andazebSi ...................................................................... 147
Sorena maxaWaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

qaosisa da kosmosis konceptebi `TuTaSxas miTSi~ ... 152

nugzar mgelaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

formaluri meTodebi da naTesaobis


terminologia-semiotikur niSanTa sistema
anTropologiaSi ....................................................... 157
ciala narakiZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis niko


berZeniSvilis institutis mecnieri TanamSromeli

berZnuli enis gavlena zanuri enis lazur


dialeqtze ................................................................... 165
ana osefaSvili

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

arsebobs ki Targmanis swavlebis meTodika? ........... 171


qeTevan svaniZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asocirebuli profesori

ilustrireba, rogorc semiotikaTSorisi


transformaciis xerxi da cota ram kosmosisa
da qaosis Sesaxeb... .................................................... 176
marine sioriZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asocirebuli profesori

qaosi da fiqcia frangul `axal romanSi~:


warmosaxva da realoba alen rob-greiesTan ......... 182
Tamar siraZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

axali samyaro da panis xelaxali dabadeba


(devid herbert lorensis `ukanaskneli sicili~)... 189

nana stamboliSvili (profesori), anzor abuseriZe


(asoc. prof.), nunu baxtaZe (doqtoranti)
baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti

tropis saxeebi mxatvrul teqstSi ............................. 195


natalia surgulaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

kinetikuri da somatizmebiT motivirebuli


frazeologizmebis SepirispirebiTi kvleva
frangul da qarTul enebSi ...................................... 201
nana tonia

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo


universiteti, asoc. profesori

teqstiT TamaSi, rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni ..... 206


mamia faRava

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

saxeldebis sakiTxisaTvis toponimebSi .................... 212


naTia qaTamaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asist. profesori

sintaqtikis, semantikisa da pragmatikis


istoriuli wanamZRvrebi ........................................... 217
nana qajaia (asoc. prof), viqtoria sitnikova (doqtoranti)
baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti

mxatvruli teqstis Targmnis semiotikuri


aspeqtebi....................................................................... 221
Joanna Szerszunowicz
The University of Bialystok Poland

poloneTi, bialistokis universiteti, asoc. profesori

On Bievaluative Phrasemes from a Semiotic Perspective ..... 226

Tina SioSvili

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

mSobliur kerasTan patarZlis gamosaTxovari


ritualuri leqs-godeba klarjul
zepirsityvierebaSi...................................................... 239
Tamar CoxaraZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

Tandebulis zogierTi Tavisebureba samxrul


kiloebSi...................................................................... 243
malxaz CoxaraZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


profesori

mesx muhajirTa kvali klarjeTis mosaxleobaSi..... 249


mariam CoxaraZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo


universiteti, doqtoranti

adamianis sakuTari saxelebi qarTulsa da


TurqulSi .................................................................... 255

.


.................................................. 259
sofiko CxartiSvili

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

berZnuli kalanda da masTan dakavSirebuli


folklori ................................................................ 264

10

nana cecxlaZe

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asocirebuli profesori

ras gviqadis qaosi Tanamedrove qarTul


saliteraturo enaSi .................................................. 271
levan xalvaSi

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asistet-profesori

filosofiuri polemikis komunikaciuri aspeqti ... 277


mzia xaxutaiSvili

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


asistent-profesori

berZnizmebi qobuleTur metyvelebaSi...................... 284


Tamar xitiri

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti,


doqtoranti

realobis SigniTa mxare: droisa da maradisobis


problema milorad paviCis prozis
qronotoposSi ............................................................ 290
SoTa jijieSvili

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo


universiteti, filologiis doqtori

`neopatristikuli sinTezis~ meTodi


Tanamedrove Teologiis Suqze................................. 305

naTia abaSiZe
emociis (sixaruli da
mwuxareba) semantikuri veli
da metaforuli struqtura
frangul da qarTul enebSi
Penser cest ragir une reprsentation en
la constatant,
en lapprciant ou en la dsirant
Ch. Bally
mravalferovania emociis gadmocemis
forma enaSi, masSi CarTulia rogorc eqstralingvisturi (Jestikulacia, mimika, tembri),
ise lingvisturi meqanizmebi, romlebic erTgvar `niSans~ warmoadgenen mosaubris ganwyobisa da damokidebulebis gamosaxatavad. platoni emociebs1 gonebis amrevad miiCnevda, kan1

fsiqologebi mravali welia ikvlevdnen tvinsa da


mis funqciebs, yofdnen mas sensorul da motorul,
kognitur da nebelobiT kategoriebad, magram
gverds uvlidnen tvinis esTetikur funqcias
(grZnobebi, emociebi...). e. kanti emociur SegrZnebebs _ sixaruls, sevdas, SiSs _ avadmyofobad,
gonebriv aSlilobad miiCnevda. Zv. filosofiur
naSromebSi termini `passions erTdroulad afeqts
da grZnobas gamoxatavda. dekarte ganasxvavebda
eqvs sawyis grZnobas: siyvaruls, siZulvils, gaocebas, survils, sixarulsa da mwuxarebas (De
passionibus Art. 69). spinoza termins afeqti _
affectus `maneris~ mniSvnelobiT iyenebs da grZnobebis xuT kategoriaze saubrobs: survili, sixaruli,
mwuxareba, gaoceba, zizRi (Ethics, ps III. De origine et
natura affectum). mogvianebiT moxda am ori terminis
gamijvna, afeqtiT gamoixata emocia: affectus
affection motion da grZnobebiT _ grZnobebi.

12

NnaTia abaSiZe

tisTvis is sulieri avadmyofoba iyo, xolo sartri `cnobierebis erT-erT


formas~ akuTvnebda. koncepti emocia moicavs grZnobebs da erTmaneTTan
akavSirebs sxeulsa da gonebas. emociebi ganixileba fizikur doneze, grZnobebi ki gonebis sferoa. obieqturad motivirebuli verbaluri konceptebi,
emociebi, qmnian urTierTkavSiris erTgvar qsels, romelic Tavis mxriv aerTianebs fiqrebs, mogonebebs, grZnobebs, eqspresiul reaqciebs. is interdisciplinur sakvlev obieqts warmoadgens, mis analizSi erTveba sociologiuri, fiziologiuri, fsiqologiuri da lingvisturi (komunikaciuri, kognitur-diskursuli, lingvokulturuli) faqtorebi. emociebi, rogorc
enobrivi konceptebi, semiodinamikur sistemebs qmnian da gansakuTrebuli
funqciuri TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdebian, maT Soris mniSvnelovania kognituri komponentis roli, romliTac vlindeba individis cxovrebiseuli Rirebulebebi da gadmoicema verbalur komunikaciaSi. amdenad, emociis semiotikuri aspeqtebi SegviZlia ori mimarTulebiT ganvixiloT, statikasa da
dinamikaSi. statikuri aseqti warmoadgens individis fonur codnas, moicavs socialur da erovnul elementebs, dinamikuri ki uSualod komunikaciur interaqcias ukavSirdeba, konteqsturad aris motivirebuli da statikuri niSnebs avlens. lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT, emociis gamoxatvis saSualeba ZiriTadad orgvaria2: pirdapiri da iribi. pirdapiria, roca is deklarirebulia erT-erTi grZnobiT, magaliTad:
Il est en colre _ gabrazebulia
Pierre a peur _ eSinia
Il est amoureux _ Seyvarebulia
implicituria, roca garkveuli niSnebiT ganisazRvreba ama Tu im emociuri zona. isini umeteswilad konteqsturad aris motivirebuli an kidev
fsiqologiur mdgomareobas ukavSirdeba da vlindeba mimikiT, JestikulaciiT, qceviT. Cven implicitur tips vakuTvnebT im idiomatur gamoTqmebs da
metaforebs, romlebic emocias gadmoscemen:
tre vert de rage _ gabrazeba (sityvasityviT: cofisgan gamwvaneba)
tre rouge de honte _ sircxvilisgan gawiTleba
Voir rouge _ gabrazeba (sityvasityviT: wiTlad xedavs, qarT. Sesatyvisi _
cecxls afrqvevs Tvalebidan)
Une peur bleue _ raimes mimarT didi SiSi (sityvasityviT: cisferi SiSi)
niSandoblivia emociis roli politikur diskursSi. mas mimarTaven rogorc darwmunebis, situaciis dramatizaciis Tu STagonebis erT-erT efeqtur meTods. ritorikis Teoria pirovnebasa da emocias argumentirebuli
metyvelebis centrSi aTavsebs da xazs usvams emociis strategiuli marTvis
unars3. iakobsoni enis eqspresiul/emociur funqcias gansazRvravs, rogorc
2

qristian plantini
ritorika SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT, rogorc diskursis teqnika dasaxuli miznis
misaRwevad.
3

emociis (sixaruli da mwuxareba) semantikuri veli da metaforuli struqtura... 13

Setyobinebis adresatze gadacemis gansakuTrebul formas, romelic wina


planze ayenebs sasaubro Temas da acocxlebs mas tembris variaciiTa da SorisdebulebiT (iakobsoni 1963:196). kosnies Tanaxmad (kosnie 1987:2), politikuri paTetika or ZiriTad princips emyareba: emociis verbalizaciasa da
mis gamowvevas. gamowvevis mizania msmenelSi sasurveli emociis Seqmna, romlis drosac Tavad subieqti, romelic am xerxs iyenebs, SesaZlebelia srulebiTac ar ganicdides Sesabamis emocias. kosniem SeimuSava emociebis ierarqiuli modeli, sadac TiToeuli klasi ZiriTad da meorad grZnobebs moicavs.
Cveni kvlevis farglebSi gTavazobT ori urTierTsapirispiro grZnobis _
mwuxarebisa da sixarulis jgufebs.
Piti
Dception
Solitude
Regret
Angoisse

Tristesse

mwuxareba ama Tu im movlenis, an uaryofiTi Sedegis, danaklisisa Tu


marcxisgan gamowveuli sapasuxo gancdaa. am dros SeimCneva subieqtis uZlureba Seqmnili garemoebis mimarT.
Plaisir
Satisfaction
Soulagement
Amusement
Enthousiasme

Joie

cxadia, es kategoria sixarulis leqsikur vels moicavs. is romelime


faqtisa Tu movlenis, molodinis pozitiuri Sedegia. kosnie am jgufSi aerTianebs siamovnebas, kmayofilebas, enTuziazms da a.S.
fsiqolingvistur kvlevebSi emocia ZiriTadad sam komponents moicavs: afeqturs, kogniturs da qceviTs. aRniSnuli sami komponentis mixedviT SevimuSaveT leqsemebis _ mwuxarebisa da sixarulis semasiologiuri
analizi, sadac S1 warmoadgens afeqtur komponents, S2 _ kogniturs, S3
_ qceviTs:
mwuxareba
sibraluli
imedgacrueba
martooba
sinanuli
depresia

S1

S2
+
+
+
+

S3

sixaruli
siamovneba
kmayofileba
mxiaruleba
enTuziazmi

S1

S2

S3
+

+
+
+

14

NnaTia abaSiZe

ganxiluli modelis mixedviT, mwuxarebis leqsikuri veli umetesad


kognitur CarCoSi Tavsdeba, sixarulis semebi ki ufro mravalferovania da
samive komponentze nawildeba.
emociebis mTavari daniSnuleba is aris, rom isini unda gaviziaroT.
Cven maT sxvadasxva gziT viziarebT. magaliTad, bavSvis xelSi ayvaniT SesaZlebelia rogorc sixarulis, ise misi mwuxarebis gaziareba. qorwinebasTan
da mwuxarebasTan dakavSirebuli qceva da metyvelebis stili (emociuri)
gansxvavdeba kulturis TvalsazrisiTac, amgvari komunikacia gansxvavebul
semiotikur aspeqtSi xorcieldeba da erovnul Taviseburebebs Seicavs
(emociis interkulturuli niSani). yoveli emocia, upirveles yovlisa,
partniors moiTxovs da Semdgom, partniorisgan _ interaqciis specifikur formebs. Cven gansxvavebul garemoSi gamovxatavT SiSs, sibrazes, sinanuls, sixaruls da Sesabamisad, sapasuxo reaqciebsac gansxvavebuli formiT viRebT. nebismieri metyvelebis msgavsad, emociuri sityva mravalfunqciuria, TiToeul emocias cxovrebis Tavisi cikli aqvs. Cven mis socializacias4 vaxdenT.
Tu emociebis leqsikur vels erTi vertikaluri RerZiT gavyofT, miviRebT pozitiuri da negatiuri grZnobebis or jgufs, aqedan gamomdinare,
emociebi or ZiriTad konceptamde daiyvaneba, esenia: sasiamovno da arasasiamovno niSnebi.5
amrigad, emocia, rogorc romelime grZnobis (SiSis, sixarulis, gaocebis da a.S) mier gamowveuli aSliloba, gardamavali aJitireba, Cveni yoveldRiuri cxovrebis Semadgeneli nawilia. dadebiTia is, roca marTvadia,
uaryofiTad aRiqmeba misgan gamowveuli gonebrivi aSliloba da kontrolis
dakargva. Cveni mier ganxilul magaliTebSi, romelic korpusul kvlevas
emyareba (gamoviyeneT CORPUSEYE da qarTuli enis erovnuli korpusi)
aRmovaCineT, rom frangulenovani emociis konceptebi ufro metaforulia,
stilistikuri figurebis farTo speqtrs moicavs, mdidaria idiomaturi
gamoTqmebiT, maSin roca qarTuli konceptebi mravalferovania sintaqsuri
struqturiT, sainteresoa morfologiuri TvalsazrisiT da moicavs xatovani Tqmebis mraval magaliTs.
lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT, emociuri metyvelebis saxasiaTo niSnebia:
1) leqsikuri TvalsazrisiT: gansxvavebuli leqsikuri erTeulebi,
mosaferebeli an uxeSi sityvebi, SeZaxilebi, Sorisdebulebi, myari gamoTqmebi.
2) morfologiuri TvalsazrisiT: sufiqsebi, romlebic gadmoscemen
emociur damokidebulebas, aseTia ZiriTadad kninobiT-alersobiTi sufiqsebi: _ un (qarT), -illard, _ ette (fr).
3) sintaqsuri TvalsazrisiT emocia metyvelebaSi erTdroulad ar4
5

termini `emociis socializacia~ kosnies ekuTvnis.


platoni Tavis `ritorikaSi~ maT siamovnebisa da mwuxarebis mixedviT ajgufebda.

emociis (sixaruli da mwuxareba) semantikuri veli da metaforuli struqtura... 15

Rvevs da aRadgens sintaqsur wyobas. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia emfazia, inversia.


4) stilistikuri TvalsazrisiT: hiperbolizacia, metaforizacia, metonimia, gapirovneba, gameoreba, elifsi.
emociuri metyvelebis analizi sam mTavar poluss Soris xorcieldeba, esenia: eqspresiuli (subieqtis afeqturi / kognituri mdgomareoba),
pragmatuli (situaciuri) da interaqciuli (adresatis CarTuloba). maTi
erToblioba myar niadags qmnis komunikaciis mravalganzomilebiani aspeqtebis Sesaswavlad.
literatura
aristotele (2007): Aristote Rhtorique. Introduction, traduction, etc. de P.
Chiron. Paris, Garnier-Flammarion;
bali (1944): Bally Ch. Linguistique gnrale et linguistique franaise, d. PUF.
Paris ;
grosi (1995): Gross, M. Une grammaire locale de lexpression des sentiments.
Langue Franaise. Paris;
iakobsoni (1963): Jacobson R. Linguistique et potique , Essais de
linguistique gnrale, d. Minuit. Paris ;
kosnie (1994): Cosnier, J. Psychologie des motions et des sentiments.
Retz/Nathan. Paris ;
plantini (2011): Plantin, Chr. Les bonnes raisons des motions. Principes et
mthode pour l'tude du discours motionn. Peter Lang. Bern ;
plantini (2004): Plantin Chr. Les squences discursives motionnes, Lyon ;
rastie (1974): Rastier F. Essais de smiotique discursive, Tours;
Samaeva (2012): .. ,
;
Sarbono (2013): Charbonneau G. Lmotion dans le discours politique, Qubec;
jeimsi (1884): James, W. What is an Emotion? Mind.
Natia Abashidze
The Semantic Field of Emotion (Joy and Sadness) and Its
Metaphoric Structure in French and Georgian
We will analyze the semiotic features of emotion, as linguistic concepts
and dynamic systems, which manifest particular characteristics of functioning.
There is a wide range of expression of emotions in the language, intralinguistic
and extralinguistic factors are included in, they represent a conceptual sign to
reflect the attitude of the subject. Objectively motivates, emotions create the
interdependent network. It is the subject of interdisciplinary study. For this
analysis plays the great role in sociology, physiology, phsycology and linguistics.

Teona abulaZe
aWaraSi mcxovreb pontoel
berZenTa metyvelebis
zogierTi Tavisebureba
berZenTa da qarTvelTa socialur-kulturuli urTierTobebi saukuneebs iTvlis. istoriuli warsulidan gamomdinare, pontoel
berZenTa yofa-cxovreba mudmivad ganicdida
jer osmalTa, Semdeg saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTis kulturaTa gavlenas, rac, bunebrivia,
tovebda Tavis kvals maT yofaSi, enasa Tu cnobierebaSi. kulturaTa Soris komunikaciebi gamoZaxils hpovebs enaSi.
aWaraSi gadmosaxlebul berZnebs yvelaze
wmindad hqondaT Semonaxuli berZnuli ena da
tradiciebi. isini ganaTlebisa da kulturis
sakmaod maRali doniTac gamoirCeodnen (berZeniSvili...1990:67). aqaur berZnebs ena dResac
Semonaxuli aqvT da sakmaod kargadac, Tumca
maT metyvelebas ufro metad etyoba enaTa kontaqtebis kvali, Tavs iCens kulturaTa Serevis
Sedegad miRebuli tradiciebi Tu leqsikurgramatikuli Taviseburebebi.
aWaraSi mcxovreb pontoel berZenTa metyveleba im mxrivac aris saintereso, rom yvela
maTgani orenovania, _ kargad saubrobs rogorc pontour dialeqtze, aseve qarTulad.
Cvens naSromSi pontoel berZenTa metyvelebis sam ZiriTad saxes gamovyofT:
a. ganvixilavT, pontoeli berZenis qarTul metyvelebas, b. pontoeli berZenis pontour metyvelebas da g. pontoelis, rogorc bilingvalis metyvelebas.
saanalizod vsargeblobT empiriuli masaliT, romelic Cawerili gvaqvs SoTa rusTave-

aWaraSi mcxovreb pontoel berZenTa metyvelebis zogierTi Tavisebureba

17

lis erovnuli fondis mier dafinansebuli proeqtis ,,pontoeli berZnebi


aWaraSi _ warsuli da Tanamedroveoba~ farglebSi.
a. qarTulad molaparake pontoel berZenTa metyvelebaSi aWarulis,
umetesad qobuleTuri kilokavis gavlena sakmaod TvalSi sacemia da es bunebrivicaa. sociumi did gavlenas axdens eris metyvelebaze. berZenTa metyvelebas Tan sdevs aramarto aWaruli kilosTvis damaxasiaTebeli leqsikur-gramatikuli Taviseburebebi, aramed maT metyvelebaSi daCndeba konkretuli sociumis kulturis, yofa-cxovrebisa da cnobierebis garkveuli
elementebic.
moviyvanT ramdenime magaliTs berZenTa saubrebidan:
- Wo, ra ijebi, Sen, ar gesmis? -emo, meca, organos TanamSromeli var
da Cemi cecxli me mekideba, vagvianeb samsaxurSi, meuRle maxlavs da meCqareba; Wo, aRalemos, beriZes icnob? Wo, aRalemos vin ar icnobs, babais
jigari biZaSvilia, rada maswavlo; -cxonebuli baba, rexmeTluRi, ustabaSi iyo da wiTel oqtomberSi muSaobda ustaT... meewona berZenis qali CemTvis. -babav, eTmaelama, Cven muslimanebi, eseni qristianebi, eg ar izams. _
aa, ilana meyvano, mec, avwie da mevtace. eda, ra uWirs Tu kaa. -kaa,
ver Severige, raT ginda berZeni berZenia, Cven aWarlebi sxvanairi lapariki
gvaq, saWmelebi, ver movwyviT da mevyva, raRa drois, xom ici namusis kaci
var da.. SemCa e[s] berZeni qali aWarel kac da rana qna!.. (moubari berZenia,
erT-erTi SemTxvevis dros
,, aWarelad~ waradgens Tavs).
emo _ emia--s Semoklebuli variantia, momdinareobs arabuli sityvidan da niSnavs _ mamis Zma, mamiT biZa (niJaraZe 1971:189).
amave warmoebisaa aRal-emo, aRali gavrcelebuli sakuTari saxelia
aWarulSi, aRal-emo _ igivea, rogorc aRal biZa/biZia.
baba _ baba- (q.aW), babo- (z. aW.) niSnavs mamas (niJaraZe 1970:99).
jigari, sametyvelo qarTulSi damkvidrebuli leqsikuri erTeulia,
momdinareobs sparsuli sityvidan jigar, romlis erT-erTi mniSvnelobaa _
sisxliT naTesavi, axlobeli. am SemTxvevaSi _ babas jigari biZaSvilia _
niSnavs mamis sisxliT naTesavia, axlobelia.
rexmeTluRi, gardacvlil adamianze ityvian.
ustabaSi-fonetikuri variaciaa sityvisa usta/ustioba, Turquli
sityvaa da niSnavs, kargi ostati, xelosani/ostatoba; ostatad yofna, ostatis saqmianoba (niJaraZe 1971:337).
eTma elama _ Turqizmia, aseve aWaruli kilosTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli da niSnavs ,,kmara~, ,,sakmarisia~.
ilana (igive illa unda) _ illa _ illah (z.aW.) /ille (q.aW) fonetikuri variaciiaa _ arabuli sityvidan momdinareobs da niSnavs aucileblad, uTuod, ueWvelad (niJaraZe 1971:215). ilana warmoebaSi -na ,,unda~-s Sekvecili formaa aWaruli kilosTvis damaxasiaTebeli.
eda _ S. niJaraZesTan ganmartebulia rogorc sityvis masala Sewyve-

18

Teona abulaZe

tili Txrobis gagrZelebisas, Cven magaliTSi eda am mniSvnelobiT ar unda


iyos. am SemTxvevaSi _ eda ra uWirs Tu kaiao, _ ufro mere, mere ra moxda mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba.
Wo _ Sekvecili formaa -biWo formisa _ gavrcelebuli mimarTvaa
mdgomareobiT an asakiT umcrosi adamianisadmi (mamakacisadmi) (niJaraZe
1970:426).
berZenTa metyvelebaSi vlindeba aWarulisTvis bunebrivi frazeologiuri erTeulebic: cecxli mekideba _ am SemTxvevaSi niSnavs _
Zalian meCqareba, dro ar maqvs; gulze damartya -ityvian arasasiamovno
ambis gagebisas; namusis kaci var _ sityvis erTguli var, sityvas ar vuRalateb...
garda leqsikisa, berZenTa metyvelebaSi daCndeba fonetikur-gramatikuli Taviseburebebi, rac aWaruli kilos kuTvnilebaa.
mag. umarcvlo i-s () gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi: baba, siZe, eda, mevyva, meca da misT.; oe<ee warmoeba: moewona <meewona, gamoeria<gameeria
da sxv.
pontoel berZenTa qarTul metyvelebaSi damkvidrebuli Taviseburebebi aWarulis gavleniTaa miRebuli, Tu ar CavTvliT rig Turqizmebs, rac
Turqulis gavleniT, Tumca umetes SemTxvevaSi qarTulis gziT miRebuli
da damkvidrebuli Cans maT metyvelebaSi.
aqve moviyvanT aWaraSi gavrcelebul erT frTian gamonaTqvams, romelic berZenTa metyvelebaSic damkvidrebula: molam cxenze SeJda da a yismeTo/ dedofali cxenze SeJda da a yismeT iZaxdao, gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT niSnavs -SeiZleba iseTi ram moxdes, rasac ar elodebi.
aRniSnuli frazeologiuri erTeulis berZnul TargmanSi ,,a yismeT~
amave formiT SenarCunda. Cans, rom Targmnisas zogjer sityvas ver uZebnian
Sesabamis enobriv Sesatyviss da Rebuloben mza formiT, rogoricaa _ ,,a
yismeT~.
yismeTi arabuli sityvaa da niSnavs _ bedi, iRbali, xvedri (niJaraZe,
1971:373).
pontoel berZenTa qarTul metyvelebaSi, aseve, Cans aWarulisTvis da
zogadad qarTulisTvis arabunebrivi warmoeba, mag: me maSin patara viyavi,
rom akeTeboda (akeTebda) saWmeli; qorwilebi rom vixdodiT, viyuref Sen,
rafer akeTebodiT tolma; viyurebodi, imis rafer akeTeboda qaTmis sacivi
da amnairaT vistavle.
msgavs SemTxvevaSi gamovlenili Taviseburebebi, vfiqrobT, ubralod
ucxo enis gavleniT gamowveuli unda iyos, qarTulad cudad metyvelebaze
unda miuTiTebdes da ara maT metyvelebaSi damkvidrebul gramatikul Taviseburebaze. amas gvafiqrebinebs is garemoebac, rom msgavsi warmoeba ZiriTadad individualuria da sxvaTa metyvelebaSi ar Cans.
b. rac Seexeba aWaraSi mcxovreb berZenTa pontour metyvelebas, ar
aris erTgvarovani. gabmul metyvelebaSi zogjer qarTul sityvebs iyeneben
da ver ixseneben Sesabamis pontour Sesatyviss, garda amisa, maT metyvele-

aWaraSi mcxovreb pontoel berZenTa metyvelebis zogierTi Tavisebureba

19

bas Tan sdevs Turquli, rusuli da elinuri berZnulis gavlenis kvali. magaliTisTvis erT patara dialogs moviyvanT:
? (riT midixar?) - ekiTxeba erTi berZeni meores.
araba (mikroavtobusze miuTiTebs).
araba rogor aris berZnulad? (ekiTxeba Camweri?).
araba rogor aris ? (berZeni ekiTxeba gverdiT myof
berZens, radgan Tavad ver ixsenebs).
araba pondiuraT aris uremi. urems arabas uZaxden.
maSin [] ? (pontourad manqanas ras eZaxian?) saubarSi mesame berZeni erTveba da Tavadac igive SekiTxvas svams.
. -uremi iyo araba da TurqeTSi zaTi araba, axla manqanasac
arabas eZaxian.
araba Turquli sityvaa da avtomobils, manqanas niSnavs, amave mniSvnelobiTaa rusuli , rac Seexeba urems, qegl-Si ganmartebulia, rogorc Zveleburi orTvliani sazidari.
Turquli enis gavleniT damkvidrebuli Cans pontoel berZenTa metyvelebaSi leqsikuri erTeulebi:
CiCak (Turq. cicek-yvavili) ;
Cemo mosafirebo, CiCak, afend Turquli sityvebia;
berZnebi yvela saxeobis yvavils CiCak//CiCek-s eZaxian, vards -ronza-s.
mag: yvela yvavili CiCakia, vardi aris ronza (rus. -vardi).
Sdr. mosafiri (arab) _ stumari, mnaxveli, momsvleli (niJaraZe,
1971:267), efendi/afend (Turq.efendi) _ mamakacisadmi zrdilobiani mimarTvis formaa, iseTivea, rogoricaa batono.
patara bavSvs moferebiT mimarTaven avrum, maTive ganmartebiT: avrum TurqulaT aris ,,Svilo~ da Cveni moferebiTic is aris. mai sityva iqidan gamoyolilia.. pontiurad SeiZleba iyos, me ar vici.
yavru _ Turq. sityvaa da niSnavs _ bartyi, burvaki, goWi, naSieri.
Sdr. / (Citi /kruxis wiwilebi, rom frinaven Cven viciT , patara Svils, bebia efereba badiSi, SviliSvil
modi, Svilo); kukla (rus. -Tojina), _ ra vici me,
kuklas veZaxi; riz(Z)a, , mase viciT, Ziro, Cemo fesvo.. _ berZnuli sityvaa da niSnavs fesvi, fuZe, Ziri (berZnul-qarTuli 2005:445).
pontoel berZenTa gabmuli metyvelebis nimuSi:
mag: limonis soki . vanilia, qiSmiSi.. gogli mogli margar[i]ni, ;
g. calke gamovyofT pontoel berZenTa, rogorc bilingvalTa metyvelebas, rodesac erTdroulad or enaze metyveleben gaazrebulad, ori enis
leqsikis gamoyenebiT cdiloben saTqmelis identificirebas da rogorc bilingvis matareblebi, ,,xSirad avseben im sicarieles, romelic Cndeba ori
gansxvavebuli kulturis Tanaarsebobisas, roca enis gamo isini ver axerxeben konbilingvur taqts da iketebian sakuTar kulturaSi~ (SubiTiZe 2010).

20

Teona abulaZe

es gansakuTrebiT TvalSi sacemia maSin, roca qarTvels esaubrebian. saubrisas qarTuli leqsikuri fondis CarTviT TiTqos gagrZnobineben, rom
qarTuli kulturis nawili Tavadac arian.
mag: dagvas (mariamobas -igulisxmeba dResaswauli),
iqneba koncerti, ori avtobusi mova..; vamarilebT imas..
erT or sam dRes gobSi gveqneba, mere CavyriT bankebSi,
.. ke pu ta oti kriSkiT imiT, raRaciT.; Sdr. - kriSka berZnulad
rogoraa? _ kapaki (Turq. Kapak _ xufi, sarqveli);
xulo , beSumi, ene sofeli, ene oqtomberi, dioknisi.. ra vici, Teli Cemi cxovreba maq gavatare..;
-, ,
garmoSka, isa doli, akardioni..;
pontoel berZenTa, SeiZleba iTqvas, qaosuri metyveleba, vfiqrobT,
bevr saintereso movlenas Tu enobriv Taviseburebas warmoaCens enaTa kontaqtebis, kulturaTa dialogis konkretuli sakiTxebis sakvlevad.
amjerad gvindoda zogadi warmodgena Segveqmna sxvadasxva enobriv garemoSi moxvedrili eris metyvelebaze. marTalia, aWarulis gavlena didia
da es bunebrivicaa, am garemoSi gaizardnen, bavSvobidanve eziarnen qarTul
kulturas da Seisisxlxorces kulturis garkveuli elementebi. Tumca es
ar niSnavs imas, rom pontoelma berZnebma daiviwyes mSobliuri ena, tradiciebi da mTlianad gaiTqvifnen ucxo kulturaSi.
SavizRvispireTis pontoeli berZnebi dRemde cdiloben ar daiviwyon
ena, romelic maTi meobis dasturia, rasac Tundac is faqti gvafiqrebinebs,
rom maT erTmaneTSi sasaubrod dRemde pontouri dialeqti aqvT.
gamoyenebuli literatura
berZeniSvili... 1990: berZeniSvili l., garayaniZe i., gordeziani r., miqaberiZe a., tonia n., fxakaZe m., Saxpazidi m., Cepidi a., janaSia n., berZnebi
saqarTveloSi, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti: xmelTaSua
zRvis kulturebis kvlevis laboratoria; Tbilisi;
berZnul-qarTuli 2005: berZnul-qarTuli ganmartebiTi leqsikoni,
- ; Tbilisi;
berZnul-qarTuli leqsikoni, mis.:https://ka.glosbe.com/el/ka/;
Turqul-qarTuli leqsikoni, mis.:https://ka.glosbe.com/tr/ka;
kipukopulos 2014: ,
, ; ;
niJaraZe 1971 _ SoTa niJaraZe, qarTuli enis aWaruli dialeqti; Tbilisi;
rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni, mis.:https://ka.glosbe.com/ru/ka/;
copuridi 1978: , ;
;
qegl: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, enis modelirebis asociacia,

aWaraSi mcxovreb pontoel berZenTa metyvelebis zogierTi Tavisebureba

21

mis.: http://ena.ge/;
SubiTiZe 2010: SubiTiZe irina, xSirad dasmuli SekiTxvebi bilingvizmis
irgvliv, bilingvuri ganaTleba: samecniero-saganmanaTleblo Jurnali, 1. mis.: http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gsdl/cgi-bin/library.exe;

Teona Abuladze
Some Peculiarities of Pontic Greeks Speech
The speech of Pontic Greeks living in Ajara is not homogenous. Greeks
have preserved the local language well enough, but their speech has visible
traces of other languages, as a result it got the mixing of other cultures lexical
and grammatical peculiarities.
Pontic Greeks speech is also interesting because it is bilingual as they
speak both Pontic dialect and Georgian equally well.
Pontic Greeks speech is characterized by the influence of Ajarian dialect as
well as Turkish, Russian and Hellenic Greek influences. For example: Mosapiri
guest, chichak (Turk. Cicek- flower) _ kapaki (Turk. Kapak _ hubcap), ronza
(Russian. _ rose), a _ pesvi, root and more .


,
, .

,
.
..
, , (
1992:130). ,
. , ..
,
,
- .
,

- ,

, .
..,
, , . , (
), : -

23

, , - . ( 1992:
131). ,
,
, ,
; ,
,
.

,
( ,
, , .).
, ,
,
: ,
, ,
,
,
(: ,
, ).
, , ,
,
,
( )
( ).
, ,

(, ).
,
,
.
: ,
,
(
1992:132).
,
, , ,
, .

, , ,
(
1978:18):
1)
, ,
, (

24

, .).
2) (, ,
) -
(
).
3) ( )
(: , .).

( ),
,
,
. :

,
. ,
: (
), ( ) , ,

(, , , )
( 1978:19).
,
.
(, ,
), ,
.
,

( ) . ,
, -
,
.
:
, , -,
., .
. , (, ).

,
:
1) , ,
, :
) - (,

25

);
) (,
).
2) ,
( , .).
3) , ,
, . ,
, ,
,
( 1989:342).

, ,
.
,
. , ,

,
,
. , , ,
. ,
,
, .
, ,
,
,
. ,
. , ,
- .
: ELSIE,
, , ,
4 : E, L, S, I.
,

.
(ELSIE)
: .
: , , :

26


. ,
(
, ,
,
,
.
,

.

, .

,
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
, .

1989: . : . []. .:
.
1992: .. .
. . 1. .
1978: //
. .
Marine Aroshidze
Semiotic Aspects of Translation
In the modern information era, the scientific researches in the humanities
are implemented in the cross-disciplinary way and their synthesis is done in the
frame of the common semiosphere. This term created by Y.Lotman denotes the
shared semiotic space, semiotic culturology. The fulfillment of the
communicative process requires the something else beside the sender, recipient,
and information channel: the process is income, complete unless these
components are placed in the common semiotic space. The participants of the
communication should have the semiotic and cultural experience which shared to
certain extent.
Translation is a type of the cross-cultural communication and consequently,
the semiosphere of a recipient of the source text is rather different from the
semiosphere of the target text. The mediator observes the cultural code flows and

27

directs them respectively to ensure the accessibility of the sub-textual


information for readers.
marine aroSiZe
Targmanis semiotikuri aspeqtebi
Tanamedrove informaciul epoqaSi samecniero kvlevebi humanitarul sferoSi interdisciplinur xasiaTs atareben da maTi Sejereba
erTmaneTTan erTobliv semiosferos farglebSi mimdinareobs. i. lotmanis es termini erTobliv semiotikur sivrces, semiotikur kulturologias niSnavs. imisTvis, rom komunikacia Sedges ar aris sakmarisi
adresanti, adresati da informaciis arxi, es konstruqcia ar imuSavebs, Tu erTobliv semiotikur sivrceSi ar iqneba moTavsebuli. komunikaciis monawileebs unda gaaCndeT semiotikuri kulturuli gamocdileba, romelic, garkveulwilad, erToblivi iqneba. Targmani warmoadgens kulturaTSorisi komunikaciis nairsaxeobas, amitomac wyaro teqstis mimRebis semiosfero sakmaod gansxvavdeba samizne teqstis semiosferosgan, Suamavali ki kulturuli kodis dinebebs akvirdeba da saTanado mimarTulebas aZlevs, raTa axali mkiTxvelisTvis misawvdomi gaxdes qveteqsturi informacia. lotmanis azriT, nebismieri nawarmoebi,
rogorc minimum ormagad aris kodirebuli da enobrivi kodis gadmocema mTargmnelis mier da misi aRqma sxva enis matareblis mier nakleb
problemas warmoadgens, vidre kulturuli kodis. zustad kulturuli kodis polifonia qmnis sirTuleebs, misi simboluri kvanZebis
sxvadasxva interpretirebas. Targmnis semiotikuri problemebi Tavs
iCens mTargmnelobiTi procesis yvela etapze da Targmnis yvelanair
saxeobaSi (Sidaenobriv, enaTSoris da semiotikur TargmanSi).

nino aroSiZe
kinoteqstis Targmnis
semiotikuri problemebi
kinoteqsti warmoadgens kreolizebuli
teqstis saintereso saxeobas, romelSic amoqmedebulia ramodenime niSanTa sistema: musika,
moZraoba, tansacmeli, interieri, verbaluri
sistema da sxv. ocdameerTe saukuneSi kino- da
ufro gvian Seqmnili teleteqsti gaxda masobrivi xelovnebis yvelaze moTxovnadi saxeoba.
magram paradoqsuria, rom teqstebis zustad es
saxeoba yvelaze naklebad aris Seswavlili
lingvokulturologiaSi da TargmanmcodneobaSi, rac, nawilobriv, aixsneba obieqtis sirTuliT da misi semiotikuri mravalferovnebiT.
qarTul mTargmnelobiTi tradiciaSi amas emateba is viTareba, rom xanZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi gamoiyeneboda inglisurenovani filmebis rusuli dublaJi, Tanamedrove pirobebSi ki
audio-vizualuri teqstebis Targmna qarTul
enaze aqtualuri amocanaa, romelsac aramarto
gamoyenebiTi, aramed Teoriuli mniSvnelobac
aqvs.
kinoteqstis Tavisebureba da misi aRqmis
problemebi, nawilobriv, aRwerilia cnobili
filosofosebis da semiotikosebis mier, rogoricaa umberto eko, iuri lotmani, roland
barti, Jan mitri da sxv., magram mwirea informacia kinoteqstze, rogorc semiotikuri Targmanis Sedegad miRebul meoreul teqstze da misi
roli kulturaTSoris komunikaciaSi. pirvel
rigSi, aRsaniSnia, rom ar arsebobs mdgradi
terminologia Targmnis am saxeobaSi, miuxedavad amisa ukve gamoyofilia sami saxeoba:

kinoteqstis Targmnis semiotikuri problemebi

29

1) audiovizualuri Targmani (yvelaze farTo terminia, vinaidan moicavs teleteqstis yvela nairsaxeobisa da kompiuteruli programebis Targmnas);
2) multimediuri Targmani (animaciuri filmebis Targmna);
3) kinoteqstis Targmna.
kinoteqstis Targmna gansxvavebuli formiT aris SesaZlebeli. s.kuzmiCiovi gamoyofs kinoteqstis Targmnis Semdeg variants:
1) dublaJi (Targmnis yvelaze rTuli saxeoba, romelic naTarmni da
wyaro replikebis maqsimalur Sexamebas moiTxovs);
2) subtitrebi (naTargmni replikebi mocemulia kadris qveda nawilSi);
3) fsevdodublaJi (anu kadris miRma naTargmnis teqstis gaJRereba);
4) Targmani-palimfsesti, romelic audiovizualur teqstSi arsebuli subtitrebis Targmnas warmoadgens (kuzmiCiovi 2012:28).
yvela zemoCamoTvlili kinoteqstis Targmnis saxeobis Camoyalibeba dakavSirebulia kinoindustriis ganviTarebasTan: munji kino da teqstSi intertitrebis gamoyeneba, xmovani filmebis Seqmna, saSinao kinodarbazebis Seqmna da sxv. sainteresoa, rom sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxva prioritetia am
sakiTxSi. evropuli yveynebSi umravles SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba dublaJi an
fsevdo dublaJi, mravalenovan evropul qveynebSi, sadac ramodenime saxelmwifo enaa, ZiriTadad, subtitrebi gamoiyeneba (magaliTad, SveicariaSi, daniaSi da sxv.). saqarTveloSi xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi rusuli dublaJi gamoiyeneboda, amitom, rodesac dublirebuli filmebi Seicvala subtitrebiani variantebiT, es mowonebuli ar iyo mayureblebis mier, amitomac,
kinoteqstis Targmna erTerTi aqtiurad ganviTarebad Targmans warmoadgens
Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi.
samizne teqsti, romelic iqmneba sxva kulturis matareblisTvis, ganicdis pragmatul adaptacias, raTa moxdes gadamisamarTeba im fonuri informaciisa, romelic, savaraudod, ucnobia axali mkiTxvelisTvis. magram ra transformacias ganicdis semiotikuri Targmnis Sedegad Seqmnili kinoteqsti, vin
da rogor amzadebs axal mayurebels ucxo kulturis realiebis aRqmisTvis,
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom xSir SemTxvevaSi Tanamedrove filmebi imdenad
datvirTulia simboluri qveteqstebiT, rom imave kulturis rigiT mayurebels uWirs misi gaSifrva. amavdroulad unda gvaxsovdes, rom audiovizualur teqsts garkveuli Taviseburebani axasiaTebs, kerZod, xSir SemTxvevaSi
is dialogs warmoadgens, datvirTulia sasaubro-sametyvelo konstruqciebiT, mTargmnelis gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uzualuri normebi warmoadgenen. meore mxriv, kinoteqstis gmirebi sxvadasxva socialur fenas miekuTvnebian, amitomac maTi saubari genderuli, socialuri, asakobrivi faqtorebis
anareklia, rac gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos samizne teqstSi. zogjer gmirebis sametyvelo daxasiaTebas kuTxuri gamonaTqvamebic ki axlavs, an gansakuTrebuli stili, rogorc maTi ganaTlebisa da ganviTarebis maCvenebeli.

30

nino aroSiZe

aranaklebi problemebi dgas mTargmnelis winaSe, rodesac is istoriul filmebs Targmnis, magaliTad, robin huds, romelSic bevri istorizmi da arqaizmia gamoyenebuli. mTargmnelobiTi ostatoba da yuradReba aseTi detalebis mimarT gansakuTrebulad iCens Tavs erTi da igive filmis
sxvadasxva dublaJis dros, amitomac aseTi masala Rirebulia audiovizualuri Targmnis swavlebis dros.
stilisturi niuansebi, gmirebis sametyvelo daxasiaTebis garda, xSirad gamoiyeneba komikuri efeqtis Sesaqmnelad, magram, samwuxarod, isini
xSir SemTxvevaSi mTargmnelis yuradRebis miRma rCebian, rogorc es moxda
amerikul filmSi cixe haerSi. amave filmSi aqtualuria kinoteqstis saTauris zusti gadmocema, radganac saTauri teqstis Zlier niSans warmoadgens da unda gamoxatavdes teqstis mTavar azrs. amitom rusul kinogaqiravebaSi xSiria saTauris Secvlis SemTxvevebi e.w. lokalizacia, rom potenciaur mayurebels ufro realuri warmodgena hqondes filmis Sinaarsze,
magaliTad, reJisiori roni xovardis filmi "Cinderella Man", romelic
agebulia mokrive jeims bredokis biografiaze, gaxda "" (nokdauni), qarTul sinamdvileSi ki orive saTauri iyo gamoyenebuli.
samwuxarod, zogjer saTauris Secvla gaugebari rCeba, ase filmi
"Fair game" gaxda cnobili rogorc , qarTulSi ki isev
orive saTauri gxvdeba. zogierTi kinohitis saTauris istoria saocaria,
magaliTad, 1988 wlis kinohiti Die Hard sami saTauriT iyo gadaTargmnili:
, (Targmna l. volodarskim);
(Targmna a. gavrilovma);
(amJamad cnobilia am saTauriT).
sainteresoa, rom sxvadasxva qveyanaSi da kulturaSi saTauris adaptaciam gansxvavebuli forma miiRo, fineTSi is iyo adaptirebuli, rogorc
" ", poloneTSi cnobilia rogorc " " germaniaSi - " ", espaneTSi ki - " ". ungreTSi ki rusuli filmi, romelic aleqsei tolstois romanis mixedviT iyo gadaRebuli ( ), iyo gadaTargmnili rogorc golgoTaze asvla.
kinoteqstis mTargmnelis winaSe dgas mTeli rigi amocana: amoikiTxos
sxvadasxva semiotikuri niSnebis mier gadmocemuli informacia da axali
kulturis warmomadgenlebis poziciidan gamomdinare gadaTargmnos kinoteqstis yvela niSandoblivi niSani (saTauri, molaparake saxelebi, precedentuli teqstebi, gmirebis replikebi, mniSvnelovani simboloebi da sxv.). gansakuTrebul yuradRebas animaciuri filmebis Targmna moiTxovs, vinaidan am
teqstebis mimRebi auditoria, ZiriTadad, bavSvebia.
kinoteqstis semiotikis fuZemdeblebi arian: s. eizenSteini, u. eko, p.
pazolini da sxv. pazolinis azriT, kinoteqstis ena semiotikuri TvalsazrisiT ar gamoirCeva Cveulebrivi enisagan, magram i.lotmani statiaSi kinos semiotika da kinoesTetikis problemebi aRniSnavs, rom nebismieri ki-

kinoteqstis Targmnis semiotikuri problemebi

31

noteqsti warmoadgens mTel rig rTul Setyobinebas, romelsac avtori ugzavnis mayureblebs. es Setyobinebebi SeiZleba iyos dayofili patara erTeulebad, romlebic kinoenis specifikas warmoadgenen. kinos buneba TxrobiTia, amitom - komunikaciuri, komunikacia ki SeiZleba iyos aRwerili da gaanalizebuli semiotikuri TvalsazrisiT (lotmani).
literatura
szarkovska 2009: Szarkowska A. The Power of Film Translation. Translation
Journal. Apr. 2005,
kuzmiCevi 2012: ..
//
. .,
lotmani 1992: .. .
. . 1. .
Nino Aroshidze
Semiotic Problems of Translating Cinematographic Text
The complex cinematographic text represents an interesting type of the
creolized text that employs several sign systems: music, movement, costumes,
interior, verbal system, etc. In the 20th century it has become one of the most
dominant types of the text, and yet it needs further detailed linguocultural
research with consideration of its complexity and semiotic diversity.
Translators of these texts face numerous tasks: read the information
transferred through various semiotic signs and translate the most powerful and
meaningful components of the text (title, meaningful names, precedent texts,
characters speech, and significant symbols, etc.) from the perspective of a
representative of a different culture.

asmaT arZenaZe,
medea imnaZe
sazRvao komunikaciis
simboluri universumi
sazRvao komunikacia profesiuli komunikaciis erT-erT rTul semiotikur sivrces
warmoadgens, es ar aris gasakviri, radganac
mezRvaurebis urTierToba yalibdeboda saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi, sxvadasxva qveynisa da
kulturis zegavleniT. Tanamedrove profesiuli komunikaciis simboluri universumi, romelic gavrcelebulia saqarTveloSi, mraval fenas warmoadgens da masSi Sexamebulia verbaluri da araverbaluri niSnebi, naklebad markirebuli da kulturuli TvalsazrisiT markirebuli erTeulebi.
sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom sazRvao saqmianobis aRmniSvneli araverbaluri simboloebia Semdegi nivTebi / gamosaxulebebi / naxatebi:

Ruza, gemi, Sturvali, ialqani, talRa,


zRva, Tolia, Suqura da sxv.
maT ar gaaniaT erovnul-kulturuli
specifika da gamoiyeneba praqtikulad yvelgan.
qvemoT mocemulia saqarTvelos, ukrainis, ruseTis sazRvao umaRlesi saswavleblebis emblemebi, romelzec gamoyenebulia yvela zemoT
aRniSnuli simbolo: baTumis saxelmwifo sazRvao akademiis, odesis erovnuli sazRvao akademiis da sxv.

sazRvao komunikaciis simboluri universumi

33

sazRvao araverbaluri simboloebi universaluria, maT ar gaaniaT


erovnuli markireba, aqvT mxolod profesiuli.
sazRvao komunikaciis simboluro universumi warmoadgens saerTaSoriso profesiuli komunikaciis specifikur sivrces, romelic moiTxovs
yvelasTvis gasageb enobriv da profesiul kods. mezRvaurTa urTierTobaSi
ukve didi xania gabatonda inglisuri ena, magram miuxedavad imisa, rom ocdameerTe saukuneSi Tanamedrove gemebi aRWurvilia samecniero-teqnikuri
revoluciis saukeTeso miRwevebiT, jer kidev aqtiurad gamoiyeneba specifikuri sazRvao niSnebis krebuli.
sazRvao komunikaciaSi sakmaod didi xania gamoiyeneba informaciis gadaceba feradi droSebiT. adre sxvadasxva qveyanaSi es droSebi gansxvavebuli
iyo, xolo mevidmete saukunis meore naxevarSi moxda maTi unificireba, romelic sakmaod xangrZlivi procesi iyo. Tavis droze sxva qveynis sazRvao kodis gagebas ara erTi jaSuSi da mezRvauri Seewira.
1653 wels did britaneTSi gamoiSva sazRvao signalebis pirveli krebuli. kodirebul sistemaSi mniSvneloba eniWeboda ara marto droSas, aramed misi gamofenis adgils, ialqnebis kombinacias da sxv. 1780 wels miRebuli gadawyvetilebis mixedviT, datovebuli iyo mxolod aTi sasignalo
droSa da maTi kombinaciebi (Howe signal book). 1800 wels kapitanma poxemma
(Popham) Seadgina sazRvao leqsikoni, romelSic ori aTasi simbolo iyo
axsnili, maT iyenebdnen samxedroebi. mecxramete saukunis dasawyisSi f. mariatmam Seadgina msgavsi signalebis kodeqsi savaWro flotisTvis, magram
es sistema mxolod britaneTSi gamoiyeneboda. 1857 wels analogiuri sistema SemuSavda saerTaSoriso gamoyenebisTvis da Tvrameti sasignalo droSidan Sedgeboda. is aqtiurad gamoiyeneboda inglisSi, amerikaSi, kanadasa
da safrangeTSi. xolo 1887 wels savaWro flotis signalTa krebulis safuZvelze SemuSavda signalTa saerTaSoriso kodebi (The International
Code of Signals; INTERCO), romelic miRebuli iyo yvela sazRvao qveyanaSi. is ZalaSi Sevida 1901 wels da mogvianebiT (1931 wels) Seicvala. bolo
revizia Sedga 1969 wels, TiToeuli droSa konkretul asos aRniSnavs,
amavdroulad - winadadebasac, agreTve moyvanilia morzes anbanis Sesatyvi-

34

asmaT arZenaZe, medea imnaZe

sebi, magaliTad:
A

ALFA

I have a diver
down; keep well
clear at slow speed.

,


.

I am taking in,
discharging, or
BRAVO
carrying dangerous
cargo.

, ,

.

CHARLI Yes or
E
affirmative.

DELTA

I am maneuvering

with difficulty; keep ,
clear.
.

ECHO

I am altering my
course to starboard.

I am disabled;
FOXTRO
communicate with
T
me.

,
.

GOLF

I require a pilot.

HOTEL

I have a pilot on
board.

INDIA

I am altering my
course to port.

JULIET

I am on fire and
have dangerous
cargo; keep well
clear of me, or I am
leaking dangerous
cargo.


,

.

KILO

I wish to
communicate with

sazRvao komunikaciis simboluri universumi

35

you.

LIMA

You should stop


your vessel
immediately.

MIKE

My vessel is

stopped and making

no way through the
.
water.

NOVEM
BER

No or negative.

OSCAR

Man overboard.

PAPA

All personnel return



to ship; the vessel is
,
about to procede to
c
sea.

Ship meets health


QUEBEC regulations; request
clearance into port.


,

.

ROMEO

None.

SIERRA

Moving astern.

TANGO


Keep clear;
,
engaged in trawling.
.

UNIFOR You are running


M
into danger.

VICTOR

I require assistance.

36

asmaT arZenaZe, medea imnaZe

da sxv.

sazRvao saqmianobas, samwuxarod, xSirad ukavSirdeba ubedureba. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eniWeboda mezRvaurebis gadarenas, amitom SemuSavda
mTeli rigi signali, romlebis meSveobiTac ekipas SeuZlia ubedurebis Sesaxeb acnobos sazogadoebas da iTxovos daxmareba. miuxedavad Tanamedrove
teqnologiebisa, sazRvao komunikaciaSi dRemde gamoiyeneba morzes anbani,
wertilebisa da tireebis kombinaciebze agebuli kodi. sainteresoa, rom mezRvaurTa sicocxles safrTxe Tu emuqreba, isini agzavnian signals SOS (sami
wertili, sami tire, sami wertili), anu rogorc erTi grZeli xmovani, Tumca
gavrcelebulia azri, rom signali SOS abreviaturiT aris warmodgenili:
Save our souls ( )

Save our ship ( ).


sazRvao profesiuli komunikaciis simboluri universumi marto araverbaluri niSnebiT ar aris warmodgenili. rogorc e. n. zareckaia aRniSnavs,
profesiul urTierTobaSi enobrivi erTeulebi specifikur konotaciebs iZenen, rac maTs profesiul kods ayalibebs.
sazRvao komunikaciis saerTaSoriso xasiaTma ganapiroba is garemoeba,
rom qarTuli profesiuli sivrcis am nawilSi Zalian bevri erTeuli makrouniversaluria. amis garda, istoriuli mizezebis gamo xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi qarTuli sazRvao sivrce uSualod rusul sazRvao sivrcis nawils
warmoadgenda, amitomac rusuli enisa da kulturis zegavleniT amoyalibda
frazariumis didi nawili.
aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli sazRvao semiotikuri sivrce sakmaod mravalferovania. jer kidev sulxan-saba orbelianis sityvis konaSi aris moyvanili bevri qarTuli sazRvao termini, magram nawili daviwyebas mieca,
radgan ar gamoiyeneboda. amis garda, sazRvao saqme swrafad viTardeboda
samecniero-teqnikuri revoluciis pirobebSi. amas daemata mezRvaurTa hegemoniis Secvla (jer am sferoSi holandielebi pirvelobdnen, Semdeg ki espanelebTan brZolis Sedegad - ingliselebi). ar aris gasakviri, rom sazRvao simboluri universumi Sedgeba ramdenime simboluri fenisgan, romelTa Seswavla did interess warmoadgens warmatebuli profesiuli saqmianobisTvis.
literatura:
.. . . ., 2002.
(-1965).

sazRvao komunikaciis simboluri universumi

37

Asmat Ardzenadze
Medea Imnadze
Symbolic Universe of the Maritime Communication
Maritime communication represents one of the most complex semiotic
fields of the professional communication. The reason is the history of hundreds
of years of building the communication between the sailors who represent
different countries and cultures. The symbolic universe of the modern
professional communication, common in Georgia, represents different layers and
contains verbal and nonverbal signs, less marked and marked units from the
cultural point of view.
Despite the fact that in the 21st Century, modern vessels are equipped with
the latest findings of the scientific and technological development, specific
maritime signs are still being used. Maritime profession unfortunately is
accompanied with the accidents, thus one of the most important aspects is saving
the lives of the sailors. Different ways of communication were developed in
order to let the vessel inform the public about the accident and request help (SOS
signal).
Professional success in given profession requires thorough study of the
symbolic universe of the Maritime communication.

zeinab axvlediani
Tanamedrove
leqsikografia
da semiotika
erTa komunikaciis, kulturisa da TiToeuli eris miRma arsebuli fonuri samyaros Secnobis erTaderT saSualebad, enis
srulfasovani codnis safuZvelze ganxorcielebuli warmatebuli Targmani gvevlineba, romlis drosac mTargmnelis erT-erT yvelaze Rirebul damxmare saSualebas leqsikoni warmoadgens. adekvatur-srulyofil Targmanze moTxovnilebis gazrdam ki enis swavlebis meTodebis cvlileba-daxvewa ganapiroba.
miuxedavad imisa, rom ucxo enis SeswavlaSi
vizualuri da audiosemiotikuri saSualebebis roli mniSvnelovnad didia, enis dauflebis mTavar saSualebad mainc lingvisturi semiotika gvevlineba.
sociumis moRvaweobis nebismier sferoSi mimdinare cvlileba maSinve hpovebs
lingvistur anarekls da Cndeba uamravi axali ekonomikuri Tu kulturologiuri universalia. maTi semiotikuri da semantikuri
aRwera-dafiqsireba leqsikografTa muxlCauxrel Sromasa da sistematur kvlevebTanaa
dakavSirebuli. pirvel rigSi, unda aRvniSnoT, rom leqsikonebi eris kulturis, eTnosis religiuri, politikuri, filosofiuri, mecnierul-teqnikuri azrovnebis,
sazogadoebaSi warmoqmnili urTierTobis
produqtia. igi erTaderTi saSualebaa, romelsac adamiani Targmanis, am urTulesi da
saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis mqone procesis
dros daxmarebisTvis mimarTavs. Targmani ki
enobrivi gaugebrobis gaqarwylebis, anu sit-

Tanamedrove leqsikografia da semiotika

39

yvis semantikuri mniSvnelobis gagebinebis garda, kulturuli barieris gadalaxvis, sityvis miRma arsebuli uzarmazari fonuri samyaros Secnobis
erTaderTi saSualebaa, romlis realizaciasac adamiani xSir SemTxvevaSi
leqsikonebis saSualebiT axorcielebs.
saerTod, leqsikoni iqmneba adresatis moTxovnilebis Sesabamisad,
aqtualuri lingvisturi koncefciisaTvis, radgan movlenebi, romlebic
xdeba sazogadoebaSi, fiqsirdeba enaSi leqsikis koreqciis, sintaqsisa da
sityvaTa formirebebis elementebis saxiT. swored es aris mizezi imisa, rom
leqsikografiuli Semoqmedeba mudam ganaxlebad naSromad unda gvevlinebodes.
leqsikoni enobrivi koleqtivis leqsikuri maragis Sesaxeb srul da
amomwurav informacias unda iZleodes, romlis miwodeba mimRebi enobrivi
koleqtivisTvis farTod gaSlili sityva-statiis formiT unda xorcieldebodes. igi unda warmoadgendes ara marto ama Tu im enaSi arsebul leqsikur
marags, aramed detaluradac gadmogvcemdes TiToeuli sityvis warmoSobis
istoriasa da maTi gamoyenebis uzarmazar speqtrs. srulyofili leqsikoni
sociumSi arsebul yvela sferos, maT Soris: literaturas, religias, istorias, kanons da a.S. arsebuli leqsikuri maragis semiotikur aRweras unda emsaxurebodes. leqsikonuri forma unda warmoadgendes enciklopedias, romlis ZiriTad princips rogorc enobrivi elementebis struqturaTa Taviseburebebis dafiqsireba, aseve sityvis miRma arsebuli konceptualuri samyaros
gaTvaliswineba warmoadgens.
Cveni interesis sferos Turqul-qarTuli leqsikografiuli mdgomareoba da arsebuli naklovanebebi warmoadgens. dRes, Tanamedrove globalizaciis pirobebSi, roca msoflios wamyvan qveynebTan urTierTobebzea damyarebuli Cveni qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri winsvla, roca gare samyarosTan
urTierTobisas kulturul gaugebrobze fardis axdis erTaderT saSualebad Targmani da misi xerxemali _ leqsikonebi gvevlineba, qarTuli leqsikografiis orenovani naSromebi metwilad sayofacxovrebo leqsikis mqone da
dabali xarisxis leqsikonebiT Semoifargleba.
saqarTveloSi arsebul leqsikonTa umravlesoba sityvis mxolod zedapirul, erTi-or sinonimur ganmartebas sjerdeba, TiTqmis ar gvaqvs mocemuli sityvis konteqsturi mniSvneloba, variantuli Sesatyvisebi, mravalmniSvnelovneba, swori TargmanisTvis aucilebeli polisemiuri sityvis
konteqsturad moyvanili ganmartebebi, romelic sityvis gamoyenebis mza magaliTs iZleva. Tanamedrove leqsikonSi mocemulia sityvis mxolod erTi
an ori ZiriTadi mniSvneloba, romelic moklebulia yovelgvar sailustracio masalas, sityvis Sesaxeb elementarul morfologiur informacias da
a.S. mTargmneli Targmans mxolod enobrivi elementebis codna-gamoyenebiT
ki ar unda axorcielebdes, aramed mkiTxvelze adekvatur-emociuri STabeWdilebis mosaxdenad is unda flobdes da afiqsirebdes informacias wyaro
enis enobrivi koleqtivis miRma arsebuli fonuri samyaros Sesaxeb, swored
amitomac did danakliss warmoadgens Turqul-qarTuli lingvokulturo-

40

zeinab axvlediani

logiuri leqsikonis ararseboba, romelic leqsikografiis ganviTarebis


umaRles safexurs warmoadgens. lingvokulturologiuri leqsikonebi
Segviqmnian warmodgenas enis konceptualur samyaroze, im uzarmazar kulturologiur sivrcesa sulier faseulobebze, romlebic mocemuli enis
enobriv koleqtivTanaa Sesisxlxorcebuli. msgavsi leqsikonebi metad daexmareba mTargmnels, raTa misma naTargnma teqstma wyaro teqstis msgavsi
zegavlena moaxdinos mkiTxvelze, radganac Targmanis adresati sxva kulturisa da gansxvavebuli fonuri codnis matarebelia.
msoflioSi dRevandlamde aTasobiT programa Seiqmna da dRemde mimdinareobs Seqmnis procesi. gansakuTrebiT didia leqsikonebis da teqstebis
eleqtronul sistemaSi gadayvanis moTxovnileba. onlain leqsikonebis gamoyeneba, iseTi mZime da Sromatevadi samuSaos ganxorcielebisas, rogoricaa Targmani, uzarmazari SeRavaTia. dRes, roca 21-e saukune kompiuteruli
teqnologiebis inovaciebiTa da swrafi safexureobrivi ganviTarebiT xasiaTdeba, seriozuli muSaoba midis onlain leqsikonis saWiroebisamebr gamoyenebis uzrunvelsayofad. onlain leqsikoni aris kompiuteruli programa,
Tanamedrove moTxovnilebebs morgebuli vebaplikacia, romelic ganTavsebulia internetSi da TargmniTi Sromis swrafad ganxorcielebisa da dapirispirebul enaze Sesatyvisebis advilad moZiebis brwyinvale saSualebas
iZleva.
aseTi leqsikonebi moipoveba magaliTad Turqul-rusul leqsikografiaSi, romelsac qarTuli sazogadoeba, Turqul-qarTuli analogis ararsebobis gamo, SeZlebisdagvarad iyenebs. Turqul-rusuli onlain leqsikonis sityva statiaSi sakmaod vrceli saxiTaa mocemuli polisemiuri sityvis rogorc konteqsturi, aseve Sesityvebebis, idiomebis, andazebis saxiT
mocemuli ganmartebebi.
samwuxarod, rogorc aRvniSneT, qarTul-Turquli leqsikografia
msgavsi leqsikonebiT ver daikvexnis. arsebuli CamorCenis dasaZlevad enaTmecnierebisa da teqnologebis erToblivi ZalisxmeviT aucileblad unda
daiwyos Turqul-qarTul eleqtronul leqsikonebze muSaoba. yvelaze
mniSvnelovan faqtors monacemTa gramatikul-semantikuri damuSaveba warmoadgens, radganac, sityvis fleqsiuri formebis damoukideblad aRqma da
Sesabamisi analizis gakeTeba kompiuteris SesaZleblobebs aRemateba. magaliTad: eleqtronuli leqsikonis Sesaqmnelad, sityvis gadayvanasTan erTad, aucilebelia misi gramatikuli da semantikuri cvlilebebis gaTvaliswineba: sityvis warmoSoba, brunva, uRlebebi, xmovanTa amovardnis SemTxvevebi, sityvis sinonimuri da antonimuri aRwera, konteqsturi ganmartebebi da a.S. calkeuli sityvis mniSvneloba xSir SemTxvevaSi winadadebaSi
mis konteqstur ganmartebas ar emTxveva, amitom sityvis gamoyenebis speqtri rac SeiZleba farTod unda aRiweros, radgan kompiuteri mxolod fiqsirebuli masalis mixedviT SeZlebs arsebul moTxovnaze adekvatur reagirebas.
zemoCamoTvlili leqsikografiuli problemebi, arsebuli CamorCena,

Tanamedrove leqsikografia da semiotika

41

rasakvirvelia, rogorc kargi qarTveli mTargmnelebis mwir raodenobas, aseve xarisxiani Targmanis naklebobas ganapirobebs. am tipis leqsikonTa ararseboba uaryofiTad aisaxeba saqarTvelo-TurqeTis kulturul-ekonomikur urTierTobebze, radgan kargad ganviTarebuli leqsikografia, warmatebuli
Targmanisa da or qveyanas Soris kulturul-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis
gaRrmavebis winapirobaa.
Zeinab Akhvlediani
Modern Lexicography and Semiotics
The modern era is distinguished by lexicographical news and the new levels
of development. The XXI century civilization is mostly associated with the
development of technology, an increasing demand for online translation of texts
and dictionaries, the main part of which belongs to the data grammatical and
semantic processing, because without the inflectional forms of a word a perception
and an appropriate analysis are beyond the computer capabilities. Occurring in the
society events are reflected in the language in the form of a vocabulary correction
and as elements of syntax and word formation. The language is constantly updated
with new words; many modern cultural and economic universals appear in it.
Besides a superficial interpretation, the lingvoculturological value of a word should
be clearly expressed as well. The lingvoculturological dictionaries would give an
idea about a conceptual world of a language, its ethno-cultural space, and allow us
to truly decode and correctly reflect the ethno-cultural and social stereotypes,
which are related to a linguistic group of a certain language. From this point of
view the existing Georgian-Turkish dictionaries undergo a serious crisis: they
almost never give us a contextual meaning of a given word, its variant word
combinations, collocations, polysemantics. A correct translation requires
contextual definitions of a polysemous word, that give the ready-made examples of
a word usage. A modern dictionary gives only one or two main meanings of a
word, which lacks any illustrative material or elementary morphological
information about a word, etc. The Georgian-Turkish thesaurus with a
comprehensive stock of the language lexical units would allow us to comprehend
and accept the opposing languages from the two points of view _ both a semantic
one and a huge background world, existing beyond a word, and representing the
linguistic and spiritual world of a nation.

malxaz balaZe
sinanulisa da monaniebis
problema
akaki wereTlis prozaSi
me-19 saukunis qarTul literaturaSi
aqtiurad ganixileboda sinanulisa da monaniebis problema. am mxriv gamorCeulia akaki
wereTelis Semoqmedeba. mas yavs mTeli galerea mxatvruli saxeebisa, romelTac SeiZleba vuwodoT marTlmadidebeli `monanie codvilebi~. swored `codvilTa sinanuli~ aris
is saerTo problema, romelic asistemebs
garkveul mxatvrul saxeebs akaki wereTlis
SemoqmedebaSi.
moTxroba `raWis erisTavi rostomi~
pirobiTad SeiZleba or nawilad davyoT.
pirvel nawilSi gadmocemulia vnebaaSlilTa da gulisTqmas ayolilTa saqmianoba.
`rostom erisTavi mis droSi gamoCenili da
saxelovani kaci iyo~. SuriT aRvsilma didebulebma erTguli jafara CamoaSores Tvalebi daaTxrevines. Semdeg rostom erisTavsac mefe solomon pirvelTan bezReba dauwyes. verafers ver miaRwies, `sanam brali ar
SeemCna erisTavs mefis orgulobisa~. maSinve
Camoayvanina geguTSi, daaTxrevina Tvalebi da
gadasca mis mosisxar mters, papuna wereTels ra gindodes, is uyavio!
wereTelma, rogorc filistimelebma
samson Zlieri, waayvanina saCxeres da Casva
`modinaxes~ cixeSi. iq Tumca wisqvilis qvas
ar abrunebinebda tyves, magram nakleb Seuracxyofas ki mainc ar ayenebda. rogorc ganTqmuli mgalobeli, mihyavda xolme lxinSi

sinanulisa da monaniebis problema akaki wereTlis prozaSi

43

da amRerebda da xSirad Turme dascinoda xolme sajarod: `rostom erisTavo! xom gaxsovs, WalebSi rom Camomixti da xvadabunebi damixanio? axla
me gixdi samagieros da Sens gulsa vfarcxavo.~ da astydeboda xolme stumrebSi sicil-xarxari~
moTxrobis pirvel nawilSi personaJTa moqmedeba Zveli aRqmis adamianTa saqciels hgavs mxolod `kbili kbilisa wil da Tuali Tualisa wil~.
naCvenebia adamianTa sisastike, samagieros migebis survili, Suri da RvarZli, siZulvili da daundobloba.
moTxrobis meore nawilSi naCvenebia sulierebis gzaze SemdgarTa sinanuli da aRsareba. aRdgoma dRes Sexvdnen erTmaneTs ori brma, jafar jafariZe da rostom erisTavi. es ukanaskneli eubneba jafaras: `Sen Seni ici
da me ki swored maSin aRmadgina mkvdreTiT ufalma, roca ubedureba momivlina da Tvalebi damTxares! manamdi me yvelafers vumzerdi da veraras vxedavdi! yurs vugdebdi da ara mesmoda ra! medidurobiT gaborotebuli,
Turme jojoxeTis mona viyavi da axla qristes vemsaxurebi! da vugalobT
mas SvebiTa da sixaruliT!~
jafara?! daibobRina erisTavma: mec wavxdi, Senc wagaxdine...qriste aRdga, gixarodes!
Caekvrnen erTmaneTs gul-mkerdSi ori brma moxuci, gadaaWdes yeli
yels da aqviTindnen.~ (rCeuli..1989, 401)
rogorc vxedavT, rostomis pirovnebaSi udidesi gardatexaa momxdari.
igi sul sxva adamiania sulierad sufTa da maRali, vidre winaT. Tvalebis
daTxras RvTis wyalobad Tvlis. akaki wereTeli pirdapir saxarebiseul Segonebas aTqmevinebs personaJs: `yvelafers vumzerdi da veraras vxedavdi,
yurs vugdebdi da ara mesmoda ra.~ faqtiurad am sityvebiT erisTavi xazs
usvams adamianTa gonebrivi Zilis mdgomareobas. saxarebis mixedviT, qriste
vidre swavlebas daiwyebda, xSirad ase mimarTavda garSemomyofT: `visac
aqvs yurni smenad, isminos~. (maTe 11, 15). amitomac ambobs pavle mociquli:
`gaiRviZe, mZinarev, aRdeg mkvdreTiT, da gaganaTlebs Sen qriste.~ (pavle,
efeselTa 5, 14).
erisTavi mkacr Sefasebas aZlevs Tavis adrindel yofas. pativmoyvareoba iyo erT-erTi mizezi sulieri dacemisa. akaki aqac misdevs saxarebiseul
mcnebebsa da Segonebebs. swored nawarmoebis meore naxevarSi vxedavT rostomsa da jafaras rogorc momanie gmirebs. marTalia, aRsarebas jafara ambobs, magram rostomis Rriali `jafara, mec wavxdi, Senc wagaxdine!~ da
misi Semoxveva yofil mosisxar mterze udidesi sinanulis gamomxatvelia.
unda iTqvas, rom akaki ar aris momxre adamianSi gardamavali, etapobrivi cvalebadobisa. masTan pirovnebis fericvaleba ucabedad xdeba. myisierad kvdeba Zveli da ibadeba axali. marTalia personaJebs gaazrebis dro
qondaT, magram akaki literaturul dros iyenebs da amitom ucabedi gamodis maTi Sexvedra. fericvalebisaTvis saWiroa yvelaze Zlieri saSualeba,
konkretulad `totaluri sikvdili~ ( , 1966, 112). es
is mdgomareobaa, romelic gonebiT ar aixsneba da romelsac ewodeba: `abso-

44

malxaz balaZe

luturi ucodinroba, an sxvagvarad, cnobierebis ararseboba, romelic ver


gaxdeba Teoriul-SemecnebiTi kvlevis obieqti~ (iqve, 1966, 113). haidegeris mixedviT, am dros xdeba udidesi Secnoba (iqve, 1966, 113). iaspersic miiCnevs, rom `yofiereba ganicdeba diskursiuli gonebis `damsxvrevis~, marcxis, sruli `daRupvis~ dros (iqve, 1966, 74). aRmosavleTi am mdgomareobas gamoxatavs terminiT `udidesi sicariele~. sokrate ki ityoda: `me vici, rom araferi ar vici~. egzistencialistebi amboben, rom mxolod piradi
gancdebis SemTxvevaSi, konkretulad ki, zrunvaSi, SiSSi, mowyenilobaSi,
mitovebulobasa da imedgacruebaSi ibadeba axali, romelsac WeSmariti yofiereba qvia. saxarebiseulad, `xelmeored Soba~ ewodeba. axalad dabadebisTvis saWiroa Zelis sikvdili, anu `ara~ warsuls. amis Sesaxeb mRvdelmTavari antoni suroJeli ambobs: `TiToeul Cvens midrekilebas TanSobili boroti oreuli sdevs Tan; swored isaa Cveni damonebis erT-erTi gza...Tu
droulad ar ityvi `aras~, brZola ar dasruldeba.~ (antoni, 2004, 62).
akaki aqac saxarebiseul Segonebebs zustad miyveba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
am moTxrobaSi Zveli da axali aRqmis bibliuri siuJetia. pirveli naxevarSi
Zveli aRqmis adamianebi gamohyavs, romelTa moqmedeba eyrdnoba princips: `Tuali Tualisa wil~. meore naxevarSi ki isini ibadebian xelmeored, axali aRqmis
adamianebad. nawarmoebis meore naxevarSi Cven vxedavT `damdablebulTa amaRlebas~. swored simdable (misi gamomwvevi mizezis miuxedavad) angrevs pirovnebis
egos da amaRlebs mas. `vinc amaRldeba damdabldeba da vinc damdabldeba, amaRldeba~. macxovris es Segoneba mxatvrul formaSia moqceuli akakisTan.
mwerali moTxrobis pirveli nawili adamianTa fizikur samyaroSi arsebul siamovnebaTa da aqedan gamowveul Sedegebze gvesaubreba. meore nawili ki
sulierze, romelic maradiulia. es Tema odiTganve iyo adamianTa msjelobisa
da dakvirvebis sagani. antikuri da momdevno periodis filosofosebi farTod
msjeloben am problematikaze. heraklites WeSmariti siamovneba eguleboda ara
sxeulebriv siamovnebaSi, aramed ufro amaRlebulSi, gonebriv moRvaweobaSi,
azrovnebaSi (T.kukava, 37).
piTagorelebi qadagebdnen `vnebebis: SiSis, mwuxarebis sixarulisa da
saerTod yovelive gadaWarbebuli eqscesis daZlevis Sesaxeb.~ maTi formulireba aseTi iyo: `bunebas adamianebisTvis ar miucia imaze metad saxifaTo
da damRupveli ram, vidre vnebebiT tkbobaa... RmerTma adamians gonebaze ukeTesi ara misca ra. am RvTaebrivi saCuqrisadmi siamovnebaze ufro metad
mtruli ram ar arsebobs~ (kukava, 111)
amave sakiTxs ganixilavs platoni. `timeosSi~ igi ambobs, rom `gadametebuli siamovneba da tanjva iwvevs siSleges~ (platoni, 1994, 273)
Tvalebis daTxris Semdeg rostomi, rogorc misi aRsarebidan Cans, ufro bednieria. Sinagani sixarulisa da netarebis mdgomareoba igrZnoba masSi.
rogorc epikure ambobda: `sulieri tanjva gacilebiT aRemateba sxeulebrivs, radgan sxeulebrivi tanjva wamieri tkivilia, suli ki itanjeba warsuliTac, awmyoTic da momavliTac. Sesabamisad amisa, sulieri tkboba ufro
Zlieria da aRmatebuli, vidre sxeulebrivi~. epikures azriT, yvelaze myari

sinanulisa da monaniebis problema akaki wereTlis prozaSi

45

da xangrZlivi sulieri siamovneba vlindeba sikeTeSi, SemecnebaSi, WeSmarit


msjelobaSi, megobrobaSi da es aris gza netarebisaken, xolo netarebis
umaRlesi forma aris sulis aRuSfoTveloba, simSvide~. nikoloz baraTaSvilma ki lamazi mxatvruli formulireba misca am filosofiurTeologiur WeSmaritebas:
`ara dahqrolon navsa Cemsa qarTa vnebisa,
aramed moec mas sadguri myudroebisa~
(`Cemi locva~)
TvalebdaTxrili rostomi ufro ubeduri unda yofiliyo. misi tanjva
unda daexata mwerals. magram moTxrobis meore nawilSi man udidesi idea Cado, adamianis sicocxlis azrsa da daniSnulebaze miuTiTa. dagvanaxa misi
codviTa da borotebiT aRsavse cxovreba, amave dros miuTiTa gamosavalze
sinanulsa da monaniebis Zalaze, romelic radikalurad cvlis pirovnebas.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom istoriul qronikaSi `solomon didi imereTis mefe~, romelic redaqtirebulia akaki wereTlis mier aris dokumenturi, zepiragadmocemuli Tanamedrovisa mgalobeli kandelakisa da Cawerili
misi SviliSvilis siko kandelakisagan, rostomi marTlac nanobs Tavis saqciels: `es didi kacebi, TvalebdaTxrili rostomi da misi Svilebi, brwyinvale tanisamosebiT da sxvadasxva Zvirfas farCebiT Semkuni, eyarnen TovlSi da mainc mediduroba etyobodaT. xmas ar iRebdnen. mxolod moxuci
rostomi ki aitana sinanulma da warmoTqva: `ai, ra yofila Cveni cxovreba
da aqamdis ar vicodi!.. yvelgan SfoTi da Zalmomreobaa, yoveli kaci cru
ars da scdeba, mxolod Sen xar utyuari da Seucdomeli, maRalo RmerTo!
cani da qveyanani waxdnen, mxolod sityvani Seni ara. sad me da sad mefe solomon?! mieciT keisars keisrisao. ratom ar vjerdebodi Cems yofaqonebas?!~ (wereTeli, 1940, 472475)
Cans, rom sinamdvileSi marTlac yofila momenti, rodesac TvalebdaTxrili erisTavi Cafiqrebula cxovrebis arsis maradiul sakiTxze. uTuod am epizodma misca biZgi akaki wereTels, rom Seeqmna aRniSnul moTxrobaSi monanie gmiris brwyinvale saxe. asea Tu ise, Cvens mwerlobaSi aseTi gulwrfeli monaniebis magaliTebi qmnian `monanie gmirTa~ SesaniSnav galereas.
(es egzistencialisturi nakadia amave dros Cvens literaturaSi.)
akaki wereTels am moTxrobaSi naCvenebi aqvs adamianis ori, diametrulad gansxvavebuli yofa adamianebisa materialuri da sulieri. pirveli
rogorc dacemisa da meore rogorc amaRlebis gza.
pavle mociquli `adamianSi arCevs or urTierTsawinaaRmdego da dapirispirebul sawyiss: gonebas, anu Sinagan kacs da xorcs. amis Sesabamisad or
rjuls `rjuli gonebisa~ da `rjuli asoTa~, romelTa brZolac Cans adamianis uklebliv yvela naazrevsa da moqmedebaSi.... igi wers, rom adamiani,
rogorc xorcieli arseba mTlianad moeqca codvis meufebaSi, ris Sedegadac avlens sakuTari vnebis rjuls. magram amasTanave adamianSi xorcis garda, aseve bunebrivad, aris `goneba~. (`nus~berZ.), romelsac ar SuZlia ar

46

malxaz balaZe

aRiaros RvTis rjulis upiratesoba da ar surdes misi aRsruleba. miuxedavad amisa, is uRonoa sikeTisaken ltolvaSi. CemSi aris keTilis ndoba,
magram ar vici, rogor aRvasrulo igi, `rameTu Tana mnebavs me sjuls
RmrTisasa SinaganiTa miT kaciTa. da vxedav sxuasa sjulsa asoTa Sina CemTa,
romeli igi wina ganewyvebis sjula mas gonebisa Cemisasa da warmtyuenavs me
sjuliTa miT codvisaiTa , romeliigi ars asoTa Sina CemTa~(religia,7.22
23). amdenad, adamianSi ori sawyisia sulieri da xorcieli da xorcieli
warmmarTvelia da ar aZlevs sulier sawyiss qmedebisa da ganviTarebis saSualebas.
Sorapnel glaxasac `rjuli asoTagani~ daZlevs. (moTxroba `namdvili
ambavi~). `straJnikad vmuSaobdi, mogviTxrobs Tavis ambavs glaxa, damsjeli razmi rom SemoiRes, me, rogorc Cemda saubedurod, rusulis mcodne,
kazakebis erT gunds mimiCines.~ glaxa grZnobs, sibilwis morevSi SeiZleba
CaeSvas da amis gamo swuxs `ar miama, magram ras vizamdi?.. mec avedevne am
ZaRlTapirebs~.
ise, rogorc rostom erisTavi, glaxac imkis Tavisi moqmedebis Sedegs.
sabediswero misTvis siyvaruli gamodga. glaxas foTeli qali Seuyvarda.
mSoblebis Tanxmobis miuxedavad, qali uarze idga, `oqroSi rom Camsvas da
Tval-margalitiT SemWedos, maSinac ar minda qveynis mZarcvelio~. kazakebma
motaceba urCies. daujera da gahyva. kazakebma namusis axda moundomes qals.
`maSin ki mivxvdi, ganagrZobs glaxa, rom is ZaRlTapirebi CemTvis ar
cdilobdnen.~ mieSvela glaxa. qali gadaarCina. `maSin gamwarebuli kazakebi
lanZRvaginebiT momibrundnen, iSiSvles xanjlebi da wamiSines Tav-pirSi.
male davkarge goneba da mere aRara maxsovs ra!~
ilias WavWavaZis `glaxis naambobis~ msgavsad, `namdvil ambavSi~ glaxa
uyveba Tavgadasavals mwerals, akaki wereTels. orive SemTxvevaSi mwerlebi
personaJebad gvevlinebian.
borjomSi Sexvda glaxa mwerals. ase agviwers akaki mis garegnobas: `yurCamoTlili, cxvirgaWeWyili, loyebdaCexili da kisermogrexili!.. cudi sanaxavi ram iyo!..Tanac marjvena xels veRar xmarobda.~
rostom erisTaviviT, mZime sasjeli miiRo glaxam. xSirad `rjuli
gonebisa~ eZaxda, CamoSoreboda uwmindur saqmes, magram rogorc erisTavs,
masac `rjuli asoTa~ win eRobeboda.
aRsarebasaviT mouyveba glaxa akakis Tavis codvian Tavgadasavals. rostomi Tavis dasjil jafaras. orive personaJSi udidesi cvlilebaa momxdari.
fizikurma sasjelma kaTarzisis funqcia Seasrula maTSi. glaxac acnobierebs
ganvlili cxovrebis Secdomebs. igi eubneba mwerals, rom `wuxelis Zili rom
gamityda, gaviTvaliswine, rac Cemi TandaswrebiT momxdara da SiSma amitana . gavusvi locvas xeli, pirjvari gadaviwere samjer da vTqvi:`wminda giorgi, damifare meTqi~.
glaxas ganvlili cxovrebis gza SiSs gvris da gamosavals RmerTSi
eZebs loculobs da mfarvelobas iTxovs, rac imas niSnavs, rom igi Rrma
sinanulSi vardeba. locva aZlevs mas simxneves,sxva sayrdens ar eZebs igi, ar

sinanulisa da monaniebis problema akaki wereTlis prozaSi

47

msjelobs. rogorc Tqmula: `locva aris gonebis aRmafrena RvTisaken, adamianisa da RmerTis SeerTeba, xolo Tavisi qmedebiTqveynisgan gandgoma, misi RmerTiT Secvla...~(religia, 1992, 6667).
rostom erisTavi jafar jafariZesTan erTad mReris sagalobels
`qriste aRsdga!~. es gamoxatulebaa maTi qveynisagan gandgomisa da misi
RmerTiT Secvlisa~. rogorc pavle mocuquli ambobs: `elaparakeT Tqvensave
Tavs fsalmunebiT, sagaloblebiTa da sulieri simRerebiT; ugalobeT da
umRereT Tqveni gulebiT ufals.~ (efeselTa mimarT, 5. 19).
akaki wereTeli saxarebiseul, kanonikur swavlebebs acocxlebs mxatvrul saxeebSi: `iTxovdeT da mogecemaT; eZebeT da hpovebT; daakakuneT da
gagiReben~ (maTe 7.7). mfarveloba iTxova glaxam, iTxova da mieca. `marTlac venacvale mis madlsa da Zalas,ambobs glaxa,sizmarSi gamomecxada
wminda giorgi, modi CemTan da me dagifaravo!~.roca gaigebs, rom kaxeTSi
saydaria wmida giorgis saxelzeo, ityvis: ~hm! aba, is yofila swored, venacvale mis Zlierebas!..da xvalve gavudgebi gzas!..~ daiwera pirjvari da
wavida.
rogorc davinaxeT, rostom erisTavis, jafara jafariZisa da glaxas
monanieba da RvTis gzaze Sedgoma ar momxdara maTi nebiT. gansxvavebiT Tornike erisTavisa , (poema `Tornike erisTavi~) da gandegilisa, (ilia WavWavaZis `gandegili~). maTSi mxolod fizikuri sasjelisa da mZime xorcieli
tkivilis Semdeg xdeba gardatexa da Sinagani sulieri Zalebis gamoRviZeba.
aq akaki miyveba isev saxarebiseuli kanonikis principebs `rasac dasTes,
imasve moimki~. amasTanave es movlenebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc movlenili gamocda, romelmac `meored dabadebis~ roli Seasrula gmirTa cxovrebaSi. radgan akaki ar cdeba marTlmadidebluri religiis principebs, aq
udaod ikiTxeba wminda werilidan is monakveTi sadac naTqvamia: `sayvarelno, nu iucxoebT Tqvenda mimarT gamosacdelad movlenil cecxlovan gansacdels, rogorc TqvenTvis uCveulo rasme~ (iak.pirveli petresi 1. 12) radgan `mTavari is ki ar araa, ar viyoT gamocdilni, aramed gansacdelma ar dagvamarcxos~ (religia, 1992).
monanie gmirebSi yvelaze metad sulierad amaRlebuli, spetaki da saTno saxe, iseTi rogoric SeSvenis sasuliero pirs, aris ioseb kaTalikosi
(istoriuli qronika `solomon pirveli didi imereTis mefe~). Tavis samwyoSi igi cdilobs aRmofxvras Suri, mtroba, gautanloba da daTesos adamianebSi sikeTe da siyvaruli. mas surda, rom solomon pirvelsa da rostom
erisTavs Soris arsebuli gauTavebeli mtrobisaTvis moeRo bolo. TviTon
gaxda Tavdebi da CamoarTva piroba mefes, rom SerigebisaTvis mosul rostoms aras avnebda. solomonma piroba daarRvia da Tvalebi daTxara erisTavsa da mis Svilebs gaenaTSi. es rom Seityo kaTalikosma, `Seicxada, gadmovarda taxtidan, daeca miwaze, waiSina TavpirSi xelebi da wver-ulvaSi daiglija. Seimosa ZaZiT da gacxarebuli mieWra mefes quTaiss~.
kaTalikosi ukompromisoa amaoebis vnebaTagan Sepyrobili adamianebis
winaSe. igi iuda iskariotels, WeSmaritebis gamcemels uwodebs Tavis Tavs

48

malxaz balaZe

da Tvalebis daTxras iTxovs mefisagan. codviliani qveynis yurebas arCia


iseTive mdgomareobaSi Cavardna,rogorSic aRmoCndnen misi `dacvis sigeliT~ mobrZanebuli stumrebi.
damatyvevebeli siZlieriT aqvs aRwerili avtors kaTalikosis sinanuli.
ukanasknelad Caatara wirva, `fermixdili Camovida kaTalikosi kaTedridan, Sevida sakurTxevelSi, emTxvia trapezs, gamovida, mivida xaxulis RvTismSoblis
xatis win, daiCoqa da tiriliT daemxo. im dRidan aRarc uwiravs, Tavs uRirsad
xdida da iyo marad sinanulSi~.
amdenad, codvisa sinanulis sakiTxi akaki wereTlis msoflmxedvelobisa da mwerluri mizanswrafvis erTerTi ZiriTadi Tema iyo. am msoflmxedvelobiT Seqmnili mxatvruli proza da masSi gamoyvanili mxatvruli
saxeebi qmnian garkveul mimarTulebas, romelic am kuTxiT asistemebs mis
Semoqmedebas.
literatura:
rCeuli.. 1989: akaki wereTeli, rCeuli nawarmoebebi xuT tomad, t.2, Tb.
wereTeli, 1940: ak. wereTeli, saredaqcio SeniSvnebi.
religia, 1992: rjuli pavle mociqulis moZRvrebaSi, Jurn. religia, N 6.
antoni (suroJeli), 2004: - mRvdelmTavari antoni (suroJeli), Sexvedra
cocxal RmerTTan. Tb.
T.kukava, 1988: berZnuli filosofiis istoria,, Tb.
platoni, 1994: platoni, timeosi, Tb.
, 1966: - ,
. .
Malkhaz Baladze
Problem of sin and Repentance in Akaki tseretelis prose
Akaki tsereteli pays considerable attention to the problem of sin and
repentance in his creative works. Artistic imajes created in this conteqxt follow
the principle of certain system.

guram baxtaZe
`naperwklis~ saxe-simbolo
ilias SemoqmedebaSi
ilia WavWavaZis mxatvrul saxe-simboloTa sistemis saidumloebis Seswavla
kvlavac rCeba litmcodneobis aqtualur
sakvlev problemaTa rigSi. igi gvayenebs faqtis winaSe, _ rom ilias literaturuli
memkvidreobis mxatvruli mniSvnelobis siRrme mkiTxvelis esTetikuri Semecnebis
srulfasovnebis
pirdapirproporciulia.
`vefxstyaosnis~ erT-erT Rirsebad imas miiCneven, rom masSi yvela asakisa da socialuri fenis mkiTxvels SeuZlia naxos Tavisi
msoflxedvis Sesabamisi `sazrdo~. rogorc
Cans, es Sexeduleba asazrdoebs ilias SemoqmedebiT koncefciasac. saukune-naxevaria
ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedeba qarTuli saliteraturo kritikis yuradRebis centrSia
moqceuli, miuxedavad amisa, mkvlevarTa interesi mis mimarT ar neldeba da Tanamedrove
saliteraturo kritika ilias mxatvruli
Tu publicisturi memkvidreobis Sesaxeb
Seqmnili samecniero statiebiT dRiTidRe
mdidrdeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom maTi absoluturi umravlesoba gvarwmunebs ilias saxismetyvelebis universalurobaSi.
gazafxuli, sinaTle, sirinozi, myinvari,
Tergi, aragvi, dRe, Rame da ase Semdeg... epiTetebi: didebuli, dadumebuli ganze gamdgari,
daumonavi, mSfoTvare es iseTi saxe-simboloebia, romelTa funqciuri mniSvnelobis gageba
Cveulebriv mkiTxvels ar gauWirdeba(Tumca
isic cnobilia, Tu rogor Seafasa ilias leqsi
`gazafxuli~ giorgi baraTaSvilma. amasTan, es
faqti cxdyofs, rom iliam Zalian kargad ico-

50

guram baxtaZe

da Tavisi Tanamedrove mkiTxvelis esTetikuri aRqmis SesaZleblobebi.) drom


daamtkica, rom poetis saxismetyveleba swored im princips efuZneboda, romelic samandaudebels xdis mas drosa da sivrceSi. ramdenime aTeuli wlis win,
romelime kritikoss rom eTqva _ ilia `mgzavris werilebSi~ myinvars miiCnevs
idealad da TergTan SedarebiT mas aniWebs upiratesobaso, _ am azrs, vfiqrobT, bevri momxre ar gamouCndeboda. magram profesor zurab kiknaZis statia
_ `myinvari da Tergi~ mkiTxvels ar utovebs aranair safuZvels, rom mkvlevris Sexeduleba ar gaiziaros: `didebuli, sakvirveli, ganzegamdgari, miukarebeliesissityvebia, romlebicrudolfotosdasxvaTa (n.sederblomi.m.eliade...) gamokvlevebis Semdeg qrestomaTiuli gaxda wmidis, sakraluris kategoriis dasaxasiaTeblad, romelic yvelaze reliefurad Zveli aRTqmis wignebSi
gamovlinda, Tumca Cveni mwerali amas ar isaxavda miznad, magram vxedavT, rom
sruli adekvaturobiT gamoxata swored am sityvebis meSveobiT. mas ar gamouyenebia Tavad sityva-cneba `wmida,~romelic mis Tanamedrove enaSi ukve zneobrivi
da fizikuri sispetakis konotacias atarebda, es ki wmidis kategoriisTvis
mxolod Tanmxleb i niSania da araarsebiT-imanenturi. TiToeuls zemoTCamoTvlil sityvaTagan Tavisi semantikuri istoria aqvs, romelic enis maxsovrobaSi, vfiqrob, waruSlelad inaxeba~.
myinvarSi, zurab kiknaZis ganmartebiT, gansaxovnebulia `isev da isev
simSvide, myudroeba, sisrule. kosmosis, samyaros, gansrulebis, Seyenebuli
dro-Jamis suraTi, romelSic gangebis nebaa gamoxatuli. xolo `aCrdilSi~
myinvaris Tavze mdgar moxucis (poetis) Sesaxeb z. kiknaZe aRniSnavs _ `es
kaci, `moxucebuli,~romelic atarebs bibliuri `Zveli dReTas~ danielis
wignidan) niSnebs, imgvarad aris amozrdili myinvaris sxeulidan, rom isini erT organul mTlianobas qmnian. es kaci myinvaris personifikaciaa. sadRaa miukarebloba da sicivemyinvari moxucebulis locviT aris gamTbari,
adamianur masStabebSia moaxloebuli. igi ukve metyveli monawilea da ara
Zveleburad dadumebuli Tavis didebulebaSi. iq (`mgzavris werilebSi~)myinvaris safarvels miRma myofobs saSineli saidumlos Sinaarsi. aqsaidumlos damfaravi farda TiTqos gadaweulia da axla kaci acxadebs imas,
rasac myinvari da Tergi mdumared inaxavda. es moxucebuli TiTqos myinvaris
amosunTqvaa, magram es amonasunTqic sekularuli Sinaarsis Semcveli aRmoCnda.is istoriis sunTqvaa, magram es kaci, moxucebuli, swored imis ZaliT
asrulebs Tavis misias,rom transcendetul, metafizikur realobas ekuTvnis im azriT, rom ar aris CaTreuli istoriaSi. igi Wvrets istoriul
process misi dasawyisidan dasasrulamde. man unda icodes istoriis Sedegic. es Sedegi cisartyelaa, romelic moxucebulis monologisa da bolos,
locvis Semdeg gamoCndeba. `aCrdilis~ (kiknaZe2015,128-132-139.)
ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis, kerZod, `bazaleTis tbis~ saxe-simboloTa axsnas isaxavs miznad nana gonjilaSvilis statia _ `magram, qarTvelno, sad aris gmiri...~ bazaleTis tbis saxismetyvelebisaTvis~ _ (`literaturuli Ziebani~, 2002, N-22) sadac avtori cnobili kritikosebis Sexedulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, miuTiTebs ilias mier gamoyenebuli saxe-

`naperwklis~ saxe-simbolo ilias SemoqmedebaSi

51

simboloebis siaxloves bibliasTan da maT universalurobas.


sakamaTo araa, rom bazaleTis tbis ZiriT dawyebuli myinvarze mdgomi moxucis aCrdilamde, ilias mxatvrul saxeTa sistema maradiuli da TviTganaxlebadia. misi umTavresi mizani da daniSnuleba gadmocemulia frazebiT: `awmyo
Tu ara gvwyalobs, momavali Cvenia~. `cis daniSnuli~ poeti swored maSin moevlina Tavis xalxs, roca `qveyana sulier-inteleqtualuri dakninebis, TiTqmis
katastrofis winaSea. warsuli cxovreba isegadavida, rom misgan namcecebic ar
SemorCa, yvelaferi Tavidan aris dasawyebi... roca Zveli moubruneblad dakargulia, mis adgilze, figuralurad rom vTqvaT, mxolodRa naxanZrali Cans~
(kiknaZe2015:15;108.) am realobis Secvla mxolod da mxolod moseseul rwmenas SeeZlo. raTa sabolood ar Camqraliyo sicocxlis imedi. `naTeli maTi bnelad gardaiqces sayofelsa maTsa, xolo naTeli imaTi daSrtes maTzeda~
(Zveli aRTqma, iobi, Tavi meTvramete).
aRniSnuli empiriis gacnobiereba umTavresi sakiTxi, momdevno amocana
ki am Cixidan gamosvlisaTvis saWiro gzis danaxva iyo. swered es misia aiRo
sakuTar Tavze wminda ilia marTalma. bibliuri moses msgavsad miiRo uflisagan iliam es misia da amitomac ganacxada: `me ca mniSnavs da eri mzrdis~.
aq isev da isev did mecniers _ zurab kiknaZes moviSveliebT (kiknaZe 2015:
139).
ilia WavWavaZis Semmoqmedebis saxismetyvelebaSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs `naperwklis~ saxe-simbolo, romelic aseve Zveli aRTqmidan iRebs saTaves. elodeba poeti _ ilia uflis miniSnebas `naperwkals~, mis gareSe igi Cveulebrivi mokvdavia. `maSin cidan naperwkali, Tu
aRmifeTqs gulSi cecxlsa. maSin vimRer, mxolod maSin, movswmend ersa tanjvis cremlsa~. `naperwklis~ saxe-simbolo ilias samive programul TxzulebaSi gvxvdeba: `poeti~(1860), `mgzavris werilebi~ (1861), `aCrdili~(1859-1872w.w.) gadaWriT ver vityviT, magram Cveni varaudiT, sxva
TxzulebebSi arsad gamouyenebia avtors aRniSnuli saxe-simbolo, rac imas
unda migvaniSnebdes, rom igi gansakuTrebuli mowiwebiTaa am sityvis mimarT
ganwyobili. amasve amtkicebs cifrsamis sakraluroba.
Tavisi moRvaweobis umTavres miznad iliam erSi momavlis rwmenis gaRviveba daisaxa. _ `da is TiToeuli naperwkali, romelic ar SeiZleba rom
yovels kacSi ara Jolavdes, erT did cecxlad Sevagrovo Cemis qveynis gaciebulis gulis gasaTboblad~. rwnenis, mJolavi naperwkali warmoadgens
iliasaTvis im saZirkvels, romelsac unda daefuZnos momavali. samSobloSi
momavali ilia Cqarobs, raTa miuswros mas, vidre sabolood ar Caqra igi.
poema `aCrdili~, romelic ilias saprogramo Txzulebadaa aRiarebuli, yvelaze mkafiod gamoxatavs avtoris erovnul koncefcias. am nawarmoebSi ilia sagangebo yuradRebas amaxvilebs Cveni qveynis yvela mtkivneul
detalze; mankierebebze, romlebic Seqmnili mZime realobis mizezad miaCnia
mas. myinvarze mdgomi moxuci gulistkiviliT dascqers `jagiT aRvsil, veranad qmnil~ saqarTvelos. savalaloa suraTi: samSoblosagan gandgomil
qarTvelobas umweod da unugeSod daugdiaT igi. SvilTa siaviT dawylule-

52

guram baxtaZe

buli, gmobili qveyana, viTa oboli ucxo kalTis qveS Sefarebula.


-`raRa dahbadavs TqvenSi did grZnobas~? svams kiTxvas avtori da man kargad icis rom pasuxi rwmenaSia. ilia kritikulad afasebs eris nihilizmis mware Sedegs, magram uflis `daniSnuli~ poetis misia umZimesi viTarebidan gamosavali gzebis Ziebaa. erTaderTi Zala rac eris sulieri da xorcieli gadarCenis imeds iZleoda isev da isev rwmenaa:
`xolo aqac ki, vrdomilT Sorisa,
RvTis naperwkali zogjera hkrTebis,
qvynis warxdomas guli zogisa,
SeebrZvis da ar emorCilebis;~
rodemde unda iyos xalxi `uimedo, Sewuxebuli~? sadamde SeiZleba
gagrZeldes `uqmisa drtvinviT, gulis wviTa mware cremlis Rvra~?! -manam,
sanam ar irwmunebs `wamebuli samSoblos aRdgenas~. urwmunoebis eWvis da
tanjvis cremli ususurobis niSania. am viTarebaSi vis Seswevs Zala SeewinaaRmdegos mZime sinamdviles? amdagvari provocireba eris sulieri simtkicis aRdgenisaken mimarTuli mowodeba iyo, rasac daefuZna samocianelTa
erovnuli programa: ar SeveguoT sinamdviles, gavaRviZoT minavlebuli
rwmenis naperwkali, aseTi amocana daisaxa TergdaleulTa Taobam.
dasasrul gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom adamiani ilias Semoqmedebis mTavari
sazrunavia. marTalia, ukompromiso brZolas ucxadebs igi adamianSi gamovlenil yovelgvar sisustes; samarcxvino boZze akravs `luarsabebs~ da `daTikoebs~. magram sabolood vercerT maTgans ver imetebs da mkiTxvels mianiSnebs, rom sikeTisa da rwmenis naperwkali imaT gulebSic `hJolavs~. saWiroa drouli Segroveba amnaperwklebisa. gavixsenoT momakvdavi daTikosa
da misi mkvlelis _ gabrielis dialogi `glaxis naambobidan~: `gaxsovs maSin rom gixari: sanTel-sakmeveli Tavis gzas ar dahkargavs-meTqi. -aki arc
dahkarga. -Sen iyav myinvarTan rom gadagvarCine? _ vkiTxe gaocebulma.~
araswori cxovrebis wesebi, siZulvili, SurisZieba, sabolood aqrobs gabrielis, pepias, daTikos, kakos, zaqrosa da sxvaTa gulebSi ZlivsRa mJolav
naperwkals. `boroteulTanaTelic Caqreba da aRar ielvebs misi cecxlis
naperwkali~(ZveliaRTqma, iobi, TavimeTvramete).
amrigad, naperwkali erT-erTi mniSvnelovani saxea iliasTan. aseve, ilias
mxatvrul saxe-simboloTa gasaRebi maT sisadavesa da siRrmeSia erTdroulad
saZebari. TiTqos araferia gansakuTrebuli maTSi, magram vlindeba, rom yvela
epoqa Sesabamisad waikiTxavs mas. am wakiTxvas da gaazrebas aRqmis iliaseuli
esTetikuri koncefcia xdis SesaZlebels.
literatura:
kiknaZe 2016: cecxli da burusi qarTuliwignismxardaWerisfondi `memkvidreoba~Tb.;
literaturuli Ziebani~: N-22. 2002 Tb: http://www.nplg.gov.ge/ gsdl/cgibin/library.exe?

`naperwklis~ saxe-simbolo ilias SemoqmedebaSi

53

Zveli

aRTqma,
iobi,
TavimeTvramete:
tserili/biblia/iobi/iobi-18.htm.

http://www/ortodoxy.ge/

Guram Bakhtadze
The Sparkas a Character-Symbol inIlia Chavchavadzes Works
In Ilia Chavchavades program masterpiece ~The Travellers Diaries
(~MgzavrisTserilebi) a particular attention is paid to character-symbols of the
Glacierand the Tergi.Alongside them there is no less interesting character of the
Spark. In Ilias opinion the Spark of faith represents the foundation for future.
The Spark, as a symbol of faith and hope, gives grounds for various discoveries
and explanations. The given paper deals with an artistic and psychological
function of the above mentioned character-symbol in Ilias literary heritage.

xaTuna beriZe,
marine giorgaZe
medeas semiotikuri
Targmani
l. ulickaias romanSi
l. ulickaias poststruqturalistur
teqstSi `medea da misi Svilebi~ avtoris intenciis racionaluri gaazrebisaTvis yvelaze relevanturia postkoloniuri Teoriis
paradigma, romelsac anTropologia ganmartavs, rogorc erT dros kolonizebuli erebisa da teritoriebisadmi damokidebulebas
da piriqiT, kolonizebulis damokidebulebas kolonizatorisadmi. anTropologTa aRniSnuli paradigmis garda, empiriuli kvlevebis safuZvelze Camoyalibda postkoloniuri literaturisa da postkoloniuri Targmanis / translaciis paradigmebi.
The paper studies the acclaimed novel
~Medea and her Children by the Russian
writer L. Ulitskaya in the postcolonial context
postkoloniuri literatura, rogorc
literaturuli fenomeni, gacilebiT metia,
vidre mxolod literatura yofili koloniis Sesaxeb, anda mxatvruli teqsti, romelic yofili koloniis moqalaqem dawera.
andre lefevri sakuTar naSromSi `Targmani, xelaxla wera da mxatvruli saxeliT
manipulireba~ (1992). `gadaweras~ an `xelaxal weras~ (`reraiTings~) uwodebs movlenas, roca erTi kulturis damaxasiaTebeli
mTavari tradiciebi `gadaiTargmneba~ meoreze: gadawerilia is, visi identobac Tavad

avtorma damakninebel elferSi warmoaCina.


For some, and this circle includes the soviet
period scholars as well, the concept of colonialism
is equivalent to slave trading

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

55

postkoloniuri translaciis paradigma


termini `Targmanis~ rogorc Translation-is definiciisaTvis postkolonialuri Targmanis Teoretikosebs sxvadasxva konceptualuri mosazrebebi aqvT; terminis metaforuli aqtivizeba da misi gageba individualuria
da damokidebulia avtoris mier Targmanis, rogorc Translation-is definiciis gaazrebaze. Tumca, Targmanis metaforulobis Sesaxeb Teoretikosebis
Soris arsebobs konsensusic: aristoteles `poetikaSi~ gansazRvrulia,
rom `metafora sagans aniWebs saxelwodebas, romelic sxva raimes ekuTvnis.
transferi, anu saxelTa gadacema-gadanacvleba analogiis safuZvelze xdeba, saxeobidan saxeobaze, sagnidan saxeobaze an saxeobidan saganze (rikiori
1978:13; parkeri 1987:36).
gifitcisaTvis Targmani aris sagareo politikis metafora, anu metafora, romelic sagareo politikis aRmniSvnelia, swored ise, rogorc
aristotele ayalibebs sagareo politikis raobas metaforis definiciaSi.
geifitci miiCnevs, rom renesansis ritorikul termini metaforisaTvis
(translatio translatio) stilisturi xerxia, romelic mkafio asaxavs kolonialistur Zalmomreobas, mis mier sakuTari wesrigis damyarebas adgilobriv kulturul `qaosze~, filosofos rikioris mosazrebiT, `metafora aris is ritorikuli procesi, rodesac diskurss Zaldatanebis saSualeba aqvs literaturaze, raTa man arsebuli realobis saxecvlileba (rediskripcia, sityvasityviT: `xelaxali aRwera~) moaxdinos~ (1978:7). postkolinializmis Teoretikosebs ritorikuli procesi da Zaldataneba rediskripciis mizniT esmiT rogorc politikuri fenomeni.
Targmanis yvelaze didi metafora Teoretikos homi babas ekuTvnis; es
metafora arc Targmnil teqstebs da arc maT funqciebs ar Seexeba, aramed
kulturis interartikulacias multikulturalizmis liberaluri tradiciebis radikalurad gansxvavebuli pirobebiT. baba eTanxmeba valter benjamins, romelic wers, rom kulturis yvela forma garkveulwilad kavSirSia, radgan kultura aris signifikatoruli, anu simboluri aqtivoba.
misTvis kulturis artikulacia SesaZlebelia ara Sinaarsobrivi msgavsebis gamo (kulturebs eqvivalenturi Tematika ara aqvT) aramed yvela kultura ayalibebs sakuTar simbolos da adgens Tematikas, interpelaciuri
praqtikiT~ (baba 1990:209-10). baba metaforis struqturisagan sesxulobs
cnebas `displacement of liminality~ (sazRvrebs Sorisis adgilmonacvleoba)
rac mas kulturis praqtikisa da prioritetebis gansxvavebulad, Seusabamod formulirebis saSualebas aZlevs.
andre lefevri sakuTar naSromSi `Targmani, xelaxla wera da mxatvruli saxeliT manipulireba~ (1992). `gadaweras~ an `xelaxal weras~
(`reraiTings~) uwodebs movlenas, roca erTi kulturis damaxasiaTebeli
mTavari tradiciebi `gadaiTargmneba~ meoreze: gadawerilia is, visi iden-

tobac Tavad avtorma damakninebel elferSi warmoaCina.

56

xaTuna beriZe, marine giorgaZe

postkoloniuri literaturis paradigma


(post)koloniuri situacia ar aris lingvisturi Tu kulturuli interaqciis raime gansakuTrebuli, unikaluri modusi, Tumca, mas aqvs ganmasxvavebeli da damaxasiaTebeli Strixi: urTierTobebi kristalizebulia da
aqcentirebulia. bevri iseTi magaliTis moyvana SeiZleba, sadac ZalTa Tanafardoba da Zalauflebis pyroba ar aris ganmsazRvreli elementi, gansakuTrebiT iseT kulturaTa Soris, romlebic metnaklebad `msgavsia~, anu
saerTo aqvT. an ZalTa Tanafardoba mkveTrad da dramatulad gadawonili
arc erT mxares ar aris.
postkoloniuri literatura, rogorc literaturuli fenomeni, gacilebiT metia, vidre mxolod literatura yofili koloniis Sesaxeb, anda
mxatvruli teqsti, romelic yofili koloniis moqalaqem dawera.
mxatvruli Targmani postkoloniuri literaturisa da kulturuli
umciresobis literaturis analogiuria, radgan swored maTsaviT, interkulturuli weris formaa (timoJko, 35).
amdenad, postkoloniuri translaciisa da postkoloniuri literaturis paradigmebs axasiaTebT analogiuri niSnebi. garda zemoTCamoTvlilisa, maTi kidev erTi saerTo Tvisobrivi niSania miTiuri aluziebi. Tu literaturul teqstSi moxmobilia aluzia iseTi miTidan, romelic kulturul umciresobas ekuTvnis, mas Seexeba, an mis wiaRSia warmoSobili, am
miTs, SesaZloa, iseve dasWirdes ganmartebebis darTva an sqolio, raTa
mkiTxvels miTis Sesaxeb damatebiTi informacia miewodos, swored ise, rogorc es TargmanSi xdeba saWiro, sadac es miTiuri aluziebi, Cveulebisamebr, ganmartebulia xolme).
`medea da misi Svilebis~ analizi postkoloniur paradigmaSi
ulickaias romani postkoloniurad miCneul literaturaSi, e. saidis
termins Tu visesxebT, kidev erTi orientaluri zRaparia; gansxvavebiT im
rusulenovani literaturisagan, rasac amave paradigmas mivakuTvnebT1 da
rac kavkasiasa da kerZod saqarTvelos Seexeba aRniSnuli teqsti agebulia

miTiur aluziaze.
The novel by Ulistkaya is one more Oriental tale in the stack of the
postcolonial narratives, which implicately or explicately deal with the
Caucasus (Russias Orient) and specifically Georgia. In different from the
Russian literature, which we can attribute to the same paradigm, the text by
Ulistskaya develops on the matrix of the mythical allusions.
saanalizo teqstSi sayuradReboa miTiuri medeas kulturuli identobis translacia da antikuri samyarodan misi migracia avtoriseul subieqtur realobaSi.
Establishing the associative connection with the mythical heroine, the
author transforms Medea into someone who is a remote remiscence of the
anticuity. She is culturally translated and migrated into the modern world created
1

(ix. sanis, s. leitonis, h. remis kvlevebi)

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

57

by Ulitskaya, living a life engineered by the authors vision. The clashes between
the personaly of the mythical Medea, intelligent, beautiful, divine and the
mdabali siZunwe
tradiciuli miTis sivrcidan mTavari personaJi inacvlebs realistur droSi; es migracia mis pirovnebas sasikeTos verafers matebs, piriqiT.
Tu miTologiuri medea siyvarulis gamo uSurvelad gaiRebs oqros sawmiss, ulickaias medea imdenad Zunwia, rom SeuZlia mSvidad uTxras uari
stumar bavSvs sakvebis damatebaze: `
, ,
, .~
medea, rogorc miTiuri persona, mravali wlis Semdeg, brundeba, ufro
swored, mas avtori abrunebs didi, miTiuri samyarodan Tanamedrove sociumis yofiT realobaSi. romanis saTauri: `medea da misi Svilebi~ mkiTxvelSi
klasikur ZvelberZnul miTTan kognituri asociacias qmnis, riTic masSi
pirvel refleqsias iwvevs.
Medea, as a mythical heroine, returns from the elevated ancient world of
myths to find herself a mediocre woman, kept in the turmoil of the social life. The
title itself: Medea and her Children is an instant cognitive association with the
classical Greek myth, being the first reflexion of a reader.
amdenad, ulickaia saTaurSive axdens medeas kanonikuri miTis implikacias: ,
.
, . (babiCi, 133)
`medea da misi Svilebis~ sublimaciuri diskursi
diskursi, rogorc e. saidi miiCnevs, aris regulirebuli sistema, romelSic codnas konkretul sazRvrebSi viyenebT. rasakvirvelia, diskursSi
codnis sazRvrulad gamoyenebis miuxedavad, avtoris avtonomia ganusazRvrelia, mas SeuZlia gascdes diskursis dadgenil sazRvrebsa da normebs
sakuTar narativSi. an, diskursis sazRvrul paradigmaSi sakuTari, subieqturi msoflaRqmis rakursiT warmoaCinos ambavi. bunebrivia, Tu davZenT,
rom subieqtivizmi angaJirebuli damokidebulebis paradigmatuli niSania.
aanalizebs ra angaJirebis cnebas, postkolonializmis Teoria miuTiTebs,
rom yoveli kolonisturi qveynis narativi imTaviTve ideologiurad motivirebuli da angaJirebulia: vinaidan kolonizators sWirdeba kolonizaciis argumenti, igi diskursis manipulaciiT Txzavs da propagandistuli
praqtikiT cdilobs daamkvidros diqotomia: superiori-inferiori; (mag.:
ganmanaTlebeli _ CamorCenili qveyana, subalterni) imijebis aseTi vertikali aris is xelsayreli ideologiuri instrumenti, romelsac kolonizatori mimarTavs sakuTari rolis gasamarTleblad. fokos SromebSi aRniSnulia, rom Zalaufleba komunikaciis yvela formaSi iWreba, ris gamoc, realurad ar arsebobs neitraluri an politikisagan Tavisufali dialogi.

58

xaTuna beriZe, marine giorgaZe

ulickaias Txzuleba gvacnobs heliosis SviliSvilis mcire anarekls,


TiTqosda gakeTilSobilebuls, tolerants, rogorc miTosuri avbediTi arsebis keTilSobil antipods. ulickaia miTiuri medeasagan distancirebuli
subalternis imijs qmnis da swored amiT cxadyofs, rom maT pozicias iziarebs,
vinc miTiuri arsis `adamianuri Tvisebebis~ planSi gaazrebas cdilobs. miTiuri arsebis genderuli markireba `qalad~ i. babiCis naSromSic gvxvdeba: `,
-, -, ,
, , ~ (135).
aseTad xedavs ulickaseul medeas mkvlevari da swored amitom ganicdis miTosuri medea identobis translacias, ganZarcvas da ulickaiaseul,
naxevrad kolx medeaSi gardasaxvas. medea, romlis arsic miTiur samyaros
ekuTvnis, avtoris cnobierebaSi sublimirebulia rigiT mokvdavad. sazogadod, medeas fenomenis Secnobis araerTi mosurnis msjeloba niSandebulia
medeas sublimaciis mcdelobiT: rogorc wesi, Semfaseblebs aqvT winaswar
Camoyalibebuli genderuli ganwyoba medeasadmi: medea maTTvis qalia. wesisamebr, medeas genderuli Semfaseblebis msjeloba, maTive Tvalsawieris
farglebSi, medeas miTiur arss anacvlebs miwierSi, vinaidan medeaze msjeloba am rakursSi ufro eadvilebaT. aseTi narativis invariantebia: samSoblos moRalate qali, grZneuli, jadoqari (da ara, vTqvaT, mkurnali), qali,
romelmac uRalata (naklebi aqcentiT im faqtorze, rom masac uRalates),
Svilebis mkvleli da SurismaZiebeli (aq medeas `qomagebi~ evripides xuT
talantad mosyidvis ambavsac ixseneben) bunebrivia, medeaze am paradigmaSi
msjeloba gulubryvilobis tolfasia. miTiuri samyaros xdomilebebisa da
personaliebis analizisas Cven ver gadavinacvlebT miTiur samyaroSi, xolo
miTis personaJTa Cveneul samyaroSi gadmonacvlebiT maT vwyvetT sakuTar
konteqsts da maT mier `Cadenili~ yoveli qmedebis Cveneuli codniT aRqmasa
da dogmaturi sazomebiT gaazrebas vcdilobT. es erTerTi qaosia medeasTan
mimarTebaSi da zogadad miTTan mimarTebaSi. adamianur-miwieri axsnis Ziebisas, gvaviwydeba, rom Cven, miTidan, rogorc erTi ganzomilebidan, personaJTa migracias vaxdenT meoreSi, anu realurSi da am procesSi Zaladobrivad
vcdilobT irealuris Sefasebas realisturi kriteriumebiT.
braundi (gv 33) miuTiTebs: `...Zveli samyaro Tavisi miTebis racionalizacias amjobinebda. dikearqosi am midgomas mokled ase ayalibebs: `gonivruli gansjiT zRaprulisaTvis zedmetobis mocilebis Sedegad misi mniSvneloba bunebrivamde daiyvaneba~. oqros sawmisis racionaluri axsnis mcdelobebi iseTive mravalferovania, rogorc aradamajerebeli da ukiduresad
gaubraloebuli.~ (34 braundi).
deridas terminebs Tu visesxebT, ulickaia axdens dublikacias da diferanss, anu erTerTi medea, rogorc dublirebuli, xdeba `ucxo~: `
~.

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

59

(. . , 1332)
ramdenad aris avtoris cnobierebaSi medea sublimirebuli rigiT mokvdavad imave mizezebiT, ra mizezebiTac dRemde cdilobdnen medeas gamiwierebas misi genderulad angaJirebuli kritikosebi? amis garkveva SeiZleba
invariantebis SepirispirebiTi SeswavliT, ulickaisTan ki sublimacias ganicdis yvela invarianti. paradoqsuli diqotomiebiT TamaSSi avtoriseuli
intencia medeas warmoSobiT manipulirebaa: darRveulia sivrcis qronotopi: Tu miTosuri kolxi medeasaTvis saberZneTi is qveyanaa, romelmac yvelaferi waarTva, avtoris ironiiT, is medeas samSoblod iqca:
I diqotomia:
samSoblos moRalate qali _ samSoblodanaa migrirebuli;
damakninebeli konotaciebis Semcveli leqsikiTaa medea daxasiaTebuli, rogorc yirimis adgilobrivi peizaJis nawili:
`
. ,
,
~.
romaniseul medeas kanonikur miTTan Rrma kavSirs avtori aluziebiT
amyarebs:
` , , ,
, , , ,
,
, -,
, ,
~.
miTis mixedviT, tavrebis mefe persevsi, aietis Zma gaxldaT, amdenad,
qronotopi `~ _ kidev erTi aluziaa romanis medeas miTosur
medeasTan:
`kolxebs SeuZliaT Tavis mowoneba miTiuri kavSirebiT, romlebic
mTel SavizRvispireTs moicavda. CrdiloeTiT, rogorc ambobdnen, kirke colad gahyva sarmatTa mefes....yirimSi aietis Zma persevsi tavrebis3 mefe iyo.
iTvleboda, rom qalaqi pantikapeoni aietis Zem daaarsa. amaze udavod iyo
2

http://www.irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgibin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?Z21ID=&I21DBN=UJRN&P21DBN=UJRN&S21STN=1
&S21REF=10&S21FMT=fullwebr&C21COM=S&S21CNR=20&S21P01=0&S21P02=0
&S21P03=A=&S21COLORTERMS=1&S21STR=%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B
8%D1%87%20%D0%AE$
PIVDENNIY ARKHIV ( .
)
(Collected papers on Philology) L 2011
3
Taurus _ xari, _ iasonis mier uRelSi Sebmuli cecxlismfqveveli xarebi, romlebic erTerTi miTis Tanaxmad tavrisis qersonesosidan iyvnen da sawmisis mcvelebad iTvlebodnen.

60

xaTuna beriZe, marine giorgaZe

moTxrobili amJamad dakargul farTo komentarSi, romelic bosforisa da


kolxeTis mefeTa warmomavlobasa da saqmeebis Sesaxeb iyo dawerili pompeus trogusis mier. (gv. 48, saqarTvelo antikur xanaSi, kolxeTisa da amierkavkasiis iberiis istoria Zv. w. 550 ax. w. 562 wlebi, devid braundi).
sarkazmiT savse tonalobiTaa daxasiaTebuli medeas ebraeli meuRlec:
rogorc avtori wers, misi Rirsebebi Rrmadaa dafaruli (adamianisaTvis SeumCnevelia) xolo wvrilmani naklovanebebi TvalSi gvxvdeba...
II diqotomia:
kolxeTis mefis aietis asuli _ skandaluri baTumeli qalis qorwinebamde ukanonod Casaxuli Svili: ` ,
, ,
~.
amerikeli mkvlevari m. Caildsi yuradRebas amaxvilebs medeas qarTveli dedis daxasiaTebaze: Further, Medeas Georgian mother is described as
kind, but unworldly and close-minded (M. Childes, 2012) 4 am diqotomias kidev ufro aRrmavebs matildas portretis iseTi Strixebi, rogoricaa gulubryvilo da gonebaSezRuduli;
sagulisxmoa, rom romanSi erT antiqarTul arasaxarbielo Strixs meore emateba: erovnebiT qarTveli sofias qarTvel Svilebs ulickaia gonjebad xatavs. dakvirvebuli mkiTxveli gaixsenebs, rom es uSno gogonebi baTumelebia, medeas dedis dis, qarTveli sofias qaliSvilebi: `
,
,
~.
ra RirsebebiT SeiZleba gamoirCeva ulickaias mxatvruli teqsti? miTiuri medeas ambavs ramdenime Tema kravs, iseTi cnebebis urTierTdapirispirebiT, rogoric siyvaruli, siZulvili, erTguleba, Ralati da tragedia.
ulickaiam ki Seqmna miTiuri personaJebis subkulturul-mikrokoloniuri panTeoni. misi fsevdo-globalisturi paTosis myife SreebSi, miTiuri
vnebebis sapirispirod, mkafiod ismis eqs-kolonizatoris xma da warmodgenilia miTis parodireba.
III diqotomia:
samefo guluxvoba _ mdabali siZunwe
tradiciuli miTis sivrcidan mTavari personaJi inacvlebs realistur droSi; es migracia mis pirovnebas sasikeTos verafers matebs, piriqiT.
Tu miTologiuri medea siyvarulis gamo uSurvelad gaiRebs oqros sawmiss, ulickaias medea imdenad Zunwia, rom SeuZlia mSvidad uTxras uari
stumar bavSvs sakvebis damatebaze: `
4

Classical Allusions and Imperial Desire: Problems of Identity in Georgian and Russian
Literature, University of Washington, Mary Evelynne Childs, 2012

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

61

, ,
, .~
IV diqotomia:
kolxeTi axalgazrda, ulamazesi mefis asuli _ usaxuri, xandazmuli qali
ulickaia wers: `

, - ~.
medea ar aris warmoSobiT espaneli, is espanur gvars `mendess~ atarebs, magram gvari meuRlisaa. amdenad, ra asociaciuri jaWvi SeiZleba gaCndes mkiTxvelis gonebaSi? dafiqrdes medeas warmomavlobaze da gaixsenos,
rom igi espaneli ar aris da amdenad nakleb savaraudoa, aragoneli mxatvris STagoneba gamxdariyo.... es asociacia, uneblieT, goias, Semoqmedebidan
`qalis~, `qalbatonis `Portrait of Doa Isabel de Porcel -is ulamazes portretebs amoativtivebs da paradoqsul-odiozur kontrasts qmnis medeas
portretis ulickaiseul StrixebTan: ` ~, ` ,
~ .
ulickaiasaTvis goias naxatTan medeas mimsgavseba sxva araferia, Tu
ara konfliqti konstatirebulsa da implicirebuls Soris; konstatirebulia medeas garegnuli iersaxe _ silamaze da misi msgavseba goias portretTan, mag.: - . xolo
implicirebuli reprezentacia iqmneba medeas garegnuli iersaxis Semdgomi
daxasiaTebisas: kerZod, avtori medeas saxes adarebs lamazi `cxenis sifaTs~: . unda aRiniSnos,
rom zoosemiotikis Sinaarsobrivi gageba Tavsebadia mxolod erovnulkulturuli sistemis SigniT arsebul maT Tvisobriv gagebasTan. qarTul,
frangul, amerikul zoosemiotikur sistemaSi cxenis saxe ar aris gaigivebuli silamazesTan. xolo TviT rusul sityvas _ a uaryofiTi konotacia aqvs: Sdr.: neitraluri konotaciis leqsikuri erTeuli . Tu
Tavdapirvelad mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi medea asocirdeba goias mxatvrul
tiloebTan, es xati momdevno pasaJSi ingreva da medeas garegnobis parodias
viRebT. medeas, rogorc usaxuri qalis reprezentacia implicirebulidan
konstatirebulSi inacvlebs:
: , ;
, .
romanis avtori diqotomiebs agebs ori gziT: igi an parodirebas mimarTavs, an paradoqss efuZneba da romanis personaJi miTiuri personaJisagan
sruliad sapirispirodaa niSandebuli, magaliTad, miTiuri medeas silamaze da miwieri medeas usaxuri xatis reprezentacia.

62

xaTuna beriZe, marine giorgaZe

V diqotomia:
miTiuri SurismaZiebeli _ `ucxo~ qvrivi
romanSi avtori Savis, rogorc glovis simbolikas, aigivebs samosTan, romelic SeiZleba moixdino, an gixdebodes da amitom ataro, riTic iribadaa miniSnebuli glovis gaufasureba, an medeas TvalTmaqcuri, yalbi erTguleba
tradiciisadmi: ` ,
, ~.
ulickaias medeas samgloviaro Tavsaburic `ararusulad~ (` ~) axuravs: ` - -
,
~. literaturul teqstSi medeas ucxo warmomavloba araerTxelaa sagangebod aRniSnuli, rac romanis stils, mxatvrulobasa da miT ufro informaciul mxares arafers matebs; medeas, rogorc `ucxos~ xazgasmiT avtori sakuTari ideologiuri mizanmimarTebis
damkvidrebas cdilobs.
kritikosebi sul ufro meti yuradRebiT ekidebian ideologiis zegavlenas literaturis Seqmnasa da auditoriis mier mis miRebaze. multivalentur enas da polisemantur komunikacias subversiuli zemoqmedebis
unari aqvT. aseTi komunikacia ganapirobebs, rogorc cnobilia, kulturuli stereotipebis Camoyalibeba-damkvidrebas. postkoloniuri literaturisa da postkoloniuri Targmanis / translaciis paradigmebis mkvlevrebi
aRniSnaven, rom kolonizatorisaTvis kolonizebuli warmoadgens `ucxos~.
gifitcisaTvis `ucxos~ cneba asocirdeboda amerikul sazogadoebaSi indielebis, meqsikelebis, ebraelebisa da sxva eTnikuri jgufebis yofasTan,
radgan isini jiutad cdilobdnen im ZirZveli tradiciebisa da Cvevebis SenarCunebas, rac Zveli samSoblodan mohyvebodaT; maTgan gansxvavebiT, e.w.
`meinstrimi~, anu TeTri da Savkaniani amerikelebi integracionalistur filosofias iziarebdnen. xolo s. leitonisaTvis, h. remisa da s. jounsisaTvis saqarTveloa ruseTis orienti. leitoni wers, da uxvadac mohyavs empiriuli masala, rom Tu evropisaTvis azia iyo orientaluri, ucxo samyaro,
ruseTma kavkasia aRiqva sakuTar orientalur teritoriad...
termini `ucxo~ iqca zogadad aracivilizebulisa da orientaluri
samyaros warmomadgenlis aRmniSvnelad; cxadia, `ucxos~ es konceptualuri gageba imperiuli suliskveTebiT daamkvidres: `ucxo~ aris is inferiori, romelzec superioris kulturis, ganaTlebisa da politikis eqspansia
unda moxdes, xolo aseTi eqspansiis gasamarTleblad `ucxooba~ (otherness)
mza argumentia.
VI diqotomia:
medea mkurnali da grZneuli _ medea eSmakTan wilnayari:
ulickaias Txroba medeas Sesaxeb qmnis niSanTa (da ara simboloTa) uwyvet asociaciaTa vels antikur miTTan: sityva medicinis etimologias miTiuri medeas saxelTan mivyavarT, radgan mzis RmerTis, heliosis SviliS-

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

63

vils balaxisa Tu Sxamisagan wamlis miReba SeeZlo. medeas (da kirkes),


kolxeTsa da argonavtebTan dakavSirebul yvela miTSi grZneulebis, jadosnobis saidumlos floba, samkurnalo balaxis cnoba da maTgan wamlis
damzadeba xelewifeba:
`kolxeTi gansakuTrebuli safrTxisa da simdidreTa Semcvel qveynadaa warmodgenili. am simdidreTagan ki oqros sawmisi mefis umniSvnelovanesi kuTvnilebaa, aq magia zeimobs. es miwa Zvirfasia hekatesaTvis, romelic
zogjer aietis Tanamecxedred gvevlineba. amave dros, es aris aietis mamis,
heliosis samSoblo. amrigad, es mzis qveyanac iyo da mTvarisac. am SesaniSnav
qveyanaSi medeasa da kirkesnairebs ucxo magiuri mcenareebis, maT Soris promeTes sisxlidan amozrdili balaxis Segroveba da maTi amoqmedeba SeeZloT.
kolxeTis saxeli magiis, gansakuTrebiT ki jadoqrobis asociacias iwvevda,
upiratesad _ aietis ojaxis mimarT, rom isini jadosnobas misdevdnen da
ara marto medea da kirke, aramed TviT hekatec. es Zirxvneulobis Semgrovebeli qveyana iyo: jadosnoba kidev erTi saerTo niSan-Tviseba iyo, rac kolxeTs egviptesTan akavSirebda~. (gv. 31, braundi).
amdenad, medeasTan mimarTebiT arc erTi miTi ar miuTiTebs mis satanurobaze. romanSi ki medeas araamqveyniuri, miTiuri warmomavloba miniSnebulia
drois ganzomilebisa da aRqmis speqtrSi: ulickaias nawarmoebSi arsebobs medeas dro, da swored igi miuTiTebs araorazrovnad im diqotomiaze, rac avtoris intenciiT, miwier medeas ganasxvavebs miTiuri medeasagan. mivyveT romanSi
arsebul ramdenime qronotops:
1. 1906 weli, medea 6 wlisaa _ ulickaias cdilobs romans mistikuri teqstis Janrobrivi elementebi SesZinos. erTerT aseT elementad unda
miviCnioT eqvsi wlis medeas mier kudianis beWdis povna. axla mas miTosur
arsebasTan mxolod saxeli ki aRar aerTianebs, aramed jadoqrobis unaric:
` ,
-
,
- ,
~.
2. 1916 wels medea 16 wlisaa _ Teqvsmeti wlis medeas dabadebis dReze zRvam aqvamarinis Tvliani beWedi `saCuqrad~ gamouriya: simboluri datvirTva aqvs zRvis mier oqros beWdis gamoriyvasac, rogorc avtori wers:
` , ,
,

, ~.
medea beWeds mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi atarebs, magram es dro misTvis
imdenad mcire monakveTs warmoadgens, rom beWedi TiTidan ar mouxsnia:
,
.
3. 26 wlis medea 1926 wels _ medea sizmrad xedavs sam arsebas: mamas

64

xaTuna beriZe, marine giorgaZe

da dedas da samiode wlis `vardisferTavian~ gogonas:


` , ,
, , ,
, : ,
, , ,
, ,
- , , ,
, ~.
miwieri medeas reprezentaciisaTvis avtori irCevs cifr `eqvss~, romelic medeas cxovrebis yvela mniSvnelovani movlenis qronotopia da romelic romanis qargas idumali miniSnebasaviT mihyveba. kidev erTi magaliTia
drois momdevno qronotopi:
` ,

,
~.
eqvsis, rogorc drois dispersirebuli qronotopis recefcia mkiTxvelis cnobierebas `mimarTavs~ miTosuri medeas am cifrTan identificirebis, satanurTan asocirebisa da parodirebis mizniT.
VII diqotomia:
vnebaTaRelvis simbolo _ vnebebisagan daclili moxuci.
Tu miTiuri medea vnebaTaRelvis simboloa, miwieri medea vnebagamoclili arsebaa. igi siyvarulisa da Svilierebis unars moklebulia. es aris
sterilizebuli medea:
miwieri medeas portretis paradoqsul-parodirebuli reprezentaciis kidev erTi nimuSia ulickaias medeas kmayofileba im ambiT, rom Tavad vnebiani siyvarulis stiqiisadmi sruliad brma iyo:
` , , ,
, , .
, ,
. , , ~
avtorma gverdi ver auara miTiuri iasonis Ralatis Temasac: avtori
sakuTar interteqstur narativSi droisa da sivrcis qronotopebis gadanacvlebis xerxs iyenebs, riTac ironiis efeqts qmnis, miTiuri tragizmis
eqo droSi gadmoinacvlebs da medeas daqvrivebis Semdeg wamoeweva: Ralati
gacilebiT mdabali da Seuracxmyofelia: miwieri medea gardacvlili meuRlisa da sakuTari dis romanisa da maTi saerTo Svilis Sesaxeb mxolod
post faqtum Seityobs. ulickaseuli amorfuli, ususuri medea miTiuri,
sastiki SurisZiebiT saxelganTqmuli medeas ironiuli diqotomiaa. Tu miTSi iasonis Ralats medea SurisZiebiT upasuxebs, mamxilebeli werilis wakiTxvis Semdeg, medeas iqamde ucnobi kaeSani Semoawveba:
` , , .

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

65

. ~.
avtoris nebiT, medea miTiuri samyarodan migrirebulia postkoloniur droSi, romelSic igi prototipuli gmiris usaxuri subalternia; medeas istoria xelaxla gadawerilia, identoba dakargulia, miTiuri samoseli
SemoZarcvulia da ironiuli implikaciebis samizned qceulia.
ulickaias romanSi srulidan dakargulia miTis poetika, sanacvlod
ki postkoloniuri ritorika ismis: rogorc baxtini wers, polemika, parodia da ironia Cveulebriv klasificirebulia swored rogorc ritorikis komponenti da araviTar SemTxvevaSi rogorc poetikis, warmoadgens ra
dialoguri stilis yvelaze maxvil, markirebul manifestacias.
udavoa, rom diqotomiebiT TamaSi ulickaias romanSi gaazrebuli da mizanmimarTulia, Txrobis es meTodi epizoduri da sporadulia, Tumca maTi integracia sabolood ayalibebs postkolonialuri ritorikis Tavisebur saxes: ironiis esTetikas. erTerTi ironiis esTetikaa diqotomiad sisufTave _
fexisadgili kidev erTi SemTxvevad unda miviCnioT: sindisis sisufTave is cnebaa, romelic asocirebulia fexisadgilTan da mis sisufTavesTan:
` , ,
, ,
,
, . , ,
,
, .
: , , ~
ironiis esTetikis erTerTi radikaluri nimuSia samyaros is xedva,
romelsac ulickaia gvTavazobs. ramdenadac diqotomiuri cnebebia fexisadgili da samyaros saukeTeso xedi, imdenad iwvevs mkiTxvelSi protestis grZnobas maTi asocireba: samyaros saukeTeso xedi medeas `sortiridan~ iSleba:
` :
~.
swored es msoflaRqma aqcevs simulaciad ulickaias `tolerantul~
Rirebulebebs da amZafrebs SegrZnebas, rom mTeli romani mkiTxvelis cnobierebasTan TamaSia, sadac miTisa da Zveli aRTqmis diqotomiasac ki vxvdebiT: argonavtebis miTis siuJetSi moulodnelad SemoWrilia ulickaias
kidev erTi aluzia Zveli aRTqmidan: kalaTaSi Cawvenili da mdinares micemuli moses povna faraonis asulis mier:
, , , ,
, ~.
miTisa da Zveli aRTqmis diqotomia, romelsac avtori gvTavazobs, religiis deklasifikacia da religiis miTis prizmaSi ganxilvis precedentia.
uamravi reminescenciuri epizodis gamo, Tavad nawarmoebs SeiZleba Tavidan
bolomde precedentuli teqsti ewodos. nawarmoebSi kidev ufro mZafrdeba

66

xaTuna beriZe, marine giorgaZe

paradoqsul asociaciaTa Widili, xdeba miTisa da religiis urTierTaRreva


da zRvrebis waSla _ zRvrebisa, romelic arsebobs erTi mxriv, religias,
rogorc moralis mqadagebel, konceptualur-filosofiur ganzomilebasa
da meore mxriv, miTosur kosmogoniasa da panTeizms Soris; religiaca da
miTic liminalur sivrceSi inacvlebs, qreba maTi gansxvavebuli TavisTavadoba, iqmneba alternatiuli xedva, gaurkveveli kulturuli faseulobebiTa da literaturuli RirebulebiT:
` , , ,
, ,
, , , .
, .
TamaSis dekodireba arcTu rTulia: saWiroa mxolod kodirebuli, metalingvisturi informaciis analizi, riTic romanis lingvisturi informaciisTvis sapirispiro, paradoqsul konceptebsa da xatebs miviRebT, sadac
mSvenieri maxinjia, grZneuli _ sataniseuli, siyvarulisTvis Tavganwiruli qmedeba _ ususurebiT aris Canacvlebuli; mefuri siuxve _ mdabali
siZunwiT. ase lagdeba Tanmimdevrulad is diqotomiebi, romelTa fasadze
warmoCenili avtoris Rirebulebebi sagangebod SeTxzuli cru miTi da
sublimaciis simulaciaa. erTaderTi, rac simulirebuli ar aris, esaa evripides tragediis centraluri xazi _ ucxoeli (barbarosi _ naxevrad
barbarosi) coli, romelsac uRalates.
rogor SegviZlia wavikiTxoT `medea da misi Svilebi?~ romanSi dekonstruirebulia miTi, simulirebulia medeas sublimacia: romanis epilogSi
ulickaia wers, rom medeas STamomavlebis mravaleTnikuri ojaxi, sabWoTa
epoqis Semdeg, eqspansiis gezs dasavleTiT iRebs, da rom maTi genealogiuri
xe kide ufro daitota. avtori saubrobs aramxolod eTnikur, aramed rasobriv gamravalferovnebaze. romanis zedapiruli analizisas, swored tolerantis es simulirebuli sublimacia uqmnis araerT mkvlevars im STabeWdilebas da saerTaSoriso aRiarebas sZens avtors, TiTqosda ulickaias
mkiTxvelisaTvis marTlac waredginos miTiuri, barbarosi, grZneuli da
RalatTan gaigivebuli medeas nacvlad, mravaleTnikurobis Semwynareblis
SaravandediT mosili, keTilSobili arseba: r. mafi im motiviT akritikebs
q. edlems5, rom man sakuTar filologiur SromaSi Tanamedrove rus mweral
qalTa Sesaxeb ulickaias romani `gamotova~, ar gaiTvaliswina ra, rom misi romani ojaxs, feminizms, dedobasa da qalsa da mamakacs Soris urTierTobis traqtatia (Rebecca A. Muff, 2008:47):
`In her work, Adlam has also ignored the novels Medea and Her Children
(1996), which one might certainly consider a full-length treatise on family,
5

qerol edlemi (Carol Adlam) eqseteris universitetis rusuli enis leqtoria,


1996 w. Sesrulebuli misi sadisertacio naSromia Contemporary Russian women
writers, misive avtorobiT gamoica 2005 w. `qalebi rusul literaturaSi glasnostis Semdeg
(Women in Russian Literature after Glasnost. London: Legenda, 2005).

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

67

femininity, motherhood, and male-female relations~.


ramdenadac ulickaias romani dekonstruirebis principiT Seiqmna, xolo
Tavad es principi parodirebas emyareba, rasakvirvelia, romanis metalingvisturi funqciis dekodirebis gasaRebic swored aq devs: postmodernistma avtorma masSi miTis sakuTari, parodirebuli interpretacia SemogvTavaza da ara
raime `traqtati~. tolerantobis parodireba ki axdens avtoris, rogorc Semwynareblobis mqadageblis niRbis destruqcias.
ulickaias romanis postkoloniuri ritorika.
tolerantobis parodirebisadmi kritikul ganwyobas warmoSobs is,
rom sagrZnobi xdeba Tavad avtoris Rrma ironia medeas ojaxis mravaleTnikurobisadmi. rasakvirvelia, avtori Tavisufalia sakuTari kredo im SuqCrdilSi warmoaCinos, romelSic faruli darCeba misi arsi; Tumca, sinanulis, nostalgiis, sevdanarevi Txrobis substratSi aRreuli xma mainc gascems mas: naratori gviambobs, rom mas da mis meuRles, momaval zafxuls saTanado Tanxis Segroveba da SviliSvilis wayvana surT medeas biZis, giorgis ojaxSi. SviliSvilis, romelic warmoSobiT `haiteli, Savi amerikelis
rZlisgan~ hyavT:
, , ,
,
, .
SeuZlebelia ar SevniSnoT, raoden sagangebod aris xazgasmuli rasis
aRmniSvneli kanis feri. Cndeba kiTxva: ramdenad neitraluria rasobrivi
identobis amgvari specifikacia? ramdenad antirasistulia es aqcenti, yuradRebis es gamaxvileba kanis ferze da `ucxos~ reprezentacia? _ fraza
` ~ xom rasistulad markirebuli lingvistikuri
presupoziciaa. romanis zeda plastze `ganfenili~ fsevdotolerantuli
paTosi, TviT kanis ferebis `damateba~, rCeba romanis fasadur Rirebulebebad, Tumca Txroba imgvaradaa konstruirebuli, rom morgebulia dasavluri sociumis koleqtiur warmosaxvas am RirebulebaTa Sesaxeb...
ulickaias romanSi derogaciuli signifikantebis siWarbe igrZnoba;
isini, romanis mTels matricazea mimofantuli, Tumca, erT mTlian, koloniur kompoziciaSi aerTianebs qalaqebs, qveynebs, erebs, calkeul personaJebsa da maT identobas.
ganvixiloT derogaciulad significirebuli qronotopebi:
(1) ,
.
(2) :
, , ,
,
derogaciis markerebs: `arafris maqnis kiSiniovsa~ da `wyeul israels~ da `wyeul, dasaqcev amerikas~ Tu ganvazogadebT, cxadia, yovelgvari
narativi avtoris tolerantobis Sesaxeb naCqarevia da nawarmoebis kritikuli gauazreblobisaken migviTiTebs.

68

xaTuna beriZe, marine giorgaZe

amasve aRniSnavs marTebulad amerikeli mkvlevari, m. Caildsi, wers ra,


rom romanSi, bevri uaryofiTi Strixia personaJTa dasaxasiaTeblad, Tumca am
Strixebs avtori moxerxebulad niRbavs, zerele tonalobiT, uaryofiT ambebsac obieqturi mTxrobeliviT gviambobs, magram aseTi detalebi erTmaneTs emateba da araTu ar gvagrZnobinebs sxva eTnosisadmi im dadebiT damokidebulebas,
rac sabWoTa qveynebis xalxTa Soris arsebobda, aramed Cirqs scxebs mas:
`While these negative traits are narrated in a cursory fashion, scattered in
the novel like breezy tidbits of history, they build upon each other, and rather
than creating a sense of positive tolerance for ethnic differences that existed in
pre-Soviet and Soviet Russia, seem to denigrate them~.
medeas deda warmoSobiT baTumidanaa, rac amerikel mkvlevars afiqrebinebs, rom igi qarTvelia, (citata), magram arc saxeli da arc gvari _ matilda ciruli _ ar mowmobs mis eTnikur qarTvelobas.
, ,
, , .
, ,
.
Tumca, avtors ver davwamebT, rom qarTul-gvar-saxelebSi ver erkveva:
,
.
, ,
, , . , ,
:
, ,
, .
. -.
, .
, , ,
. . .
. . .
. . .
vinme manana, (rogorc medea varaudobda, matildas ufrosi Zmis meuRle), romlis werilic matildasadmi 1892 wliT dauTariRebia avtors, matildas Sesaxeb samarcxvino faqts aaSkaravebs; mSoblebis gardacvalebis
Semdeg, medea poulobs am werils da da-Zmas umalavs, raTa mSoblis `Rirseba daicvas~:

.
xolo ramdenime xnis Semdeg, medea, `Tavgadasavlebis moyvarul~ sandroCkas `pedagogiuri mizniT~ uyveba matildas ambavs, raTa am ukanasknelma
`misi mware sve-bedi ar gaiziaros~:
,

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

69

- .
,
, , ,
.
Tavad medea, romelmac ar icoda ra iyo Tavdaviwyeba, kaprizi, survilic ki, xanSiSesuli ki dedis qcevas qarafSutobad miiCnevs:
,
, ,
, .
miTiurma medeam pirovnebis sastiki deprivacia ganicada ulickaias
romanSi... portretis mgznebareba, siyvarulis unari da upatiebloba Ralatisa _ radgan romans marTlac aqvs ori fena, ori Sre da ori ganzomileba; koreeli siZis arseboba simboloa aRmosavleTiT, amomavali mzis qveynebisken eqspansiis, rac ZiriTadad sabWoTa droSi xdeboda; xolo dasavluri
eqspansia da amerikeli rZali _ es postsabWoTa drois Sexsenebaa. romels
aniWebs upiratesobas Tavad avtori? daskvna albaT misi fsevdo-neitraluri binaruli opoziciiT `warsuli da arawarsuliT~ _ unda gamovitanoT:
,
,
, . `warsulisa da
arawarsulis~ diqotomia xdomilebis droiT aRqmasac avtoriseuli subieqtivizmiT aRbeWdavs: misTvis `warsuli~ medeas winaprebis signifikantia,
`arawarsuli~ _ miTosuri droisa, romelic realurad ver daakavSirebs maT
ulickaias medeas STamomavlebTan; rogori interpretaciac ar unda davuZebnoT reprezentirebul diqotomias, aRreulia ararealuri da realuri droebi, miTosuri da postmiTosuri personaJebi da maTi prototipebi, postkolonialuria diskursi, romelSic medeas, rogorc kolxi miTiuri personaJis
qarTvelTa Sesaxeb da parodirebulia dasavluri faseulobebi.
dabolos, ulickaias romanSi ismis eqo puSkinis `baxCisarais Sadrevnidan~, poemidan, romelic mogviTxrobs qarTveli zaremas tragikuli migraciaze haremSi... gvaxsenebs Tu ara baxCisarais baRis aluzia im pirvel literaturul teqsts, romelSic qarTveli qali ideologiurad kolonizatorul SuqCrdilSia warmoCenili?
` , , !
! ,
, , ~.
cnobili naSromis: `rusuli literatura da imperia~ avtori, ingliseli mecnieri s. leitoni wers:
`saqarTvelos aziad qcevis kidev erTi meTodi iyo qarTveli qalis
amogleja misi Tanamedrove socialuri konteqstidan da misi gadayvana ucxo miwaze, haremSi, islamur warsulSi. amis yvelaze TvalsaCino nimuSia zarema, xan gireis haremidan, romelsac puSkinis yirimuli poemis, `baxCisara-

70

xaTuna beriZe, marine giorgaZe

is Sadrevani~ (leitoni, 196: 1994)6


msgavsad leitonis mier gaanalizebuli personaJebisa, romelTac mkvlevari `uuflebod da Seuracxyofilebad~ (leitoni, 197:1994) miiCnevs,
ulickaias postkoloniur narativSic, miTosuri samyarodan amoglejili da
avtoris simulaciaSi migrirebuli medeac uuflebo da parodirebulia.
daskvna:
literatura asaxavda da asaxavs ideologiur kolonializms. ulickaias interkulturuli Txzuleba `medea da misi Svilebi~ m. timoJkos terminebs Tu mivmarTavT, ulickaias asimilaciuri kanibalizmis sofistikaciuri formaa (timoJko, 35).
literatura:
. . , 133,
. irbisnbuv.gov.ua/.../cgiirbis_64.exe?

: . 7
saqarTvelo antikur xanaSi, kolxeTisa da amierkavkasiis iberiis istoria
Zv. w. 550 ax. w. 562 wlebi) devid braundi).
Classical Allusions and Imperial Desire: Problems of Identity in Georgian and
Russian Literature. Mary Evelynne Childs. A dissertation submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
University of Washington 2012.
CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN WOMEN WRITERS: REJECTING DEFINITION IN LITERARY REBELLION A Senior Honors Thesis by REBECCA A. MUFF, Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs Texas
A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2008
SUSAN LAYTON, RUSSIAN LITERATURE AND EMPIRE Conquest of the
Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY
PRESS, 1994
6

leitonis citata inglisur enaze: `Another means of orientalization was to remove the
Georgian woman from her contemporary social context and place her in the Islamic past
or in a harem in another land. The most famous example is Zarema, the concubine of
Khan Girei in Pushkin's Crimean poem "The Fountain of Bakhchisarai."
7
http://www.irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgibin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?Z21ID=&I21DBN=UJRN&P21DBN=UJRN&S21STN=1
&S21REF=10&S21FMT=fullwebr&C21COM=S&S21CNR=20&S21P01=0&S21P02=0
&S21P03=A=&S21COLORTERMS=1&S21STR=%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B
8%D1%87%20%D0%AE$
PIVDENNIY ARKHIV ( .
) (Collected papers on Philology) L 2011

medeas semiotikuri Targmani l. ulickaias romanSi

71

Khatuna Beridze
Marine Giorgadze
Medeas semiotic Translation in L.Ulitskayas Novel
Medea and her Children
The paper studies the novel by the Russian author L. Ulitskaya through the
postcolonial lens.
The author implicates the canonized myth about Medea in the title of the
novel: ~Medea and her Children. 8 The title builds an instant cognitive association
with the classical Greek myth, being the first reaction of a reader.
The analysis of the novel focuses how Ulitskayas novel introduces a petty
reflection of the granddaughter of Helios and represents an antipode to the
mythical creature. Based on the examination, the paper argues that the novel by
Ulistkaya is one more Oriental tale in the stack of the postcolonial narratives,
which implicitly or explicitly deal with the Caucasus (Russias Orient) and
specifically Georgia. In different from the rest of the Russian literature reflecting
Georgia, which we can attribute to the same paradigm, the text by Ulitskaya
develops on the matrix of the mythical allusions. Establishing the associative
connection with the mythical heroine, the author transforms Medea, daughter of
the Colchi king Aiet into Medea Sinoply Mendez, who is a remote reminiscence
of the antiquity. She is culturally translated and migrated into the modern world
created by Ulitskaya, living a life engineered with the authors vision.
The findings of the study are arranged to show clearly how the novel
constantly clashes the mythical Medea, intelligent, beautiful, divine and the
human Medea, who is mean enough to refuse food to children. This dichotomy
transforms the latter into a far cry of the Medea who comes from the land of the
golden fleece.
The comparative approach to the study of the Russian novel reflects on the
manipulations of the language use, through which Medea, as a mythical heroine,
descends from the elevated ancient world of myths to find herself a mediocre
woman, kept in the turmoil of the social life. Ulitskaya creates a subaltern myth
of the mythical Medea, sharing the approach of those who study her as a human
creature. Ulitskaya then gender-marks Medea as a woman and migrates her
from her homeland into Crimea, thus translating her Colchis origin into the
ambiguous one. Medea, the child born to the royal family, is misrepresented as
an illegally born child to a notorious woman from Batumi (Georgia).

, ., 1996

xaTuna bolqvaZe
kultura da semiotika
termin `kulturas~ mravalricxovani
gansazRvreba gansazRvreba aqvs, Tumca is, romelic arsebobs mecnierebaSi, saSualebas
gvaZlevs, aRvniSnoT mTavari. kultura-es
adamianis arsebiTi daxasiaTebaa, romelic dakavSirebulia Tavisi adamianuri TvisebebiT
garemomcveli samyaros mizanmimarTul gardaqmnasTan, swored am procesSi iqmneba sagnebisa da simboloebis xelovnuri samyro da
aseve kavSiri da urTierToba adamianebs Soris. mSobliuri ena mWidrod da mravalmxriv
aris dakavSirebuli sazogadoebaSi adamianis
cxovrebis mraval mxaresTan. es debuleba samarTliania xalxisa da yvela enis mimarT. adamianis cxovrebis mravali aspeqti imiT ganisazRvreba, rom is sazogadoebis wevria. amgvari aspeqtebis erToblioba kulturas warmoadgens. aRniSnaven, rom kultura aris is, rasac adamiani iTvisebs, rogorc sazogadoebis
wevri. ase danaxuli kultura moicavs adamianTa cxovrebisa da qcevis farTo sferos,
romlis aSkarad gamoxatul da umniSvnelovanes nawils ena Seadgens (gamyreliZe:2008463).kultura aris mravali semiotikuri naerTi da erT-erTi mniSvnelovani amaTgan verbaluri sistemaa. ena warmoadgens kulturis
iaraRs. bevri mecnieris naSromi, aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, Seicavs Teoriul codnas imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor inaxeba enaSi kultura, samyaros aRqmis elementebi da rogor
xdeba maTi formireba enaSi komunikaciis procesSi.sazogadoeba da kultura erTmaneTs gu-

kultura da semiotika

73

lisxmoben. ena SeiZleba ganviTardes mxolod ama Tu im struqturis mqone socialur jgufebSi; amave dros, adamianTa sazogadoebis nebismieri forma, romelic odnav mainc hgavs dRemde cnobil socialur formebs, SeiZleba SenarCunebul iqnes mxolod saerTo enis mqone adamianebs Soris. adamianTa sazogadoebaSi qcevis udidesi nawili, is, rac kulturis sferos ganekuTvneba, gadaicema sazogadod ara imitaciis gziT, aramed enis saSualebiT.
bolo periodSi termini kultura da masTan dakavSirebuli yvela sakiTxi yvelaze ufro aqtualuri gaxda lingvodidaqtikuri naSromebisTvis.
kulturuli fonis mravalferovneba iZulebuls xdis swavlulebsa da meTodistebs, dafiqrdnen savsebiT aqtualuri sakiTxebis gadaWraze. kerZod
ki, rogor moaxdinon droze reagireba da efeqturi kulturaTSorisi komunikaciis damyareba? rogor SeZlon sxva kulturis arsis wvdoma ise, rom
amasTanave SeinarCunon da ar daiviwyon TavianTi sakuTari? sxva kulturisa
da enis Seswavlis dros, rogor wamoswion wina planze sakuTari patriotizmi? rogor aRudgnen win diskriminacias da piriqiT, gamoavlinon tolerantoba da empaTiuroba? am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad, mkvlevarebi da
swavlulebi erTxmad Tanxmdebian, rom wamyvani adgili kulturaTSoris dialogs (kulturaTa dialogs) uWiravs.
yovelTvis problemuri iyo is sakiTxi, Tu ramdenad SesaZlebelia kulturis Seswavla iseTive obieqturi principiT, rogoric _ fizikuri sxeulebis. bevri semiotikosi uars ambobs sakuTar sferos mecniereba uwodos, vinaidan Tvlis, rom SeuZlebelia mniSvneladi sistemebis Seswavla obieqturobis sruli dacviT. adaminebi mudam dayvelgan mniSvnelobebis ZiebaSi arian.
amaSi maT exmarebaT niSnebis SemuSavebis, gagebis da gamoyenebis unari. niSnebi
exmarebian adaminebs mniSvnelobebiT Seavson is ufskruli, romelic arsebobs
adamianis cnobierebasa da gare samyaros Soris. es adamianebs uqmnis gangrZobadobis, miznisa da cxovrebis azris gancdas. Sesabamisad, niSnebis SemuSavebagamoyenebis unari exmareba maT, efeqturad gaumklavdnen adamianuri yofierebis iseT umniSvnelovanes aspeqtebs, rogorebicaa:mizanSewonili qceva, dagegmva, socialuroba da dakomunikacia. kultura am unaris pirdapiri Sedegia.
kultura aris gaziarebuli mniSvnelobebis erToblioba, romelic sistemazea dafuZnebuli, rac, Tavis mxriv, warmoadgens sxvadasxva saxis niSnis kompleqsur sistemas, romlebic winaswargansazRvradi gziT reprezentaciis
paternebad yalibdebian da rasac adamianebi iyeneben Setyobinebis mosamzadeblad da erTmaneTSi gasacvlelad. Teoriuli semiotikis mizania, niSnebis warmoSobis, bunebis da Tvisebebis Seswavla, raTa gamoikvlios maTi
funqciebi da gamoyenebis gzebi maTi kulturuli konteqstis farglebSi.
semiotikis ZiriTadi mizania iseve, rogorc Caswvdes tvinis unars, Seqmnas da gaigos niSnebi, aseve gaigos aqtivoba, romlebsac damiani axorcielebs
am unaris meSveobiT. unars semioziss uwodeben, aqtivobas ki _ reprezentacias. semiozisi neirobiologiuri procesia, romelic safuZvlad udevs
niSnebis Seqmna-gagebas. niSnebSi igulisxmeba yvelaferi, martivi fsiqologiuri signalebidan kompleqsuri simbolizmiT dtvirTul niSnebamde.

74

xaTuna bolqvaZe

reprezentacia aris niSnebis mizanmimarTuli gamoyeneba samyaros Seswavlis, klasifikaciis da gagebis mizniT.
teqsti yovelTvis iyo da rCeba yvelaze ufro moTxovnad kategoriad
mTel rig mecnierebaSi sakvlevi kuTxiT. teqstis, rogorc lingvisturi
kvlevebis obieqtis, fenomeni sakmaod mravalxrivi da araerTmniSvnelovania. aRniSnuli kategoriis samecniero codnis sxvadasxva veqtorSi interpretaciisasaqcenti yovelTvis keTdeboda misi arsis yvela SesaZlo aspeqtze, vinaidan teqsti warmoadgens niSans (rTul enobriv niSans), statikuri
sistemis nawils, dinamikur erTeuls (teqstis Seqmnis, teqstis Seswavlisa
da teqstis aRqmis kuTxiT), komponents, kulturis gamovlinebas, kulTuraTSorisi komunikaciis saSualebas, socialur fenomens, disciplinaTSoris obieqts, erT kodirebul da mraval kodirebul sivrces (tareva2014:99).teqsti ganixileba, rogorc struqtura-semantikuri, komunikaciuri erTeuli, rogorc sistema, Semoqmedeba, rogorc komunikaciur-kognitiuri modeli, rogorc sistema-struqturuli, informaciul-funqcionaluri gamovlineba. lingvokulturulogiaSi, teqstis Seswavla tradiciulad xdeba lingvistur mimdonareobebsa da mimarTulebebTan mWidro
urTierTobaSi (tareva2014:100).
magaliTisTvis warmogidgenT koncept oms, romelic sxvadasxva kulturaSi sxvadasxva verbaluri niSniTaa warmodgenili. `oms~, rogorc koncepts,
sakmaod rTuli struqtura aqvs, is SeiZleba ganixilebodes, rogorc erTi,
makrouniversaluri koncepti da aseve, mikrouniversaliis doneze is TavisTavSi itevs, mcire, sxvadasxva oms, koncepts. mas aseve gaaCnia sxvadasxva tipi,
saxe, strategia, masStabi da a.S. Tavisi istoriidan gamomdinare qarTveli
eris cnobierebasa da qarTuli samyaros enobriv suraTSi TavisTavad SeiWra
da sakuTari mkafio adgili daikava konceptma `omma~. qarTvelma erma yovelTvis icoda sicocxlis fasi, icoda brZola da Tavisuflebisa da samSoblos
dasacavd arasodes erideboda oms.omi qarTvelisTvis vaJkacoba, Tavdadeba,
sicocxlis wyurvilia: `Tavs ar moiklavs qarTveli ara,is SeiZleba brZolaSi mokvdes...Cven vaJkacoba ZvelTagan mogvsdevs,yvelam gaigos, yvela icodes!Cven SeiZleba brZolaSi movkvdeT,magram arc maSin vtovebT sicocxles!~
(lado asaTiani `saqarTveloSi~).
qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi sityva `omi~ Semdegnairadaa
ganmartebuli: 1. SeiaraRebuli brZola saxelmwifoebs Soris ekonomikuri,
an politikuri miznebis misaRwevad; 2. brZola, Setakeba, SeWideba, Cxubi; 3.
Seurigebeli moqmedeba, energiulad galaSqreba visime an risame winaaRmdeg.
lado asaTianTan-~Tavs ar moiklavs qarTveli ara,is SeiZleba brZolaSi
mokvdes...~;omi vaJasTan-`arwivi vnaxe daWrili yvav-yornebs eomeboda,ewada
beCavs adgoma, magram veRara dgeboda~;omi akakisTan-`maS, raRad minda sicocxle me, awmyo-gamwarebulsa, Tu visac vetrfi, vinc miyvars, vxedav mas
aoxrebulsa...omi iliasTan-~exlac omia, xolo sisxlis Rvrisa ki ara, oflis Rvrisa, omi usisxlo, mSvidobiani, wynari.~
omze saubrisas, dauSvebelia gverdi avuaroT simbolikas, romelic

kultura da semiotika

75

erTgvar xatadac ki SeiZleba iqnes miCneuli, romelic metyvelebs qarTvelis vaJkacobasa da Tavdadebaze samSoblos, Tavisi qveynis dasacavad. am simbolikiserT-erTi TvalsaCino magaliTia `qarTvlis deda~, qarTveli moqandake elguja amaSukelis monumenturi qandakeba TbilisSi. `qarTvlis deda~
aris qarTuli erovnuli xasiaTis simbolo: qandakebas cal xelSi Rvinis
Tasi uWiravs moyvareTaTvis, xolo meoreSi-ki xmali mterTaTvis. aseve
mniSvnelovani niSania wiTeli yayaCo, romelic warmoadgens 2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omis simbolikas.

amrigad, mocemuli magaliTebis mokle mimoxilvis safuZvelze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom koncept `oms~ mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs qarTuli samyaros enobriv suraTSi da is sxvadasxva enobrivi niSniTaa warmodgenili.
kulturuli klasifikaciebi imdenad Rrmadaa gamjdari adamianebSi, rom
isini gvevlinebian samyarosa da Cvens Soris mediatorebad. niSani irCevs
imas, Tu ra unda davimaxsovroT im usasrulobidan, rac samyaroSi arsebobs. Tumca, aseve, Cven vqmniT axal niSnebs, raTa miviRoT axali codna
da movaxdinoT Zveli codnis modifikacia. Cven vibadebiT ukve arsebuli
mniSvneladi sistemis farglebSi, romelic gansazRvravs, imas, Tu rogor
aRviqvamT samyaros.
bibliografia:
aleqseeva . ., - . ;///
saerTaSoriso ucxoenovani ganaTleba:
;
tareva . . : // ;
gamyreliZe Tamaz-Teoriuli enaTmecnierebis kursi~;
tician tabiZe-`omis Tema qarTul mwerlobaSi~-moskovi, 1915http://wikisource.org/wiki/;
ilia WavWavaZe-`ra giTxraT, riT gagaxaroT?~-1887 w. 31 dekemberihttp://www.orthodoxy.ge/tserilebi/ilia/ra_gitkhrat.htm;
statia
`kulturis
semiotika~http://documents.tips/documents/5572137c497959fc0b9266b9.html;

76

xaTuna bolqvaZe

Bolqvadze Khatuna
Culture and Semiotics

Culture always used to be the subject of interest for the nations. Many
aspects of human life are determined by the fact that he/she is the member of
society. Combination of such aspects makes a culture. It is admitted that culture
is something adopted by a person as a member of society. Culture is
compounded by different semiotic aspects and language is very important among
them it can be said that language is a weapon of culture. Recently, the term
culture and all the issues related to it became actual for Lingual-didactic studies.
Cultural diversity make scholars and Methodists think about solving the most
problematic aspects in this sphere.
The present article focuses on text as a verbal sign and mirror of a culture.
Text is discussed as structure-semantic, communicative unit, as a system,
cognitive model and informational-functional manifestation. We discuss culture
specific concept ~War as an example which is presented by different verbal
signs in different cultures. In this article we focus on the place of the culture
specific concept ~War in Georgian language and culture.
Sign chooses what should we remember from those varies things around us
which we face every day in the world. However, we also create new signs in
order to get new knowledge and modify an old one as well. We are born in a
world with already existing meaning, where all signs have their notion and
exactly the fact determines how we perceive the world.

oTar gogoliSvili
ramdenime saarqivo
dokumenti berZnebis
Sesaxeb baTumis olqSi
berZenTa raodenobrivi zrda aWaraSi
sagrZnoblad daiwyo ruseT-TurqeTis 18771878 wlebis omisa da aWaris saqarTvelosTan dabrunebis Semdeg.
minda sazogadoebas mivawodo oTxi saintereso dokumenti, romelic exeba berZnebis cxovrebas baTumSi. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia 1885 wlis baTumis olqis samxedro
gubernatoris werili mTavarmmarTeblis
kancelariisadmi. werilSi vkiTxulobT:
`Tqvens maRalkeTilSobilebas vacnobeb, rom
berZnebis didi jgufi Camovida baTumSi konstantinepolidan, isini cxovroben amJamad
Ria cis qveS. mxolod ramdenime ojaxma SeZlo baTumSi mcxovreb berZnebTan dabinaveba,
sxvebs ki es ar SeuZliaT. Cveni warmomadgenlebi cdilobdnen moexerxebinaT maTi ganTavseba sxvadasxva adgilas, magram es jgufi
sakmaod mozrdilia da ver vaxerxebT yvelas
ganTavsebas. Tanac, gamoirkva, rom baTumSi Camosuli berZnebis umetesoba aris sxvadasxva
specialobis warmomadgeneli, isini saubroben maT enaze, mxolod ramdenimem icis rusuli ena. amasTan, minda mogaxsenoT, rom Camosuli berZnebi ar iqcevian gamomwvevad, ar agresiuloben, Tumca adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan ar Sedian kontaqtSi. isic minda aRvniSno, rom baTumeli berZnebi gamoxataven
survils, rom xelisuflebam SeZlos maTi
TanamoZmeebis dabinaveba. baTumis olqis xelisuflebas ar aqvs saSualeba qalaqSi gamonaxos maTTvis Sesabamisi sacxovreblebi,
Tumca berZnebi uars acxadeben (sankt-peter-

78

oTar gogoliSvili

burgis saxelmwifo istoriuli arqivi, fondi 1213, aRwera 14, saqme 445,
furc. 123-126).
baTumis olqis samxedro gubernatoris 1885 wlis aprilis werils
mohyva. imave wlis maisSi kavkasiis mTavarmarTeblis kancelariidan sapasuxo
werili, romelsac xels awers mTavarmarTeblis TanaSemse. werilSi aRniSnulia: `berZnebi iseTive marTlmadideblebi arian, rogorc rusebi, maT didi
daxmareba gagviwies Turqebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi da rusuli iaraRis gamarjvebaSi, Tanac baTumSi mcxovrebi berZnebi gamoxataven Tanadgomas ruseTis
xelisuflebisadmi. gTxovT, rogorme moaxerxoT berZnebis ganTavseba rogorc qalaqSi, aseve mTeli olqis teritoriaze. Cven viciT, rom TqvenTan
aris auTvisebeli didi teritoria rogorc zRvispireTSi, aseve soflad. amitom izruneT, rom es xalxi gaasaxloT aseT auTvisebel teritoriaze da WeuwyoT xeli rom maT SeZlon sacxovrebeli pirobebis mowyoba. es waadgeba momavalSi Cvens xelisuflebas, radgan gaCndeba CvenTvis dasayrdeni xalxi.
Tumca gavalebT, rom aseve SeiswavleT maTi warsuli, politikuri otientacia da Tu raime sawinaaRmdego gamoCndeba, imoqmedeT saxelisuflebo interesebidan gamomdinare. ecadeT, rom es sakiTxi gadawyvitoT saxelmwifoebrivad...werili mTavrdeba Semdegi sityvebiT: `baTumSi Camosuli berZnebi unda
daasaxloT olqis teritoriaze da CaayenoT sazxelmwifos samsaxurSi~(sankt-peterburgis saxelmwifoistoriuliarqivi, fondi 1213, aRwera
14, saqme 445, furc. 137-140). vfiqrob, rom Zalian saintereso dokumentia.
aseve sainteresoa 1891 wliT daTariRebuli dokumenti, romelic
ekuTvnis baTumis olqis samxedro gubernators da igi gagzavnilia aseve
kavkasiis mTavarmarTeblis saxelze. dokumentSi saubaria mrewvelobis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb baTumis olqSi da daxasiaTebulia TiToeuli sawarmo, maTi saqmianoba, mosamsaxureTa Semadgenloba da politikuri Sexedulebebi.
CamonaTvalSi saubaria berZeni saqmosnis- sideredisis Sesaxeb. mas 1889
wels dauarsebia sanavTobe firma, flobda xis yuTebisa da Tunuqis sanavTe
bidonebis damamzadebel qarxnebs da sam sanavTobe rezervuars. siderediss
axlo urTierToba hqonda baTumis olqis xelisuflebasTan, is daaxloebuli iyo qalaqis xelmZRvanelobasTan, afinansebda berZen xmosnebs, romelTac surdaT monawileoba mieRoT qalaqis TviTmmarTvelobis saqmianobaSi.
sideredisi Caeba mZlavr konkurenciaSi baTumSi dafuZnebul sam gigantTan:
rotSildTan, nobelTan da manTaSevTan, gansakuTrebiT daeZaba mas mdgomareoba rotSildis firmasTan. rotSildi cdilobda xelSi Caegdo sideredisis qarxnebi, konkurencia didi iyo. dokumentis mixedviT sideredisis sawarmos mosamsaxureTa umravlesoba berZnebi iyvnen, aseve sainteresoa, rom
baTumSi Camosuli berZnebis absolituri umravlesoba saqmdeboda sideredisis qarxnebSi. siderediss baTumSi gaxsnili hqonda mis sawarmoebTan siaxloves ufaso TavSesafari. dokumentSi aRniSnulia, rom Camosuli berZnebi am TavSesafarSi cxovrobdnen, ewyobodnen qarxnebSi muSebad da maT Zalian uwyobda xels sideredisi.
dokumentSi vkiTxulobT, rom berZnebi dRisiT qarxnebSi muSaobdnen, saTamos ki eweodnen sxvadasxva saqmianobas, iyvnen TerZebi, xelosnobdnen. 1897
wlisaTvis baTumSi da mis SemogarenSi berZnebs auSenebiaT 30-mde sacxovrebe-

ramdenime saarqivo dokumenti berZnebis Sesaxeb baTumis olqSi

79

li saxli, ori abano da ramdenime maRazia(sankt-peterburgis saxelmwifo istoriuli arqivi, fondi 1213, aRwera 14, saqme 445, furc. 168-172).
amave dokumentSi daxasiaTebulia berZeni Tambaqos mrewveli lazaros
biniat-oRli, saubaria mis mier agebul Tambaqos fabrikaze, daxasiaTebulia
muSebi, romelTa umravlesoba berZnebi iyvnen. biniat-oRli qvelmoqmedebasac eweoda. mas baTumSi augia berZnebisaTvis saerTo sacxovrebeli, SeukeTebia berZnuli taZari, romelic atarebs wminda nikolozis saxels. biniatoRli exmareboda berZnul samrevlo skolas finansebiT da sxva. dolumentSi aseve saubaria berZeni saqmosnebis kandidisis Sesaxeb, romelsac aseve
hqonia Tambaqos fabrika. 1898 wels, golumentis mixedviT, didi dapirispireba moxda biniat-oRlsa da kandidis Soris da es dapirispireba Turme gadazrdila am ori fabrikis muSebs Soris fizikur Sexla-SemoxlaSi, saqmeSi
policia Careula, zogierTi kidevac daupatimrebia, magram Semdgom ra urTierToba damyarda am or Tambaqos magnats Soris, ar Cans dokumentidan. albaT, isini bolomde konkurentebad darCnen(sankt-peterburgis saxelmwifo
istoriuli arqivi, fondi 1214, aRwera 14, saqme 987, furc. 99-102).
aseve sayuradReboa 1902 wlis dokumenti, romelic exeba baTumis olqis sazogadoebriv politikur mdgomareobas, daxasiaTebuli baTumSi arsebuli viTareba, revoluciuri moZraoba naTqvamia, rom 1902 wlis antisamTavrobo gamosvlebSi sxvebTan erTad aqtiurobda berZeni erovnebis xalxi,
daxasiaTebuli maTi aqtiurobebi, kerZod, 1902 wlis 18 ianvars berZnebs mitingi mouwyviaT baTumis centralur moedanze da daugmavT mTavrobis antixalxuri saqmianoba, aqtiuri revolucionerebi: dimitriadi da mavropulosi daupatimrebiaT.
aseve sainteresoa 1905 wlis dokumenti, romelic exeba proklamaciebs kerZod, 1905 wlis maisSi baTumSi gamoakres proklamaciebi sxvadasxva
enaze, maT Soris berZnul enazec. berZnul proklamaciaSi iyo mowodeba berZeni mosaxleobisadmi, rom ebrZolaT carizmis winaaRmdeg da mieRwiaT Tavisuf- lebisaTvis. aseve iyo mowodeba boikotisaken, rom mosamsaxureebi ar
gamosuliyvnen samuSaoze, daexuraT maRaziebi, ar damorCilebodnen xelisuflebas da a.S.(sankt-peterburgis saxelmwifo istoriuli arqivi, fondi
1214, aRwera 14, saqme 987, furc. 121-132).
gamoyenebuli wyaro:
sankt-peterburgis saxelmwifo istoriuli arqivi, fondebi 1213, 1214, aRwera 14, saqmeebi 445, 987.
Otar Gogolishvili
Some Archival Documents about the Greeks in Batumi District
The article is about the arrival of the Greeks in different periods, namely, in
the following years: 1885, 1891, 1902, and 1905. In this respect, the article deals
with the Military governors letters to the head of the Caucasus region and
provides analysis of the related documentation.

irine goSxeTeliani
sivrce da dro
yovlismomcvel ideaSi
samyaros aRqma da warmodgenebi, asaxuli adamianis cnobierebasa da rwmenaSi, erTgvari sazomia misi arsebobisa sivrceSi,
romelsac Cven kosmiuri yofa SegviZlia vuwodoT. sivrce Cven irgvliv yvelgan aris
sityvebs Soris, romlebsac warmovTqvamT Tu
vwerT, musikaSi, ferebSi, sagnebs Soris, moZraobebSi, roca xdeba Cveni sxeulis gadaadgileba, droSi, romelSic kacobrioba Tavis
istorias qmnis. jer iyo samyaros Semecneba,
Semdeg- warmodgena am samyaros Sesaxeb. yvela eri Taviseburad asaxavda am Seucnobels.
magaliTad, warmarTma qarTvelebma samyaro
sferoebad dayves, romelsac sknelebi uwodes. zeda samyaros zeskneli ewoda, romelic dasaxlebuli iyo RmerTebiT; miwas ewoda skneli, sadac adamianebi da cxovelebi
cxovrobdnen; miwisqveSeTs _ qveskneli,
gardacvlilTa samyaro, romelic idumalebiT iyo moculi. sknelis pirdapir, samyaros
centrSi maTi warmosaxviT mdebareobda wina
samyaro, anu winaskneli, ukan ki _ ukanaskneli. rogorc vxedavT, qarTvelebs samyaros kosmiuri aRqma hqondaT, romelSic TiToeuli skneli mowesrigebul mikrosamyaros warmoadgenda. es warmosaxva qarTul
enaSic aisaxa, radgan SemorCenil sityvebs:
ukanaskneli, qveskneli, zeca (zeskneli) igive semantika aqvT.
sicocxle kosmiuri movlenaa, romelic
mudmivia rogorc kosmosi, is usasruloa, is

sivrce da dro yovlismomcvel ideaSi

81

sivrcesa da droSi Tanadroulad arsebobs. sivrce, rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni, sxva kategoriebis gareSe ar arsebobs, is urTierTkavSirSia drosTan,
bunebasTan, movlenebTan, sagnebsa da adamianebTan.
sivrcisa da drois yovlismomcveli idea gansazRvravs adamianis damokidebulebas samyaros arsisadmi, romelic asaxulia kulturaSi. metaforaSi, arqetipebSi, miTebSi, legendebSi, zRaprebSi, idiomebSi, andazebSi, tradiciebSi, xelovnebaSi da bolos, yoveldRiurobaSi kosmogonizmi gansazRvravda adamianis yvela sulier Rirebulebas da rwmenas. magaliTisaTvis
aviRoT sityva `gardacvaleba~, romelic orive semiotikur cnebas moicavs,
adamiani gadainacvlebs erTi droidan da sivrcidan meoreSi, xdeba misi metamorfoza. inglisurSi passed away-aseve gulisxmobs erTi sivrcidan meoreSi mogzaurobas -Cvengan Sors. manana xidaSeli aRniSnavs, rom `sivrcisa da
drois Taviseburi gaazrebis gamo, dro, erTdroulad Seqcevadic iyo da Seuqcevadic, diaqronulica da sinqronulic~(xidaSeli 2002).
Cveni mizania, warmovaCinoT rogor aisaxeba droisa da sivrcis urTierTkavSiri enasa da kulturaSi, ganvsazRvroT maTi gavlena Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaze.
dro da sivrce ori yvelaze arsebiTi da ganuyofeli konceptualuri
mniSvnelobis mqone konceptia, romelic enaSi hpovebs asaxvas.
mag. 1. He stood before me
2. Monday is before Tuesday
3. He had left the party before Ann came
4. He said something important before going away
5. ~Papa, said his beautiful daughter in the same tone as before, "we
shall come
rogorc vxedavT, erTi da igive windebuli/zmniszeda SeiZleba gamoviyenoT rogorc sivrcul, ise drois deiqsisad. temporaluri cnebebis sivrculi gamoxatuleba farTod aris gavrcelebuli sxvadasxva enaSi.
meoce saukunis bolos lingvistebma daiwyes msoflio enebis Seswavla,
imisTvis, rom daedginaT sivrcis transformireba (gadatana) droSi damaxasiaTebelia mxolod evropuli an indoevropuli enebis ojaxisTvis, Tu es
aris universaluri fenomeni da axasiaTebs yvela enas. benJamin li uorfma hofis (amerikeli indielebis erT-erTi ena) enaze dakvirvebiT daaskvna, rom es
cvlileba yvela enisTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli.
cnebebi, romlebic Cvens gonebaSia ara mxolod inteleqtis maCvenebelia,
aramed isini marTaven Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebas, gviCveneben, Tu rogor aRviqvamT samyaros, rogor urTierTobas vamyarebT sxva adamianebTan.
samyaros metaforuli aRqma enaSi kargad gamoixateba im SedarebebSi,
romlebiTac adamiani Tavis egos ukavSirebs garesamyaros. Ideas are food metaforaa, romelic SegviZlia gavigoT, rogorc kargi idea, romelic akmayofilebs Cvens inteleqtualur madas. es metafora gviCvenebs, rom saWmelsa
da SimSils Soris iseTive urTierTobaa, rogoric ideasa da inteleqts Soris.

82

irine goSxeTeliani

dro mifrinavs (time flies) sxva arferia, Tu ara drois sivrcesTan urTierToba, mxolod sivrceSi monacvleobiT SesaZlebelia drois gacnobiereba. Cven viciT, rom raRac yovelTvis drois erT ganzomilebaSi da erT
sivrceSi xdeba da rom Cven verasodes davbrundebiT ukan. yvela movlena Tu
nivTi mxolod am drosTan da sivrcesTan aris dakavSirebuli. es konceptualuri drois da sivrcis cneba yvela kulturasa da enaSi gvxvdeba. Cvens
metyvelebaSi aisaxeba is WeSmariteba, rom sivrceSi rogorc geografiul
ganzomilebaSi arsebobs yvela cocxali arseba da obieqti. adamiani iyenebs
Tavisi sxeulis egocentrul koordinacias sxeulebis gansaTavsebelad, magaliTad, mimarTulebas is Tavisi lokaciis mixedviT gansazRvravs:
the house is on your left hand-side, turn right, turn left.
adamiani sivrceSi geografiul lokacias axdens. magaliTad, gzas roca
kiTxuloben veubnebiT `wadiT pirdapir, mouxvieT marjvniv da qvemoT daeSviT~.
Cven vambobT, rom arsebobs sami sivrculi dro, romelSic warsuli gamocdilebaa, awmyo SefardebiTia, radgan nebismier SemTxvevaSi is SegviZlia
aRviqvaT rogorc drois da sivrcis swrafi cvlileba, romelic warsulad
iqceva, xolo momavali mxolod Cvens ideaSi, qvecnobierSia.
nikolai berdiaevi (1948) wignSi istoria da esqatologia (apokalifsi)
esqatos (berZ.) ukanaskneli), gamoarCevs sam dros: kosmiurs, istoriuls da
egzistencialurs(realobasTan dakavSirebuls). kosmiuri dro ganxiluli
aqvs rogorc fizikuri dro, da izomeba kalendriT, saaTiT. istoriuli dro
gamoixateba sityvebiT meoce saukune, 45 weli Cvens welTaRricxvamde, dRes,
romelic, SeiZleba aRviqvaT, rogorc gagrZeleba guSindeli dRisa da xval
ki dRevandeli dRis gagrZeleba. kosmiuri da istoriul droebi, n. berdiaevis
azriT, warmavali (fallen time) droebia, radgan momavali STanTqavs awmyos da
gadayavs is warsulSi. Cveni yoveldRiuri arsebobiT Cven saSualebas vaZlevT
dros inerciiT TandaTan Semcirdes da adgili dauTmos xvalindel dRes, ise,
rom zogjer gvaviwydeba Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania dRes movemzadoT ukeTesi momavlisTvis. n. berdiaevi realur arsebobas (egzistencialur dros)
uwodebs warmavali inerciuli droisgan gaTavisuflebas, rac kacobriobas
aniWebs sakuTari miznebis SesrulebiT miRebul sixaruls. amas n. berdiaevi
wuTis daWeras uwodebs, radgan am dros kacobrioba aRasrulebs Tavis misias.
lingvistebi zmnis drois da aspeqtis gramatikul kategoriebis ganxilvisas nakleb yuradRebas aqceven zmnizedebiT gadmocemul drois cnebebs, Tumca isini aranakleb mniSvnelovania.
SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom dro da sivrce erT konceptualur mniSvnelobas gamoxatavs, orives mniSvnelovani informaciuli funqcia aqvs da
xSir SemTxvevaSi samyaros enobriv suraTs metaforulad aaxavs.

sivrce da dro yovlismomcvel ideaSi

83

literatura:

axmeteli 2000: axmeteli n. lorTqifaniZe b., qarTuli miTebis samyaro. Tb.


logos presi.
lakof 2003: Lakoff G. Johnsen M. Metaphors We Live
By. London: The university of Chicago press.
fulga
2012:
Fulga
A.
Language
and
the
perception
of
Space, Motion and Time. Concordia Working Papers in Applied
Linguistics, 3, gv. 26-37
hasfelmaT 1997: Haspelmath M. From Space to Time. Temporal Adverbials in
the Worlds Languages . LINCOM Studies in Theoretical Linguistics 03,
Mnchen Newcastle.
haSbarger 2010: Harshbarger B. Chaos, Complexity and Language Learning.
Language Research Bulletin, 22, ICU, Tokyo
miCener 2004: Mitchener W. G. A. Nowak M. Chaos and language.
xidaSeli m. 2002: xidaSeli m. brZolis kosmogoniuri koncefcia saqarTvelos uZveles sulier kulturaSi. Jurnali `saqarTvelos siZveleni~, N2, Tbilisi.

Irine Goshkheteliani
Space and Time in All-embracing Idea
Perception and imagination of the universe reflected in the human
consciousness and beliefs is a kind of measurment of his existence in the space,
which we could call the cosmic life. The space is everywhere around us, between
the words we speak or write, in music, colors, the objects, movements, in the
movement of our body, in the time, in which humanity creates its history. Life is a
cosmic phenomenon that is everlasting and exists in space and time. Space is a
semiotic phenomenon that is related with human beings, time, nature, objects and
other categories. First was the cognition of the world and then understanding of the
universe. The all-embracing idea of space and time determines a human approach
to the worlds essence which is reflected in the culture. Cosmogony determines all
spiritual values and beliefs in our everyday life that are reflected in metaphors,
archetypes, myths, legends, fairy tales, idioms, proverbs, traditions, art.

JuJuna gumbariZe
aluzia, rogorc
interteqsturi dialogis
warmarTvis saSualeba
saprezidento sajaro
gamosvlebSi
adamianis gacnobierebuli Tu gaucnobierebeli, nebsiTi Tu uneblie azri, idea,
survili, ocneba, warmosaxva, realobis Tu
ararealobis virtualuri Tu aravirtualuri transformacia da metamorfoza Taviseburad airekleba da vlindeba adamianis TiToeul qmedebaSi, saubarsa da qcevaSi. Tu
rogor Seicnobs adamiani samyaros, Tu rogor warmoaCens is sakuTar Tavs sazogadoebasTan urTierTobisas, ganurCevlad misi politikuri, religiuri, sociokulturuli
warmomavlobisa, Tu ra damokidebuleba aqvs
mas Sida da gare samyarosTan, rogorc intra
ise interpersonalur doneze, swored misi
TiToeuli qmedebis analizis Sedegad SeiZleba davasabuToT. samyaros Secnobac xom
informaciis aRqmis kognituri damuSavebis
etapze mimdinareobs da am dros verbaluri
iqneba teqsti Tu ara verbaluri, misi gaazreba da swori interpretacia enobrivi pirovnebis mentalur SesaZleblobebzea damokidebuli.
xSirad teqstebSi asaxulia naklebad
nacnobi an sruliad ucxo elementebi, romlebic msmenelsa Tu mkiTxvels zogjer exmareba teqstis ukeT da efeqturad aRqmaSi,
zogjer ki piriqiT, dabrkolebas da Tavsatexs warmoadgens misTvis. rodesac teqstSi
gvxdeba precedentuli saxelebi da citire-

aluzia, rogorc interteqsturi dialogis warmarTvis saSualeba...

85

bebi, aluziebi sxvadasxva wyarodan: literaturidan, miTologiidan, bibliidan, istoriidan da a.S. SegviZlia visaubroT swored im fenomenze, romelsac interteqstualurobis saxeliT Seiswavlian mecnierebi. terminebi
interteqsti da interteqstualuroba frangi semiotikosisa da postmodernizmis Teoretikosis _ iulia kristevas saxels ukavSirdeba. swored
man gamoiyena es termini pirvelad literaturis TeoriaSi da Semdgom SromebSi mis Seswavlas didi yuradReba dauTmo. mas Semdeg interteqstualurobis fenomenis mimarT dRemde ar ganelebula mecnierTa interesi.
rodis xdeba teqsti interteqstualuri? sainteresoa r. bartiseuli
Sexeduleba, romlis mixedviT, yoveli teqsti maSin iZens interteqstualur
xasiaTs, rodesac masSi sxva teqsti an teqstebi met-naklebad cnobadi formiT arian warmodgenili. imisaTvis, rom aseTi teqsti aRviqvaT srulfasovnad, saWiroa teqstSi arsebuli interteqstualuri CarTvebi ar davtovoT
Cveni yuradRebis miRma da movaxdinoT gamonaTqvamis adekvaturi
interpretacia. aqve gvaxsendeba d. mengenos mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac `interteqsti, esaa mocemul korpusSi moxmobili fragmentebis erToblioba (citirebebi, aluziebi, parafrazebi...), xolo interteqstualuroba im
implicituri wesebis sistemaa, romlebic am interteqsts warmoqmnian, citirebis manera, romelic diskursis formaciaSi legitimurad iTvleba, im diskursis tipi da Janri, romelsac es diskursi miekuTvneba~ (mengeno 2005 328).
interteqstualuri miniSneba da misi gaTvalisiwineba saSualebas gvaZlevs
ufro Rrmad gavaanalizoT teqsti. iyeneben Tu ara interteqstualur CarTvebs politikur diskursSi? _ pasuxi martivia: - iyeneben da Tanac da sakmaod intensiuradac.
daviwyoT imiT, rom politikosTa sajaro metyvelebis umetesi nawili
swored rom kargad gacnobierebuli da winaswar dagegmili teqstia mTeli
Tavisi leqsiko-semantikur-pragmatikuli TaviseburebebiT. amiT aixsneba is
garemoeba, rom qveynis wamyvani politikosebi, pirveli pirebi da prezidentebi sajaro gamosvlebSi did mniSvnelobas aniWeben TiToeuli sityvis
SerCevas, radgan kargad ician, rom politikuri gzavnilis gadasacemad da
msmenel sazogadoebaze zemoqmedebis mosaxdenad, maT mier gamoyenebuli TiToeuli aluzia strategiuli datvirTvis matarebeli iqneba. amitomac
aris, rom politikuri diskursis ZiriTadi nawili winaswar dagegmilia, misi spontanuroba ki moCvenebiTia. politikosi lingvistis funqciasac iTavsebs, mas kargad aqvs gaazrebuli, rom ena is sabrZolo iaraRia, romelic mas
politikuri miznebis ganxorcielebaSi yvelaze ukeT daexmareba. n. vudsis
Tanaxmad, politikuri diskursis ena mizanmimarTulia iqiTken, rom Segviqmnas konkretuli Sexeduleba politikur realobaze da vimoqmedoT swored
am Sexedulebis Sesabamisad. mas SeuZlia zewola moaxdinos, daaSinos, daakanonos, daajeros, daaimedos, daarwmunos da sxv. msmeneli (vudsi 2006:
50). amitomac aris, rom politikosebi sazogadoebaze manipulirebis mizniT
TavianT gamosvlebSi xSirad iyeneben mxatvruli gamosaxvis sxvadasxva saSualebas, gansakuTrebiT ki metaforebsa da aluziebs. isini mimarTaven alu-

86

KJuJuna gumbariZe

ziebs, rogorc erovnuli, ise ucxouri literaturidan, xelovnebidan, istoriidan, miTologiidan, bibliidan da a.S.
interteqstuli elementebiT saubari SegviZlia miviCnioT rogorc politikosTa mxridan ritorikuli maRalfardovnebis xerxi, romelic xazs usvams
politikosis zogad codnasa da inteleqts. rogor warimarTeba interteqstualuri dialogi aluziis gamoyenebiT saprezidento sajaro gamosvlebSi; ra
saxis teqstobriv aluziebs vxvdebiT da ra sixSiriT, ramdenad didia maTi stilisturi efeqti da datvirTva? am kiTxvebze
pasuxis gasacemad saanalizod SevarCieT aSS moqmedi prezidentis- barak husein obamas mier sajaro gamosvlebis dros warmoTqmuli sityva, ris
Sedegadac mivediT Semdeg daskvnamde, rom obama Tavis gamosvlebSi referirebis wyarod metwilad istoriuli faqtebsa da politikosTa gamonaTqvamebs iRebs, Tumca is xSirad bibliasac mimarTavs. rodesac vsaubrobT aluziebze bibliidan, aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom obama gansakuTrebiT pavle mociqulis epistoleebidan iyenebs amonaridebs. ase magaliTad.:
1. ~We remain a young nation, but in the words of Scripture, the time has
come to set aside childish things. ~When I was a child, I talked like a child, I
reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me. Now I
know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known.
`rodesac viyavi yrma, vityodi, rogorc yrma, vfiqrobdi, rogorc yrma,
vmsjelobdi, rogorc yrma; xolo rodesac davkacdi, zurgi vaqcie yovelive
yrmobisdroindels. radganac axla bundovnad vxedavT, rogorc sarkeSi, maSin ki pirispir vixilavT; axla nawilobriv vici, xolo maSin Sevicnob, rogorc Tavad Sevimecnebi~.
pavle mociqulis epistole korinTelTa mimarT, Tavi me _ 13
~We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; we are perplexed, but
not in despair; Persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed;
`yvelanairad gvaviwroeben, magram daTrgunvilad ara vgrZnobT Tavs; gamouval dReSi gvagdeben, magram mainc vpoulobT gamosavals. devnilni varT,
magram ara miusafarni; gvamxoben, magram bolos ver gviReben~.
Tu ratom iyenebs barak obama gansakuTrebiT pavle mociqulis qadagebidan amonaridebs, SegviZlia avxsnaT im garemoebiT, rom pavle mociqulis
TiToeuli epistole gajerebulia imediTa da rwmeniT ukeTesi momavlisaken. amdenad, obamas strategiuli svlac TvalsaCinoa. is STaagonebs xalxs,
rom amerikas mteri verafers daaklebs, ramdenjerac ar unda ecados Zirs
daanarcxos, daaCoqos da gaanadguros es qveyana, amerika mainc wamodgeba
fexze, welSic gaimarTeba da ufro gaZlierdeba.
aluzia xelovnebis sferodan, kerZod, muziklidan `Swing Time~.
`This is the journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous,
powerful nation on Earth. Our workers are no less productive than when this crisis
began. Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and services no less needed than
they were last week or last month or last year. Our capacity remains undiminished.

aluzia, rogorc interteqsturi dialogis warmarTvis saSualeba...

87

But our time of standing pat, of protecting narrow interests and putting off
unpleasant decisions that time has surely passed. Starting today, we must pick
ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America~.
muzikli Swing Time (teqstis avtori doroTi fildsi, musika jerom
kernis, 1936). muziklis Seqmnis istoria ukavSirdeba amerikaSi didi depresiis periods, romelic 1929 wels daiwyo. es is periodia, rodesac pirvelad
daiwyo amerikis ekonomikam dacema. sabazro ekonomikam ganicada kraxi da amerikis ekonomikis momavals Seuqmna araxelsayreli pirobebi ganviTarebisTvis.
iklo produqciis warmoebam, Seferxda mrewveloba, SeCerda industriuli
dargebis ganviTareba, Semcirda samuSao adgilebi da a.S. es iyo periodi, rodesac pirvelad amerikis istoriaSi moqalaqeebma daiwyes migracia sxva qveynebSi. es iyo amerikeli xalxisaTvis erTerTi yvelaze mtkivneuli istoriuli periodi, romelmac amerikis Zlevamosileba eWvis qveS daayena da xalxs
momavlis imedi gaucrua. muziklis gzavnilic xalxis optimisturad ganwyobas emsaxureboda:
`Nothings impossible, I have found. For when my chin is on the ground, I
pick myself up, dust myself off, Start all over again. Dont lose your confidence
if you slip. Be grateful for a pleasant trip, And pick yourself up; dust yourself
off; Start all over again~.
obama ase moZRvravs xalxs, rom droa fexze wamovdgeT, CamovibertyoT
mtveri da SevudgeT amerikis aRorZinebas. araferia SeuZlebeli, mTavaria
ar daece sulierad, ar dakargo moTmineba, arasodesaa gviani daiwyo Tavidan,
mTavaria mondomeba. ra mizans emsaxureba misi aseTi mowodeba? _ xalxis
sulierad ganmtkicebas da momzadebas axali gamowvevebisaTvis, axali ideebis ganxorcilebisTvis, cvlilebebisaTvis mzadyofnas da sxv.
ganvixiloT aluzia istoriidan:
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that
among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."
~CvenTvis TavisTavad cxadia is WeSmariteba, rom adamianebi Seqmnili
arian rogorc Tanaswori arsebani, rom maT RmerTma mianiWa garkveuli xelSeuvali uflebebi, rogoricaa sicocxle, Tavisufleba da bednierebisken
ltolva; ~
citireba gakeTebulia amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis damoukideblobis
deklaraciidan. deklaracia aris istoriuli dokumenti, romelSic CrdiloeT amerikis britanuli koloniebi didi britaneTisgan damoukideblobas
acxadeben, is erTxmadaa miRebuli meore kontinenturi kongresis mier 1776
wlis 4 ivliss filadelfiaSi (pensilvania). deklaracia gaxda pirveli oficialuri dokumenti, romelSic koloniebi `amerikis SeerTebul Statebad~
moixsenieba. `Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness~ obama strategiulad akeTebs citirebas damoukideblobis deklaraciidan, riTac xazs usvams
im faqtors, rom dRevandel dRes yvela adamians aqvs ufleba iyos cocxali,
Tavisufali da bednieri ganurCevlad sqesisa, rasisa, warmomavlobisa, religiisa, socialuri statusisa, orientaciisa da poziciisa.

88

KJuJuna gumbariZe

SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom aluzia interteqstuli dialogis warmarTvis erT-erTi saukeTeso saSualebaa. igi teqstobrivi diskursis funqciuri elementia, romelic maRali gamomsaxvelobiTi efeqturobiT gamoirCeva.
interteqstuli elementebis CarTva stilistikuri eqspresiulobiT gamoirCeva da pragmatikul doneze maT damarwmunebuli da emociuri atmosferos Seqmna SeuZlia. am dros mosaubris sityva damajerebeli, samarTliani,
dasabuTebuli, argumentirebuli, gavleniani, sarwmuno da sando xdeba msmenelisaTvis. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom aSS moqmedi prezidenti gansakuTrebiT
xSirad transsemiotikur interteqstualobas mimarTvas, rac Tavis mxriv
gulismobs CarTuli elementis pirvelwyarod faqtualuri (arafiqcionaluri) teqstis gamoyenebas.
literatura:
vudsi 2006: Woods, N. Describing discourse: A practical guide to discourse
analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press
kristeva i. 1980: Kristeva, J. (1980) Desire in language: A semiotic approach
to literature and art. Roudies, L. (ed.). Translated by Jardine, A., Gora T. &
Roudiez, L. New York: Columbia University Press, London: Basil
Blackwell.
lebaniZe 2004: lebaniZe, g. komunikaciuri lingvistika. Tbilisi: ena da
kultura
lorinceni 2009: lorinceni s. 2009:Suzie Lauritzen og Malene Fisker
AALBORG UNIVERSITET Power in Discourse
mengeno 2005: Maingueneau, D. Analyse du discours et ses frontires
Marges Linguistiques
Zhuzhuna Gumbaridze
Allusion as the Means of Intertextuality in Presidential
Public Speeches
To gain the listeners support and respect is certainly the ultimate goal in
political discourse. No strategies serve such a goal better than intertextual means
realized by allusions and citations in public speeches. This study explores the use
of allusions by president Obama and highlights the point that intertextuality is an
effective strategy to arouse the listeners sympathy and trust. It is characterized
by a high mode of persuasion and argumentation and has a manipulative
function. The article argues that a political discourse contains a subtle content
with some intertextual features to be recognized and understood by the audience.

nino gurgeniZe
toponimebis emociuri
aspeqtebi frangul da
qarTul enebSi
adamianis cxovreba da cnobiereba mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli gare samyarosTan, bunebasTan, garkveul teritoriebTan. adamianis cnobierebaa Suamavali aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris, azrovnebaSi ki aRiqmeba dasaxelebul saganTa uSualo substanciuri
mniSvneloba.
toponimebi Tavisi warmoSobis mravalferovnebiT mravalfunqciur onimebs warmoadgens. maTi mTavari funqciaa arsebuli geografiuli adgilis saxeldeba _ warmoSobis istoriuli wyaros etimologiuri kvlevis dros, leqsemaTa kavSiris eTnosTan, religiasTan da kulturasTan gansazRvra. toponimebi eris Camoyalibebisa da ganviTarebis
Sesaxeb mniSvnelovan informacias iZleva da
misi aRqma garkveul, pozitiur an negatiur
zemoqmedebas axdens adamianis fsiqologiaze,romelic ganwyobasqmnis. amitomac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania toponimebis mizanmimarTuli gamoyeneba literaturul SemoqmedebaSi.
literaturaSi toponimebis saSualebiT mwerali qalaqis RirSesaniSnaobebs an
istorias gadmogvcems. parizi mkiTxvelis
cnobierebaSi asocirdeba eifelis koSkTan,
luvris muzeumTan, parizis RvTismSoblis taZarTan. quTaisi adamianis cnobierebaSi badebs asociaciebs gelaTTan, daviT aRmaSenebelTan, bagratis taZarTan anuqalaqissaxe-

90

nino gurgeniZe

liTmwerali,gadataniTi xerxiT,gadmogvcemsmokle, ZiriTadinformacias.


toponimebis, konkretulad kioikonimebis gamoyeneba Semoqmeds zusti, konkretuli adgilis Tu faqtis gamosaxatavad exmareba, radgan yovel qveyanas Tavisi maxasiaTebeli kultura da tradiciebi gaaCnia. konkretuli SemTxvevisaTvis mis zogad ganmsazRvrelad SesaZlebelia qveynis, qalaqis an regionis saxeldeba gamoviyeniT. magaliTad: burgundia (Bourgogne), am regions
yvela ukavSirebs meRvineobas, radgan cnobilia Rvinis warmoebiT, rogorc
saqarTveloSi kaxeTi asocirdeba venaxebTan, anu oikonimebis saSualebiT,
mwerali qmnis zogad Sexedulebas, Tu sad viTardeba siuJeti da ra tradiciebs ukavSirdeba arsebuli faqti, Tu ra mniSvnelovani aspeqtiT gamoirCeva
aRniSnuli teritoria. igi Tavisi SemoqmedebiT sakuTar mimarTebas gamoxatavs arsebuli teritoriisadmi da mkiTxvels uqmnisganwyobas. nebismieri
literaturuli Semoqmedebis daniSnulebaa, Seqmnas Sesabamisi ganwyoba, raTa zemoqmedeba moaxdinos mkiTxvelis qcevisa Tu gancdis mimdinareobaze. oikonimebis saSualebiT goneba qvecnobierad aerTianebs, mobilizacias ukeTebs
yvela arsebul informacias mocemul qalaqsa Tu dasaxlebul punqtze. mwerali erTi saxeldebiT mkiTxvelis gonebaSi mis irgvliv arsebuli informaciis lokalizebas axerxebs.
lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT, oikonimebi sxvadasxva mecnierebis sinTezis Sedegad formirdeba, rogorebicaa: literaturaTmcodneoba, filosofia, geografia, istoria da fsiqologia, ris Sedegadac vikvlevT kopleqsurad da viRebT saboloo Sedegs. sakuTari saxelebi Tavisebur leqsikur-gramatikul kategorias warmoadgens, romelic SeiZleba sxvadasxva
aspeqtSi gamovikvlioT, yvelaze metad sainteresoa toponimebis kvleva
fsiqolingvistikaSi. adamianis fsiqikis specifikuri Tavisebureba da misi
udidesi monapovari swored isaa, rom cnobierebis aqtivobiT, `aRqmuli informacia ganwyobas daumorCilos da emociuri gamoxatuleba misces~(uznaZe 1998:90).
mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi unda gavmijnoT mis mier Seqmnili ori `samyaro~-warmosaxva:
1. `vizualuri warmosaxva~, romelSic vizualuri garemos, RirSesaniSnaobebiT aRqmulis warmosaxva igulisxmeba.
2. `kognituri anu SemecnebiT/Sinagani warmosaxva~, romelSic teritoriaze mocemuli eTnosis maxasiaTebeli adaT-wesebi da tradiciebi igulisxmeba.
amrigad, oikonimebis saxiT mwerali mkiTxvels uqmnis konkretul
samyaros, vizualur warmosaxvas. magaliTad: ~Ctait le jour de mon arrive
ici. Javais pris la diligence de Beaucaire, une bonne vieille patache qui na pas
grand chemin faire avant dtre rendue chez elle, mais qui flme tout le long de
la route, pour avoir lair, le soir, darriver de trs loin. (dode 1992: 14)- `es is
dRe iyo, rodesac aq Camovedi. Cavjeqi qalaq bokeris diliJansSi. Zveli,
magram kargad movlili etli iyo, romelic arc ise grZel, misken (qalTan)
mimaval gzas miuyveboda, romelsac CiraRdnebi anaTebda, raTa saRamos ise-

toponimebis emociuri aspeqtebi frangul da qarTul enebSi

91

Ti ieri gqonoda, TiTqos Soridan modiodi~. nawarmoebis nawyvetSi mocemulia lamazi, Tbili saRamo, sadac raRac siaxles elodebi. oikonimi
Beaucaire qalaqia safrangeTSi, misi etimologiac imaze miuTiTebs, beau
_ lamazida caireoqsitanur enaze (romelzec provansSi laparakoben), rac
`qvakuTxeds~-pierre angulaire niSnavs. erTianobaSi iTargmneba, rogorc `lamazi cixe-simagre~. am nawyvetiT a.dode qmnis mkiTxvelis vizualur warmosaxvas, radgan safrangeTSi qalaqi bokeri cnobilia istoriisa da xelovnebis qalaqad, amitomac mocemuli oikonimis xseneba, gonebaSi silamazesTan,
siyvarulTan asocirdeba. magaliTad: `J'ai aim l'eau, la lumire, le soleil, les
matins d't, les ports, la douceur du soir dans les collines et une foule de dtails
sans le moindre intrt , un escalier bleu et blanc flanqu de deux fontaines ........
Nice. Je ne regrette ni d'tre venu ni de devoir repartir. J'ai trouv la vie trs belle
et assez longue mon got. J'ai eu de la chance. Merci~(jonasoni 2008:42).
`miyvarda zRva, sinaTle, mze, zafxulis dila, mSvidi saRamo gorakebze,
uintereso umniSvnelo detalebi, TeTrad da cisfrad SeRebili kibeebi,
romlis orive mxare SadrevnebiT iyo garSemortymuli.....nica. ar vnanob
imas, rom aq Camovedi da arc imas, rom aqedan unda gavemgzavro.. aq ganvvle
lamazi da xangrZlivi cxovreba. gamimarTla. gmdlobT~. avtori qalaqze,
ukve Seqmnil mkiTxveliseul warmosaxvas amZafrebs sakuTari gancdebiT,
SedarebebiT. amrigad, oikonimuri erTeulebis gareSe warmodgenili literaturuli Semoqmedeba gamocanas hgavs, romelic aRqmas moklebulia da SeuZlebelia adamianSi arsebuli kognituri Semecneba gaaRviZos.
aleqsande yazbegi `xevisberigoCaSi~ gamoyenebuli oikonimiT qmnis zogad Sexedulebas, gadmoscems xasiaTs adaT-wesebs. magaliTad: `iqnebodaRamiscxrasaaTi, rodesacsofelsyanobs miuaxlovdnenmxedrebi,sulymawvilebi, narCevidaerTi-erTmaneTzedlazaTianebiiyvnen. isinimidiodnenmxiarulad, simReriTdaTofissroliT. aSkaradetyobodaT, romesenisamtrodarmiemgzavrebodnen,
radganacarcsifrTxileetyobodaTdaarcisebevrniiyvnen,
romaseguladaddapirdapirSesuliyvnenxevissofelSi -saqarTvelos istoriul-geografiuli mxare, romelic kavkasionis CrdiloeT ferdobze mdebareobs, romelicTavisTavadmTels, ZneladasaRebs, simagreswarmoadgens~
(yazbegi 2007:16). mikrotoponim xevis moxseniebiT mwerali mkiTxvelis
cnobierebaSi, kogniturad acocxlebs im xasiaTs, ganwyobas, tradiciebs,
mocemuli eTnosis adaT-wesebs (ra Tqma unda, mkiTxveli kargad unda icnobdes im qveynis istorias an im eris warmomadgeneli unda iyos). am SemTxvevaSi mwerali qmnis kognitur, Sinagan warmosaxvas. informaciis miRebisas
Tavdapirvelad onims aRviqvamT da warmovisaxavT, Semdeg ki oikonimis irgvliv arsebul informacias pirdapir an asociaciurad vukavSirebT. yvela
es mocemuli informacia, TiToeuli adamianis, pasiuri azrovnebis nawilia,
mkiTxvelTaTvis rogorc informaciuli wyaro, is cnobilia, magram nawarmoebis kiTxvis procesSi pasiuri azrovneba aqtiur azrovnebad gadaiqceva, rac warmosaxvisa da asociaciis safuZvels iZleva. nawarmoebis Seqmnis
dros saintereso amocana isaa, rom ukve arsebuli, an zogjer ararsebuli

92

nino gurgeniZe

sakuTari saxeli SesaZloa mkiTxvelis warmosaxvisa da ganwyobis mizezi


gaxdes. toponimiis sxvadasxva onimis gamoyenebiT mkiTxveli mwerlis mier
Seqmnili samyaros uSualo Tanamonawile xdeba(uznaZe 1998:216).
amrigad,toponimTa sistemebs, mniSvnelobaTa simravleebi qmnian. TiToeul saxeldebasTanaa dakavSirebuli materialuri anu logikuri da warmosaxviTi anu simboluri cnebebi. isini asaxaven eris, yofad da sulier specifikas. yoveli mwerali Taviseburad qmnis da ayalibebs cnebebs mniSvnelobis
miniWebis Sesabamisad. Sedgenili cnebebi, saerTo enobriv mniSvnelobas iZens
da maTi ekvivalenti onimebis saxiTwarmogvidgeba. mwerlebs erTi da imave
denotatis sxvadasxvagvari gamoxatvis saSualeba aqvT. toponimebs, rogorc literaturuli onomastikis Semadgenel nawils, mxatvruli nawarmoebis kvanZs, mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs literaturul SemoqmedebaSi. erTi mxriv, is avtoris mier naxseneb saxeldebas ganazogadebs, Cvens
cnobierebaSi xelaxali gancdis SesaZleblobas iZleva, rac sxva dros da
sxva adgilas SeiZleba adamianis gancdis sagani iyos. meore mxriv, Tavisi istoriuli faqtebiTa Tu epoqaluri TaviseburebebiT qmnis realurad arsebul informacias, rac mkiTxvels nawarmoebis Rrmad aRqmasa da SemecnebaSi
uwyobs xels.
literatura:
dozati 1979: Dauzat A .La toponymie franaise, Editions IAC , Paris.
dode 1992: Daudet. A. Lettres de mon moulin, livre de poche, France.
ermoloviCi 2001: ..
, ., .
TofCiSvili2010: TofCiSvili r. saxelebis eTnologia da istoria;gamomcemloba universali, Tbilisi;
mindaZe 2009: mindaZei,fsiqolingvistika,gamomcemloba arete, Tbilisi;
spore 1979: Spore. P. tudes toponymiques II, Roanne, Horvath.
uznaZe 1988:uznaZe d., zogadi fsiqologia, aRmaSenebeli, Tbilisi.
feleri 1977: Feller J. La Toponymie wallonne. Mthode de la toponymie,
Bull, Paris.
yazbegi2004: aleqsandre yazbegi. (or nawilad) literaturismatiane, bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba, Tbilisi;
jonasoni 1994: Jonasson K. Le nom propre, constructions et interprtations,
Duculot, Lavain-la-Neuve.

toponimebis emociuri aspeqtebi frangul da qarTul enebSi

93
Nino Gurgenidze

The Emotional Aspects of Toponyms in French and Georgian Languages


Human life and consciousness are closely related to the outside world,
nature and certain areas. The human consciousness is an intermediary between a
signifier and signified, the mind perceives a direct substantial meaning of the
named objects.
According to diversity of origin, toponyms are multifunctional ~onyms.
Their main function is to define the name of an existing geographical area in the
process of etymologically analyzing a historical source of its origin, as well as
the relationship between lexemes and ethnicity, religion and culture.Toponyms
give important information about the establishment and development of a nation,
and its perception has a certain positive or negative impact on human
psychology. Each language uses its own means to describe the universe that is
reflected in terms of the language expressiveness, which gives a paragmatic and
cognitive value to a lexemes expressiveness, as well as distinctive mental and
emotional coloring.

Tamila daviTaZe
filip roTi `avtori~ da
`mTxrobeli~
mTxroblisa da avtoris kategoriebze
dakvirvebis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli zogadTeoriuli koncefciebis analizi cxadyofs, rom literaturaTmcodneobis umTavresi problema avtoris `xmas~ ukavSirdeba.
Tanamedrove amerikel mwerals, filip
roTs, rogorc `avtors~ da `mTxrobels,~
gmirTa subieqturi gancdebi Zalze sainteresod aqvs gadmocemuli, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli weris maneriTa da uCveulo TematikiT, rac gamoarCevs mas sxva mwerlebisgan.
misi personaJebi alegoriuli xasiaTisani
arian da zogadad Tanamedrove adamianis saxes warmoadgenen; protagonisti gmirebis
Txroba imdenad gadajaWvulia avtoriseul
TxrobasTan, rom rig SemTxvevaSi rTulic ki
aris imis garkveva, Tu vin saubrobs. amgvar
literaturul xerxs mwerali, SesaZloa,
mimarTavs realobis mZafrad gasaazreblad,
sadac erTmaneTs erwymis gamogonili personaJis Txroba da gamomgoneblis naambobi. erTi mxriv, gvaqvs teqstis avtonomiuri veli, xolo meore mxriv, mkiTxveli-interpretatori, romelic aRadgens avtoris
`xmas~ nawarmoebSi, rac exmareba mas gaigos,
Tu ramdenad ereva avtori Tavisi personaJebis metyvelebaSi, sad aris igi, rogorc
neitraluri mTxrobeli, aZlevs Tu ara
Sefasebas movlenebs da ra damokidebuleba
gaaCnia `mTxroblebis~ mimarT.
roTis mkiTxveli darwmunebulia, rom
ara gamogonili personaJis cxovrebas, azrebs, fiqrebs, protests ecnoba, aramed TviT

filip roTi `avtori~ da `mTxrobeli~

95

avtorisas, radgan roTis romanebis erT-erTi maxasiaTebeli Tviseba avtobiografiulobaa. igi dResac agrZelebs Cveuli aRmsareblobiT da biografiuli elementebis Semcveli formiT weras, romelic Sezavebulia iumorsa da
TviTironiasTan. sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, gvaqvs Tu ara Cven, mkiTxvelebs ufleba,
literaturul personaJSi avtori davinaxoT, sadavoa da azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs. ramdenad aisaxa verTerSi goeTe, Jiulien sorelSi stendali, rastiniakSi balzaki, aSenbaxSi Tomas mani, kolfildSi selinjeri? Tu am TvalsazrisiT CvenTvis saintereso filip roTze vimsjelebT, SevniSnavT, rom igi
Zalze moxerxebulad irgebs ara erT niRabs, iqneba es naTan cukermani, nil
klugmani, aleqsandre portnoi, devid kepeSi, qolman silki, baki kantopi Tu
sxva misi oreuli, romlebic erTianad avtoris alter ego-s warmoadgenen, rasac upirvelesad, maTi pirvel pirSi Txroba adasturebs, magram TviT avtobiografiuli nawarmoebis, magaliTad, rogoricaa `faqtebi~ (1988) kiTxvisasac, mwerali axerxebs daabnios mkiTxveli, dausxltes, daekargos mas. Txrobisas avtori iCens udides sifrTxiles, cvlis namdvili moqmedebis adgils,
drosa da ricxvs, saxelebs. movlenebi da faqtebi warmodgenilia `mTxroblis~ poziciidan. ambavs avtori gadmoscems ra personaJebis saSualebiT,
warmogvidgeba ara mTxrobel-gmirad, aramed Tavad nawarmoebis gmirad.
wina planze ambis `mTqmelis~ `Txrobaa~ wamoweuli.
pirvelad roTis SemoqmedebaSi, aRsarebiTi forma gamoCnda yvelaze
skandalur, SemdgomSi meoce saukunis amerikuli literaturis klasikad
aRiarebul romanSi `portnois sindromi~ (Portnoys Complaint 1969), romelsac udidesi rezonansi mohyva. wigni umetesad dawerilia pirvel pirSi,
naTan cukermani misi teqnikuri mTxrobelia. es aris wigni, im adamianis Sesaxeb, romelic sakuTari Tavis eTnikuri da seqsualuri identobis ZiebaSia.
Txrobis forma (narativi) damabnevelia, igi SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT, rogorc fsiqoTerapiis seansze myofi mTavari gmiris aRsareba-monologi, romelsac roTi araerTxel ubrundeba. TiToeuli Tavi warmoadgens gmiris mier warsulisa da misi fantaziebis aRweras, romelic hiperbolizirebulia
avtoris mier da absurdamde dadis. mTavari personaJis Txroba, sadac yvelaferi subieqturi xedvis kuTxiTaa Semofargluli, pirobiTad SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT `me~ mTxrobelis Txrobis formas. mTavari gmiri, iseve rogorc avtori, daibada da aRizarda niu-iorkis ebraul ubanSi, emigrantTa ojaxSi poloneTidan. personaJis ojaxis, misi garemocvis Sesaxeb rac
gvxdeba, faqtiurad avtoris ojaxis da megobrebis gansaxierebaa. avtori axdens 18 wlis asakamde dagrovili STabeWdilebebis mxatvrulad transformirebas, romelic emTxveva aleqs portnois xedvas.
`portnois sindromis~ Semdeg roTi agrZelebs misi oreulebis Seqmnas,
ufro metic, mTavari personaJi axla ukve mwerlis ampluasac irgebs. misi
momdevno romanebis gmirebi , literatorebi naTan cukermani da devid kepeSi
xdebian, romelTa Sesaxeb Txrobisas erTmaneTSia gadaxlarTuli namdvili
gamonagonTan. es personaJebi figurireben Semdeg romanebSi: `mkerdi~ (The
Breast, 1972), `Cemi mamakacuri cxovreba~ (My Life As a Man, 1974), `survilis profesori~ (The Professor of Desire, 1977), `literaturuli zangi~ (The
Ghost Writer, 1979), `borkilaxsnili cukermani~(Zhuckerman Unbound, 1981),

96

Tamila daviTaZe

`anatomiis gakveTili~ (The Anatomy Lesson, 1983), `sxva cxovreba~ (The


Counterlife, 1986), `faqtebi~ (The Facts. A Novelists Autobiography, 1988),
`adamianuri laqa~ (The Human Stain, 2000), `momakvdavi cxoveli~ (The Dying
Animal, 2001), `moCveneba gadis~ (Exit Ghost, 2007) da sxv. avtoris warmomavloba da socialuri statusi emTxveva mTxrobelisas. bolo dros Seqmnil
romanebSi ki naTan cukermanis, devid kepeSis da avtoris asaki, sazogadoebrivi statusi da Sexedulebebic ki emTxveva.
avtorisa da mTxrobelis problema ZiriTadia romanSi `borkilaxsnili cukermani~. naTan cukermani mTavari da SedarebiT yvelaze axlos mdgomi
alter egoa avtorisa. cukermanma gaiara ra rTuli gza, miiRo udidesi gamocdileba _ iqca momwifebul mwerlad, gamouSva wigni, romelmac didi
warmateba da saxeli mouxveWa, Tumca male gaxda misi naTesavebis da megobrebis gansjis sagani. roTs mohyavs citata, romliTac abnevs mkiTxvels:
`dae, naTanma naxos ras niSnavs, iyo cnobili da nu gvisayvedurebs imas, rom
Cven amis Sesaxeb ar vafrTxilebdiT~ (roTi 1981:1), mkiTxvels rom ar hqondes warmodgena am sityvebis avtorze, ifiqrebda, rom es realurad arsebuli adamianis cxovrebidanaa da ara mTlianad gamogonili personaJis. aq ukve
naTan cukermani, Tavis mxriv, qmnis da imeorebs misi gmiris, gilbert karnovskis saxes sakuTari biografiis da gamocdilebis safuZvelze. romanma
karnovskize cukermans iseTive warmateba, saxeli da amavdroulad skandali
moutana, rogoric _ `portnois sindromma~ roTs. marTalia, naTani popularobis zenitSia, magram amavdroulad am didebam mis ojaxs, mis megobrebs
Seuqmna sirTuleebi, isini gaxdnen dacinvis obieqtebi, da naTans uwevda yovel jerze imis axsna, rom gilbert karnovski gamogonili personaJia da
masze Seqmnili romani ar aris avtoris Sesaxeb, Tumca uSedegod. roTs am
siuJetis Seqmna, savaraudod, sakuTarma gamocdilebam ukarnaxa.
romani `borkilaxsnili cukermani~ SeiZleba CaiTvalos Tavisebur
mwerlur manifestad, romelic mcdelobaa erTmaneTisagan ganasxvao realuri da gamogonili, cxovreba da Semoqmedeba, avtori da mTxrobeli. naTan
cukermani da masTan erTad roTic, cdiloben daamtkicon mwerlis uflebebi
fantaziasa da mxatvrul gamonagonze. problema cukermanTan problemad
rCeba. misTvis gamosavali mxolod isaa, gawyvitos kavSiri, imaTTan, vinc manamde misTvis Zvirfasi iyo da kiTxvaze rodesac gamvleli mas ekiTxeba: `vin
xarT Tqven?~ (roTi 1981:225) is pasuxobs: `aravin~(roTi 1981:225).
roTis romanma `faqtebi: mwerlis avtobiografia,~ mkiTxveli kidev erTxel Seiyvana SecdomaSi, romelic fiqrobs, rom roTma gadawyvita namdvilad
Tavisi cxovrebis Sesaxeb daweros. am romanis SeqmniT, roTi iribad exmianeba
amerikul tradicias _ SeaerTos fiction da non-fiction. roTis Txroba, erTi SexedviT mkiTxvelis win Slis avtobiografiul suraTs, Tumca male aRmoCndeba,
rom es morigi miTia. wignis bolos mTxrobeli cukermani dabejiTebiT pasuxobs
avtors kiTxvaze wignis Sesaxeb: `ar gamoaqveynoT igi, Tqven ukeTesad gamogdiT
wera Cemze, vidre Tqveni cxovrebis Sesaxeb~ (roTi 1989:161). roTi gvarwmunebs, rom marTalia, avtoris Txroba sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb SeiZleba Seicavdes
gamogonil elementsac, magram igi aseve amtkicebs, imasac, rom xSirad gamonagoni aRemateba dokumentur faqtebs. amdenad, roTTan gamonagoni xSirad ufro

filip roTi `avtori~ da `mTxrobeli~

97

sarwmunoa, vidre namdvili faqti, ris gamoc rTuldeba realuris gamijvna gamonagonisgan da avtoris Txroba mTxrobelisagan. amgvarad, `faqtebSi~ roTs
gamohyavs iseTi gamogonili personaJi-mTxrobeli, romelic sxvadasxva nawarmoebSi irgebs xan protagonistis rols, xan _ wignSi wignis personaJis, xanac
ki TviT filip roTis Taviseburi recenzentisa da kritikosisa.
amgvarad, SeviswavleT ra roTis romanebi avtorisa da mTxrobelis
kuTxiT, davaskvniT: Semoqmedebis adreul etapze roTi personaJis, anu
mTxrobelis saxis Sesaqmnelad `sesxulobs~ ojaxur garemos, aRzrdis da
ganaTlebis Taviseburebebs. moaruli personaJebi _ mwerlebi, universitetis leqtorebi, naTan cukermani da devid kepeSi, marTalia garkveuli niSnebiT hgvanan avtors da mis msgavsad gadian im gzas, profesiuli ganviTarebis
da Camoyalibebis etapebs, rac roTma gaiara, mis msgavsad exvevian wignis gamo skandalSi da sabolood aRweven aRiarebas, magram roTis Semdgom etapze
Seqmnil im romanebSi, sadac mocemulia postmodernizmisTvis damaxasiaTebeli teqstTan TamaSi da mistikuroba, avtori cdilobs mkiTxvelebsa da
kritikosebs daumtkicos, rom ar SeiZleba misi (avtoris) da personaJis
(mTxrobelis) gaigiveba, rac ar unda msgavseba iyos maT Soris. avtobiografiuli elementebis gamoyenebiT da personaJi-oreulebis SeqmniT roTi ubralod iyenebs mwerlis uflebas mxatvrul gamonagonze, rac Seexeba avtoris xmas, Wirs misi gamocnoba, radgan gamokveTili ar aris, Tumca mkiTxveli mas yovelTvis grZnobs.
literatura:
efimovi 2014: , ` ~, ;
roTi 2013: filip roTi, portnois sindromi, Tbilisi;
roTi 2012: filip roTi, adamianuri laqa, Tbilisi;
roTi 1989: Roth, Ph. The Facts. A Novelists Autobiography. N.Y;
roTi 1981: Roth, Ph. Zuckerman Unbound. N.Y.
Tamila Davitadze
Philip Roth the ~Author and the ~Narrator
The modern American writer, Philip Roth, as the ~author and the ~narrator,
depicts the personal feelings of characters in a very interesting way. The narration led
by the heroes is so closely connected with the narration of the author in his works
that it becomes difficult to differentiate who is who and who leads the conversation.
The author manages to confuse the reader. He shows cautiousness, changes the real
place of the action, time, number, names. The events and facts are shown through the
~narrators perspective. Very often, the author appears as the character of his own
work when depicting the story through his characters. On the bases of some of his
works, we discuss the authors position: ~author-~narrator, according to which the
author tries to prove to the readers and critics, that it is impossible to get it as one and
the same thing, notwithstanding the fact that there might be great similarity between
them. By using biographical elements and creating identical characters Roth uses his
right on the fictional fancy.

nino dvaliZe
samyaros qaosuri
metaforebi
lingvistur WrilSi
samyaro erTi mTliani mowesrigebuli
qaosia aTasgvar prizmaSi gardatexili; vermosayoli yvelaferi, metaforebiT aRsavse
usasruloba, romelic yvelganaa ganfenili
da miCumaTebuli xmaurobs....samyaros enobrivi xati, misi uamravi gamovlinebiT, gansakuTrebiT mimzidvelia da iseTive garTulebuli
siadvilea, rogoradac ubraloa da genialuri Tavad gadalaxuli sirTule.... qaosi berZnul miTologiaSi carieli sivrcea, romelic Zveli berZnebis warmodgeniT samyaros
Seqmnamde arsebobda. qaosisagan warmoiSvnen
gea, erebosi, erosi, tartarosi, nikti dasxva.
orfelebis warmodge-niT qaosi qronosis (maradisobis) Svilia. maT qaosi warmodgenili
hqondaT ufskrulad, romelSic sibnele, Rame
da nisli binadrobda. droTa ganmavlobaSi
moZraobis Sedegad nislebma kvercxis saxe miiRo, Semdeg orad gaiyo, erTisgan warmoiSva
ca, xolo meorisagan dedamiwa.
simboluria kvercxi sicocxlis orad
gaxleCa cad da dedamiwad, mas erTi mxare bneli aqvs: (sikvdili, boroteba, qaosi), meore
ki naTeli (axali sicocxlis dabadeba, sikeTe,
harmonia).....da aris am or sawyiss Soris gaxlarTuli adamiani, dasabamidan! iq sadac Cveulebrivi,ubralo adamiani cxovrebiseul safexurebs am or sawyisTan brZolad aRiqvams,
poeti axerxebs Tavis warmosaxvaSi am brZolis mxatvrul xatad formirebas da samyaros

samyaros qaosuri metaforebi lingvistur WrilSi

99

qaoss zogjer netarebad da harmoniad warmogvidgens....poetTan uiRblo siyvaruliT gamowveuli tkivili da sevdac ki netarebaa, radgan, misTvis yovlismomcveli siyvarulia mTavari, siyvaruli, rogorc samyaros mamoZravebeli
Zala -Tavisi yvelanairi gamovlinebiT, RvTiuri Tu adamianuri ,Tavisi sisusteebiT, siZlieriT, SecdomebiTa Tu swori, dadebiTi mxareebiT...rac mTavaria,
adamianma usiyvarulod ar unda icxovros da martosulad ar igrZnos Tavi am
qaosur samyaroSi...
amgvarad, orfelebis warmodgeniT qaosi qronosis (maradisobis) Svilia. Tanamedrove ganmartebiT ki igi uwesrigobas da arev-darevasac niSnavs.
daismis SekiTxva; qaosi uwesrigobaa Tu mowesrigebuli areuloba ?!
samyaro qaosuria Tu kosmiurad dalagebuli erToba?! albaT orive... me Sevecade, gadmomeca, samyaros qaosurobiT gajerebuli metaforebi, davesesxe
enis semiotikur niSnebs da gavaanalize ramdenime magaliTi qarTuli da inglisurenovani poeziidan. amdenad: warmodgenili naSromis aqtualuroba ganpirobebulia samyaroSi ganfenili metaforebis qaosuri usasrulo gamovlinebiTa da maTi saTanadod aRqmisa da SemoqmedebiTad aRweris SemTxvevaSi,
lingvisturi xerxebis gadmocemis invariantulobiT xasiaTdeba. naSromis siaxled, Teoriul da praqtikul Rirebulebad mimaCnia Catarebuli kompleqsuri analizi qarTul da inglisurenovani poeziis nimuSebisa, sadac xatovnad aris gadmocemuli samyaros ori mxare, bneli da naTeli. kvlevis meTodad
aRebulia aRweris, Sepirispirebis, analizisa da sinTezis meTodebi.
vfiqrob, kvlevis originalur nawilad unda CaiTvalos, enaTmecnierebaSi damkvidrebul ZiriTad niSanTagan: signali, xati, indeqsi, simbolo da
saxelidan, metaforuli xatebisa da simboloebis gamokveTa da maTi konstruirebis procesis aRwera da analizi. rogorc marsel dinezi aRniSnavda: ~life is semiosis~- da Tu cxovreba, marTlac semiozisia, maSin cxovrebiseuli samyaros niSanTa sistemiT gadmocemisas, xats teqstis doneze verbalur niSnebTan mivyavarT. am niSnebis abstrahirebisas ki vwvdebiT pragmatikul intencias, ris Sedegadac konstruirdeba, swored, mxatvruli xati,
romelic Tavis mxriv iwvevs pragmatikuli intenciis esTetizacias. sailustraciod moviyvan Semdeg leqss:
,,TeTri iasamani
badri sulaZe
iasamani yvaoda TeTrad
da sevdiani qonda siTeTre,
es ucnauri usityvo sevda
me Cems oTaxSi Semovikedle...
mesaidumle me Semxvda bedad
bevrisTvis albaT ver asatani,
Cems civ oTaxSi aRar var kentad,
me var, sevda da iasamani...
sevda Semovikedle....me var, sevda da iasamani...am strofebSi gasulierda sevda, abstraqtuli saxeli, da Seiqmna mSvenieri mxatvruli, metaforu-

100

nino dvaliZe

li xati, romelic martoobis autanlobas, TeTri iasamaniviT mimzidvels


xdis da ramdenadme asatans, yovelSemTxvevaSi, igi civ oTaxsac ki aTbobs...
TeTri iasamnis ubiwo xateba da misi idumali Tanamosevdeoba, aranakleb
mimzidvelad aris dasuraTxatebuli inglisurenovan poeziaSi, am qaosur
samyaroSi xom, yvelas Tavisi albinosi eguleba sulis salbunad da
gulis mosabruneblad; ufro metic: uolt uaitmeni mraval gazafxulmnaxveli ambobs, rom iasamnis yvavilobas iseTive sevdanarevi simSvide da Tavdajerebuloba moaqvs,rogorc wmida samebas da igi iseve anaTebs dasavleTis
cis kabadons, rogorc masze dakiduli varskvlavi, amdenad, iasamnis uWknob
xatebaze fiqric ki Zalian uyvars avtors....
When lilacs last in the dooryard bloomd,
And the great star early droopd in the western sky in the night,
I mournd, and yet shall mourn with ever-returning spring.
Ever-returning spring, trinity sure to me you bring,
Lilac blooming perennial and drooping star in the west,
And thought of him I love.
BY WALT WHITMAN
iasamnis ubiwo yvaviloba gazafxulze da wmida samebis simSvide da
Tavdajerebuloba....aq ukve sityvebi uZluria gadmosce poetis sulieri samyaros mowesrigebuli metaforuli xedva. uolt uatmenTan, verc simartovesa da sevdas ver Semoaqvs samyaroseuli qaosi da disonansi,radgan igi wmida samebas gauwonasworebia....aq siyvaruli namdvilad scdeba xorciels da
cxovrebiseuli amaoebis fusfussa da qaoss; aq siyvaruli universaluri
xdeba....
aranakleb mimzidvelia uolt uaitmenis sada da yvelasaTvis gasagebi
eniT gamoxatuli Semdegi metaforuli fraza,~ saxe mudam mzis naTebisken
geWiros da Crdilebi yovelTvis Sens zurgsukan daecemian~ ....
adamians, rogorc samyaros, aqvs ori saxe: cudi da kargi, naTeli da
bneli, romelsac uolt uaitmeni, ase xsnis:
`me var imdenad cudi, ramdenadac uaresi, magram uflis wyalobiT, me
var imdenad kargi, ramdenadac saukeTeso~....
aranakleb sainteresoa, Tu rogor aRiqvamen da ra metaforebiT gadmoscemen sxvadasxva adamianuri grZnobiT gamowveul sevdasa da Tu sixaruls Tanamedrove poetebi qaotur yofasTan mimarTebaSi.
davubrundebi isev iasamnis Temas rati amaRlobelTan: ,,gazafxulis
uvertura~
isev maisobs samaiis isamani,
mze tyeebisken mwvane mziTvebs miezideba.
davtove Cemi mwuxarebis myudro savane,
isev maisobs samaiis isamani.
RmerTo! samSvinvels gazafxulis miec dideba

samyaros qaosuri metaforebi lingvistur WrilSi

101

da broweulis baRebisken gzebi savali.


mze tyeebisken mwvane mziTvebs miezideba,
isev maisobs samaiis iasamani.
aqac figurirebs iasamnis yvaviloba, sulis Zaxili da vedreba uflisadmi, misces poets Zala, gza gaukvalos broweulis baRebisken- Semodgomisken; mzes ki evedreba SeunarCunos tyeebs `simwvane~, da miitanos Tavi rogorme dazamTrebamde iseTive rudunebiT, rogoriTac agroveben xolme da
atanen mziTevs gaTxovebisas .... am imediT aRvsili poeti bednieri tovebs
mwuxare myudro savanes da nazamTral sevdian fiqrebs, radgan misTvis isev
maisobs samaiis iasamani...axalgaRviZebuli bunebis.mSvenieri metaforaa,
aliteraciiT gamoxatuli.
rati amaRlobelis es poeturi metaforebi erTgvarad exmianeba uolt uaitmenis mxatvrul xats: iasamani, gazafxuli, imedi, martoobis sevdianobis
daZleva, uflis rwmena. es aris albaT, swored, universaluri poeturi Tanxvedra ,romelic zogadsakacobrioa da droSi universaluri, rogorc es miaCnda orfelebs: qaosi qronosis (maradisobis) Svilia....
erTi ucnobi avtori, arafriT gamorCeuli, msurs, kontrastisaTvis
SemogTavazoT,radgan isic isevea gadaRlili da damZimebuli,rogorc bevri
am cxovrebis naTel da bnel mxareebze Cafiqrebuli 21 e saukunis nebismieri
ubralo adamiani. igi iseve ganicdis cxovrebis simZimesa da qaoss,rogorc
sxva cnobili poetebi,da Tavis fiqrebs Semdegnairad gadmoscems:
`vfiqrob... albaT bevrs vfiqrob?.
minda gavriTmo,minda viyviro! minda grZnobebs vuZebno adgili..
xan rom sicocxlis naxva mwyuria, xan vgrZnob rom damsdevs sikvdilis
aCrdili... ubralod viRlebi...
ramdeni fiqrebi,sityvebi,frazebi.. Sevkari riTmebad, leqsebad davdevi...
xan ki viRlebi... xan rom mamSvidebs napovni sityvebi, xan is sityvebic
arafers ar micvlis... ubralod viRlebi!..
samyaro qaoss mayris riTmebad... xan vbrZolob, ar vicdi!
xan ubrZolvelad mivyvebi dinebas~...
vfiqrob, sakmaod saintereso metaforuli mignebaa, roca `samyaro
gayris qaoss~ unda gauZlo, unda ibrZolo,Tundac gadaiRalo, mainc Seupovrad mihyve dinebas....
aqve moviyvan aseve Cveni Tanamedrovis,magram sakmaod cnobili poetis
_ bob dilanis, aw ukve nobelis premiis laureatis leqsebidan erT-erTs:
qviSis TiToeul marcvalSi~, romelic sakmaod sainteresod aRwers cxovrebis xanmokle vnebaTaRelvas da maradisobis idumal sivrcesTan ziarebas,
qaoss da wesrigs, codvebs da ucodvelobas, daRlas da Svebas, romelic
gulwrfeli aRsarebiT modis adamianebTan Tavisi xanmokle cxovrebisa da
maradisobis gzasayarze....
Every Grain of Sand
Bob Dylan, 1981
In the time of my confession, in the hour of my deepest need,

102

nino dvaliZe

When the pool of tears beneath my feet flood every newborn seed,
There's a dyin' voice within me reaching out somewhere,
Toiling in the danger and in the morals of despair.
.........
I gaze into the doorway of temptation's angry flame
And every time I pass that way I always hear my name.
Then onward in my journey I've come to understand
That every hair is numbered like every grain of sand.
..........
I hear the agd footsteps like the motion of the sea,
Sometimes I turn _ there's someone there _ other times it's only me.
I am hanging in the balance of the reality of man,
Like every sparrow falling, like every grain of sand.
mdidari poeturi xatebiTa da simboloebiTaa gajerebuli bob dilanis
es leqsi: saocari emociebiT aRwers igi Tavis cxovrebis mTel ganvlil
gzas,
romelic ise Cailia, rogorc qviSis saaTSi qviSa; ixsenebs ra Tavis
ganvlil cxovrebas,mas miaCnia, rom yoveli misi Secdoma da qmedeba isevea
daTvlili, rogorc Tmis yoveli Reri; rogorc yoveli foToli irxeva, ise
irxeva misi monanuli sulis simebi; sinanulis cxare cremlebi Rvarad dasdenia poets da fexebTan gubed qceuls dautboravs axladSobili monanuli
sulis Zaxili;poeti grZnobs ra uflis Zlevamosil xelis Sexebas, romelic masSi aRviZebs morals, sasowarkveTili cdilobs gawyvitos warsulis
jaWvi da mzisxiviT gamTbari isev gauyves cxovrebis gza-Saras, siRaribidan
simdidremde gadebuls, xan im imediT, rom kidev aris iq viRac Tanamdgomi,
xanac sul marto xandazmuli nabijebiT mavalia igi, rogorc zRvis talRebi midi-modian; rogorc beRura miswydomia poeti cxovrebas da cdilobs balansis dacvas qviSis saaTSi qviSis cvenis kvaldakval...
wuTia wuTisofeli, dro icreba, rogorc qviSis saaTidan qviSa, xidi
gadebulia aqedan iqamde, qaosi mowesrigebulia metaforebSi da Tu codvebic monaniebulia, arc qronosSi gadasvlaa ise saSiSi; rogorc amas cnobili ingliseli poeti, uiliam bleiki, ityoda `umankoebis qebaSi~: Tu ZalgiZs samyaros xedavde qviSis marcvalSi da samoTxes Wvretde velur yvavilSi; xelisguls gepyras usasruloba da maradisobas aRwevde erT saaTSi... yvelaferi SeiZleba daatio drois garkveul monakveTSi da gadaswvde
kidec samyaros usasrulobas....
Auguries of Innocence
To see a World in a Grain of Sand
And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand
And Eternity in an hour.

samyaros qaosuri metaforebi lingvistur WrilSi

103

literatura:

amaRlobeli 2014: gazafxulis uvertura, literatura.mcvane.ge


sulaZe 2013: TeTri iasamani, memento.ge/1430--.html
Cibo 2014: ubralod viRlebi, memento.ge/7445--.html
Witman W, 1865, poetry: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-andpoets/poems/detail/45480
Dylan
B,
1981,
poetry:
www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/bobdylan/
everygrainofsand.html
Dvalidze Nino
Chaotic Metaphors of the Universe in the Linguistic Section
It deals with the examples of the metaphorical images from the Georgian
and English poetry. The novelty of the given scientific research is the fact that
from the six signs of linguistics: signal, image, symbol, index and name, I
distinguished the metaphorical images and symbols of chaotic world. The
method of investigation is descriptive, contrastive, analytical and syntactical. As
it is exemplified in the several pieces of poetry, (W. Witman, Rati Amaghlobeli,
Bob Dylan, and some other unknown Georgian poets), the expressive means of
language semiotics are colorful and verified. Consequently the perception of the
chaotic world, eternity, order-disorder, solitude, and other failures of life seem
rather natural and even attractive for a human, if he/she may have a feeling of
regret, can confess and live in a harmony with the nature and Lord.

ivdiT diasamiZe
`ieroglifuri gaformeba~,
rogorc teqstis
grafikuli ilustrirebis
erT-erTi forma
mxatvruli teqstis vizualur gaformebaze, mis esTetikur mxareze odiTganve zrunavdnen avtorebi. tipografiis ganviTarebamde
didi yuradReba eqceoda asoebis moyvanilobas da sailustracio masalebs, xolo beWdviTi sistemis ganviTarebam da daxvewam teqstis grafikuli gaformebis mravalferovan
xerxebs misca gza. gansakuTrebulad Tamamad
aseT xerxebs Tanamedrove avtorebi iyeneben,
romlebic ara mxolod zrunaven wminda esTetikur mxareze, aramed grafikul saSualebebs
iyeneben verbaluri teqstis sanacvlod, an kidev verbaluri teqstisa da grafikis kombinaciis xerxs mimarTaven.
winamdebare naSromi teqstis grafikuli ilustrirebis erT-erT SedarebiT iSviaT, magram metad TvalsaCino xerxs _ `ieroglifur gaformebas~ eZRvneba. SemoTavazebuli terminis arsis da misis stiluri
efeqtis dasadgenad sasurvelia gavixsenoT,
Tu ras warmoadgens Tavad ieroglifi da, Sesabamisad, ieroglifuri damwerloba.
rogorc cnobilia, ieroglifuri damwerloba mravali saukunis win aRmocenda
da, ase vTqvaT, ,,anbanuri sistemiT damwerlobis~ erTgvar winaprad gvevlineba. Mmiuxedavad amisa, msoflioSi jer kidev arsebobs iseTi enebi, rogoricaa iaponuri da Cinuri, romelTa orTografiac ieroglifu-

`ieroglifuri gaformeba~, rogorc teqstis grafikuli ilustrirebis erT-erTi forma

105

ria. ras niSnavs ieroglifi da riT gansxvavdeba igi asoebisagan?


oqsfordis erT-erTi leqsikoni ieroglifis or gansazRvrebas
gvTavazobs:
ieroglifi sagnis suraTs an simbolos warmoadgens da aRniSnavs mTel sityvas, marcvals an bgeras. Ggamoiyeneboda Zvel egviptesa
da sxva damwerlobebSi;
orTografiuli simbolo, romelsac saidumlo an faruli mniSvneloba gaaCnia.
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 1989-1995:586
termini ,,ieroglifuri gaformeba,~ romelsac Cven mivmarTeT, SeiZleba iTqvas, am orive ganmartebas iTavsebs. vidre uSualod magaliTebis
analizze gadavidodeT, upriani iqneba kidev erTi ram davazustoT. Tavad
ieroglifebi SeiZleba iyos piktografiuli da simboluri. ,,piktogramebi~ iseTi ieroglifebia, romlebic konkretuli sagnis (vTqvaT,~ katis,~
,,varskvlavis~da a. S.) amsaxvel suraTebs warmoadgenen (isini, am TvalsazrisiT, praqtikulad universaluri, sayovelTaod gasagebi gamosaxulebebia, romelsac nebismieri adamiani amoikiTxavs). rac Seexeba ,,simbolur~ ieroglifebs, isini aRsaniSnTan, praqtikulad, aranair
TvalSi sacem msgavsebas ar avlenen da, amdenad, sayovelTaod Secnobadni ver gaxdebian.
rodesac saubaria verbaluri teqstis ,,ieroglifur gaformebaze,~
aq ukve saqme e. w. ,,simbolur piktogramebTan~ gveqneba. Aazris naTelsayofad gTavazobT Semdeg magaliTebs:
They had laid her in it reserved. Cash made it
Clock-shape, like this
and seam bevelled and
the plane, tight as a drum ans neat as a sewing
basket, and they had laid her in it head to foot so
it wouldnt crush her dress.

with every joint


scrubbed with

folkneri 2004:80
Mmoyvanil magaliTSi, romelic folkneris nawarmoebis ,,suli rom
amomdioda~ (As I Lay Dying) fragmentia, ojaxis gardacvlili dedis
gadasvenebis ambavia moTxrobili. teqstSi CarTuli ,,kubos~ piktograma, ara mxolod migvaniSnebs imaze, Tu ,,ra tipis yuTSi~ Caasvenes igi
(Tavad teqstis mTxrobeli am sityvas ar axsenebs), aramed erTgvar
,,sikvdilis sayovelTao simbolodac~ gvevlineba (daaxloebiT iseTive
simbolod, rogoricaa Tavis qala) da erTgvarad ,,magiur,~ ,,dawyevlilobis damRis~ datvirTvasac iZens.

106

ivdiT diasamiZe

~Keep going, the other said. He led Jason on around the corner of the
station, to the empty platform where an express truck stood, where grass grew
rigidly in a plot bordered with rigid flowers and a sign in electric lights: keep
on Mottson, the gap filled by a human eye with an
your
electrical pupil, the man released him.
folkneri 2004:311
am magaliTSi ki, romelic ukve folkneris sxva nawarmoebis _
,,xmauri da mZvinvareba~ (Sound and Fury) fragmentia, teqstSi CarTuli
,,Tvalis~ aRmniSvneli ieroglifi sityva ,,Tvalis~ Caweris erT-erT saSualebad gvevlineba; misi teqstidan amogdebis SemTxvevaSi, wina magaliTisagan gansxvavebiT, winadadebis azri gaugebari gaxdeboda, radganac
is frazis- to keep an eye on -Semadgeneli nawilia da sityva Tvals anacvlebs verbalur teqstSi. Aamavdroulad, es ,,ieroglifurad~ Cawerili
sityvac, misi piktogramulobis gamo gacilebiT ufro aRqmadia, is sakralur datvirTvas iZens da ,,RvTis zecidan momziral~ Tvalad, anda ,,mesame Tvalad~ SeiZleba gaviazroT.
bolo dros mxatvrul literaturasa da ,,sareklamo~ Tu sxva tipis warwerebSi moxSirda am tipis ieroglifebic:
I you (I love you) T 4 2 (tea for two) 2 U (to you) da a. S.
am ieroglifebs, erTgvarad ,,metaforuli~ ieroglifebi da ,,ieroglifuri kalamburebi~ SeiZleba ewodos. isini, rogorc vxedavT, praqtikulad yvela metyvelebis nawils anacvleben (zmnebs, arsebiT saxelebs, windebulebs, ricxviT saxelebs, nacvalsaxelebs) da amokiTxvisas erTgvar
enobriv logikaze agebul ,,Tavsatexs~ warmoadgenen. Ppirvel magaliTSi _
I you _ gulis piktograma ,,siyvarulis~ aRmniSvneli metaforaa, xolo
danarCen magaliTebSi warmodgenili aso-simboloebi (T, U) da cifruli
simboloebi (2, 4) is kalamburebia, romlebic maTi da maTiT Senacvlebuli sityvebis omofonurobas efuZneba.
Tanamedrove teqnologiebis ganviTarebam momxmarebels saSualeba misca gamoiyenos nairferovani piktografiuli ieroglifebi (romlebic Tematurad Tu simbolurad arian Seqmnilebi). msgavsma piktografiulma ieroglifebma verbaluri teqsturi mesijebi maqsimalurad Caanacvla da isini yoveldRiuri cxovrebis da komunikaciis ganuyofel nawilad iqca. sailustraciod mogvyavs `feisbukis~ momxmarebelTa mier xSirad gamoyenebuli
piktografiuli ieroglifebi:

amgvarad, teqstis ieroglifuri gaformeba im mxarvrul xerxad SegviZlia CavTvaloT romelic grafikuli saxeobriobisa da tropebis sti-

`ieroglifuri gaformeba~, rogorc teqstis grafikuli ilustrirebis erT-erTi forma

107

luri konvergenciis Sedegia da metad xelsayrelia damatebiTi esTetikuri informaciis gadmosacemad. ieroglifebi, amasTanave, Tanamedrove komunikaciis ganuyofel nawilad gadaiqca.
literatura:
goldsmis 1984: Goldsmith E., Research into Illustrations: an approach and a
review; Cambrige University Press.
folkneri 2004: Faulkner W. As I Lay Dying; pub. by Vintage
folkneri 2004: Faulkner W., Sound and Fury; pub. by Vintage
Oxford Advanced Learners dictionary; 1989-1995.
Diasamidze Ivdit
~Hieroglyphic Design as One of the Forms of
Graphical Illustration of a Text
~Hieroglyphic Design can be considered to be one of the rare but
expressive graphic means. The term ~hieroglyphic design that we refer to in our
work implies the both definitions provided by Oxford Advanced Learners
Dictionary. Hieroglyph, in itself, may be pictorial and symbolic. ~Pictorial are
those hieroglyphs that present pictures of a concrete thing. As for ~symbolic
hieroglyphs they do not represent any similarity to a recipient and therefore
cannot be guessed by everyone. When we talk about ~hieroglyphic design of a
verbal text we deal with ~symbolic pictures. Hieroglyphs are mostly employed
in fiction by modern authors. These graphic means are most likely used to
replace a complete verbal text or they are integrated with a verbal text to achieve
the effect of transmitting additional esthetic information. Nowadays, hieroglyphs
are widely used in advertisements as well as in diverse kinds of everyday
communication.

xaTuna diasamiZe

me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebis


balkaneTis krizisi
me-20 saukunis 90-ian wlebSi iugoslaviaSi dawyebuli samoqalaqo omi evropul krizisebs Soris erT-erTi yvelaze ufro rTulia.
Tavisi sisastikiT, masStabebiT da geopolitikuri SedegebiT aRniSnuli krizisi ara mxolod
Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi movlena iyo, is saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis krizisadac gadaiqca. igi
xSirad me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebis balkaneTis krizisis saxelwodebiTac moixsenieba.
90-iani wlebis balkaneTis krizisi daiwyo
maSin, rodesac saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa
sistema mniSvnelovnad icvleboda. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlasTan da varSavis xelSekrulebis
organizaciis likvidaciasTan erTad bipolarulma sistemam sabolood Sewyvita arseboba,
Seicvala aSS-s mdgomareoba, gaizarda gaerTianebuli germaniis roli. evropis kontinentis aRmosavleT da dasavleT nawilebad dayofis gageba
gaqra. Semdgom evropas Sua, aRmosavleT da samxreT-aRmosavleT nawilebad yofen. TiToeul am
regionSi erovnebaTSorisi problemebi arsebobs,
romlebic yovelTvis iyo, magram gansakuTrebuli siZlieriT iugoslaviis magaliTze swored
me-20 saukunis 90-ian wlebSi iCina Tavi.
saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi samxreT slavuri miwebi ori erTmaneTze dapirispirebuli imperia: osmaleTi da avstria (mogvianebiT avstria-ungreTis imperiis) akontrolebda. droTa ganmavlobaSi bosnia da serbeTi TurqeTis
SemadgenlobaSi moeqca, xorvatia da slovenia
ki habsburgTa imperiis nawili gaxda.

me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebis balkaneTis krizisi

109

iugoslaviis saxelmwifoSi, romelic pirveli msoflio omis Semdeg


Seiqmna, serbebs eWiraT privilegirebuli mdgomareoba, xolo daZabulobis
mTavari wyaro iyo xorvatia, romelsac ufro meti damoukidebloba surda.
1941 wels germaniis SeiaraRebulma Zalebma swrafad daikaves iugoslaviis teritoria. daiwyo mkveTri dapirispireba faSistebis mier mxardaWeril xorvatiis saxelmwifosa da winaaRmdegobis moZraobebs Soris. am
ukanasknelidan yvelaze mniSvnelovani Cetnikis da komunistebis partizanuli moZraobebi iyo. pirvels warmoadgendnen serbeTis TavisuflebisaTvis
mebrZolebi, komunistebs ki tito akontrolebda.
meore msoflio omis dasrulebis Semdeg, titos komunisturma partiam scada xorvatiis, sloveniis, serbeTis, montenegros da bosnia-hercogovinis eqvsi respublikis gaerTianeba da sxvadasxva eTnikur dajgufebebs Soris dapirispirebis dabalanseba (The Collapse of Yugoslavia: Background and
Summary: 1995-1996:5). rogorc h. kisinjeri SeniSnavs, igi erTaderTi komunisti mmarTveli iyo aRmosavleT evropaSi, romelic qveynis saTaveSi
mxolod sakuTari ZalebiT movida ( 1997:302). Tu calkeul
dajgufebas Soris harmonia titos ZalisxmeviT damyarda, dafaruli antagonizmi da daZabuloba iyo umTavresi iaraRi nebismieri liderisaTvis, visac nacionaluri grZnobebis gaRviveba surda. am dajgufebebs Soris arsebuli istoriuli SuRli ki 90-iani wlebis konfliqtis monawile orive mxarem gamoiyena, rogorc iaraRi Zalauflebis xelSi Casagdebad.
1980 wels titos gardacvalebis momentisaTvis sami mniSvnelovani
problema arsebobda: gansxvavebuli eTnikuri interesebi, uvargisi ekonomika da qveynis mouqneli instituciuri struqtura, rac xels uSlida iugoslaviis erTianobis SenarCunebas. 1980-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi ekonomikurma da politikurma krizisma iugoslaviis destabilizacia gamoiwvia.
Tumca, im adamianis sikvdili, romelic 35 welze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi damoukideblad marTavda saxelmwifos zogierT dasavlur wreSi aRqmul
iqna, rogorc xelsayreli momenti federaciis daSlisaTvis (The Violent
Dissolution of Yugoslavia 2006:67).
dResdReobiT iugoslaviis krizisis warmomSob wyarosTan dakavSirebiT sxvadasxva midgoma arsebobs.
erT-erTi midgomis Tanaxmad, omis gaCaRebaze yvelaze didi pasuxismgebloba serbeTis respublikaze modis, romelmac ganaxorciela agresia
sloveniis, xorvatiis, bosniis, hercogovinasa da kosovoSi mcxovrebi albanelebis winaaRmdeg. serbeTis am qmedebis motivad serbeTis xelmZRvanelobis politikas an serbi xalxis agresiul qmedebas asaxeleben, romelTa mizani manam arsebuli sazogadoebrivi wyobis da iugoslaviis teritoriaze hegemonobis SenarCuneba iyo.
meore midgoma, romelic popularulia serbeTsa da bevr saerTaSoriso wreSi, iugoslaviis Semadgenlobidan gamosuli respublikebis da maTi
ucxoeli mokavSireebis realuri motivebis damalvaa. kerZod, isini iswrafvodnen gadaesinjaT pirveli da meore msoflio omis Sedegebi iugoslaviaSi,

110

xaTuna diasamiZe

balkaneTsa da evropaSi. aRniSnuli midgomidan gamomdinare, iugoslaviis


samoqalaqo omi aris zogierTi respublikis araswori (arasamarTlebrivi)
gamoyofis Sedegi, riTac dairRva interesebi im xalxebisa, romelTac surdaT darCena iugoslaviis federaciaSi. saubaria serbi xalxis im nawilze,
romelic sloveniisa da xorvatiis gamoyofis Semdeg axladSeqmnil saxelmwifoebSi diskriminirebul umciresobad gadaiqca.
mesame midgoma gulisxmobs iugoslaviis samoqalaqo omis, rogorc
rTul politikur, eTnikur da religiur konfliqtad Sefasebas Sors mimavali saerTaSoriso SedegebiT, risTvisac ar aRmoCndnen mzad didi saxelmwifoebi. konfliqtSi CarTul iugoslaviur respublikebs konfliqtis
gafarToebam saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis poziciiT manipulirebis SesaZlebloba misca.
yvelaferi ki ase daiwyo: faSistebis gandevnis da titos Zalisxmevis
Sedegad, 1945 wels monarqia gauqmda da iugoslavia saxalxo respublikad gamocxadda. 1963 wlis konstituciis miRebiT qveyana iugoslaviis socialistur federaciul respublikad gamocxadda. mis SemadgenlobaSi eqvsi respublika moeqca: serbeTi, xorvatia, bosnia, hercogovina, makedonia da Cernigoria. iugoslavia mravalerovnul saxelmwifos warmoadgenda. masSi Semavali
xalxebi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi gverdigverd cxovrobdnen, magram arasodes
ucxovriaT erTi saxelmwifos farglebSi. es qveyana ara mxolod mravalerovnuli iyo, religiis TvalsazrisiTac Wrel saxelmwifos warmoadgenda.
iugoslaviaSi marTlmadidebeli mxolod 50% iyo (serbebi, makedonielebi,
Cernogorielebi). xorvatebi da slovenebi - kaTolikeebi, bosnielebi ki muslimebi iyvnen.
iugoslaviis respublikebs Soris sazRvrebi, zogierTi gamonaklisis
garda, oficialurad arasodes daudgeniaT. maT gansazRvravdnen omamdeli
administraciuli sazRvrebiT, an ekonomikuri da eTnikuri kriteriumebiT.
gabatonebuli ideologiis Tanaxmad, sazRvrebis sakiTxisTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba ar miuniWebiaT. iugoslaviis federaciuli mowyoba sabWoTa modelis mixedviT ganxorcielda. eTnikuri jgufebisaTvis miniWebuli didi uflebebis paralelurad xelisuflebis ZiriTadi berketebi komunisturi partiis xelSi iyo moqceuli. komunisturi partia ki gaxldaT saxelmwifos integraciis ZiriTadi faqtori. iugoslavieli komunistebisaTvis miuRebeli iyo serbebis da xorvatebis nacionalizmi, maSin rodesac isini xels uwyobdnen patara komunisturi jgufebis (makedonielebi, eTnikuri
muslimebi, albanelebi) nacionaluri Segnebis gaZlierebas.
qveynis SigniT xalxebs Soris arsebulma dapirispirebam, mcirericxovani eTnikuri jgufebis waxalisebaze orientirebulma saxelmwifo politikam, 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi Seqmnilma saerTaSoriso viTarebam, socialisturi banakis daSlam didi roli Seasrula iugoslaviis saxelmwifos
dangrevaSi.
me-20 saukunis 80-iani wlebis bolosa da 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi
arsebobda wanamZRvrebi eTnikuri umciresobebis mxridan damoukideblobi-

me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebis balkaneTis krizisi

111

saTvis omis gaCaRebisaTvis. verc iugoslaviis xelmZRvaneloba da verc saerTaSoriso Tanamegobroba mzad ver aRmoCnda mSvidobiani gziT daeregulirebina aRniSnuli sakiTxi. damoukideblobisaken nabiji pirvelad sloveniam gadadga. daZabulobam serbiul da slavur-xorvatul blokebs Soris
1990 wlis TebervalSi iugoslaviis komunisturi kavSiris XIV yrilobaze
miaRwia, rodesac sloveniis delegaciam sxdoma datova.
im droisaTvis qveynis saxelmwifoebrivi gardaqmnis sami gegma arsebobda: konfederaciuli (slovenia, xorvatia), federaciuli mowyobis (sakavSiro prezidiumi) da momavali iugoslaviis saxelmwifos platformis (makedonia, bosnia, hercogovina), magram respublikebis liderebs Soris Semdgarma
Sexvedram aCvena, rom mravalpartiuli arCevnebis da referendumis mizani iyo
ara iugoslaviuri sazogadoebis demokratiuli gardaqmna, aramed qveynis momaval mowyobasTan dakavSirebiT politikuri liderebis mier wamoyenebuli
konkretuli programis dakanoneba.
sloveniurma mxarem problemis gadaWra iugoslaviis Semadgenlobidan
gamosvliT ganizraxa. 1991 wlis 25 ivniss man damoukidebloba gamoacxada.
1991 wels serbeTma Tanxmoba ganacxada sloveniis gasvlaze, Tumca sloveniis mizani iyo iugoslaviis ara ubralod datoveba, aramed misi daSlis Sedegad Tavis erTiani saxelmwifos samarTalmemkvidred gamocxadeba.
sloveniis am nabijebma xorvatiis SeSfoTeba gamoiwvia. is fiqrobda,
rom Tu slovenia iugoslavias datovebda, qveynis SigniT ZalTa balansi mis
sazianod Seicvleboda. politikurma krizisma kulminacias 1991 wlis 25
ivniss miaRwia, rodesac sloveniam da xorvatiam damoukidebloba gamoacxades. am droisaTvis aSkara iyo respublikebs Soris molaparakebis warumatebloba, politikur liderebs Soris undoblobis zrda, erovnul sawyisebze mosaxleobis SeiaraReba, pirveli samxedro formirebebi.
damoukideblobis gamocxadebasTan erTad sloveniis xelisuflebam sasazRvro sakontrolo punqtebic daikava, sadac respublikis niSnebic aRmarTa. iugoslaviis xelisuflebam sloveniis aRniSnuli qmedeba ukanonod
gamoacxada da iugoslaviis saxalxo armia sloveniis sazRvrebze ganlagda.
SeiaraRebuli dapirispireba gardauvali Seiqmna.
xorvatiaSi ki ori Zala daupirispirda erTmaneTs: erTi mxriv damoukideblobis momxre xorvatiis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi, meore mxriv ki xorvatiis teritoriaze mcxovrebi serbebi, romlebsac iugoslaviis SemadgenlobaSi surdaT darCena da faqtorivad, iugoslaviis saxalxo armiis mxardaWeriT sargeblobdnen. cotaTi adre, 1991 wlis TebervalSi, xorvatielma serbebma xorvatiis miswrafebas damoukideblobisaken da mis konstitucias xorvatiis teritoriaze serbeTis avtonomiuri olqis SeqmniT upasuxes. 1991 wlis 25 ivniss ki xorvatiis mier damoukideblobis gamocxadebas
Tan mohyva Setakeba serbebsa da xorvatebs Soris. oficialuri belgradi
serbebis mxares gamovida.
1991 wlis bolos gaeros usafrTxoebis sabWom miiRo rezolucia iugoslaviaSi samSvidobo Zalebis gagzavnasTan dakavSirebiT, xolo evrokav-

xaTuna diasamiZe

112

Siris ministrTa sabWom daiwyo sanqciebis gatareba serbeTisa da Cernigoriis winaaRmdeg. 1992 wlis Teberval-martSi gaeros kontingenti xorvatiaSi Sevida. serbeTisa da xorvatiis konfliqtis centrad Tavidanve sadavo
bosniisa da hercogovinis teritoria gamocxadda. konfliqtis mSvidobiani
daregulirebis yvela mcdeloba uSedegod dasrulda. dRis wesrigSi daisva
bosniisa da hercogovinis unitaruli samoqalaqo respublikis Seqmnis sakiTxi, magram serbebma uari ganacxades am respublikis SemadgenlobaSi umciresobis statusiT darCenaze.
1991 wlis oqtomberSi skupSCinis muslimma da xorvatielma deputatebma respublikis suverenitetis memorandumi miiRes. 1992 wlis ianvarSi
respublikam damoukideblobis aRiarebis mizniT evropul Tanamegobrobas
mimarTa. protestis niSnad serbma deputatebma datoves parlamenti, uari
Tqves referendumSi monawileobaze. referendumis monawileTa umravlesobam ki mxari dauWira suverenul saxelmwifos.
sapasuxod adgilobrivma serbebma sakuTari skupSCina Seqmnes, xolo mas
Semdeg rac evrokavSirma, aSS-m da ruseTma aRiares bosnia-hercogovinis damoukidebloba, serbulma Temma bosniaSi serbeTis respublikis Seqmnis Sesaxeb
gaakeTa gancxadeba. dapirispireba SeiaraRebul konfliqtSi gadaizarda.
1992 wlis agvistoSi londonSi mimdinare saerTaSoriso konferenciis Sedegad bosnieli serbebis lideri daTanxmda okupirebuli teritoriidan jarebis gayvanas, mZime SeiaraRebis gaeroze gadacemas da muslimebisa da
xorvatebisTvis specialurad Seqmnili banakebis daxurvas. s. miloSeviCma
bosniisa da hercogovinis damoukideblobis aRiarebis piroba dado, Tumca
krizisis saboloo daregulireba mainc ver moxerxda, iseve rogorc iugoslaviis daSlam aranakleb mZime ekonomikuri Sedegebic iqonia. erT dros ganviTarebuli socialisturi qveyana 20 wlis winandel, rig SemTxvevaSi ki 30
wlis winandel makroekonomikur parametrebs daubrunda. specialistebis
mier Catarebulma detalurma analizma aCvena, rom balkaneTi gadaiqca mkacri ekonomikuri ukusvlis da siRaribis arealad (Petak 2003:9).
da saerTod eqneboda Tu ara adgili yofili iugoslaviis dezintegracias da eTnosTa Soris saSinel omebs, rom erTiani iugoslaviis bolo
premier-ministrs ante markoviCs dasavleTidan 4 mlrd dolaris odenobis
krediti mieRo? ( 2006:339).
literatura:
. . . 1997.
. . 2006.
The Violent Dissolution of Yugoslavia. Causes, Dynamics and Effects.
Collection of Papers. Edited by: Miroslav Hadzic. Belgrade 2006.
http://www.bezbednost.org/upload/document/the_violent_dissolution_o
f_yug.pdf

me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebis balkaneTis krizisi

113

Zdravko Petak. The Political Economy Background of Yugoslav Dissolution.


Indiana, USA 2003.
http://ostromworkshop.indiana.edu/seminars/papers/y673_spring_2003_
petak.pdf
The Collapse of Yugoslavia: Background and Summary. Research Paper No.14
1995-1996 https://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/199596/96rp14.pdf
Khatuna Diasamidze
The Balkan Crises in 90-s of XX Century
The Yugoslav Wars called as the Balkan Crises were ethnically based wars
that took place from 1991 to 2001 in the territory of former Yugoslavia. These
wars broke up Yugoslav State and new republics declared independence.
However, the problems of ethnic minorities (especially Serbs, Croats, and
Albanians) in new republics were not solved by the time when these republics
were recognized internationally.

lali TavaZe
sivrce da deiqsisi.
lokaluri semantikis mqone
leqsikuri erTeulebi
rogor avxsnaT, sad mdebareobs sagani?
rogor aRvwerT kerZo sagnebis sivrciT niSnebs? maT ganzomilebebs sivrceSi da maT
formas? es is sakiTxebia, romelTa ganxilvasac Cven SevecdebiT.
mosazreba deiqsisis Sesaxeb ZiriTadad
biuleris naSromidan gamomdinareobs, romelmac aRniSna, rom is, rasac here da there gulisxmobs, icvleba mosaubris poziciis Sesabamisad
iseve, rogorc I da thou SeiZleba Seicvalos
imis mixedviT, vin gvawvdis an Rebulobs informacias (biuleri 1963: 94). ra Tqma unda, enis
mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi deiqsisi inarCunebs Tavis funqciur arss, romelic mdgomareobs CvenebaSi am sityvis farTo mniSvnelobiT: metyveli subieqti (adresati) ara mxolod asaxelebs da asaxavs garkveul referentul situacias, aramed erTdroulad miuCens
kidec adgils ara marto TviT situacias, aramed teqstSi dasaxelebul saganTa erTobliobasac adresatisaTvis komunikaciurad relevantur dro-sivrceSi da swored amaSi mdgomareobs deiqsisiT nagulisxmevi Cvenebis arsi.
Cveni kvlevis mizans warmoadgens enis deiqtikuri velis sivrciTi niSniT gadaazreba.
adgilis, anu sivrcis deiqsisi exeba im
adgilebis dakonkretebas, romlebic sametyvelo situaciasTan kerZo kavSirSia. adgilmdebareobis gansazRvrisa da dakonkretebis
aucilebloba SesaZloa im faqtiT aixsnas,
rom vlindeba sagnebze miniSnebis ori gza _

sivrce da deiqsisi. lokaluri semantikis mqone leqsikuri erTeulebi

115

erTi mxriv, es gaxlavT maTi aRwera an saxeldeba da meore mxriv, maTi adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra. amgvarad, adgilmdebareobis dakonkreteba SesaZloa moxdes sxva sagnebTan an fiqsirebuli referentis adgilmdebareobasTan SefardebiT.
sivrcis deiqsisi aRniSnavs sivrcobriv ganlagebas komunikaciur aqtSi monawileTa adgilmdebareobis Sesabamisad. is raRacas ganumartavs
msmenels; sagans mosaubresTan uSualo sivrcobriv kavSirSi aTavsebs (levinsoni 1983: 62).
msmenelisaTvis sagnis ganmartebis ramdenime gza arsebobs:
dasaxeleba (fire brigade)
aRwera (skilled men fighting fire in case of emergency)
ganlageba (adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra) (look, there is the fire
brigade)
adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra SesaZloa Semdegnairad moxdes:
miTiTebiT (Those people are firemen) an
CvenebiT (Here they are, the firemen)
Here mosaubresTan/mweralTan siaxloves gulisxmobs. is SesaZloa msmenelis/mkiTxvelis adgilmdebareobas moicavdes (inclusive) an kidev gamoricxavdes
mas werasa da kiTxvas Soris sivrcobrivi Tu temporaluri siSoris gamo
(exclusive). eqskluziuri here ubralod gamoxatavs mwerlis siaxloves weris
dros. ganvixiloT Semdegi magaliTebi:
1) ~inclusive here _ It is a bit stuffy in here.
aq mosaubre da msmeneli erTsa da imave oTaxSi imyofebian, im oTaxSi,
romelzec mosaubre miuTiTebs.
1) ~exclusive here_ when I was little, I used to play here in that side of
the town.
am magaliTSi, pirovneba, romelic werils kiTxulobs gamoeyofa im garemos, romelsac mosaubre/mwerali gulisxmobs.
unda aRiniSnos, rom adgili ar aris sagani da maT Soris sxvaobas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva. radganac adgili ar aris sagani, raime mTlianoba, e. i. arc sagani miiCneva adgilad. magram, imdenad ramdenadac isini adgils
ikaveben, xels gviwyoben im adgilis dadgenaSi, romelic ukaviaT. magaliTad:
Ill meet you at the car.
~the car adgilis arapirdapir msazRvrelad SeiZleba miviCnioT, e. i.
is adgili, sivrce, romelsac manqana ikavebs. maSasadame, mivdivarT daskvnamde, rom zemoT moyvanili magaliTi Semdegs gulisxmobs: `me Segxvdebi iq, sadac manqanaa gaCerebuli. igive SeiZleba iTqvas Semdeg magaliTzec: John is
with Peter _ e. i. joni aris iq, sadac piteri imyofeba (levinsoni 1996: 72).
am analiziT Sors ver wavalT. aRsaniSnavia mxolod, rom es winadadebebi semantikurad Sesabamisi iqneboda iseT SekiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad,
rogoricaa _ where will you meet me? da where is John? is, razec unda gavamaxviloT yuradReba, aris maTi adgilebTan dakavSirebis faqti.
zogierTi enaTmecnieri temporalur ganlagebas sivrciT ganlagebasTan
SedarebiT naklebad konkretulad miiCnevs, magram mas sxvadasxva saxis egreT-

116

lali TavaZe

wodebul abstraqtul ganlagebaze win ayenebs (andersoni 1971). magaliTad,


Tu am SemTxvevas ganvixilavT, maSin Semdegi gamonaTqvami, in despair, naklebad
konkretulad SeiZleba CavTvaloT, vidre gamonaTqvami _ in London.
Cveulebriv, mosaubrisaTvis obieqti, romelic fizikurad Sors mdebareobs, fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiTac daSorebulia. magaliTad: that
man over there. magram zogjer, mosaubre fizikurad axlos myof obieqts
fsiqologiurad Soreulad miiCnevs, magaliTad: I dont like that.
deiqsuri informaciis mniSvneloba gamonaTqvamTa interpretaciisaTvis SesaZloa yvelaze kargad maSin warmoCndes, roca aseTi informacia ar
moiZebneba (filmori 1975:38-9). sailustraciod aviRoT karebze datovebuli Semdegi SeniSvna:
Ill be back in an hour.
vinaidan ar viciT, Tu rodis daiwera es, verc imas mivxvdebiT, rodis
dabrundeba am SeniSvnis avtori.
ganvixiloT Semdegi magaliTi da SevecadoT imis dadgenas, Tu ra iwvevs azrobriv bundovanebas.
~Thirty years ago, Marseilles lay burning in the sun, one day.
A blazing sun upon a fierce August day was no greater rarity in southern
France then, than at any other time, before or since. Everything in Marseilles,
and about Marseilles, had stared at the fervid sky, and been stared at in return,
until a staring habit had become universal there.
~The universal stare made the eyes ache. Towards the distant line of Italian
coast, indeed, it was a little relieved by light clouds of mist, slowly rising from
the evaporation of the sea; but it softened nowhere else. Far away the staring
roads, deep in dust, stared from the hill-side, stared from the hollow, stared from
the interminable plain. Far away the dusty wines overhanging wayside cottages,
and the monotonous wayside avenues of parched trees without shade, drooped
beneath the stare of earth and sky.
erTi SexedviT, teqstSi mocemuli informacia aranair problemas ar
warmoSobs. magram Tu davakvirdebiT, davinaxavT Tu ra problemas qmnis deiqsisis nakleboba. jon laionsi deiqsiss ganmartavs, rogorc ,,enis orientirebis dadgenis gzas, romelic ukavSirdeba gamonaTqvamis warmoTqmis drosa da
adgils.~ mocemul teqstSi yuradReba mivaqcioT drois faqtors. ~One day
thirty years ago, ~one day Txrobis dasawyisSi miuTiTebs im dros, romelic avtoris mieraa arCeuli, aseve ~thirty years ago -c am dros ukavSirdeba.
am frazebis gancalkevebiTa da dapirispirebiT, dikensi Cveni yuradRebis fokusirebas axdens. ocdaaTi wlis win? saidan iwyeba drois aTvla? aTvlis
wertili ra moments gulisxmobs? rodis iyo es dRe (one day)? meore winadadebaSi, ~then TiTqos akonkretebs dros, magram ufro zusti informaciis miRebis imeds gviqarwylebs Semdegi fraza _ ~than at any other time, before or
since, rac ufro met bundovnebas warmoSobs. iqedan gamomdinare, rom ~then
temporalur uzustobas warmoSobs pirvel winadadebaSi, gvebadeba kiTxva: ra
droidan an ra dromde? igive SeiZleba iTqvas Semdeg winadadebaSi mocemul
gamoTqmaze _ ~any other time~.

sivrce da deiqsisi. lokaluri semantikis mqone leqsikuri erTeulebi

117

unda aRiniSnos, rom ara mxolod drois bundovanebasTan gvaqvs saqme,


aramed adgilTan dakavSirebuli frazebic saWiroebs dakonkretebas.
~everything in Marseilles... _ adgili dakonkretebulia, Tumca Semdegi fraza _ ~and about Marseilles, ukve gaurkvevlobas iwvevs. Semdeg winadadebaSi
TiTqos zRvari dadginda: ~Towards the distant line of Italian coast, rac sakmaod bundovania, magram horizontis warmosaxvis ideas qmnis, xolo Semdegi
fraza: ~far away- `Sors~, `moSorebiT~, kdev ufro metad damabnevelia,
radgan ar xdeba imis dadgenas Tu ra adgilzea saubari an ramdenad Sorsaa is
Cvengan.
umetesi kulturis enebSi deiqsisi, ZiriTadad, proqsimaluroba/distalurobis niSniT xasiaTdeba. zmnizedebi here da there, xSirad moiazrebian,
rogorc proqsimalur/distaluri ganzomilebebi, romlebic mosaubris adgilmdebareobasTan mimarTebiT ganisazRvrebian, magaliTad:
Bring that here and take this there.
magram es ase iSviaTad aris, Tumca there ZiriTadad niSnavs kodirebis
dros mosaubris adgilmdebareobisagan Sors arsebuls, is agreTve SeiZleba
gamoviyenoT miRebis momentSi adresatTan axlos arsebulis mniSvnelobiTac. magaliTad, araanaforulad gamoyenebisas:
How are things there?
ra Tqma unda, es winadadeba ar gulisxmobs imas, Tu ra xdeba mosaubrisagan Sors, aramed cdilobs gaigos, ra xdeba im adgilas, sadac adresati imyofeba. There anaforuladac SeiZleba gamoviyenoT da aqedan gamomdinare, arc
Semdegi winadadebaa pragmatuli TvalsazrisiT anomaliuri, magaliTad:
Were there.
sadac there miuTiTebs im adgils, romelic Cven winaswar vaxseneT, rogorc Cveni mizani (filmori 1971: 52).
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, konteqsts udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba gamonaTqvamis swori interpretaciisTvis. mas lingvisturi xerxebiT Seqmnil
`konteqsts~ ver SevadarebT. swored gamonaTqvamis elementebs iTvisebs deiqsisi da Semdeg maT interpretaciis dros miTiTebisaTvis iyenebs.
literatura:
biuleri 1993: ., . ., 1993
filmori 1998: Fillmore C.J. Deixis and Context. In K. Malmkjaer and J.
Williams (eds.) Context in language learning and language
understanding. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 1998
filmori 1981: Fillmore C.J. Pragmatics and the description of discourse. In P.
Cole (ed.) Radical Pragmatics. New York Academic Press. 1981
levinsoni 1996: Levinson S C, Space in Language and Cognition: Explorations
in Linguistic Diversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1996
laionsi 1977: Lyons J. Semantics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
1977

118

lali TavaZe

Tavadze Lali
Space and deixis. Deictic words

The article deals with the space deixis and discusses the usage of deictic
verbs. The purpose of the article is to show the means of the deictic center, to
identify the ways indicating proximity and distance that depend on the context of
the utterance.
The importance of locational specifications in general can be shown from the
fact that there seem to be two basic ways to refer to objects by describing or naming
them on the one hand, and by locating them on the other.
Our observation on deixes made it clear that in the ~time-space structural
complex time is dominant, that eventually implies temporalization of space.

rusudan TurmaniZe
implicituri informaciis
Targmnis semiotikuri
Taviseburebani
amosavali enis teqstis Targmnisas aucilebelia gaigo rogorc eqsplicituri,
aseve implicituri xerxebiT gamoxatuli informacia. implicitis gageba SesaZlebelia
saTanado lingvisturi da eqstralingvisturi codnis safuZvelze, rac saSualebas
aZlevs mTargmnels ar ganaxorcielos leqsikoniseuli Targmani anu transkodireba. im
SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mTargmnelis da teqstis avtoris codna emTxveva erTmaneTs, implicitis Targmna warmatebiT xorcieldeba.
eqsplicituri niSnavs lingvistikaSi
`Rias, gaSlils, markirebuls,~ implicituri
ki _ `faruls, SekumSuls, navaraudebs~. aqedan gamomdinare, eqsplicituri informacia
teqstSi gamoyenebuli enobrivi niSnebis erTobliobiT gamoxatul informacias niSnavs.
eqsplicituri informacia uSualod eyrdnoba sityvebis im mniSvnelobebs, romlebic leqsikonSia dafiqsirebuli, amitom nebismieri
recipientisTvis (vinc ki am enaze wera/kiTxva
icis) gasagebia. eqsplicituri informaciis
aRqma ar moiTxovs damatebiTi Sinaarsobriv
gardaqmnebs.
implicituri informacia ki adamianis
cnobierebisa da qvecnobierebis muSaobis Sedegia, is funqcionirebs enasa da metyvelebaSi
da gamoxatavs mniSvnelobebs, romlebic uSualod sametyvelo situaciidan xdeba gasagebi.
implicituri informacia leqsikonebSi ar

120

rusudan TurmaniZe

aris dafiqsirebuli, magram aRiqmeba adresatis fonur maragze orientirebuli teqstebis interpretirebis Sedegad.
Cven viziarebT implicituri informaciis gamoxatvis xerxebis farTo
mniSvnelobas da mivakuTvniT maT teqstSi gamoyenebul saSualebebis farTo
speqtrs:
1) pirvel rigSi informaciis Cakecvis miznebs emsaxureba uamravi erTeulebi, romlebic enobrivi ekonomiis kanonis qmedebis uSualo markerebia
da didi moculobis informaciis Semcvlelebi arian:
a) terminebi da profesionalizmebi;
b) abreviaturebi;
2) implicituri informaciis didi nawili gadmoicema metaforuli
xerxebiT (am SemTxvevaSi Cven vigebT metaforas, rogorc nebismier xatovan
saSualebas):
3) teqstis Zlieri niSnebi (lukinis Teoriis mixedviT) arian:
a) teqstis saTauri;
Victory Day 9 May
9 maisi- faSizmze gamarjvebis dRe(1945).
b) teqstis sakvanZo sityvebi;
Oni Muzeum Holds Largest Collection of Unique bucklets
unikaluri balTebis yvelaze did koleqcias onis muzeumi flobs
4) nebismieri teqsturi reminisencia (precedentuli saxelebi, gamonaTqvamebi; precedentuli teqstebi). magaliTad:

sabas musikaluri proeqti


SABAS MUSICAL PROJECT
abreviaturebi fonuri informaciis implicitur xerxs warmoadgenen
da xSirad gamoiyeneba inglisur da rusul enebSi, qarTuli enisaTvis isini
naklebad damaxasiaTebeli arian, amitom Targmnisas ufro xSirad gvxvdeba
SemTxvevebi, rodesac wyaro enis (am SemTxvevaSi _ inglisuri an rusuli)
abreviatura gadmoicema samizne enaSi (Cven SemTxvevaSi _ qarTul enaSi)
sruli nominaciiT.
sakmaod iSviaTia SemTxvevebi, rodesac ucxoenovani abreviatura imdenad gavrcelebulia, rom qarTul enaSi gadmodis Sesabami fonetikuri formiT (magaliTad _ NATO _ nato).
rac Seexeba sapirispiro mimarTebis Targmans (qarTuli enidan inglisurze) _ qarTuli abreviaturebi imdenad ucnobia ucxo kulturuli sivrcisTvis, rom ZiriTadad abreviatura ikargeba TargmanSi, gamoiyeneba leqsikuri transformacia _ generalizacia.
magaliTad:

Tsu studentebi gamogonebas dubaiSi waradgenen


Georgian Students at DP(Dubai Port World) Worlds Dubai Mall Exhibition
saTauri teqstis Zlier niSnebs miekuTvneba da gamoxatavs am teqstis
mTavar ideas da azrs, xSir SemTxvevaSi saTauri warmogvidgeba, rogorc
teqstis SekumSuli varianti, vinaidan patara moculobis saTaurSi Zalian

implicituri informaciis Targmnis semiotikuri Taviseburebani

121

Rrma Sinaarsia Caqsovili, masSi Semaval enobriv erTeulebs gansakuTrebuli datvirTva gaaCnia, rac siZneleebs qmnis Targmnis procesSi. miT umetes,
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom publicistur teqstebSi, informaciuli funqciis garda, mkveTrad izrdeba saTauris zemoqmedebiTi funqcia da potenciuri
mkiTxvelebis mozidvis funqcia.
Targmnisas xSir SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs implicituri da eqsplicituri informaciis TanafardobasTan, romelic didwilad damokidebulia
wyaro enisa da samizne enis matareblebis fonuri maragis siaxloveze da
icvleba Targmnis procesSi Semdegnairad:
1. wyaro enaSi impliciturad mocemuli informacia Targmnisas rCeba
implicitad (21%) vinaidan cnobilia orive kulturaSi:.
9 maisi, nato.
2. impliciti gardaiqmneba eqsplicitad
muco akontrolebda kavkasiis qveynebis damakavSirebel
gzas da saqarTvelos sazRvrs
Mutso controlled the roads connecting countries of the Caucasus
and Georgias border
`muco~, duSeTis raionSi, Satilidan 12 km-Si mdebareobs. cixe-qalaqi,
romelic gviani Sua saukuneebiT TariRdeba. xangrZlivi istoriis ganmavlobaSi muco akontrolebda da icavda kavkasiis qveynebis damakavSirebel gzas
da saqarTvelos sazRvrebs.
3. eqspliciti gardaiqmneba implicitad (iSviaT SemTxvevebia, ZiriTadad gxvdeba Sidaenobriv da ara enaTSoris TargmanSi).
roca impliciti gardaiqmneba eqsplicitad, xSir SemTxvevaSi saqme
gvaqvs araverbalur xerxebTan. mniSvnelovani da sainteresoa, roca mTargmneli Targmnis teqsts, romelic sxvadasxva semiotikuri niSniTaa datvirTuli.
aseT teqstebs mecnierebma kreolizebuli tqstebi uwodes.
kreolizebili teqsti, verbaluri niSnebis garda, moicavs naxats, naxazs, xSir SemTxvevaSi _ suraTs, gansakuTrebul Srifts, fers. pirvel
rigSi, es aris sareklamo teqstebi, samecniero xasiaTis (ilustrirebuli), rogorc prof. m. aroSiZe aRniSnavs, verbaluri da araverbaluri niSnebis Sexameba mxatvrul nawarmoebebSicaa gavrcelebuli.
mag: konan doilis moTxrobaSi `mocekvave kacunebi~.
swored araverbaluri kodis (mocekvave kacunebis sxvadasxva kombinaciebi) gaSifrvis Sedegad Serlok holmsma gamoiZia mkvleloba da damnaSave
ipova. ikonuri anu xatovani saSualebebi xSirad uqmnian mTargmnels gansakuTrebul problemebs, vinaidan xSirad wyaro da samizne kulturebSi simbolos, fers gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobani gaaCnia.
rogorc kreolizebuli, aseve verbaluri teqstebi erTnair sabazo
teqstur kategoriebs floben, magram kreolizebul teqstSi zogadi teqsturi kategoriebis realizacias Tavisi specifika gaaCnia: politikuri Tematika, saavtoro intenciisa da Sinaarsobr-konceptualuri informaciis
satiruli buneba, teqstis integraciis formaluri saSualebebis kreolizebuli buneba, erTkadriani politikuri karikaturis danawevrebis SesaZ-

122

rusudan TurmaniZe

lebloba, politikuri karikaturis teqstebis verbalur da araverbalur


nawilebSi politikuri da zogadkulturuli xasiaTis precedentul fenomenebTan wargzavna.
kreolizebuli teqstebis lingvovizualuri fenomenis kvleva teqstis verbaluri nawilisa da naxatis mWidro urTierTkavSirisgan momdinareobs, xdeba informaciis Taviseburi urTierTSevseba, es kavSiri rogorc
eqsplicituri, aseve implicituri saSualebebiTaa warmodgenili. komiqsi
da kolaJi gvevlineba, rogorc rTuli teqsturi warmonaqmni, romelSic
verbaluri da ikonikuri elementebi warmoqmnian saerTo vizualur, struqturul azrobriv da funqciur mTlianobas, mizanmimarTuli kompleqsur
pragmatikul zemoqmedebas axdens adresantze, romelsac saerTo komunikaciuri intencia gaaCnia. kognituri struqturebi politikur kolaJSi aqtualizdeba aramarto enobrivi proeqciiT, aramed vizualuri sivrci, rac
mocemuli teqstis kodirebul sistemis sirTuleze metyvelebs. enobrivi
da vizualuri kodebi (teqnikuri, reprezentaciuli, ikonikuri da ikonografiuli) socialuri, kulturuli, stilistikuri da ideologiuri kodebiT gadaikveTeba.
politikuri kolaJis ZiriTadi funqciebi satiruli da emociuria,
romlebic mWidro kavSirSia mis sxva funqciebTan: regulaciur, kreaciul,
ilustraciul da kulturuli mexsierebis funqciebTan. politikuri
calkeuli funqciis kerZo gamovlinebaa.
kreolizebuli teqstebis nairsaxeobis kvleva erovnuli kulturis
sarkea, imdenad, ramdenadac isini gadmoscemen konkretuli erisTvis damaxasiaTebel yofa-cxovrebas, xalxur tradiciebs, azrovnebis saxes, samyaros
Tavisebur xedvas, amitomac politikuri kolaJis kulturaTSoris aspeqtSi adekvaturi gageba SeiZleba miRweul iqnes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki karikaturis siuJeti universalur kognitiur bazaSi Semaval elementebs efuZneba. gamomsaxvelobiTi komponentis internacionaluri buneba ar
xsnis sirTules ucxokulturuli politikuri kolaJis interpretaciisas, rac ganpirobebulia politikuri da zogadkulturuli precedentuli
fenomenebiTa da teqstis mocemuli tipis kodirebis rTuli sistemiT.
implicituri informaciis Targmnisas vawydebiT semiotikur sirTuleebs. imisaTvis, rom Sesruldes kargi Targmani, samizne teqsti srulad
unda gadmoscemdes originalis azrs. mTargmnels ki uwevs teqstis kulturuli da pragmatuli adaptacia.
bibliografia
enuqiZe 1987: enuqiZe l., `mecniereba,ZiriTadi sintaqsuri Teoriebi Tanamedrove sazRvargareTul enaTmecnierebaSi, Tb.;
lebaniZe 1998: lebaniZe g., anTropocentrizmi da komunikaciuri lingvistika,., `ena da kultura, Tb.;
sayvareliZe 2001: sayvareliZe, n. Tsu gamomcemloba. Targmnis Teoriis sakiTxebi. Tb.;

implicituri informaciis Targmnis semiotikuri Taviseburebani

123

seleskoviCi, ledereri 2008: seleskoviCi, d. ledereri, m.. Targmnis xelovneba da swavlebis meTodi, Tb.;
baliaSvili 1999: baliaSvili, e. sainformacio sagazeTo statiaTa zogierTi lingvisturi Tavisebureba. saenaTmecniero Ziebani, IX. Tb.;
aroSiZe, arajanova 2007: ., .
- .
. : . .

Rusudan Turmanidze
Semiotic Translation Peculiarities of Implicit Information
The article deals with the Semiotic features and Implicit Information in
Translation. The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge
representations.The knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition
which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A
number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a
higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known
explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which
knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of implicit knowledge
representations merely reflect the property of objects or events without
predicating them of any particular entity.
In the process of translation there are 3 essential aspects to transform the
implicit into explicit:
1. The implicit in the source language stays implicit.
2. The Implicit is changed into explicit.
3. When Explicit is changed into implicit.
Semiotic difficulties encounter in translation of implicit information. Any
statements contain conceptual implicit is much bigger than the formulation,
which is used to convey them in the target language. It is easy to understand the
idea from linguistic forms by the realizing implicit completely. The translator of
the text makes cultural adaptation.

ciala lagvilava
koncept `sikvdilis~
sakiTxisaTvis
kulturul konceptTa Soris konceptebs `sicocxle~ da `sikvdili~ centraluri
adgili ukaviaT. miuxedavad imisa, rom es sityvebi da maTSi Semavali cnebebi egzistenciurad mniSvnelovania rogorc calkeuli adamianisTvis, aseve zogadad kacobriobisTvis,
dRemde TiTqmis ar arsebobs am konceptebisadmi miZRvnili naSromebi, miT umetes, SepirispirebiT planSi.
Cveni dakvirveba versificirdeba qarTuli da Turquli enebis masalis gamoyenebiT. kvlevis zogadi amocanaa samyaros enobrivi suraTis aRniSnuli fragmentis maqsimalurad sruli rekonstruqcia.
muSaobis procesSi davisaxeT Semdegi
konkretuli amocanebi:
1. konceptis `sicocxlis Sewyveta~
enobrivi manifestaciis Taviseburebebis dadgena qarTulsa da Turqul enebSi;
2. mocemuli konceptis eTnoenobrivi
specifikis gamovlena;
3. sakvlev movlenebSi universaluri da
nacionalur-specifikuri Tvisebebis gamovlena;
4. Sesabamisi kulturebis mentalobis
gamomxatveli nacionalur-kulturologiuri informaciis gadmocemis enobrivi saSualebebis analizi da sistematizacia;
5. konceptis `sicocxlis Sewyveta~
lingvokulturologiuri analizi misi
uzualuri kognituri komponenturi zonis
gasarkvevad da konceptis struqturis logikuri(racionaluri) da `sanqcionirebuli~ sublogikuri sferoebis gamosavlenad,

koncept `sikvdilis sakiTxisaTvis

125

romelic efuZneba, rogorc leqsikonebSi dafiqsirebul, aseve komunikaciis


calkeul sferoebSi gamovlenil masalas;
6. ganisazRvros miTiTebuli konceptis universaluri da nacionalurkulturuli Tavisebureba Sesabamisi konceptosferoebis farglebSi;
7. ganxorcieldes konceptis _ `sicocxlis Sewyveta" sintagmatikuri daxasiaTeba uzualuri warmodgenebis aRmosaCenad, romlebic dganan am
saxelebis miRma da Semofarglaven maT semantikur sazRvrebs.
rac Seexeba adamians, romelic dgas enasa da realur samyaros Soris, igi
aRiqvams da Seimecnebs samyaros grZnobaTa organoebis meSveobiT da amis safuZvelze qmnis sakuTar warmodgenas samyaroze. sakuTar gonebaSi, fiqrisa da azrovnebis procesis Semdeg, igi gadascems sakuTar azrebs enobrivi koleqtivis
sxva adamianebs enis saSualebiT. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, realobasa da enas
Soris dgas azrovneba. ena, rogorc azris gamoxatvisa da misi adamianidan adamianze gadacemis saSualeba, mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli azrovnebasTan. enisa da
azrovnebis urTierTmimarTeba urTulesi sakiTxia, romelsac ikvlevs lingvistika, filosofia da sxva disciplinebi. sityva asaxavs ara TviT realur sagans,
aramed mis xats, romelic gamowveulia misi aRqmiT, SexedulebiT am saganze. gza
realuri samyarodan cnebamde da Semdgom sityvier gamoxatulebamde sxvadasxva
erisaTvis aris sxvadasxva, rac ganpirobebulia istoriiT, geografiiT, cxovrebis pirobebiTa da, Sesabamisad, maTi sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis ganviTarebiT.
amrigad, ena, azrovneba da kultura ise mWidrodaa urTierTdakavSirebuli,
rom TiTqmis erT mTlianobas qmnis. am sami komponentidan arc erTs ar SeuZlia
funqcionireba (da, maSasadame, arc arseboba) danarCeni oris gareSe.
adamianis gare samyaros aqvs sami forma: samyaros realuri suraTi (xati); samyaros kulturuli xati; samyaros enobrivi xati. samyaros realuri
xati aris obieqturi mocemuloba, es aris gare samyaro adamianis irgvliv.
samyaros kulturuli xati aris realuri suraTis asaxva cnebebis saSualebiT, romlebic yalibdeba adamianis grZnobaTa organoebiT miRebuli da mis azrovnebaSi gamovlili Sexedulebebis safuZvelze. samyaros enobrivi xati realobas asaxavs samyaros kulturuli xatis saSualebiT. amaze jer kidev meTvramete saukunis bolosa da mecxramete saukunis dasawyisSi saubrobdnen
germaneli filologebi. dResdReobiT miRebulia, rom samyaros kulturuli
xati da enobrivi xati mWidro kavSirSia erTmaneTTan da urTierTqmedeben.
yvela mcdeloba sxvadasxva lingvisturi mimdinareobisa, moewyvitaT ena realobidan, warumatebeli aRmoCnda erTi martivi mizezis gamo _ mxedvelobaSi
unda miiRebodes ara mxolod enobrivi forma, aramed Sinaaarsi. Sinaarsi, semantika, enobriv erTeulTa mniSvneloba, sityvebi es aris xmovani (an grafikuli) gamoxatuleba realuri samyaros sagnisa an movlenisa. enobrivi semantika
xsnis gzas enidan realuri samyarosken. es makavSirebeli Zafi faqtiurad warmoadgens kulturul warmodgenebs kulturuli samyaros sagnebsa da movlenaze, romelic damaxasiaTebelia mocemuli enobrivi koleqtivisaTvis zogadad da, kerZod, am enis matarebeli individisaTvis.
koncepti `sicocxlis Sewyveta~ Cven ganvixileT, rogorc kulturul-esTetikuri konotaciebis wyaro da moviZieT misi saxe folklorsa da
mxatvrul literaturaSi. mniSvnelovani iyo, agreTve, pirovnebis damoki-

126

ciala lagvilava

debulebis dafiqsireba sikvdilis mimarT, rac leqsikur-stilistikur konotaciebSi vlindeba. sakvlev enebSi sainteresod aisaxeba sikvdilis Semdeg
sicocxlis gagrZelebis perspeqtivis qona/arqona:
neitr. sikvdili; gardacvaleba formis Secvla; uperspeqtivoba TaobebSi amowyda, gadaSenda (uSvilod,uZirod). erT-erT umniSvnelovanes
problemas `problemis biosamyaros tipologiur konstituentebTan (adamiani cxoveli mcenare) damokidebulebis sakiTxia, vinaidan aRniSnul enebSi arsebobs adamianis, mcenarisa da cxovelis gardacvalebasTan dakavSirebuli gansxvavebuli enobrivi erTeulebi.
aranakleb mniSvnelovani da sainteresoa `sikvdilis~ personificireba da gardacvalebasTan dakavSirebuli subieqt-obieqtis urTierTmimarTeba, maTi enobrivi manifestaciis procesi. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, sikvdili
SeiZleba mogvevlinos rogorc subieqti, romelic TviTon moqmedebs da, rogorc Sedegi, rodesac is garkveul subieqtur-obieqtur mimarTebebis rezultats warmoadgens. aq SesaZlebelia SemTxvevebi, rodesac: adamiani TviTon moqmedebs (mkvlelebis nominacia); subieqti sxvisi saSualebiT moqmedebs subieqti TviTon aris agresiis obieqti. aseve aqtualuria sikvdilis,
rogorc procesis gaazreba, rac or samyaros urTierTdamokidebulebiT
dasturdeba. naSromSi ganvixilavT, agreTve, gardacvlilis nominacias
mkvlelobis formidan gamomdinare. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, sakvlev enebSi,
ama Tu im adamianisa an romelime cocxali organizmis sikvdilTan damokidebuleba, subieqturi modalobis Semcvel leqsemebSic aisaxeba, romelic
SeiZleba iyos: neitraluri; uaryofiTi; dadebiTi.
koncefti `sikvdili" miekuTvneba konceftTa im jgufs, romlebic warmoadgenen universalur sabazo kompleqsebs. cxovrebisadmi damokidebuleba ers
istoriuli ganviTarebis procesSi uyalibdeba da gamoixateba misi kulturis,
politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri cxovrebis TaviseburebebSi. eris istoria da kultura zegavlenas axdenen mis msoflaRqmaze, mis damokidebulebaze am mocemulobis mimarT. Tavis mxriv, cxovrebisadmi damokidebulebis tipi
metwilad ganapirobebs ama Tu im enis warmomadgeneli eris qcevas (enobrivis
CaTvliT). Sesabamisad, konceptis verbaluri realizacia, misi gamomsaxvelobiTi mxare da konotaciuri veli sxvadasxva enaSi SeiZleba absoluturad identuri iyos. orive sakvlev kulturaSi, iseve, rogorc kulturaTa umravlesobaSi, sikvdili ganixileba rogorc erTi dialeqtikuri mTlianoba, erTiani
samyaros ori nawili, romelTa Soris arsebobs garkveuli kanonzomieri kavSiri. miuxedavad religiaTa da ideologiur sistemaTa mravalferovnebisa, mxolod aTeizmi uaryofs sikvdilis Semdeg arsebobis SesaZleblobas, Tumca misi
gagrZeleba gansxvavebuli kulturebis mier araerTgvarovnad aris gagebuli.
magaliTad, induizmis sulTa gradaciis Teoriis mixedviT, adamianis mier ganvlili cxovrebiseuli gziT, misma sulma SesaZloa sxvadasxva ierarqiuli Rirebulebis movlenaSi hpovos ganxorcieleba. aRniSnuli eTnikuri faqtori relevanturia qristianuli da musulmanuri religiebisTvisac, romlebic samoTxisa da jojoxeTis, jenneTisa da jernemis opoziciebs gamoyofen da adamianis
,,perspeqtiuli dislokaciis~ adgils aseve mis amqveyniuri cxovrebis Sinaarss
ukavSireben. sakvlev kulturebSi erT-erT umniSvnelovanes opozicias warmo-

koncept `sikvdilis sakiTxisaTvis

127

adgens samyaros amqveyniur da imqveyniur nawilebad dayofa, rac Sesabamisi enobrivi masaliT dasturdeba.
sakvlev kulturebSi ,,sikvdilis~ konceptualuri veli universaluri velis nacionalur-kulturul manifestaciebs warmoadgens, romlis integraluri semebia ararseboba (arsebobis dasasruli).
ararsebobis problema dakavSirebulia movlenis egzistencialur da
procesualur gagebasTan. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, sikvdili warmogvidgeba rogorc arsebobis kvantori, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi _ rogorc moqmedebis
kvantori, romlis ganxorcielebac rig faqtors ukavSirdeba: aris Tu ara
damokidebuli pirovnebaze, sasikvdilo aqtis ganxorcielebis formasTan
obieqtis damokidebuleba, moqmedebis ganxorcielebis bunebrivi Tu Zaladobrivi xasiaTi.
sikvdilis fenomeni mTel organul samyaros moicavs, rac nominaciaSi
gansxvavebasac gvaZlevs kvdomis obieqtis biologiuri statusidan gamomdinare saqme exeba adamians, cxovelsa Tu mcenares.
orive kulturaSi aqtualuria amqveyniuri da imqveyniuri samyaros
opozicia da maT Soris kavSiris arseboba. mniSvnelovania isic, rom es kavSiri ar aris monoveqtorulad gagebuli da dasaSvebia ormxrivi moZraobis
SesaZlebloba, rac enobriv erTeulebSic vlindeba.
sikvdilis nominaciaSi kargad Cans am movlenebisadmi damokidebuleba,
rac Sesabamis aqsiologiaSi aisaxeba. am movlenebis Sefaseba ar aris erTgvarovani. gamomdinare arsebobis Sinaarsidan, sikvdili xSir SemTxvevaSi pozitiuri konotaciis matarebeli SeiZleba iyos, rac Sesabamisi empiriuli
masaliT dasturdeba.
TviT ,,sikvdilis~ nominacia Seicavs Sefaseba-damokidebulebis semas,
rac stilistikur gansxvavebaSi (CaZaRlda /aResrula) vlindeba. sikvdilis
sakraluri buneba ganapirobebs evfemizaciis tendenciebs, rac garkveulwilad bunebriv SiSs ukavSirdeba.
xSiria moferebiTi da iumoristuli saxis formebis gamoyenebac. mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT xSiria sametyvelo figurebis (metaforebis, metonimebisa da sxv.) gamoyeneba. enobrivi TvalsazrisiT aRniSnuli koncepti realizdeba sxvadasxva donis (leqsikuri, frazeologizmebi, paremiologiuri,
teqstobrivi) erTeulebiT.
sakvlev kulturebSi gamovlenilma precedentulma erTeulebma saSualeba mogvca dagvefiqsirebina rogorc kulturebs Soris samyaros xedvaSi
konkretuli gansxvavebebi, aseve eTnoenobriv cnobierebaSi arsebuli gansxvavebuli aqsiologiac.
literatura:
apresiani 1995: ..,
( ) . . .2.
. .;
ramiSvili 2010: ramiSvili v., kulturaTSorisi komunikacia. filosofia,
Tbilisi;

128

ciala lagvilava

ter-minasova 2000: - ..,


, ;
ufimceva 1996: ..,
. .
foCxua 1974: foCxua b., qarTuli enis leqsikologia. Tbilisi;
Ciqobava 1952: Ciqobava a., enaTmecnierebis Sesavali. Tbilisi;
humbolti 1984: .,
. .
. ;

Tsiala Lagvilava
On the Concept of Death
Among the cultural concept the concepts of life and death occupy the
central place. The phenomenon of death covers the entire organic world that
gives difference in nomination as well, notwithstanding the biological status of a
human, animal or plant.
The nomination of death contains the sema of evaluation-attitude that is
revealed in stylistic difference (passed away/kicked the bucket). The sacral
nature of death preconditions euphemistic tendencies that are mostly related to
the natural fear.
There are also frequent cases of their use in humorous and hypocoristic
forms. From the literary viewpoint, there are cases of imagery too (metaphors,
metonymies, etc.). From the linguistic aspect the concept under study is realized
with different types (lexical, phraseological, paremyological, textual) units.
Precedent units revealed in the cultures under study enabled to point out specific
differences of the world vision between cultures as well as different axiology of
ethno-lingual consciousness.

Tamar lomiZe
qaosi da kosmosi
cisferyanwelTa
trioletebSi
kosmosi da qaosi erTmaneTs upirispirdeba, rogorc wesrigi da mouwesrigebloba.
albaT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom poeziis istoriaSi gvxvdeboda etapebi, rodesac Warbobda
`kosmosi~ (terminebs `qaosi~ da `kosmosi~,
aq, ra Tqma unda, metaforuli, gadataniTi
mniSvnelobiT viyenebT), anu mowesrigebuloba. am periodebSi poeziaSi gamoiyeneboda, ZiriTadad, erTi da igive myari saleqso formebi. meore mxriv, iyo etapebi, rodesac Warbobda `qaosi~ _ da am dros poetebi midrekilni iyvnen mravalferovani saleqso formebis gamoyenebisadmi, ise, rom upiratesobas
ar aniWebdnen romelime maTgans. am mxriv,
simbolizmi SeiZleba `kosmosis~ niSan-Tvisebebis matarebel mimdinareobad CaiTvalos,
radgan simbolisti poetebi sxvadasxva qveyanaSi aSkarad midrekilni iyvnen SezRuduli
raodenobis myari saleqso formebis da, maT
Soris, trioletis gamoyenebisadmi.
trioleti, rogorc saleqso forma, Camoyalibda Sua saukuneebSi (me-13 saukunis
bolos), safrangeTSi. am epoqaSi trioletis
mravali nimuSi Seqmnes frangma poetebma adene le ruam da Jan frosarma. XV-XVI saukuneebSi trioleti popularobiT aRar sargeblobda, magram me-17 saukuneSi am saleqso
formiT dainteresda Jan de lafonteni, romelmac trioletis ramdenime nimuSi Seqmna.

Tamar lomiZe

130

me-18 saukuneSi trioleti kvlav daviwyebas eZleva, me-19 saukuneSi ki


iwereba alfons dodes da teodor de banvilis mravalricxovani trioletebi. am saleqso formis brwyinvale nimuSebi Seqmnes frangma simbolistebma.
ruseTSi XVIII-XIX saukuneebis mijnaze trioletebis pirveli nimuSebi daweres ana buninam da nikolai karamzinma. Semdeg (iseve, rogorc
evropaSi) trioleti daviwyebas mieca da xelaxla moipova popularoba
modernizmis epoqaSi. trioletebs Txzavddnen ego-futuristebi: konstantin fofanovi da igor severianini, simbolistebi _ konstantin balmonti da valeri briusovi. trioletebis krebulebi gamosces simbolistma poetebma: f. sologubma, i. kalinikovma da i. rukaviSnikovma (am ukanasknelma Teoriuli gamokvlevac ki dawera trioletebis Sesaxeb). saerTod, egreT wodebuli `vercxlis saukunis~ rusma poetebma trioletebis maRalmxatvruli nimuSebi Seqmnes.
qarTul poeziaSi trioletis saleqso forma cisferyanwelebma
Semoitanes (val. gafrindaSvili ambobda: `me mgonia, trioleti Cvenamde
ar iyo dawerili~ (gafrindaSvili 1990 : 642) da, ra Tqma unda, gulisxmobda, rom trioleti manamde aravis hqonda dawerili qarTul
poeziaSi). cnobilia valerian gafrindaSvilis, Salva karmelis, paolo
iaSvilis, raJden gvetaZis, giorgi leoniZis, kolau nadiraZis trioletebi. SevniSnavT, rom SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos cisferyanwelTa gataceba swored am saleqso formiT.
trioletis struqtura Semdegnairia: rvastriqonian strofSi
pirveli striqoni aucileblad meordeba meoTxe da meSvide striqonebSi, xolo merve striqoni imeorebs meores. trioletSi gariTmvis sistema amgvaria: ABaA abAB ABbA baAB.
a. kviatkovskis DSeniSvniT, trioleti yvelaze SezRuduli formaa
poeziaSi da mas umetesad gasarTobi daniSnuleba hqonda (kviatkovski
1966:311).
***
riT aixsneba trioletis perioduli popularoba _ is, rom es
myari saleqso forma zogierT literaturul epoqaSi Zalze xSirad
gamoiyeneba, sxva periodebSi ki miviwyebas eZleva? da ra mizezebiT unda ganvmartoT trioletis popularoba rogorc evropul da rusul
simbolistur poeziaSi, aseve _ cisferyanwelTa SemoqmedebaSi? rac Seexeba cisferyanwelebs, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom maT, ubralod, rusi
simbolistebis poeziis zegavleniT Semoitanes es forma qarTul poeziaSi (rac gamoricxuli araa). magram ra faqtorebs unda ganepirobebinaT am saleqso formis `gacocxleba~ evropeli da rusi poetebis SemoqmedebaSi?
trioletis ufunqcioba garkveul epoqebSi da misi popularoba
sxva periodebSi SeiZleba imiT aixsnas, rom am saleqso formis meSveo-

qaosi da kosmosi cisferyanwelTa trioletebSi

131

biT yvelaze ukeT SeiZleba gamoixatos ama Tu im literaturuli mimdinareobis msoflaRqma. es, ra Tqma unda, ar niSnavs, rom sxvadasxva
literaturuli mimdinareobebi identuri msoflaRqmiT xasiaTdebodnen,
aramed _ imas, rom Tumca trioleti myari formaa, magram sxvadasxva
dros sxvadasxva funqciiT aRiWurveboda. magaliTad, Tu Tavdapirvelad
(Sua saukuneebSi) triolets gasarTobi daniSnuleba hqonda da imRereboda, simbolistur poeziaSi, mas, eWvgareSea, sruliad gansxvavebuli
funqciebi unda hqonoda. triolets Tavisi funqciebi ucvleli formiT
rom SeenarCunebina, simbolistebi, ra Tqma unda, am myari formiT ar
dainteresdebodnen. amgvarad, ucvleli rCeboda mxolod trioletis
formaluri niSan-Tvisebebi, magram icvleboda maTi funqciebi. SesaZlebelia, aq gavixsenoT dominantis principic, romelic rusma formalistebma wamoayenes, kerZod, `vinaidan sistema (nebismieri sistema, maT Soris, teqsti an teqstebis erToblioba ama Tu im mimdinareobaSi _
T.l.) ar warmoadgens misi yvela elementis Tanabaruflebian urTierTqmedebas, aramed gulisxmobs elementTa jgufis win wamowevas (`dominanta~) da danarCenebis deformacias, amitom nawarmoebi Sedis literaturaSi, iZens Tavis literaturul funqcias swored am dominantis
wyalobiT~ (tinianovi 1977: 277). Tvisebebi sxvadasxvagvaria sxvadasxva
istoriul periodSi.
ama UTu im Janris an saleqso formis dominanturi niSan- ase rom
ar iyos, ese igi, triolets (da nebismier sxva saleqso formas an literaturul Janrs) sxvadasxva epoqaSi sxvadasxvanairi dominanturi niSan-Tvisebebi da funqciebi rom ar hqonoda, maSin unda vaRiaroT (rac
absurdia), rom literaturis evolucia ar momxdara.
davakvirdeT trioletis struqturas.
trioletis, rogorc myari saleqso formis yvelaze mkveTrad gamoxatuli struqturuli Tavisebureba, ra Tqma unda, misi striqonebis
ganmeorebadobaa. ra funqciebi unda SeeZina mas axal konteqstSi, axal
_ simbolizmis _ sistemaSi?
leqsisTvis damaxasiaTebelia ritmuli erTeulebis _ striqonebis,
orstriqonedebisa da strofebis, aseve _ bgerebis, bgeraTa erTobliobebis, sityvebis ganmeoreba. rogor zemoqmedebs striqonis semantikaze
misi ganmeorebadoba (SegaxsenebT, rom trioletSi pirveli striqoni
meordeba samjer, meore ki _ orjer)? sazogadod, poetur metyvelebaSi xdeba `ekvivalenturobis principis proecireba seleqciis RerZidan
kombinaciis RerZze~ (r. iakobsonis cnobili Tezisis Tanaxmad), anu
masSi sityvebi, striqonebi, strofebi analogiuri struqturuli niSanTvisebebiT da bgeriTi organizaciis (riTma, aliteraciebi, asonansebi
da a.S.) msgavsebiT xasiaTdeba, maSin, rodesac sasaubro metyvelebaSi
sintagmaturi mwkrivis Semadgeneli sityvebi am niSan-Tvisebebis mixedviT erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebulia). leqsiT metyvelebaSi elementebis
gamaTanabrebel zemoqmedebas axdens ritmic. amasTan, rac ufro metadaa

132

Tamar lomiZe

gamoxatuli leqsSi ganmeorebadobis, ekvivalenturobis principi, rac


ufro Zlieria misi `musikaluroba~ da miT ufro naklebmniSvnelovania
misi semantika. es bunebrivicaa amgvar leqsSi wina planze gamodis
JReradoba da ara Sinaarsi. amitom bunebrivia, rom trioletSi, romelSic ganmeorebadobis principi (erTeulTa ekvivalenturoba, paradigmatuloba) Warbadaa gamoxatuli, Sinaarsis planze formis plani unda
dominirebdes da unda iwvevdes sityvebis semantikur transformacias.
amgvarad, trioletisTvis damaxasiaTebelia ori sintaqsur-semantikuri erTeulis (striqonis) ganmeoreba (pirvelisa samjer, meorisa _
orjer). ganmeorebadoba xazs usvams maT mTlianobas, daunawevreblobas
(TuU yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT maT Sedgenilobaze, anu sintagmatikaze,
maSin ukana planze gadaiwevs maTi erTianoba, ris gareSec maT ver aRviqvamT, rogorc ganmeorebad erTeulebs). amgvarad, trioletis struqtura
ganapirobebs ganmeorebadi striqonebis, rogorc daunawevrebeli mTlianobebis aRqmas. SemTxveviTi araa, rom maTSi _ am erTianobis xazgasasmelad xSirad gamoiyeneba aliteraciebi da asonansebi, romlebnic kidev
ufro metad kravs striqonebs: `var mowyenili, viT zamTarSi nazi beRura~; `kidev cota xans daicade, Cemo Zvirfaso~; `me menatreba Seni yeli,
TeTri, geduri~; `qorwili xarobs da sxivosnobs mefe Zvirfasi~; `Sen
Cems xarb Tvalebs ufskrulidan esirinoze~; `gavdi serabims frTadaTovils, plaSCiT nafari~; `TeTr yvavilebiT fanjarasTan fSvinven tyemlebi~ da a.S.
mniSvnelovania isic, rom cisferyanwelTa trioletebis didi umravlesoba (samiode gamonaklisis garda) besikuri sazomiTaa (5 4 5)
dawerili, anu Tavs iCens midrekileba versifikaciuli unifikaciisadmi,
rac, aseve, Zalze mniSvnelovania. magaliTad: `Cemma ocnebam /qartexilebs /Tavi udara~; `me RvTaebrivi /koSmarebi /isev momelis~; `var mowyenili,/ viT zamTarSi/ nazi beRura~; `Sexvedris wuTebs/ ganSoreba
/ver aniavebs~; `iyo saRamo /rux landebaT/ kvlav anatiri~; `gavdi serabims /frTadaTovils,/ plaSCiT nafari~; `Sen Cems xarb Tvalebs/ ufskrulidan /esirinoze~ (val. gafrindaSvili); `kidev cota xans /daicade, /Cemo Zvirfaso~; `me menatreba / Seni yeli,/ TeTri, geduri~; `TviT
hanibalic /isurvebda /Sensa xasobas~; `minda es leqsi/ Seni trfobiT
/avamTvarulo~ (kolau nadiraZe); `qorwili xarobs /da sxivosnobs/ mefe Zvirfasi~; `anaTebs darbazs/ vezirebis / tansacmelebi~; `moswyinda
mefes / es nadimi /da silamaze~; `sefedarbazSi /mzis sxivebis /cecxli
anTia~ (paolo iaSvili); `ixrCoba qarSi quTaisi naforiaqi~; `TeTr
yvavilebiT /fanjarasTan / fSvinven tyemlebi~; `viT es striqoni, / _
Cemi sevdac / wava da mova~; (Salva karmeli~); `sasaflaoze / miyvars
RamiT / sikvdilis marSi~ (raJden gvetaZe).
amgvari versifikaciuli unifikacia, aseve, xels uwyobs striqonebis, rogorc ganuyofeli erTeulebis aRqmas; bolos, besikuri sazomi,
Tavis mxriv, sami muxlisgan Sedgeba da masSi pirveli da mesame (bo-

qaosi da kosmosi cisferyanwelTa trioletebSi

133

lo) muxlebi erTnairia (amitom SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos arc trioletTa umravlesobaSi erTi da imave sazomis gamoyeneba da arc am sazomis SerCeva; ra Tqma unda, SesaZlebeli iyo, cisferyanwelebs SeerCiaT sazomi or, sami an oTxi ganmeorebadi muxliT, magram gansxvavebuli
Sualeduri _ oTxmarcvliani _ muxli sammuxlian striqonSi amZafrebs
pirveli da bolo muxlebis identurobis STabeWdilebas, anu striqonis Sekrulobas, monoliTurobas).
Cveulebrivi, sasaubro metyveleba sintagmaturia da diskretuli
erTeulebisgan _ sityvebisgan Sedgeba. amitom frazis gasagebad aucilebelia yoveli calkeuli sityvis gaazreba _ Tu frazaSi sityva gamotovebulia, is SeiZleba ver gavigoT. iseTi saleqso forma, rogoricaa
trioleti, piriqiT, aucileblad saWiroebs mTeli striqonis rogorc
erTi `sityvis~ daunawevreblad aRqmas. aq SeimCneva saleqso rigis
(striqonis) is SemWidroeba, romlis Sesaxebac i. tinianovi msjelobda
Tavis `saleqso enis problemaSi~, anu am SemTxvevaSi sityvebis sintagmaturi, diskretuli, linearuli Tanmimdevroba Tvisebriobas icvlis,
xorcieldeba misi delinearizacia, semantikuri `SemWidroeba~ da axali
semantikis SeZena. SemTxveviT rodi SeniSnavda stefan malarme, rom leqsis striqoni `ramdenime sityvidan erT sityvas warmoqmnis~ (cit. wignidan: miSo 1969: 572).
rogoria aseTi `sityvis~ semantika?
saqme isaa, rom Tumca pirveli striqoni warmoqmnis ritmul impulss
_ da aRiqmeba, rogorc ritmuli mTlianoba _ ritmuli erTeuli, magram
izolirebulad aRqmisas (rodesac is jer kidev araa ganmeorebuli teqstSi), semantikuri TvalsazrisiT, is jer kidev diskretulia, anu misi
calkeuli sityvebis semantika TavisTavad Rirebulebas inarCunebs (Tumca,
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, sazomi, cisferyanwelTa mier _ Segnebulad Tu
gaucnobiereblad _ imgvarad iqna SerCeuli, rom striqonis SemWidroebas
ganapirobebs, iseve, rogorc bgeriTi organizebis saSualebebi _ aliteraciebi da asonansebi). misi ganmeorebis Semdeg (trioletis meoTxe striqonSi) is ukve aRiqmeba ara marto rogorc ritmuli erTeuli, aramed _
rogorc semantikuri erTeulic, anu semantikurad dauSleli, daunawevrebeli mTlianoba. sxva SemTxvevaSi _ anu, Tu amgvar striqons aRviqvamT
rogorc diskretul erTeulTa erTobliobas _ is ganmeorebadi erTeulis
saxiT aRar warmigvidgeba da Semadgenel erTeulebad daiSleba.
magram trioletSi pirveli striqoni samjer meordeba, rac kidev
ufro amWidroebs mis semantikas, anu kidev ufro daunawevrebels, kidev
ufro erTians xdis mas. is, rac vTqviT trioletis pirveli striqonis
Sesaxeb, ra Tqma unda, samarTliani unda iyos meore striqonis mimarTac.
ganmeoreba am striqonis semantikasac amWidroebs.
Cveulebriv, sityvebis sintagmaturi mimdevrobis daniSnulebaa samyaros Sesaxeb logikuri msjeloba, rodesac sagnebi da movlenebi maTi
konvenciuri niSan-TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba. igulisxmeba, rom amgvari sag-

Tamar lomiZe

134

nebisa da movlenebis momcveli samyaros fragmentebs erTmaneTTan mizezSedegobrioba akavSirebs.


rogor samyaros asaxavs sityvaTa iseTi mimdevroba, romelSic sintagmatika (poeturi metyvelebis diskretuloba) nulisken miiswrafvis
da romelic erTiani, daunawevrebeli, kontinualuri mTlianobis saxiT
warmogvidgeba?
cxadia, amgvari `saleqso rigi~ (tinianovis gamoTqma), Tundac masSi mocemuli iyos savsebiT logikuri msjeloba samyaros an misi fragmentebis Sesaxeb, mainc sruliad `alogikuria~ _ ganmeorebebis wyalobiT wina planze gamodis ara misi semantika, aramed _ JReradoba, bgeriTi organizacia, leqsis `musika~ (gavixseniT verleniseuli mowodeba:
`,musika, upirveles yovlisa~) da, Sesabamisad, ara Semadgeneli elementebis diskretuloba, aramed _ kontinualoba.
amqveyniuri samyaros sagnebi da movlenebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebulia, diskretulia. miRmuri, idealuri samyaro ki erTiania da kontinualuri. misi `sagnebi~ amodaluria, konkretuli niSan-TvisebebiT ar xasiaTdeba. am miRmuri, idealuri samyaros daxasiaTebisas yvelaze ufro
adekvaturia simboloebis gamoyeneba, radgan simbolo, Tavisi arsiT, aseve
erTiania, daunawevrebeli (amitomaa SeuZlebeli misi gaSifrva). aseTive
erTianobasa, daunawevreblobas, kontinualurobas aniWebs trioletebis
struqtura maT semantikas cisferyanwelTa poeziaSi da, rogorc Cans,
swored amiT iyo motivirebuli am saleqso formis popularoba ara marto qarTvel simbolist-cisferyanwelTa, aramed frangi da rusi simbolistebis poeziaSic.
yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, unda davaskvnaT: is, rom
simbolisti poetebis da, kerZod, cisferyanwelTa SemoqmedebaSi trioletis mravalricxovani nimuSebi gvxvdeba, ganpirobebuli iyo imiT,
rom es saleqso forma simbolisturi msoflaRqmis adekvaturad gadmocemis saSualebas iZleva. trioleti am axal konteqstSi axali funqciebiT aRiWurva da cisferyanwelebis poeziaSi sapatio adgili daikava.
literatura:
gafrindaSvili 1990: val. gafrindaSvili. leqsebi, poema, YTargmanebi.
esseebi. mwerlis arqividan. Tb., 1990.
kviatkovski 1966:.....,1966.
tinianovi 1977: .. . .
, ..,1977.
miSo 1969: Michaud G. Message Potique du Symbolisme. P., Nizet.1969

qaosi da kosmosi cisferyanwelTa trioletebSi

135
Tamar Lomidze

Chaos and cosmos in the triolets of the poetry group


members called Blue Horns
Triolet as a firm stanza poem was periodically popular in different literary
epochs. Triolets especially often are found in the symbolists poetry. European,
Russian and Georgian symbolists created numerous examples of triolets. What
kind of factors determined the popularity of triolets in the symbolists poetry and
in particular among the representatives of the poetry group of Blue Horns?.
The present paper investigates the influence of the specific and formal
peculiarities upon the semantics of triolets; it is argued, that superabundance of
recurrences of formal components in the triolets causes deformation of words
and in consequence the text formally and in the semantic aspect seeks continuity
i.e. it appears not as a sequence of discrete units words, but as an integrated
entity.
The transformed text corresponds to its denotatum to the otherworldly,
ideal world, which differs from the earthly, real, discrete world because of its
continuity.
Thus the popularity of triolet as a firm stanza form in the symbolists poetry
and, in particular, in the creative works of the poets representatives of the
group named Blue Horns is natural and logical, for precisely by means of the
given form it is possible to express in the best way specific content of symbolism
poetry.

nana mazmiSvili
intersemiotikuri
Targmani reklamis
gzavnilis gagebis
winapiroba
semiotika yovelTvis warmoadgenda kacobriobis arsebobis ganuyofel nawils,
romelic saukuneebTan erTad rogorc adamianis cxovrebis, ise araerTi mecnierebis dargis mzardad integrirebuli nawili xdeba.
samyaros arsis wvdomis mcdelobas niSanTa
sistemis garkveul wyobamde mivyavarT, romlis dekodireba garkveuli saidumloebis
amoxsnis saSualebas iZleva.
unda aRiniSnos semiotikis gansakuTrebuli siaxlove mecnierebis iseT dargebTan,
rogorebicaa: lingvistika, Targmanis Teoria
da interkulturuli urTierTobebi. sxva
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, semiotika mWidro kavSirSia iseT sferoebTan, sadac dominirebs
enis, rogorc komunikaciis saSualebis da
kulturis roli da mniSvneloba. es ukanaskneli ganpirobebulia enis specifikuri TvisebiT,
romelic komunikaciis damyarebaSi mdgomareobs da im vizualuri da verbaluri sistemebis
kavSiriT, ris funqciasac swored komunikacia
warmoadgens.
warmatebuli komunikaciis ganxorcieleba araerT faqtorzea damokidebuli, romelTagan aqcents, Cvens naSromSi, verbalur
da araverbalur niSanTa sistemaze gavakeTebT, imdenad, ramdenadac maT Tanabari wvlili miuZRviT adekvatur da efeqtur komunikaciaSi.

intersemiotikuri Targmani reklamis gzavnilis gagebis winapiroba

137

verbalur da araverbalur niSanTa sistemebis erToblioba uzrunvelyofs gzavnilis Sesabamisad da swrafad aRqmas informaciis mimRebi mier,
ise rom am ukanasknelis reagireba miRebul informaciaze iqneba informaciis gamgzavnis mizanTan TanxvedraSi.
Zalzed sainteresoa niSanTa sistemis verbalur da araverbalur gamovlinebaTa erToblivi kombinaciiT Sedgenili teqstis sworad da adekvaturad gagebis Taviseburebebis kvleva interkulturul konteqstSi, sadac
konkretul realobaSi arsebuli niSanTa sistemis mniSvneloba SesaZloa an
arasworad iqnes interpretirebuli, an saerTod yuradRebis miRma darCes.
amis mizezi sxvadasxva enis matarebeli adamianebis mier niSanTa sistemis
gansxvavebulad aRqmaa, rac Tavis mxriv sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufis mier
sxvadasxva kulturuli Rirebulebebis da faseulobebis aRiarebiT aixsneba.
arsebuli sxvaoba cxovrebis wesSi, tradiciebSi, qcevis normebsa da
eris kulturuli cxovrebis sxvadasxva gamovlinebaSi, gansakuTrebulad delikatur midgomas saWiroebs interkulturul garemoSi komunikaciis dros,
rodesac gasakuTrebiT SesamCnevi xdeba Targmanis Teoriis mniSvnelovani aspeqtebis semiotikasTan Serwyma darodesac mTargmnels wminda lingvisturi
sirTuleebis daZlevis garda iseTi barieris gadalaxva sWirdeba, rasac TargmanmcodneobaSi eTnikuri barieri qvia. swored aseT dros did mniSvnelobas
Targmanis procesSi aralingvisturi niSnebis CarTuloba iZens, rodesac aralingvisturi niSnebi mTargmnels original teqstSi lingvisturad asaxuli
Sinaarsis sworad gadmocemis saSualebas aZlevs, rodesac aucilebelia niSanTa araverbaluri sistemebis sworad gamoyeneba komunikaciisas miznis miRwevis mizniT.
kulturul gansxvavebebze saubrisas gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa kulturuli sxvaobis iseTi gamovlineba, rogoricaa ferebis aRqmis Tavisebureba.
samyaros ferTa gamas msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi mcxovrebi adamianebi sxvadasxva interpretacias aZleven. garda vizualuri zemoqmedebisa, TiToeul fers garkveuli azrobrivi datvirTva aqvs da Seicavs sxvadasxva
gzavnils sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenelTa cnobierebaSi. feris
aRqmis Tavisebureba xSirad ukavSirdeba magaliTad qveynis istorias. istoriuli warsuliT aixsneba xolme qveynis droSaze garkveuli ferebis SerCeva.
feris mimarT adamianis damokidebuleba aseve damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra geografiul arealSi cxovrobs adamiani...
aRniSnuli gansxvaveba gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens reklamebis
Targmnis dros, maSin, rodesac verbaluri kodiT gadmocemuli Sinaarsi da
emocia araverbaluri niSnebiT gamoxatul emocias da Sinaarss unda emTxveodes.
reklama teqstia. komunikaciis ZiriTadi erTeuli teqstia. teqstis
tipis dadgena xdeba masSi gamoyenebuli gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis tipisa da raodenobis mixedviT. am TvalsazrisiT reklama teqstia, romelic

138

nana mazmiSvili

komunikaciis damyarebis araerT saSualebas iyenebs, sadac informaciis sworad aRsaqmelad aramxolod enobrivi, aramed grafikul-simboluri niSnebi,
xma... CaerTvis. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, reklamakreolizebuli teqstia,
sadac azris gadmocemis sxvadasxva saSualebis urTierTgadakveTaa.
reklamis zemoT aRniSnulma Taviseburebebma ganapiroba Cveni daintereseba feris aRqmis TaviseburebiT sxvadasxva produqciis reklamebSi daferis SenarCuneba/Secvlis aucileblobiT produqciis reklamirebisas
sxvadasxva kulturis matarebel sociumSi.
nebismieri produqciis konkretuli erisTvis reklamirebis dros feris sworad SerCevam SeiZleba verbalurad gadmocemul mxares efeqti SeunarCunos. Tumca feris arasworiSerCeva SeiZleba lingvisturad miRweuli
Sedegis damsxvrevis mizezi gaxdes.
zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare naTeli xdeba Tu ratom xdeba erTidaigive produqtis sxvadasxvagvarad warmodgena sxvadasxva enaze reklamirebisas. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, erTi produqcia, warmoebuli erT konkretul qveyanaSi, sxvadasxvagvarad Suqdeba sxvadasxva kulturis matarebeli samizne auditoriisTvis. swored amitomac, magaliTad, koka kolis
boTlis ferebi da TviT boTlSi arsebuli siTxis feric icvleba imis mixedviT, Tu romel qveyanaSi ewevareklama.gansakuTrebulad gansxvavebuli
midgoma, koka kolas boTlis ferebis SerCevis dros, mocemuli produqciis
CineTSi reklamirebisas SeimCneva. umetes SemTxvevaSi koka kols minis boTli mTlianad wiTeli ferisaa da fonadac wiTeli feria SerCeuli. es aixsneba im faqtiT, rom wiTel fers dadebiTi datvirTva aqvs Cinur kulturaSi, niSnavs ra is bednierebas da warmatebas Cineli xalxisTvis. ufro metic,
Tuevropis qveyanaTa did nawilSi TeTri feri iwvevsdadebiT emociebs asocirdeba ra is naTelTan, xalisTan, bednierebasTan da Sesabamisad patarZlebi am qveynebSi TeTr kabaSi imosebian, CineTSi, gansxvavebiT am qveynebisgan,patarZlebs wiTeli feris kaba acviaT imdenad, ramdenadac swored wiTeli
feri warmoadgens bednierebisa da warmatebis simbolos Cinur kulturaSi.
aqedan gamomdinare, CineTSi reklamebis udides nawilSi wiTeli feris siWarbe gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemia, ris naTel magaliTsac zemoTaRniSnuli koka kolas boTlis reklama warmoadgens.
imave koka kolas reklamaSi, romelic iaponiaSi Suqdeba gansakuTrebiT
TvalSisacemia mwvane feri. pepsi mTlianad mwvane ferebSia warmodgenili,
xolo kola kolas iarliyi mwvane ferebiTaa gaformebuli.
metad sainteresoa yviTeli feris datvirTva reklamebSi. gansakuTrebiT dadebiTi datvirTva aqvs mas germanul da frangul kulturebSi, sadac
yviTeli bednierebas, karg gemovnebas niSnavs, amitomac germanuli da franguli reklamebis umetes nawilSi yviTeli feri sWarbobs. Sesabamisad makdonaldsis reklamac franguli sociumisTvis maqsimalurad yviTel ferebSia Sesrulebuli.aseve sainteresoa koka kolas reklama frangul kulturaSi, sadac koka kolas wiTeli boTli yviTeli feris fonzea warmodgenili.

intersemiotikuri Targmani reklamis gzavnilis gagebis winapiroba

139

imave yviTeli feris siWarbe TvalSisacemia Cinur reklamebSi, rac mocemuli eris aRniSnuli ferisadmi gansakuTrebuli upiratesobiT gamoirCeva da is karg gemovnebas da siamovnebis miRebas niSnavs. CineTSi yviTeli feri aseve energiasa da Zalauflebas niSnavs, riTac aixsneba is faqti, rom
xSir SemTxvevaSi Cinuri kompaniebis muSa personalis uniforma yviTeli ferisaa, ramdenime kompaniis TanamSromelTa Cacmuloba ki yviTeli perangebiT
da wiTeli xelsabamebiT kargad asaxavs am ori ferisadmi gansakuTrebul
damokidebulebas Cinur kulturaSi.
cnobili makdonaldsis logoze inglisuri aso `M~ yviTeli feriTaa
Sesrulebuli. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi yviTeli feri asaxavs Tu ara rame
gansakuTrebul grZnobas Tu damokidebulebas am ferisadmi, ar viciT, Tumca
CvenTvis cnobilia is rom aRniSnuli logo oqros TaRs niSnavs da, Sesabamisad, yviTeli ferisaa.
ferebisadmi gansxvavebuli midgoma aseve kargad Cans makdonaldsis
kerZebis reklamebSic. magaliTad, makdonaldsis yvelaze cnobadi burgeris
SigTavsi reklamebSi gansxvavebulad da Taviseburadaa warmodgenili qveynebis mixedviT. am konteqstSi sainteresoa germanelebis damokidebuleba yviTeli ferisadmi. germanuli burgeris SigTavsi yviTelia da gansxvavebulia
Cinuri, iaponuri Tu induri burgerisagan.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, xSirad feris mniSvneloba konkretul kulturaSi misi istoriiT aris ganpirobebuli, rac kargad aisaxeba qveynis
droSis ferebSic. am mxriv sainteresoa amerikuli kultura da lurji feris dadebiTi datvirTva masSi, rac TvalnaTliv Cans droSis ferebSic.
iseve rogorc droSaze, lurji feri aseve Warbobs amerikuli reklamebis did nawilSi, sadac produqtis sxva ferebSi warmodgenis SemTxvevaSic ki fonad lurji feria SerCeuli.
miuxedavad imisa, rom lurji feri bevri qveynis kulturaSi dadebiT
ferad aris miCneuli da Sesabamisad reklamebSic TvalSisacemia lurji feris gamoyeneba, SvedeTi arc ise megobrulada ganwyobili am feris mimarT da
reklamebSic naklebad SexvdebiT mas. es SesaZloa qveynis geografiul mdebareobas da klimats ukavSirdebodes. aRniSnuli feri sicivesTan, yinvasTan
asocirdeba da Sesabamisad naklebad iyeneben mas dadebiTi informaciis gadmocemisas.
yovelive zemoT mocemulidan naTlad Cans, Tu ra didi datvirTva aqvs
araverbaluri niSnebis, da konkretul SemTxvevaSi feris sworad SerCevas
iseT komunikaciaSi, rodesac informaciis gamgzavnisTvis didi mniSvneloba
aqvs icodes konkretuli niSnis Tu simbolos miRma ra grZnoba da emocia imaleba konkretuli kulturis matarebeli sociumisTvis. imisaTvis, rom uzrunvelyofili iyos warmatebuli, efeqturi komunikacia, adresatma delikaturad unda Seurwyas verbaluri da araverbaluri niSnebiT gamoxatuli Sinaarsi, rom maqsimaluri Tanxvedra ganapirobebdes sasurveli Sedegis miRebas
an sasurvel reagirebas adresantisgan. erTi kulturuli Rirebulebis sxva
kulturul Rirebulebad gadakeTeba Sesaferisi enobriv-verbaluri Tu ara-

140

nana mazmiSvili

verbaluriniSnebiT SeumCneveli da recipientisTvis umtkivneulo unda iyos


imisaTvis, rom dadebiTi ganwyoba da damokidebuleba da Sesabamisad reagireba
mohyves warmatebuli komunikaciis damyarebis mcdelobas.
literatura:
kaufmani 1991: Kaufman. R. Strategic planning: An organization guide. Sage
Publications;
kolinsis leqsikoni 1988. Collins English Dictionary. 21st Century Edition.
Glasgow;
milenkoviCi 2009: Milenkovic, Mirjana. Global Advertising in a Cultural
Context. Hamburg;
niumarki 1988: Newmark, P. A textbook of Translation. London: Prentice HaH
International;
fernande saint martini 1990: Fernande Saint-Martin. Semiotics of Visual
Language. Indiana University Press;
Nana Mazmishvili
Intersemiotic Translation Precondition for Understanding Advertisement
Message
The presented article is about the effective application of non-verbal signs in
advertisements. The research is aimed at investigating the effect of various colors
as the types of non-verbal signs-in perceiving the message of the advertisements by
an addressee in a way he/she reacts as desired by a sender of the information. In
order to ensure correct combination of verbal and non-verbal signs the knowledge
on what feelings various colors convey in the concrete culture and what message
they imply is of particular importance to ensure effective and successful
communication.

emzar makaraZe
,,samarTlianobisa da
ganviTarebis ~ partiis
brZola TurqeTSi
demokratiuli principebis
ganmtkicebisaTvis
2016 wels Cvens mezobel TurqeTSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma mTeli msoflios
yuradReba miipyro. bunebrivia, ar SeiZleba
es movlenebi, pirvel, rigSi, saqarTvelosTvis ar iyos mniSvnelovani. is, Tu rogor
ganviTardeba movlenebi TurqeTSi, aucileblad moaxdens gavlenas Cvens qveyanaze, amitom aucilebelia gvqondes wamodgena im
procesebze, romlebic TurqeTSi mimdinareobs.
bolo TxuTmeti welia, danarCen msofliosTan erTad, interesiT da garkveuli SeSfoTebiTac vadevnebT Tvalyurs TurqeTSi mimdinare politikur movlenebs, misi qarizmatuli lideris, prezident rejef taif erdoRanisa da islamuri xasiaTis mqone ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis partiis saqmianobas.
miuxedavad imisa, rom respublikuri
TurqeTis damaarsebelma qemal aTaTurqma
axali TurqeTi daafuZna sekularizmisa da
evropeizmis principebze, Tanamedrove TurqeTis politikuri cxovreba, mniSvnelovanwilad iqca am principebsa da religiuri xasiaTis mqone e. w. Turqul `tradicionalizms~ Soris brZolis mizezad.

142

emzar makaraZe

cxadia, `laicizmad~1 wodebulma aTaTurqis sekularizmis tradiciam


seriozulad daimkvidra adgili Turqul sazogadoebaSi, magram TurqeTis mosaxleobis udidesi nawili, gansakuTrebiT provinciuli mosaxleoba, dRemde
ufro `tradicionalizmis~ zne-Cveulebebis matarebelia.
swored amitom TurqeTis respublikis laicisturi kursis uzrunvelyofas yovelTvis sWirdeboda mZlavri garanti, romelsac aTwleulebis
manZilze laicizmis principebze myarad mdgomi TurqeTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi warmoadgenda. Turqi samxedroebi tradiciulad Rrmad iyvnen CarTuli qveynis politikur cxovrebaSi da TurqeTis istoriis mniSvnelovan momentebSi mkveTri CareviT gadamwyvet sityvas ambobdnen TurqeTis cxovrebaSi (manCxaSvili, makaraZe 2014: 6). maT samjer moaxdines samxedro gadatrialeba _ 1960, 1971 da 1980 wels, 1997 wels ki, damajerebeli zewolis Sedegad, xelisuflebas CamoaSores maSindeli islamisti premier-ministri
nejmeTin erbaqani da daxures islamuri `keTildReobis partia~. islamisti
premieris droSa mtkiced aitaca xelSi misma yvelaze niWierma da energiulma mowafem rejef taif erdoRanma, man daSlili ,,keTildReobis~ partiis bazaze daaarsa ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis partia, daZlia yvelanairi politikuri devna, akrZalvebi da 2002 wels saparlamento arCevnebSi
damajerebeli gamarjvebis Semdeg movida xelisuflebaSi (alasania
2015:206).
erdoRanisa da misi ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partiis gamarjveba ganpirobebuli iyo imiT, rom Turquli sazogadoeba gadaRlili da
gawbilebuli iyo aTwleulebis manZilze Camoyalibebuli da korufciaSi
Rrmad Cafluli elitiT. mis fonze ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~
partiis warmomadgenlebi ufro meti patiosnebiT, ubraloebiTa da xalxTan
siaxloviT aSkarad momgebianad gamoiyurebodnen. partiam aRmavali warmatebiT gaimeora Tavisi gamarjveba 2007 da 2011 wlis saparlamento arCevnebSi
(makaraZe 2012 :130).
rogorc Cans, am warmatebebma Tavbru daaxvia ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partias da mis sulier liders _ erdoRans. xelisuflebaSi
yofnis manZilze misi avtoritarizmi da ambiciuroba TandaTan ufro metad
gaizarda. saparlamento umravlesobis faqtoris gamoyenebiT mmarTvelma
partiam mniSvnelovanwilad daimorCila saxelmwifo aparati. erTpartiulma mTavrobam Tavis radikalur gadawyvetilebebSi TiTqmis Sewyvita opoziciuri speqtris azris gaTvaliswineba da daufaravad daadga qveynis islamizaciis kurss.
Tanamedrove TurqeTis istoriaSi erdoRanma TiTqmis SeuZlebeli SeZlo
_ man mniSvnelovanwilad SezRuda xelSeuxebeli da Zlevamosili samxedro
elita da CamoaSora is politikur xelmZRvanelobas. amisTvis marjved gamoiyena e. w. `ergenekonis~ SeTqmulebis saqme da, farTo sazogadoebriv mxardaWe1

laicizmi (Laiklik _ warmodgeba franguli sityvidan `laicite,~ rac niSnavs saero


xasiaTs. igi gulisxmobs religiis gamoyofas saxelmwifosagan.

`samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partiis brZola TurqeTSi demokratiuli principebis ganmtkicebisaTvis

143

raze dayrdnobiT, uprecedento ram moaxerxa _ cixeSi moaTavsebina TurqeTis


umaRlesi generalitetis warmomadgenlebi (Turkish Studies 2012(2):45). maTTan erTad Tavisufleba aRekveTa Zveli politikuri elitis mraval warmomadgenels: biznesmenebs, Jurnalistebs, sazogado da politikur moRvaweebs, im
adamianebs, vinc gabeda da win aRudga erdoRanis ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partiis axal kurss.
generalitetis SesustebasTan erTad, pirdapirproporciulad gaZlierda religiur liderTa erTianoba. religiis saqmeTa sammarTvelo TurqeTis saxelmwifo sistemis erT-erT yvelaze gavlenian struqturad gadaiqca.
marTalia, ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partia da misi lideri
kvlavac oficialurad inarCunebs evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis kurss, magram paralelurad mimarTavs otomanuri imperiis aRdgenis alternatiul
kurssac. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom otomanuri periodis idealizacia da propaganda mmarTveli partiis erTgvar simbolodac iqca, Tavad mas xSirad
sulTansac ki uwodeben.
albaT ar Sevcdebi, Tu vityvi, rom rejef taif erdoRani TurqeTis respublikis damaarseblis, qemal aTaTurqis Semdeg TurqeTis respublikis istoriaSi erT-erTi yvelaze Zlieri da masStaburi figuraa, Tumca, is, amavdroulad, qemalis politikur antipodad gvevlineba. qemalis kursis mTavari
principebi iyo laicisturi saxelmwifos mmarTvelobis SemoReba da uaris
Tqma otomanuri warsulis memkvidreobaze. swored am or fuZemdeblur principTan mimarTebiT erdoRani da misi partia diametrulad sawinaaRmdego
kurss atareben da sazogadoebriv-politikur cxovrebaSi islamizaciisa da
neootomanobis sinTezs nergaven.
am procesebSi umniSvnelovanes rols asrulebs qveynis prezidenti, misi
piradi gegmebi da ambiciebi. is udavod Zlieri da ambiciuri pirovnebaa da aSkarad lamobs Sevides istoriaSi, rogorc axali diadi TurqeTis saxelovani lideri. amitom man inicireba moaxdina sakonstitucio reformisa, romlis Tanaxmadac, TurqeTi saprezidento respublika unda gaxdes, xolo prezidenti, parlamentis nacvlad, pirdapir mosaxleobam airCios da didi ZalauflebiT iyos
aRWurvili. am gegmebisa da saerTod, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli avtoritaruli
stilis gamo, oponentebi erdoRans sul ufro xSirad sdeben brals diqtatorul miswrafebebSi.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom swored qemal
aTaTurqis figura gaxda 2015 wlis maisis bolos stambolsa da TurqeTis
sxva qalaqebSi saprotesto talRis mizezi. momitingeebi saprotesto moZraobis droSad qemalis portretebs iyeneben da sakuTar Tavs aTaTurqis jariskacebs uwodeben.
qemal aTaTurqis politikuri tradicia Rrmad aris fesvgadgmuli
TurqeTSi. aTwleulebis manZilze Turqul sazogadoebaSi aTaTurqis principebis mizanmimarTul kultivacias, ra Tqma unda, ukvalod ar Cauvlia.
TurqeTis dRevandeli politikuri situaciis simwvave da sirTule isaa,

144

emzar makaraZe

rom erdoRanis axali kursi radikalurad miuRebelia laicistur tradiciebze aRzrdili TurqeTis sazogadoebis didi nawilisTvis da am kursis
mkveTrma ukmayofilebam, romelic TandaTan izrdeboda erdoRanis mmarTvelobis periodSi, gamoiwvia is grandiozuli politikuri afeTqeba, romlisTvisac TiTqmis uwyinari da arapolitikuri ,,gezis~ parkis gaCexvis Tema gamodga sababad.
2015 wlis 7 ivniss TurqeTSi Catarda saparlamento arCevnebi (alasania 2015 :206), sadac mmarTvelma ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis
partiam 550 mandatian parlamentSi dakarga umravlesoba. man miiRo 256 mandati, meore adgilze gavida ,,saxalxo respublikuri partia 132 adgili, mesameze ,,nacionaluri moZraobis partia 82 adgili da ,,saxalxo demokratiuli partia _ 80 adgili.
TurqeTis premier ministrma ahmed davuToRlum sxva politikur partiebTan koaliciuri mTavrobis Seqmnaze SeTanxmebas ver miaRwia, TurqeTis
prezidentma mTavroba daiTxova da qveyanaSi riggareSe 26-e saparlamento
arCevnebi daniSna.
2015 wlis 1 noembers Catarda vadamdeli saparlamento arCevnebi, sadac erdoRanma gamoiyena mis xelT arsebuli yvela saxelmwifo meqanizmi,
raTa ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partias gamarjveba moepovebina, da
man, marTlac, daabruna parlamentSi umravlesoba, romelic 2015 wlis ivnisSi dakarga.
arCevnebSi mmarTvelma partiam 49.4% daagrova, mTavarma oponentma _ ,,saxalxo respublikurma~ partiam ki _ 25.4%. 10%-iani zRvari gadalaxes da
parlamentSi adgilebi moipoves pro-qurTulma da nacionalisturma partiebma.
premierministrma ahmed davuToRlum arCevnebis Sedegs Turqi xalxisa da demokratiis gamarjveba uwoda (,,tabula~ 2015:3).
ismis kiTxva, Tu ra gavlenas moaxdens es movlenebi TurqeTis Sidapolitikur partiul brZolaze?
maRali albaTobiT SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom moxdeba ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partiis mowinaaRmdege politikuri Zalebis mniSvnelovani konsolidacia da iqneba erTiani opoziciuri blokis Seqmnis mcdeloba. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom opoziciurma seqtorma gamoavlinos axali
alternatiuli qarizmatuli politikuri lideri.
mTavari faqtorebi qveynis Sida mdgomareobisa, romlebmac 2015 wlis
1 noembris saparlamento arCevnebis Sedegebze SesaZloa gavlena iqonios,
Cveni azriT, Semdegia:
1) e. w. samSvidobo procesi (zm sreci) romelic TurqeTis xelisuflebasa da qurTistanis muSaTa partiis de-iure liders amJamad patimrobaSi myof abdula ojalans Soris warmoebuli mravalraundiani molaparakebebis Sedegad daiwyo, miuxedavad imisa, rom samSvidobo procesis farglebSi gadaidga garkveuli nabijebi, erdoRanma CaTvala, rom am sakiTxs
omis gziT moagvarebda da SeiaraRebul konfliqtSi gadaiyvana urTierToba;
2) dRiTidRe mwvavdeba dapirispireba avtoritarul rejef taipf er-

`samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partiis brZola TurqeTSi demokratiuli principebis ganmtkicebisaTvis

145

doRanis xelisuflebasa da TurqeTis erTerT yvelaze gavlenian gaerTianebas ,,hizmeTs da mis lider feThulah giulens Soris (Yayin organi:
Zaman Gazetesi). prezidentma erdoRanma feThulah giuleni da misi mimdevrebi Riad daadanaSaula 2016 wlis 15 ivnisis gadatrialebis mcdelobaSi, rasac mohyva masobrivi dapatimrebebis talRa sxvadasxva saxelmwifo
da media struqturaSi, policiam daakava policiisa da religiur saqmeTa
saministros aTasobiT TanamSromeli jaSuSobis, gadatrialebis mcdelobisa da sxva msgavsi braldebebiT;
3) siriisa da erayis sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli sagareo politikis warumatebloba;
4) mzardi da TiTqmis yvela sferoSi sagrZnobi korufcia da mflangveloba, romlis kvalic TviT prezidentis ojaxamde midis.
amrigad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom TurqeTSi dawyebuli mRelvareba ukvalod ar Caivlis. dRes zusti prognozis gakeTeba Zalze Znelia, magram varaudebis da daskvnebis gamoTqma mainc SeiZleba. pirvel rigSi unda aRiniSnos, rom TurqeTis sazogadoebis evropeizebuli nawili sakmaod mravalricxovania da sekularizmis principebs iolad ar daTmobs. amave dros, SeimCneva, rom Turquli sazogadoebis dasavluri mentalitetis matarebeli
nawili da, gansakuTrebiT, axalgazrdoba, Tavisi msoflmxedvelobiT da
moTxovnebiT ukve aTaTurqiseul sekularizmzec amaRlda da ikavebs demokratiisa da adamianis uflebebis maRali evropuli standartebis platformas. rac Seexeba prezident erdoRans, marTalia, is dRes rCeba Zlier politikur figurad, magram ar aris gamoricxuli, TurqeTSi ganviTarebulma bolodroindelma krizisma garkveuli xnis Semdeg ,,samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis~ partias da misi politikuri lideris karieras wertili dausvas.
literatura:
alasania 2015: saxelmwifosa da religiis urTierToba TurqeTis respublikaSi, aRmosavleTmcodneoba, N4, Tbilisi;
makaraZe 2012: TurqeTis saSinao politika 19802011 wlebSi, Tbilisi;
manCxaSvili, makaraZe 2014: qemalizmi da demokratizacia TurqeTSi, Tbilisi;
,,tabula~ 2015: TurqeTSi mmarTveli partia parlamentSi umravlesobas ibrunebs. J., 1 noemberi, http://www.tabula. ge/ge/story/ 101291-turqetshimmartveli-partia-parlamentshi-umravlesobas-ibrunebs;
Turkish Studies, 2012(2): Aydinli Ersel 2011. Ergenekon. New pacts and the
Decline of the Turkish ,,Inner State;
Yayin organi: Zaman Gazetesi, 01.11.2014; 02.11.2014; 11.11.2014; 16.01.2015;
17.01.2015;18.01.2015.

146

emzar makaraZe

Emazar Makaradze
The Fight of ~Justice and Development Party for Strengthening
Democratic Principles in Turkey

The events, occurring in neighboring Turkey in 2015, attracted the


attention of the whole world. Naturally, these events have become, first of all, the
focus of interest for Georgia. As the situation in Turkey has always had a great
influence on our country, consequently, it is necessary to have an idea of the
processes, developing in the neighboring state.
For the last fifteen years together with the rest of the world we have been
observing with an interest and some anxiety the current political events, the
activities of its charismatic leader the president Recep Tayyip Erdogan and an
Islamic party ~The Justice and Development.
Although the founder of the Turkish Republic _ Kemal Ataturk has
established the new Turkey on the principles of secularism and europeism, a
political life of the modern Turkey has become the symbol of the fight with these
principles and so called Turkish religious ~Traditionalism.
Obviously, the Ataturk secularist tradition called `the laicism (Laiklik
from French `laicite~- ~national charater"; it means the separation of religion
from the state) has seriously consolidated itself in the Turkish society. However,
the most part of the Turkish population, especially, the provincial one, still keeps
to the side of the ~Traditionalism.
That is why the provision of the laicism course in the Turkish Republic has
always needed a powerful guarantee, which role was performed by the Turkish
armed forces, based on the strict principles of laicism. The Turkish soldiers were
traditionally deeply involved in the political life of the country and at the important
moments of the history they played a crucial role in the fate of Turkey. They have
committed a military coup three times _ in 1960, 1971 and 1980, and in 1997after
a strong pressure they overthrew the government of the Islamist-Prime Minister
Necmettin Erbakan and shut off the Islamic "Welfare Party". The Islamist-Prime
Ministers banner was caught by one of his most talented and energetic disciple _
Recep Tayyip Erdogan. On the basis of the broken up "Welfare Party" he
established a new ~Justice and Development Party, overcame all the political
obstacles and came to power after a convincing victory in the Parliamentary
elections in 2002.

Tamar maWutaZe
`RmerTis~ metaforuli
saxe qarTul-frangul
andazebSi
andazis Seqmna warmoudgenelia adre miRebuli codnis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe, igi
warmoiqmneba da gamoiyeneba komunikaciis farglebSi, misi gagebis problema yovelTvis iarsebebda, adamianebi rom ar emyarebodnen ukve
miRebul codnas.
andazis pragmatuli adaptacia aucilebelia, vinaidan sxva enis matarebeli amavdroulad ucxo kulturis warmomadgenelia (Cvens
SemTxvevaSi qarTuli da franguli), mas gaaCnia
sxva fonuri codna, sxva warmodgena wesCveulebebze. amitomac sxvadasxva kulturaTa matarebeli andazebis gaTvaliswinebiT unda
moxdes garkveuli socialuri, kulturuli,
fsiqologiuri da sxva niuansebis transformacia da pragmatuli adaptacia.
am mxriv sagulisxmoa qarTul-frangul andazebSi `RmerTis~ metaforuli xatis kvleva.
andazis gaSifrva (miT ufro, Tu is
Rrmad metaforulia) sametyvelo aqtis
dros fsiqologiurad rTuli saazrovno
procesia. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom j. milneri sakomunikacio aqtebis realizebis procesSi mimdinare fsiqologiuri aspeqtebis
kvlevisas, swored andazebis magaliTze cdilobs movlenebsa da kategoriebs Soris arsebuli warmosaxviTi urTierTmimarTebis
dadgenas. misi azriT, andazebi SeiZleba SevadaroT meqanizms, romlis saSualebiTac cno-

148

Tamar maWutaZe

biereba aSenebs didmasStabian kvanZebs, msgavsad imisa, rodesac TiToeuli


aguriT
mSeneblobidan
gadasvla
xdeba
blokur
mSeneblobaze
[Milner,1968:34].
rogorc Cans, andazis azrobrivi fabulis Seswavlisas midgoma unda ganisazRvros rogorc sakuTriv semantikisa da pragmatikis, ise azrovnebisa da
metyvelebis fsiqologiis specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT.
adamianis umravlesobisaTvis, metafora aRiqmeba rogorc mxatvruli
saSualeba, romelic gamoiyeneba literaturul enaSi, vidre yoveldRiur
urTierTobaSi. Tumca metafora Semadgenelia Cveni yoveldRiuri cxovrebisa. is vlindeba ara mxolod enaSi aramed azrovnebas da moqmedebaSic.
metafora poeturi gamocana, anu erTi sagnis Tvisebis meore saganze
gadatana.
andaza brZnulad gaazrebuli, xalxuri, alegoriuli, maxvilgonivruli gamoTqma.
es aris metaforisa da andazis tipiuri ganmarteba. Cven ki SevecdebiT
ganvixiloT andaza, rogorc metafora. ra metaforuli mniSvneloba eniWeba
da raze saubroben masSi gadmocemuli simboloebi.
am mxriv sagulisxmoa qarTuli da franguli andazebSi `RmerTi~-s saxe:
qarTuli andazebi:
gamqcev _ mimqcevi orive RmerTs exvewebodao;
RmerTi aramzadas urmiT dasdevs, magram mainc moewevao;
roca kacs RmerTi wyalobs eSmaki ras daaklebso;
brma yvavs RmerTi augebs budeso;
aZunZuldi, RmerTs moZuldi;
visac RmerTisa eSinia, imisa nu geSiniao;
arc TavisTvis uqnia RmerTs da arc sxvisTviso;
is Seicnobs RmerTs ukeT, vinc RvTisgan mxolod boZebuls dasjerdebao;
Tu Tavs ar imarTleb, RmerTi gagamarTlebs;
romel kacsac RmerTi swyalobs erTi ar daukvnesiao;
visac RmerTi beds miscems, zurgs ukan kombliT miswevso;
ganayofi rom kargi iyos, RmerTsac eyolebodao;
gansacdels qristec eridebao;
Tu RmerTs unda avaanT xevSiac mogvcems simdidreso;
saxre RmerTs daulociao;
gabede da RmerTic giSveliso;
visac RmerTi beds aZlevso, kombliTac aZlevso;
visac RmerTi beds miscems, zurgs ukan kombliT miswevso;
kacs eCqareba RmerTs _ ara;
RmerTi visac miscems, ori xeliT miscems, visac waarTmevs _ ori xeliT waarTmevso;
RmerTi mequdeao;
RmerTma qveyanaze gadmoixeda da bevri Cemi uneburi mkvdari ariso;
RmerTs vin gamocvlis aqaoda beberiao;

`RmerTis~ metaforuli saxe qarTul-frangul andazebSi

149

RmerTi daberebula daunda gamovcvaloTo uTqvams qiziys;


oblis mama RmerTia...
`RmerTi~ frangul andazebSi:
Le bon Dieu lui-mme a besoin de cloches;
L o Dieu veut, il pleut;
Dieu donne le froid selon la robe;
Dieu donne le drap selon le froid;
barque dsespre, Dieu fait trouver le port;
Si Dieu quelquun veut chtier de bon sens le fait varier;
Ce que Dieu trempe, Dieu le sche ;
Dieu mesure le froid a la brebis tondue;
Dieu donne le froid selon le drap;
En peu dheures Dieu labeur (XIII s);
Voix du peuple, voix du Dieu (Vox populi, vox Dei);
En petite maison la part de Dieu est grand;
Dieu fait bien ce quil fait;
Lhomme sagite mais Dieu le mne;
Si Dieu nexistait pas il faudrait linventer;
qarTul andazebSi `RmerTis~ Tema gvaZlevs imis saSualebas, rom gamoiyos, rogorc `SegonebiTi~, aseve sxva konceptebiT gajerebuli andazebi:
SegonebiTi
roca kacs RmerTi wyalobs, eSmaki
ras daaklebso;
visac RmerTisa eSinia, imisa nu geSiniao;
is Seicnobs RmerTs ukeT, vinc
RvTisgan mxolod boZebuls dasjerdebao;
romel kacsac RmerTi swyalobs, erTi ar daukvnesiao;
kacs eCqareba, RmerTs ara;
RmerTi mequdeao;

brma yvavs RmerTi augebs budeso;

Tu Tavs ar imarTleb, RmerTi gagamarTlebs;

koncepti `RmerTi~
aZunZuldi, RmerTs moZuldi;
arc TavisTvis uqnia RmerTs da arc
sxvisTviso;
RmerTi aramzadas urmiT dasdevs,
magram mainc moewevao;
ganayofi rom kargi iyos RmerTsac
eyolebodao;
saxre RmerTs daulociao;
visac RmerTi beds aZlevso, kombliTac aZlevso;
visac RmerTi beds miscems, zurgs
ukan kombliT miswevso;
RmerTi visac miscems ori xeliT miscems, visac waarTmevs _ ori xeliT
waarTmevso;
RmerTs vin gamocvlis aqaoda beberiao;
RmerTi daberebula da unda gamovcvaloTo uTqvams qiziys;

150

Tamar maWutaZe

RmerTma qveyanaze gadmoixeda da bevri Cemi uneburi mkvdari ariso;


gansacdels qristec eridebao;
gabede da RmerTic giSveliso;
Tu RmerTs unda avaanT xevSiac mogvcems simdidreso.

koncepti `RmerTiT~ Sedgenili franguli andazebis ganxilvisa da gaanalizebis Sedegad miviReT Semdegi suraTi:
SegonebiTi
Dieu donne le froid selon la robe;
Dieu donne le drap selon le froid;
Dieu mesure le froid a la brebis tondue
;
Dieu donne le froid selon le drap ;
barque dsespre, Dieu fait trouver
le port;
Si Dieu quelquun veut chtier de bon
sens le fait varier ;
Ce que Dieu trempe, Dieu le sche.
En peu dheures Dieu labeur (XIII s;
Henri Estienne (1594) prcise que ce
proverbe ce dit propos de celui qui
manifeste une conversion soudaine)
Dieu fait bien ce quil fait ;
Lhomme sagite mais Dieu le mne ;
Si Dieu nexistait pas il faudrait
linventer ;
L o Dieu veut, il pleut ;
Voix du peuple, voix du Dieu. (Vox
populi, vox Dei)

koncepti`RmerTi~
Le bon Dieu lui-mme a besoin de
cloches;

En petite maison la part de Dieu est


grand ;

Tu davakvirdebiT zemoT mocemul andazebs, vnaxavT, rom qarTul andazebSi gamoiyofa rogorc SegonebiTi, aseve sxva konceptis matarebeli andazebi, frangul enaSi ki ZiriTadad mocemulia `RmerTis~ Sesaxeb SegonebiTi
saxis andazebi.
SegonebiT andazebs Tu SevadarebT erTmaneTs, rac dagvexmareba erovnuli mentalitetis Taviseburebebis kvlevis gamovlenaSi, vnaxavT, rom
orive enis andazebSi Cans, rom ufalia yvelafris sazrisi da sawyisi, gansxvavebuli niuansi am andazebSic moipoveba, rac Semdeg aspeqtebSi gamovlinda: qarTul andazebSi gamaxvilebulia yuradReba moTminebaze, ufalma
ukeT uwyis ra ra dros gvWirdeba, is aris sazrisi kacTa modgmis da mwya-

`RmerTis~ metaforuli saxe qarTul-frangul andazebSi

151

lobeli. frangulSi aseve yuradReba maxvildeba im Segonebaze, rom roca


adamians RmerTi sjis, es isev misi sikeTisken Semosabruneblad, mis gansakurneblad, aseve naTlad Cans uflis saxe _ RmerTi ganagebs, kaci moqmedebs...
andazebi enis funqcionirebis Semadgeneli nawilia, isini maTi struqturiTa da stilisturi gaformebiT metyvelebis formis simboluri erTeulebia da emsaxureba moralur da utilitarul normebs. es normebi erTi
da imave kulturisa Tu sxva kulturis SigniT SeiZleba emTxveodnen an gansxvavdebodnen erTmaneTisgan. amis dasturia swored zemoT mocemuli am ori
xalxis andazebis konceptualur- metaforuli kvleva.
literatura:
qurdovaniZe T., `andaza da sityvis masala, qarTuli folklori~, Tbilisi,
2011;
Cqanava m., `andaza da sityvis masala, qarTuli folklori~, Tbilisi, 2011;
Charlotte Schapira Les strotyps en franais proverbes et autres formules ,
Ophrys, 1999;
Florence Montreynaud, Agnes Pierron, Francoi Suzzoni Dictionnaire de
proverbes et dictons , Le robert. Paris. Dictionnaire de proverbes et
dictons , Le robert. Paris, 2006;
Dictionnaires des proverbes, sentences et maximes . Maurice Maloux,
Larousse. 1988.
Tamar Matchutadze
Metaphoric Image of ~God in Georgian-French Proverbs
How ~GOD face shown is in proverbs, as the best way to access the
mentality, In Georgian it has an admonitory character, but In French proverbs it
has both admonitory and conceptual character as well. In Georgian proverbs, the
attention is directed on the fundamental question Forbearance of the religion
doctrine, but in French on GOD`s providence.
In the Proverbs, which are the echo of centuries and the treasure of nation`s
mentality, we saw how great role has God, God`s word, moral suggestion,
church liturgy, prayer, fasting. There has been distrust towards the religious
persons in both language since the ancient time.
Finally, it can be said that, there is insignificant difference in the detection
process of religious aspects, Georgian is much deeper from this point of view,
but I think that the nexttype of my study -the method of interview, makes clear
for us how important are the proverbs nowadays and how great role has the
proverbs, which about religion,in daily life.

Sorena maxaWaZe
qaosisa da kosmosis
konceptebi
`TuTaSxas miTSi~
mxatvruli konceptebis kvleva sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenadac maTi saSualebiT mwerlebi qmnian samyaros models, rogorc samyaros enobrivi suraTis variants.
rogorc cnobilia, koncepti esaa zogadi rigis cneba, romelic Rirebulia mocemuli kulturisTvis an/ misi antipodia. Cveulebrivi cnebisgan gansxvavebiT, koncepti ara
marto ganisazRvreba, aramed ganicdeba: mas gaaCnia emociuri da mxatvruli komponentebi.
qaosi (pirRia, gaxsna, gaReba, aRmonTxeva) _ uZvelesi, upirvelesi da unapiro samyaros pirveli uformo saxe, ukidegano sicarielea (gelovani 1983:508). qaosi samyaros
pirvelsawyisia. esaa materiis uwesrigo,
uformo mdgomareoba, yofierebis yovlisdambadebeli da yovlisSTanmTqmeli sawyisi. qaosi mudmivad miiswrafvis TviTorganizaciisaken, aSkaraa, rom es organizacia totalitaruli an diqtatorulia, xolo kosmosi, Tu
is ar moZebnis wonasworobis ufro adekvatur axal formebs, aucileblad dairRveva.
qaosis mTavari Tvisebaa moZraoba, sxvadasxva Zalis urTierTzemoqmedeba, mas ar gaaCnia saxe da sibneleSia STanTqmuli, usaxuria da TvaliT uxilavi. qaoss ori aspeqti
aqvs: sivrciTi da sicocxlisgamCeni (SemoqmedebiTi), adgili da cxovrebiseuli potencia, sadac erTmaneTs emTxveva yvelasa da yvelafris sawyisi da dasasruli, masSi cxov-

qaosisa da kosmosis konceptebi `TuTaSxas miTSi~

153

roben da erTmaneTs ebrZvian urTierTsawinaaRmdego Zalebi.


kosmosi _ (,,wesrigi~, ,,samyaros wyoba~ ,,cis TaRi~), _ ase uwodes piTagorelebma umaRlesi ciuri Tu saxelmwifoebrivi wesrigis ideals. esaa
mTlianoba da harmonia, wesrigi da samyaros specifikuri nawili, romelic garemoculia qaosiT. Tu qaosi uzomo da Seuwyvetia, kosmosi zomieri da proporciulia. platoni mas Tvlida umSvenieresad saganTa Soris. is sami nawilisagan Sedgeba: ca, miwa da qveskneli, magram kosmosi ar viTardeba, misi dinamika maradiul wrebrunvaSi mdgomareobs, is TviTkmari da TviTmiznuria, Tumca kosmosi iZleva saSualebas, rom masSi raRac zomiT Sevides qaosi, rameTu
uformobis simaxinje nebismieri silamazis aucilebeli fonia.
kosmossa da qaoss Soris brZola samyaros arsebobis umTavresi kanoni
da misi formaa.
rogorc aRvniSneT, qaosi da kosmosi erTdoulad gadajaWvulic arian
da dapirispirebulnic erTmaneTTan. qaosi esaa erTdroulad arseboba da
yofis SesaZlebloba, esaa SesaZlebeli opozicia sinaTlisa da sibnelisa,
miwisa da cisa, qaosi ganimarteba imis saSualebiT, rac jer ar arsebobs,
esaa winarewesrigi.
kosmosisa da qaosis aseTi siaxlove SemaSfoTebelia, maT Soris sazRvari
metismeta myifea. esaa faqizi, Zalian mcire kulturuli fena, romelic pirvelyofil vnebebs akavebs, romlis iqiT uwesrigoba, ukanonoba iwyeba da romelic adamians monstrad (urCxulad) aqcevs.
ase rom, qaosi da kosmosi binaruli wyvilia, romelTac erTmaneTis gareSe azri ar gaaCniaT. kosmosi mudmivad ibadeba qaosisagan, magram es imavdroulad niSnavs, rom qaosi mudmivad warmoSobs kosmoss.
qaosis konceptis ambivalenturoba miTologiaSi esaa samyaros qmnadobis da samyaros aSenebis energiis wyaro.
qaoss berZen filosofosTagan pirveli axsenebs hesiode Tavis ,,TeogoniaSi~. qaosi win uswrebda geas (miwis), tartarosisa da erosis gaCenas.
qaosma dabada Rame da ukuni.
qaosis araerTmniSvnelovnebaze, ufro sworad, mis dadebiT rolze miuTiTeben sxvadasxva ritualebi, gansakuTrebiT _ saaxalwlo, romlebic
dakavSirebulia Tavdapirveli srulyofilebis aRdgenasTan.
mirCa eliadem dawvrilebiT aRwera am ritualTa azri da struqtura,
maT Soris adamianis Tavdapirveli androgenuri mdgomareoba.
Wabua amirejibis mier miTis principebis mixedviT Seqmnil mistificirebul ,,TuTaSxas miTSi~ ZiriTadad gvaqvs sami aRmniSvneli: TuTaSxa, urCxuli da eri. maTi konceptebi/aRsaniSnebi, Sesabamisad, aris kosmosi (sinaTlesikeTesiyvarulizneoba), qaosi (sibneleborotebasiZulvili
uzneoba), eri (adamianipirovnebaxalxikacobrioba). am triadis pirveli
ori aRsaniSni mudmivad ebrZvis erTmaneTs, brZolis asparezad ki mesame aRsaniSni: adamianipirovnebaxalxikacobrioba qceula.
mwerali gviCvenebs am konceptTa brZolis peripetiebs, maTi dapirispirebis oTx etaps:

154

Sorena maxaWaZe

1. TuTaSxas aqtiur moqmedebas qaosis kosmosad gardasaqmnelad is


xalxs aZlevs magaliTs da mouwodebs Tavadac ase imoqmedos.
2. TuTaSxas umoqmedobis, gandgomis, Sesabamisad, qaosis gabatonebis
etaps.
3. qaosTan misive meTodebiT brZolis anu borotebis ZaliT daTrgunvis etaps.
4. TviTSewirvis anu qaosis kosmosad: borotebis sikeTed, sibnelis sinaTled, siZulvilis siyvarulad, uzneobis zneobad gardaqmnis etaps.
amirejibiseuli ,,TuTaSxas miTi~ interteqstia: masSi gaerTianebulia
mTvaris RvTaebasTan dakavSirebuli miTebi, wm. giorgis saxe, qristes bibliuri aluziebi, uCxulis (gvelveSapis) mier mTvaris STanTqmis miTosuri
paradigma, miTebi tyupi Zmebisa Tu kulturul gmirTa Sesaxeb.
nebismier miTSi, maT Soris, TuTaSxas miTSi, ori semiologiuri sistemaa gaerTianebuli, romelTagan erTi meoreSia ,,CaSenebuli~. pirveli esaa
enobrivi sistema, meore ki Tavad miTia, romelic am SemTxvevaSi metaenis
rols asrulebs.
TuTaSxas miTisa da masSi mocemuli kosmosisa da qaosis konceptebis
aRsaqmelad unda gaviTvaliswinoT aRsaniSnis ormagi xasiaTi: is erTdroulad aris azrica da formac. imis mixedviT, romelze SevaCerebT yuradRebas, miviRebT miTis wakiTxvis sam variants: Tuki yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT
mxolod aRsaniSnis azrze, koncepti erTmniSvnelovnad Seavsebs miTis formas. Sesabamisad, miviRebT martiv sistemas, romelSic miTi pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT gaigeba.
Tuki miTis aRsaniSnSi gavarCevT azrsa da formas, amasTan gaviTvaliswinebT, rom forma axdens Sinaarsis deformirebas, maSin miTis mniSvneloba
dairRveva da mas aRviqvamT rogorc tyuils. es midgoma demistifikaciis mizans emsaxureba da, aqedan gamomdinare, miTs anadgurebs, mis intencias aaSkaravebs.
Tuki miTis aRsaniSns aRviqvamT, rogorc azrisa da formis erTianobas,
miTsac ormagi mniSvneloba eqneba: Cvenze zemoqmedebas moaxdens miTis meqanika
da dinamika; ganvicdiT miTs, rogorc istorias, romelic erTdroulad namdvilicaa da irrealuric miTi xom arc arafers malavs da arc arafris afiSirebas ar axdens. is ubralod iZleva deformirebul suraTs. is asrulebs
Tavis mTavar princips: istorias gardaqmnis bunebad.
ase gardaqmnian istorias bunebad Wabua amirejibis mier Seqmnili miTosuri saxeebi: TuTaSxa _ mTvaris naTeli RvTaeba, kosmosis gansaxiereba: ,,hyavda ersa ganmgeblad da moriged qveynierTa saqmeTa TvisTa Wabuki pirmSvenieri da raindi keTilaRnagi_TuTaSxa. ara iyo igi suldgmuli erTi da Ze xorcieli, aramed suli krebiTi, arsi myofi kacTa
wiaRsa Sina, viTa waxnagTagani maTi upirvelesi~ (amirejibi 1979:4) _
vkiTxulobT da Cvens Tvalwin warmosdgeba fizikurad da sulierad
srulqmnili, gasaocari mSvenebis gmiri, ,,suli krebiTi~, Tavis TavSi

qaosisa da kosmosis konceptebi `TuTaSxas miTSi~

155

rom aerTianebs yovelgvar wmindas, amaRlebuls, maRalzneobrivs. am maRalzneobriobis saZirkveli siyvarulis niWi da unaria. aki pirveli
karis epigrafSive gamokveTa avtorma, rom sikeTe da siyvaruli identuri cnebebia.
TuTaSxas gamgeblobis dros kacTa arsebaSi saocrad maRali zne
iyo gamjdari, adamianebi brZnulad irjebodnen, swavlobdnen miwaTmoqmedebas, xelosnobas, aSinaurebdnen pirutyvs, qmnidnen anbans, akvirdebodnen varskvlaveTs, adgendnen rukebs... rogorc vxedavT, TuTaSxa, am
miTis mixedviT, ayalibebs zneobriv normebs, kanonebs, mokled, wesrigis,
kosmosis damamkvidrebelia.
magram TuTaSxas _ kosmosis Semoqmeds _ hyavs Zlieri mowinaaRmdege
urCxulis saxiT, romelic angrevs, aukuRmarTebs, anadgurebs yvela sikeTes, rac mas Seuqmnia, urCxuli qaosis Semoqmedia. Tuki TuTaSxas gamgeblobis dros maRalzneobrioba da siyvarulia gamefebuli, urCxulis
zeobisas adamianebis qvena buneba aRzevebula, siZulvili qceula RmerTad: ,,aRiara erman ganmgeblad da moriged qveynierTa saqmeTa TvisTa
urCxuli igi saSineli, sazrdeli misi_suli da xorci kacTa, muceli
misi_aRuvsebeli marad. ara iyo igi arseba erTi da nadiri xorcieli,
aramed suli krebiTi, arsi myofi kacTa wiaRsa Sina, viTa waxnagTagani
erTi misi, gaZlierebuli aw~ (amirejibi 1979:4)
epigrafebidan naTeli xdeba, rom sikeTeca da borotebac adamianuri arsebis Sinagani Tvisebaa, egaa oRond, romeli maTgani sZlevs, romeli Zlierdeba, Tumca uyuradRebod ar unda dagvrCes erTi detali:
sikeTe_siyvaruli adamianuri bunebis upirvelesi waxnagTagania, xolo
boroteba_erT-erTi, subieqturi Tu obieqturi mizezebis gamo ,,ganZlierebuli aw~. es bolo fraza imeds gvitovebs, rom jer kidev SeiZleba
adamianSi naTelis, mSvenieris gadasarCenad brZola. es dausabamo, maradiuli Widili keTilisa da borotisa, siyvarulisa da siZulvilisa,
ganzogadebulad _ kosmosisa da qaosisa, aris nawarmoebis ZiriTadi
problemac (maxaWaZe 1996:56).
rogorc vnaxeT, TuTaSxas miTis semiologiuri kvlevis Sedegad SegviZlia gamovyoT kosmosisa da qaosis konceptebi, davadginoT maTi mniSvnelobebi da kavSirurTierTobebi, mimarTebebi romanis mxatvrul saxeTa sistemasTan.
literatura:
amirejibi 1979: amirejibi Wabua, ,,daTa TyuTaSxia~, gam. ,,sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb.
gelovani 1983: gelovani akaki, ,,miTologiuri leqsikoni~, gam. ,,sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb.
maxaWaZe 1996: maxaWaZe Sorena, ,,miTi da realoba ,,daTa TuTaSxiaSi~, gam.
,,merani~, Tb.

156

Sorena maxaWaZe

Shorena Makhachadze,
Concepts of the Chaos and Cosmos in ~Tutashkha Myth

Studying artistic concepts is interesting as much as writers create a model


of the universe, as a variant of a lingual picture of the universe, by their means.
The chaos and cosmos form a binary pair and there is no sense without
each other. The cosmos constantly originates from the chaos, but at the same
time it means that the chaos constantly creates the cosmos. So, the chaos and
cosmos simultaneously are opposing and interconnected with each other. The
battle between the cosmos and chaos is the basic law and the form of the
existence of the universe.
Ambivalence of the chaos concept in mythology is the source of energy to
create and build the universe. Such proximity of cosmos and chaos is alarming.
The border between them is very fragile. It is a very delicate and too small
cultural layer, that controls primitive passions, beyond which begins illegality
and disorder, where a person becomes a monster.
We can see such a picture of the battle of the chaos and cosmos in a
mystified ~Tutashkhas Myth, created according to the myth principles by
Chabua Amirejibi. We mainly have three indications there: Tutashkha, the
monster and the nation. Their concepts, accordingly, are: the cosmos (light
kindness love morality), the chaos (darkness wickedness hatred
immorality), and the nation (a human, a person, people, and mankind). The first
two indications of this triad constantly struggle with each other, but the arena of
the battle becomes the third indication: a human, a person, people, and mankind.
The writer shows the peripetias of the battle of these concepts and four stages of
their confrontation.

nugzar mgelaZe
formaluri meTodebi da
naTesaobis terminologia
semiotikur niSanTa
sistema anTropologiaSi
gasuli saukunis 60-iani wlebidan
formalurma, transformaciulma, Skalogramulma da komponenturma meTodebma daiwyo
damkvidreba. formaluri modelirebis problemaTa damuSavebaSi am TvalsazrisiT didi
wvlili amerikel mecnierebs miuZRviT. gasuli saukunis 50-ian wlebSi u. gudenafisa da
v. launsberis mier komponenturi analizis
yvela ZiriTadi principi damuSavda (ix.: gudenafi 1956; 1964; 1968; 1971; 1971; launsberi 1956; 1962; 1965; 1968). am meTods safuZvlad struqturuli lingvistikis Teoriuli monacemebi daedo, Tumca cnobilia,
rom formaluri analizis Sinagani principebis agebis calkeul cdas, Tu mxedvelobaSi
ar miviRebT n. trubeckois mier fonologiuri Teoriis Camoyalibebis procesSi masTan
Sexebas, gacilebiT adre, XX saukunis 20-ian
wlebSic hqonda adgili, magaliTad, s. tokarevis gamokvlebSi, magram garkveuli mizezebiT miRebuli Sedegebi sakmaod gvian gamoqveynda. specialur literaturaSi xazgasmiTaa miTiTebuli, rom a. kroberis naSromebi,
romlebic ufro adre qveyndeboda, vidre u.
gudefanis dakvirvebebi, ukve Seicavda dResdReobiT esoden moduri formaluri _ komponenturi analizis meTodis elementebs
(dawvr. ix.: mgelaZe 2009; 2010). 50-iani
wlebidan u. gudenafisa da v. launsberis

158

nugzar mgelaZe

garda, komponenturi meTodis Seqmna-ganviTarebaSi arsebiTi wvlili a.


uelsim da j. etkinsma, u. liCim, x. konklinma, p. fridrixma, a. rimnim, i. buxlerma, m. kriukovma, m. Clenovma da sxva mravalma eTnologma Tu socio-kulturuli anTropologiis TvalsaCino warmomadgenelma Seitana.
formaluri midgoma naTesaobis sistemis mTlianobaSi Seswavlas, calkeuli terminis Sinagani cvlilebebis analizsa da struqturaTwarmomSobi
principebis ganxilvas iTvaliswinebs. aRniSnuli meTodis saSualebiT formalurad yvela dasaSvebi naTesaobis tipis Cawera xerxdeba. naTesaobis nebismieri sistema esaa semiotikur niSanTa erToblioba, e. i. sistemaSi TiToeuli termini Tavis TavSi aRniSvniT da aRsaniSnavs irTavs. pirveli bgeriT
subsantancias gulisxmobs, xolo meore _ terminSi kodirebul naTesaur
urTierTobas. simbolur, ufro zustad, kvlevis `simbolur enaze~ gadasvla sistemuri analizis erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa, Tumca naTesaoba mxolod niSan-sityvaTa erTobliobaze ar daiyvaneba. formaluri meTodebiT problemebis kvlevisas, Cveulebriv, naTesaoba simboloebiTa da idiomebiTaa gamoxatuli da swored esaa misi analizis obieqti. amdenad, igi gacilebiT farTo mniSvnelobas iZens: ena, rogorc simboloTaa sistema fonetikur da fonemur safuZvelzea agebuli, xolo simboloTa sistemaSi naTesaoba sisxliT da moyvrobiTi, e. i. socialuri urTierTobebis elementebs
eyrdnoba (fablani1965). Cveulebriv, formaluri meTodis specifika abstraqciul fonze da erTiani metaenis safuZvelze kodebis _ indeqsebis
Seqmnas moiTxovs, romlebic biologiur da socialur naTesaobas Soris arsebul zRvars avlens. igi saSualebas iZleva sistemebis msgavsi da gansxvavebuli niSnebi ganvsazRvroT, rac sxvadasxva xalxis naTesaobis struqturebis SedarebiTi SeswavlisaTvis saWiro samecniero fundaments ayalibebs.
kodirebuli terminebis safuZvelze am kategoriebis diferenciuli cvlalebadi, denotatebi da designatebi dgindeba, romlebiTac mocemuli naTesaobiTi urTierTobebis socialuri funqcia irkveva.
komponenturi analizis meTodiT sxvadasxva procedura xuTi Tanmimdevruli operaciiT (kriukovi 1972: 1983) gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi,
magaliTad, ruseTSi i. levinis mier damuSavebul kodur sistemaze aigo. meTodi dasaSvebia laTinuri Tu inglisurenovani, SesaZloa, rusuli anbanuri kodebiT gamoxatuli biosocialuri matricis umTavres elementebs Seicavdes1. formaluri meTodebis arss ki _ misi ZiriTadi principebi warmoadgens, romlebic ramdenime Tanmimdevrul analitikur operacias moicavs.
maTgan mniSvnelovania: 1. naTesaobis terminTa sruli siis Sedgena; 2. terminTa mniSvnelobis kodireba; 3. naTesaobis terminTa diferenciuli cvladebis gansazRvra: sqesis, TaobaTa donis linealurobis (pirdapiri da gverdiTi xazebi) dadgena, 4. makavSirebel naTesavTa garkveva; 5. terminTa Soris
1

naTesaobis terminTa kodireba SesaZlebelia rogorc inglisurenovani,


ise sxva romelime anbanis safuZvelze. aviRoT, vTqvaT, inglisurenovani: F
_ mama; M _ deda; W _ coli, H _ qmari...

formaluri meTodebi da naTesaobis terminologia _ semiotikur niSanTa sistema anTropologiaSi

159

im semantikuri kavSiris gamovlena, romelic sayrdens qmnis sistemis


struqturuli principebis daxasiaTebisaTvis da sxva mravali. saerTod, naTesaobis terminTa sistemis Sinagani TviTganviTarebis zogadi kanonzomierebis dadgena calkeuli kategoriis dezignatebisa da denotatebis amoxsnas, aseve, maT Soris urTierTkavSiris gansazRvras uSualod moiTxovs,
amitom, naTesaobis terminTa formalizacia diferencialuri cvladebis
(sqesi, Taobrivi done, linealoba...) zogadi komponentebis dadgenis gziTac
xorcieldeba. magaliTad: 1. A _ alter-is sqesi: A1 _ mamakaci; A2 -dedakaci;
A _ sqesi gamoyofili araa; 2. _ naTesaur kavSirTa xasiaTi: 1 _ sisxliT naTesaoba; 2 -moyvrobiTi urTierTobebi; 3. B _ alter-is Taoba:
B1=+2T; B2 =+1T; B3=0 T; B4=-1T; B5=-2 T; 4. C _ linealoba: C1 _ pirdapiri
xazi; C2 _ pirveli pirveli gverdiTi xazi; 5. _ makavSirebeli naTesavis
sqesi: 1 _ mamakaci; 2 _ dedakaci; _ aradiferencirebuli sqesi; 6. _
naTesaobis linealoba: 1 _ mamis xazi; 2 _ dedis xazi; 7. E _ ego-s sqesi: E 1 _ mamamkaci; E 2 _ dedakaci; 8. alter-is SefardebiTi asaki: 1 _
SefardebiTi asaki relevanturia; 2 _ SefardebiTi asaki aralevanturia;
9. _ terminebis lingvisturi done: 1 _ elementaruli terminebi; 2 _
Sedgenili terminebi; 3 _ aRwerilobiTi terminebi; 10. _ terminis socialuri ganzomileba: 1 _ individualuri termini; 1 _ jgufuri termini; 3 _ klasifikatoruli termini. aRniSnuli kombinaciebis garda sociokulturul anTropologiaSi naTesaur kategoriaTa komponentebis gamoxatvis, maT Soris, diferenciuli cvladebis ganmsazRvrelad sxva formebic arsebobs. maT safuZvelze Tanamedrove naTesaobis sistemebi aRiwereba.
aseT gamokvlevebSi kodirebisaTvis laTinuri asoebi, SedarebiT algebrizebuli Canawerebi da sxva xerxebic gamoiyeneba, romelTa daxmarebiT naTesaobis terminebi sxvadasxva doneze kombinirdeba. saerTod, abstrahirebisaTvis
TiTqmis yvela anTropologis mier winare safuZvlebis momzadebisa da gansazRvruli procedurebis Catarebis aucilebloba erTxmadaa aRiarebuli.
t. r. treitmani axasiaTebda ra e. w. `dravidul sistemas~ Tvlida, rom
`dravidulis~ meSveobiT SesaZlebeli iyo am tipis yvela problemis gadawyveta, Tumca amis ganxorcieleba mosaxerxebeli iyo mxolod ganmsazRvreli
niSnebis matarebel iseT siaze dayrdnobiT, rogoricaa toloba, magaliTad,
FB=F, MB F da sxva, anu es igivea mocemuli tipi platonuri ideis gamoxatulebas SevadaroT. sakuTriv `draviduli sistema~ genealogiur Tu genetikur klass warmoadgens, romlis wevrebic erTmaneTs Taobebis meSveobiT eTanafardebian. ase rom ganmsazRvrel rols warmomavloba da sistemis
memkvidreobiToba TamaSobda. amis safuZvelze t. r. treitmani askvnis, rom
swored amitomaa saWiro sxvadasxva meTodi da kombinacia, romlebis mizania
sistemis yvela magaliTis Sedareba, raTa SemdgomSi dadgenili Taviseburebebis modelireba ukeT ganxorcieldes (treitmani 1987). diferenciuli
cvladebi SeiZleba im saxiTac dajgufdes (Sdr. gudenafi 1964:264-269, 274285), rogoradac isini v. arsenevisa da v. popovis naSromSia demonstrirebu-

160

nugzar mgelaZe

li. difernciuli cvladebi Semdegnairadaa gadmocemuli: 1. naTesaur urTierTobaTa xasiaTi: 1.1 sisxliT naTesaoba; 2.1 moyvrobiTi kavSirebi; 1.3.
sisxliT naTesavi da Sida moyvare; 1.4 _ Sida moyvare; 1.5 _ gare moyvare;
2. genealogiuri Taoba: 2.1 +2 Taoba; 2.2 +1 Taoba; 2.3 -0 Taoba; 2.4 -1 Taoba; 2.5 -2 Taoba; 2.6. -3 Taoba; 3. alteri-s sqesi: 3.1 _ mamrobiTi; 3.2 _
mdedrobiTi; 4. sisxliT naTesavTa lateraluroba: 4.1 patri-lateraluroba; 4.2 matri-lateraluroba; 5. Taobis farglebSi alteris SefardebiTi
asaki: 5.1 _ ufrosi; 5.2 _ umcrosi; 6. koneqtoris sqesi: 7.1 _ mamrobiTi; 7.2 _ mdedrobiTi (ix.: arsenevi, popovi, 1978:176-177). am xerxiT analizis sailustraciod Cven qvemoT pirobiTad warmogidgenT naTesaobis zogad-qarTul terminologias:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

naTesaobis Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo terminologia


naTesaobis
naTesaobis lanaTesaobis
Taob- alteris teraluroba
xasiaTi
klasi
rivi
sqesi
sismoypatri matri
xlis- vrobi- genealogia
mieri
Ti
4
papa (/babua)
1.1
2.1
3.1
4
bebia (/dideda)
1.1
2.1
3.1
_
simamri
1.2
2.2
3.1
_
sidedri
1.2
2.2
3.2
_
mamamTili
1.2
2.2
3.1
_
dedamTili
1.2
2.2
3.2
3
_
mzaxali
1.2
2.2
mama
1.1
2.2
3.1
4.1
deda
1.1
2.2
3.2
4.2
1
4
biZa
2.2
3.1
mamida
1.1
2.2
3.2
4.1
deida
1.1
2.2
3.2
4.2
4
bicola
1.2
2.2
3.2
_
Zma
1.1
2.3
3.1
_
da
1.1
2.3
3.2
3
4
biZaSvili
1.1
2.3
3
mamidaSvili
1.1
2.3
4.1
3
deidaSvili
1.1
2.3
4.2
_
coli
1.2
2.3
3.2
_
qmari
1.2
2.3
3.1
3
_
meuRle
1.2
2.3
_
colisda
1.2
2.3
3.2
_
colisZma
1.2
2.3
3.1
_
mazli
1.2
2.3
3.1

formaluri meTodebi da naTesaobis terminologia _ semiotikur niSanTa sistema anTropologiaSi

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32.
33
34

muli
siZe
rZali
qvisli
Svili
vaJiSvili
qaliSvili
ZmisSvili
disSvili
SviliSvili

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
-

2.3
2.3;24
2.3;2.4
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5

3.2
3.1
3.2
3.1
3
3.1
3.2
3
3
3

161

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

anTropologiaSi naTesaobis terminebisa da am terminebSi gamoxatuli


urTierTobebis gamoxatvisa da kodirebis kidev sxva uamravi saSualebac arsebobs. samwuxarod, msoflioSi problemiT dainteresebul mecnierebSi zogadi metaenis struqturis irgvliv erToblivi azri ar arsebobs. aTwleulebis win, 1985-1990-ian wlebSi, amis mogvarebas mixeil kriukovi, aziis
xalxebis, gansakuTrebiT, CinelTa eTnogenezisa da, saerTod, Cinelebis eTnologiis ubadlo specialisti Seecada, romelic moskovSi im dros didi
saerTaSoriso konferenciiT dasrulda, magram saerTo SeTanxmebas verc iq
mivaRwieT, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas msoflioSi naTesaobis sistemis sferoSi im dros wamyvani mkvlevrebi eswrebodnen.
amdenad, yvela SemTxvevaSi, formaluri, maT Soris, komponenturi meTodis ramdenime safexuriani operacia, xels uwyobs idealuri modelis
agebis process. faqtia, rom naTesaobis terminTa sistemis tipi mecnieruli
abstraqciaa, arsebiTi niSnebis SesatyvisobiT konstruirebuli garkveuli
principebis safuZvelze (kriukovi 1992:222), amitom, naTesaobis terminTa
sistemis yoveli tipi, rogorc idealuri modeli, SeiZleba etalonad ganvixiloT. amasTan, es etaloni, rogorc es ama Tu im avtors miaCnia, i. levinis kodTan SedarebiT sul sxva donis modelia. zogadi tipologia mkacrad
gansazRvrul urTierTobebSi myof sxvadasxva tipis struqturuli kavSirisa da naTesaobis terminTa sistemis istoriuli ganviTarebisa da Sualeduri qvetipebis transformaciis TaviseburebaTa amsaxveli procesebis universaluri modelis Seqmnas gulisxmobs. v. popovis dakvirvebiT, konkretuli naTesaobis terminTa sistemis garkveul tipTan Tanafardoba erTob xelovnuri da pirobiTia. ar arsebobs iseTi sistema, romelic absoluturad
yvela parametrSi tip-etalons emTxveodes (popovi 1977:45).
amis Semdeg, semantikuri cvladebis kombinaciiT sxvadasxva xasiaTis
operacia xorcieldeba, dgindeba naTesaobis terminTa paradigmuli Taviseburebebi, terminologiuri modelis struqturuli principi, rac saboloo
jamSi tipologiuri sqemis gansazRvriT sruldeba. SedarebiTi analizis _
tipologiis fonze calkeuli terminologiuri tipis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi da msoflios sxvadasxva xalxis saklasifikacio sistemaSi am tipis ad-

162

nugzar mgelaZe

gili irkveva. genealogiuri xis es formac naTesaobis terminTa paradigmuli


iersaxisa Tu Sida agebulebis gansazRvris erT-erTi damxmare saSualebaa.

dedisa da mamis filaciaTa zogadi genealogiuri sqema2

EGO

M
_ mamakaci;
_ dedakaci;
_ sqesi araa gamoyofili; -------- mamiseuli (naTesauri) da dediseuli xazis wevrebi; = saqorwino kavSirebi;
Ego _ aTvlis wertili (nulovani Taoba).

formaluri meTodebi da naTesaobis terminologia _ semiotikur niSanTa sistema anTropologiaSi

163

literatura:
gudenafi 1956 _ Ward H. G. Goodenough. The Componential Analysis and the
of Meang.-`Leanguage, vol. 32, 1, 1956.
gudenafi 1964 _ Ward H. G. Goodenough. The Componential Analysis of
Knkm Lapp Kinship Terminology.-`Explorations in Cultural
Anthropology, New York, 1964.
gudenafi 1968 _ Ward H. G. Goodenough. Residens rules.-Marriage, family
and residens, New York, 1968.
gudenafi 1971 _ Ward H. G. Goodenough. A new method of Analysing
Kinship Systems: componential Analysis.-Reading in Kinship and Social
structure, Berkeley, 1971.
gudenafi 1971 _ Ward H. G. Goodenough. The Nature of Formal analysis.Reading in Kinship and Social structure, Berkeley, 1971.
kriukovi 1972 _ . . . (
), , 1972.
kriukovi 1983 _ . . .
.- , 5, , 1983.
launsberi 1956 _ Floyd G. Lounsbury. A Sematic Analysis of the Pavnee
Kinship Usage.-Language, vol. 1956.
launsberi 1962 _ Floyd G. Lounsbury. The structural Analysis of Kinship
Semantics.-Preprints of Papers for the 9th Interational Congress of
Linguists, 1962.
launsberi 1965 _ Floyd G. Lounsbury. Another viev of the Trobriand Kinship
Categories.-American Anthropologist, vol. 67, 5, 1965.
launsberi 1968 _ Floyd G. Lounsbury. The Structural Analysis of Kinship
Semantics.-Kinship ans social Organization (Edited By Paul Bohannan
and John Middleton), New York, 1968.
mgelaZe 2009 _ . . .

-,
, , , 2009.
mgelaZe 2010 _ n. mgelaZe. maTematikuri modelirebis meTodologiuri
problemebi eTnologiasa da socio-kulturul anTropologiaSi.`kavkasiis eTnologiuri krebuli, XII, Tbilisi, 2010.
popovi, 1977 . . .
: .-, 2, , 1977.
treitmani, 1987 _ T. R. Trautmann. lewis henri Morgan and the Invention of
Kinship, London, 1987.
fablani, 1965 _ J. Fablan. Kung Bushman Kinship.-Anthropos, vol 60, 1-6,
1965.

164

nugzar mgelaZe

Nugzar Mgeladze

Formal Methods and Kinship Terminology _ Semiotic System of Signs in


Anthropology
Starting from the 1960s the formal _ transformational, scalographic and
componential methods started to develop. American academics have contributed
largely in processing the problems of formal modeling. It is a semiotic system of
signs _ metalanguage on the basis of which linguistically different types of
people in the world managed to read the intellectual products in the same way.
The method was particularly focused on building of the paradigm models of
kinship terms of various people, which prepared the basis for general typology.

ciala narakiZe
berZnuli enis gavlena
zanuri enis lazur dialeqtze
cnobili faqtia, rom Tanamedrove lazeTis teritoria saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi
Sedioda romisa da bizantiis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi da ganicdida berZnul-bizantiuri kulturis did gavlenas. magram ucxoelTa xangrZlivi batonobis miuxedavad aq lazur-Wanuri laparaki axlac ismis. es mxolod imis damamtkicebeli da momaswavebeli
sabuTia, rom lazur-Wanuri aq im TaviTve sufevda, rom xalibebi, tibarenni, mosinikebi,
drilebi da sxvani swored lazur-Wanurad
metyvelebdnen, rom isini qarTvel erovnebas
ekuTvnodnen (javaxiSvili, 1951:415).
bevri mkvlevari lazeTTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnavs, rom trapizonSi, gumaSxaneSi, platanasa da sxva adgilebSi mcxovrebi
qristiani lazebi eqvemdebarebian konstantinepolis patriarqs da laparakoben berZnulad (aWariani, 1899-1).
warsulSi berZnul eTnikur samyarosTan lazeTis mWidro kulturuli urTierTobebiT aris ganpirobebuli zanuri enis,
lazur dialeqtSi berZnuli enobrivi elementebis arseboba.
gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa berZnulidan nasesxebi leqsikuri erTeulebi, romlebic metnaklebad lazuris yvela kiloSi
gvxvdeba.
berZnulidan nasesxeb sityvaTa erT nawils lazurSi SenarCunebuli aqvs Tavisi
ZiriTadi (berZnuli) mniSvneloba yovelgvari gadaxris gareSe da fonetikur morfologiuri cvlilebebic naklebad ganucdiaT.

166

ciala narakiZe

avli ezo, mindori saxlis irgvliv. avli sqanis golovitiSi Roman, alis, owketi do icxonti Toma~ (kartozia, 1993:269) Sens ezoSi rom
gaviare guSin, sarkeSi icqirebodi da ivarcxnidi Tmasa.
atekne uSvilo. ubeeli koCis Cqin atekne vuwumeT~ (uSvilo kacs
Cven ateknes veZaxiT (narakiZe, 1983:61).
baruTi denTi.
dimoni saWe ris saSualebiTac alegulireben navis mimosvlas.
Cqamli-CquneSi dimoni Cveni saWe arc Txmelaa, ne Txomu en, neTi Wkoni, arc ki muxa, qale, bozo, Toli moni. qalo, gogo, TvalebmZiva (kartozia,
1993: 248).
dula saqme. dula doboCodiniT,
saaTi viTis ano,
do okule vibiriT
Cqini bira amo (kartozia, 1993:252).
saqme dasavruleT
aTi saaTiT gvian,
da mere wavimRereT
Cveni simRera amo.
drepani celi.
ergati navis amosazidi xelsawyo.
Temeli saxlis saZirkveli, Senobis fundamenti.
TenTene maqmani. dozenginiT inglisi do avrofa TenTeneTen xvala, e
dadiCqimi. gaamdidreT inglisi da evropa, maqmanebiT marto, e deida Cemo.
Tinusi sarewao mniSvnelobis Tevzi.
Trica Tevzis saxeoba.
Troni skami. egre momwonduna Troni mefCi qurqoni~... Tu ki momewoneba skams mivcem bewviT dafaruls~...
TomaTesi pamidori. luyus TomaTesi dido muxTebs fxals pamidori Zalian uxdeba.
kaina uRlis formis morkaluri viwro ficari, romelic ixmareba
navis agebisas.
karFi lursmani. varTi gaCen kaFis doRur qesei~ verc daartyams lursmans sworad CaquCsa (JRenti, 1938:171).
keremidi kramiti. keremidiSi Tude, wapa diben, eq wapa kramitis
qvemoT wveTi isxmeba, wveTi (narakiZe, 2015:100).
kiFali kefali. Cvaleri mzoRas kiFali iyven~ mRelvare zRva ki
kefals gvpirdeba (narakiZe, 2015:8).
kordela bafTa. kordela gekieli ginZe Tomafe muSi... bafTiTaa
Sekruli misi grZeli Tmebi.
kumewina ujra.
kromi xaxvi. aq kulani, oraRi, soRani:
aq gogo, namgali, xaxvi
xofas: bozo, mangali, kromi

berZnuli enis gavlena zanuri enis lazur dialeqtze

167

xofaSi: gogo, namgali, xaxvi~ (asaTiani, 1974:80).


laodi wylis amosaxapavi, niCbis magvari iaraRi, romelic mzaddeba
xisgan.
livadi bostani.
limani foni, navmisadgomi.
lodosi Tbili moRrubluli amindi lodosi taSi mTvii ordo
ndRulun~moRrublul amindSi Tovli male dneba.
mamuni bebia qali, bebia. bere ezdifs mamuniq ina dibadetasbavSvs
iyvans bebia qali, is rom unda daibados (asaTiani, 1974:56-60).
ora dro. seri em oras Tanun, mamuliq diyiaSi Rame im dros Tendeba mamali rom iyivlebs (valn. Tand. 1964:157).
potostoma navis Tavi, romelic moxrili xisgan mzaddeboda.
pote arasdros. do e sqani nenafe, ko potes va bognati~ (kartozia,
1993: 253) da es Seni sityvebi, arasdros gamegona.
oFidi warbi. oFidefe wifxeri, mis SunaxeT mendili mewifxeri~
(yifSiZe, 2015:253). warbebamoqargulo, vis unaxav cxvirsaxocs amoqarguls.
sabatoni SabaTi. sabatonis va viCaliSefT~ SabaTs ar vmuSaobT.
sinori sazRvari, mijna. nandidis ontule TurqieSi sinoikala
aqini uRutu... bebias bostani TurqeTis sazRvarTan axlos hqonda.
skala kibe. tkobaSa ebiti, mskalas gebusTvi... Cumad avdiodi, kibedan davcurdi (kartozia, 1993:268).
sira rigi, jeri. sira Cqimi qomoxTu, qogebdgiTi oRuuSi gzas~
Cemi rigi movida, davadeqi sikvdilis gzas.
tuFeRi Tofi. ma miRun arTeRi tuFeRi do eCdoviT FiSeRi (kartozia, 1993:257). me maqvs erTi Tofi da ocdaaTi tyvia.
fafazi mRvdeli.
fide saxeldaxelod gamomcxvari Txeli puris an Wadis fena.
Feluka karapi, navi. Feluka eqeloni, moxTi mendamiyoni... navo afrebiano, modi, Tan wamiyvane... (kartozia, 1972:206).
qilise eklesia. nadiraTiSi sirTis didi jveSi qiliseSi duvarefe
en~ nadiraTis gorakze. didi Zveli eklesiis balavrebia (yifSiZe,
2015:232).
qireza ivnisi.
Ronikoni mamiseuli saxli gaTxovili qalisaTvis.
Silia aTasi. dugunis maCodes viT Silia manaTi fara qorwilSi
dagvexarja aTi aTasi maneTi fuli (asaTiani, 1974:128).
xali noxi. xaliTi meCaftes Ceizi kulanis noxsac aZlevdnen
mziTvSi gogos.
aWarulis msgavsad lazurSi farTodaa damkvidrebuli sityva Tembeli, igi Turqulidan aris Semosuli. magram termini berZnulia, radganac
berZnulSi gvaqvs sityva tempelus da aRniSnavs zarmacs, usaqmurs. igi miRe-

168

ciala narakiZe

bulia sityvidan tempo dro. Tembeli ki is adamiania, romelic dros ver


uwyobs fexs, zanti da uqnara (noRaideli, 2015:389).
gvaqvs iseTi leqsikuri nimuSebic, romlebsac, etyoba lazuris gavleniT ganucdiaT garkveuli cvlilebebi rogorc Sinaarsis ise formis mxriv.
magaliTad:
kalaFati axlad agebul navs zRvaze CaSvebamde ficrebs Soris darCenil Sualedebs kanafis ZenZiT amouvseben, Semdeg garedan kuprs wausvamen.
am process kalaFaTi ewodeba (Sdr. saba kalaFanti navis amgebi xelosani). T. beraZis TqmiT, es termini kalafatie-a da mas Turqulad kalafati Seesabameba da igi saerTod navis amgebs ki ar niSnavs, aramed im xelosans, romeli navis ficrebs Soris datovebul sivrceebs ZenZiT avsebs da Semdeg
kuprs usvams garedan (ber.19 :46). laz mTqmelTa ganmartebiT, kalaFati
TviT process aRniSnavs da ara am procesis Semsrulebel xelosans. sagulisxmoa, rom Zvel berZnulsa da Tanamedrove berZnulSi termini kalaFati
niSnavs dagmanva~-s.
podia winsafari. lazurSi ixmareba kalTa~-s mniSvnelobiT. orRaniSi Ralis xurma dogibRi, ezdi, guli, podias muSeni gelibRi? (kartozia, 1993: 276) orRanjis ReleSi xurma Camogiyare, aiRe vardo, kalTaSi
ratom Caiyare?
Felengi specialurad damzadebuli xis Zeli, razedac navs daacureben. momdinareobs berZnulidan da mravalmniSvnelobasTan erTad xis morsac aRniSnavs.
badi muSi Felengis qogoxunu,
sija tuca bureRis qomoxunu~
misi beri Felengze moacura,
siZe ki Tbil namcxvars miujina.
Feneifanari fenei doqaCeri, ser do seri gofTaTenfanardakavebuli
Ram-RamobiT viaroT (kartozia, 1993:271). fanari Zveli berZnuli sityvidan modis, rac sanTebels, CiraRdans niSnavs. am sityvas sanaTuris mniSvneloba pirvelad XIV saukunis qarTul saistorio ZeglSi xelmwifis karis
garigebaSi~ vxvdebiT.
sayuradReboa berZnuli termini Ramos, romelic niSnavs qorwinebas,
jvrisweras, lazuris saqorwilo leqsikaSi berZnuli fuZe Ramgvxvdeba
or terminSi. no-Ram-e sasiZo, saqmro, axladSerTuli qmari si eko moT
inazeb, noRame va ginoni, Zalian rom inazebi, Sen saqmro xom ar ginda (narakiZe, 2015:75).
da noRamisa dedofali, axladmoyvanili rZali si mu gulu bujaRis mowifxeri noRamisa Sen ras dadixar kuTxeSi gamowyobili patarZalo (yifSiZe, 2015:253).
no-Ram-e, no-e mimReobis mawarmoebeli konfiqsia.
no-Ram-isa saxecvlili forma unda iyos kompozitisa noRanisa; noRam
sityva unda momdinareobdes noRamedan, xolo isa~ unda iyos nisa~-s Sec-

berZnuli enis gavlena zanuri enis lazur dialeqtze

169

vlili forma, rac rZals niSnavs. Tu es asea maSin mTeli kompoziti Sinaarsobrivad ase unda aixsnas: axladmoyvanili rZali.
marTalia, am orive terminSi fuZed gvxvdeba berZnuli warmomavlobis
sityva, magram leqsikuri erTeulebi gaformebulia zanuri warmomavlobis
sufiqsebiT da isea Sesisxlxorcebuli lazur leqsikas, rom erTi SexedviT eWvsac ki badebs maTi berZnuli warmomavloba.
berZnulidan SeiTvisa kavSiri oti (rom)
miwves oti mzoRas dumani ulun,
goinwkedim, eSo karavi gulun,
man fTqvi oti beqi guli qomulun
miTxres, rom zRvidan kvamli amodis,
gavixede da mocuravs gemi
vifiqre iqneb momgvaros satrfo (narakiZe, 2015:54).
sainteresoa is terminebic, romlebic berZnulSia damkvidrebuli da
qarTvelur enaTa monacemebiT aixsneba.
berZnuli enis e.w. pontouri kilo~ umTavresad warmoadgens lazuri
kiloebis kalks da inarCunebs iberiul-kavkasiuri enebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel yvela afiqsacias, romlebic am metyvelebaSi ise JRers, rogorc qarTvelur enebSi. mis leqsikaSi sakmaod bevria qarTveluri enis sityvebi. sainteresoa is faqtic, rom samxreT aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis berZnebi, romlebic laparakoben berZnuli enis e.w. pontur-lazur dialeqtebze, eTnonimebis sawarmoeblad iyeneben qarTveluri enebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel sufiqsebs, rogoricaa kuTvnilebiTi - ian~, mravlobiTis mawarmoebeli T~
sufiqsi. magaliTad: lazos lazi, lazanT lazebi.
cnobilia, rom xmelTaSuazRvis auzSi, neoliTidan moyolebuli, mimdinareobda sxvadasxva xalxTa intensiuri gansaxlebis procesebi, arqeologiuri monacemebiT dasturdeba, rom qarTveluri tomebic am procesis
uSualo monawileni iyvnen.
am istoriuli viTarebidan gamomdinare gasagebia, Tu~ ratom arsebobs
berZnulSi qarTveluri warmoSobis plastebi. mravali berZnuli sityva,
bundovani Tu ucnobi etimologiisa paralelebs poulobs qarTvelurSi
(gordeziani, 1985).
lazurma enam, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi sakmaod didi xnis ganmavlobaSi
ucxo enebis berZnulisa da Turqulis gavlenas ganicdida, mainc SeinarCuna sakuTari gramatikuli wyoba da ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondi. unda aRiniSnos, rom lazurs sxva romelime enisagan ar SeuTvisebia fleqsia da arc Tavisi sakuTari fleqsia Seuyvania. magram ucxo sityvebisa da gamoTqmebis SeTvisebam lazuris fonetikur modelze Tavisi daRi daaso. amitomac, lazuris
kilokavebSi Rrma cvlilebebicaa momxdari.

170

ciala narakiZe

literatura:

r. gordeziani, winaberZnuli da qarTveluri, Tb., 1985.


g. kartozia, lazuri teqstebi, Tb., I-II, 1972-1993.
m. valniSi, a. Tandilava, lazeTi, Tb., 1964.
n. noRaideli, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelo, saerTaSoriso samecniero
konferenciis masalebi, V, 2016.
s. JRenti, Wanuri teqstebi, Tb., 1938.
sulxan-saba-orbeliani, qarTuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1938.
iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, t. I, Tb., 1951.
ios. yifSiZe, Txzulebani, Tb., 2015.
.. , .. , - , , 1980.
Tsiala Narakidze
Influence of Greek on Laz Dialect of Laz Language
The existence of the Greek lingual elements in the Laz dialect of the Laz
language is preconditioned by close cultural relations of Lazika with the Greek
ethnic world in the past.
Lexical units borrowed from the Greek language are of particular interest,
especially that they are met in almost every Laz sub-dialect.
One part of Greek borrowings has preserved the original (Greek) meaning
in Laz speech without any deviations including even phonetic and grammatical
changes.
Despite the great impact of foreign languages - Greek and Turkish - for a
long period of time, the Laz language could preserve its own grammatical
structure and the main lexical stock. It should be noted that Laz language did not
accept flexion from any other languages nor introduced its own flexion.
However, inclusion of foreign words and expressions still made a considerable
impact on the phonetic model. Respectively, many changes have taken place in
the Laz sub-dialects.

ana osefaSvili
arsebobs ki Targmanis
swavlebis meTodika?
informaciul-sakomunikacio teqnologiebis ganviTarebam da globalizaciis procesma adamianTa cxovrebis wesSi seriozuli
cvlilebebi gamoiwvia. sxvadasxva samecniero dargSi keTdeba axal-axali aRmoCenebi,
rac Semdeg adamianis yoveldRiur yofaSi poulobs asaxvas. aucilebelia, am axal-axali
aRmoCenebisa da informaciebis sistematuri
gacnoba da adaptacia. swored aq dgeba Targmnis aucilebloba. rogorc qarTuli `enis
modelirebis asociaciis" wevrebi aRniSnaven, samyaro ver daelodeba msoflio mosaxleobis erT interlingvaze alaparakebas da
uaxlesi informaciis miwodeba sxvadasxva
enebze molaparake xalxisaTvis swored
mTargmnelzea damokidebuli (www.ena.ge)
aqedan gamomdinare, cxadia, mTargmnelis pasuxismgebloba Zalian didia.
imisaTvis, rom mTargmnelma Seqmnas xarisxiani Targmani, mas Camoyalibebuli unda
hqondes mTargmnelisaTvis aucilebeli kompetenciebi da unar-Cvevebi. Sesabamisad, profesional mTargmnelTa momzadebis sakiTxi Tanamedrove epoqaSi aqtualuria, rogorc arasdros. swored mTargmnelebi arian kulturaTaSorisi komunikaciebis xelSemwyobi da Semsruleblebi, amitomac gaxda Tanamedrove samyaroSi mTargmnelTa momzadebis sakiTxi erTerTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani dRis wesrigSi.
profesionali mTargmnelebis aRzrda
Tanamedrove informaciuli samyaros erT-

172

ana osefaSvili

erTi umTavresi gamowvevaa.


marTalia, mTargmnelebi yvelaze did codnasa da gamocdilebas praqtikuli saqmianobis dros iZenen, magram faqtia, rom maT profesional mTargmnelebad CamoyalibaSi gansakuTrebul rols, praqtikul muSaobasTan erTad, Teoriuli codnac asrulebs.
Targmnis swavlebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs Seiswavlis TargmanTmcodneobis erT-erTi uaxlesi qvedargi _ `Targmnis didaqtika~. es dargi
axali Camoyalibebulia da jer kidev kvlevis obieqtis Seswavlis procesSia.
`Targmnis didaqtika~ Targmnis swavlebis meTodikaa, romelic cdilobs SeimuSaos werilobiTi da zepiri Targmanis swavlebis meTodebi.
am mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis saWiroeba dadga maSin, roca dagrovda
informacia Targmnis swavlebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze da saWiro gaxda am codnis daxarisxeba, adaptireba da axali Taobis mTargmnelebisaTvis
miwodeba. umTavresi problema, ramac gamoiwvia am dargis Camoyalibeba, gaxlavT is, rom ar arsebobda TargmanTmcodneobis Sesaswavli universaluri
saswavlo kusi, romlis mixedviTac ixelmZRvanelebdnen sxvadasxva qveynis
universitetebi mTargmnelTa mosamzadeblad.
gamocdil qarTvel mTargmnelTa azriT, erT-erTi upirvelesi problema, romelic aferxebs qarTuli Targmanis ganviTarebas, aris is, rom ar
arsebobs saganmanaTleblo resursebi, romlebic axali Taobis mxatvruli
mTargmnelis saqmianobiT dasaintereseblad iqnebian mimarTuli. cnobili
qarTveli mTargmnelis, irma taveliZis, azriT, universitetSi ucxo enebis
fakultetze mosmenili Targmanmcodneobis mokle Teoriuli kursi ar aris
sakmarisi imisaTvis, rom axalgazrda dainteresdes mxatvruli TargmaniT
(qarTul enaze 1991 wlidan mimdinare mTargmnelobiTi procesis mimoxilva.
2012:22)
es problema mxolod qarTul mTargmnelobiT sivrceSi ar gvxvdeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom interesi Targmnis fenomenis mimarT dResac ar neldeba da
iqmneba uamravi literatura mis Sesaxeb, arsebobs sakiTxebi am sferoSi, romlebic jer kidev ar aris Seswavlili da saswrafo gadawyvetas saWiroeben.
semionovi Tvlis, rom TargmanTmcodneobis meTodika saganmanaTleblo
sivrceSi ar aris kargad SemuSavebuli da saubrobs mTargmnelobiTi SesaZleblobebis universaluri swavlebis problematikis gadaWris aucileblobaze (latiSCevi, semionovi 2003:162)
granadis universitetis TargmanTmcodneTa gundma, Tanamedrove moTxovnebidan gamomdinare, Seqmna mTargmnelTa mosamzadebeli saswavlo programa romelic Semdegi saxelwodebiTaa cnobili `mTargmnelTa momzadebis
profesiuli midgoma~ (A Professional Approach to Translator Training).
programis xelmZRvanelebi aRniSnaven, rom mTargmnelobiTi bazris axlandeli mdgomareoba miuTiTebs mTargmnelTa momzadebis naklebobaze. aucilebelia TargmanTmcodneobis saswavlo programebis gadaxedva da maTi Secvla, Tanamedrove moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT _ mTeli msoflios masSta-

arsebobs ki Targmanis swavlebis meTodika?

173

biT. aucilebelia, saswavlo procesSi gaTvaliswinebuli iyos bazris moTxovnebi.


Targmnis didaqtika TargmanTmcodneobis axali mimarTulebaa, romlis
farglebSic intensiurad mimdinareobs kvleva sakiTxebze, Tu rogor unda
SevadginoT saswavlo programa, romelic profesionali mTargmnelebis
momzadebas Seuwyobs xels; rogori unda iyos Teoriuli da praqtikuli masalis Sefardeba da a.S.
Targmnis didaqtikis Seswavlis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia
mTargmnelobiTi teqnologiebis dazustebac, romelTa integraciac saswavlo procesSi, Tanamedrove moTxovnebidan gamomdinare, didi aqtualobiT
sargeblobs.
dRevandeli mTargmnelis profesiuli moRvaweoba mimdinareobs informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis ganviTarebis pirobebSi, amitom aucilebelia Targmnis procesSi es teqnologiebic iyos gaTvaliswinebuli. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, mTargmneli ver iqneba konkurentunariani SromiT bazarze da, Sesabamisad, ver Sedgeba misi, rogorc mTargmnelis kariera.
aranakleb mniSvnelovania Targmnis maswavlebelTa treningi da gadamzadeba. dResdReobiT, umetes SemTxvevaSi, studentebs Targmnas aswavlian
(praqtikosi) mTargmnelebi, rac Zalian kargia, magram aqve unda aRvniSnoT,
rom es aris didaqtikuri procesi, Sesabamisad Targmnis maswavlebels unda
hqondes saTanado codna da gamocdileba rogorc TargmanTmcodneobis, aseve
pedagogiur mecnierebebSi. mas unda hqondes dargobrivi codna, Tu ra aswavlos students, da pedagogiuri _ Tu rogor, ra xerxebiTa da saSualebebiT
aswavlos students. ra meTodebis gamoyeneba iqneba an ar iqneba dasaSvebi konkretul SemTxvevebSi da rogor movaxerxoT studentebisaTvis informaciis
gadacema, swavleba, ise, rom swavlebis procesSi gaTvaliswinebuli iyos rogorc maTi individualuri, aseve saerTo maxasiaTeblebi.
aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom Catarebuli kvlevebis mixedviT, dResdReobiT saqarTveloSi praqtikos mTargmnelTa umetesoba sruliad gansxvavebuli specialobebis warmomadgenlebi arian. zemoTaRniSnuli kvleva eqspertebma: ana kopalianma da salome beniZem warmoadgines naSromSi `qarTul enaze 1991 wlidan mimdinare mTargmnelobiTi procesis mimoxilva~:

`Tumca Cven mier gamokiTxuli TxuTmeti mTargmnelidan profesiiT


Targmanmcodne mxolod oria. Cveni dakvirvebiT, mTargmnelebi ZiriTadad im
enis specialistebi arian, romlidanac Targmnian savaraudod, es optimaluri gadawyvetilebaa, vinaidan qarTul universitetebSi ucxo enaTa Semswavlel fakultetebze ,,Targmanis Teoria da praqtika~ savaldebulo sagania da igulisxmeba, rom kursdamTavrebulebi mxatvruli Targmanis xelovnebaSi met-naklebad erkvevian.
amave dros, saqarTveloSi arcTu iSviaTad gvxvdeba SemTxveva, rodesac mTargmnelebi humanitaruli sferosgan sruliad gansxvavebuli profesiis warmomadgenlebi: ekonomistebi, inJinrebi Tu arqiteqtorebi arian.~
Sesabamisad, mcdaria gavrcelebuli Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, rom Tar-

174

ana osefaSvili

gmna SeuZlia yvelas, vinc erT an ramdenime ucxo enas flobs. mTargmnelis
profesia sakmaod sapasuxismgeblo da mravlismomcveli saqmianobaa da mxolod ucxo enaze leqsikuri ekvivalentebis, Sesatyvisebis codna mTargmnelis Camoyalibebas ver Seuwyobs xels. `Targmani, romlis kiTxvisas sworadaa gadmocemuli teqstis Sinaarsi, sruliad gansxvavebulia im Targmanisagan, romelic enebis codnas efuZneba,~ _ aRniSnaven seleskoviCi da ledereri (Targmnis xelovneba da swavlebis meTodi. 2008:11)
leqsikuri ekvivalentebis garda arsebobs uamravi sakiTxi, romlebic
unda gaiTvaliswinos mTargmnelma Targmnis dros: mTargmnelma unda moaxerxos wyaro enidan (romeli enidanac Targmnis) samizne enaze (romel enazec Targmnis) teqstis gadatana ise, rom gasagebi gaxados mkiTxvelisaTvis
da amave dros, zustad gadmosces avtoris saTqmeli. Targmnis procesi
mTargmnelis mxridan leqsikuri ekvivalentebis garda, mravali sakiTxis
gaTvaliswinebas moiTxovs: lingvoeTnikuri barieris daZleva, sadac lingvistur faqtorSi vgulisxmobT gansxvavebebs enobriv sistemaSi (fonetikuri, leqsikuri, morfologiuri), xolo eTnikur (kulturul) faqtorSi
_ gansxvavebul fonur informaciebs; gramatikuli da leqsikuri transformaciebi samizne teqstSi, rac gamowveulia wyaro da samizne enebs Soris gansxvavebuli leqsikur-gramatikuli struqturiT; uzualuri da
enobrivi normebis gaTvaliswineba TargmanSi; eqsplicituri da implicituri informaciis gadmotana samizne teqstSi. ekvivalenturobisa da adekvaturobis SenarCuneba TargmanSi da a.S.
imisaTvis, rom mTargmnelma Seasrulos xarisxiani Targmani, aucilebelia mas gaaCndes Sesabamisi codna, gamocdileba da unarebi. amisTvis ki,
aucilebelia SemuSavdes momavali mTargmnelebis mosamzadebeli specialuri programa,
dResdReobiT praqtikosi mTargmnelebis umetesoba ekonomistebi, iuristebi da sxva msgavsi arafilologiuri profesiis warmomadgenlebi arian. marTalia, bevri maTganis naSromebi Zalian didi mowonebiT sargeblobs,
magram faqtia, rom qarTul realobaSi mTargmnelTa momzadebis sakiTxi
mwvaved dgas.
pirveli sakiTxi, rac saswrafod moiTxovs Cvengan reagirebas, exeba
swored mTargmnelTa momzadebas. saWiroa, Seiqmnas saswavlo programa dRevandeli gamowvevebis gaTvaliswinebiT. aucilebelia TargmanTmcodneobis
saswavlo programis Secvla, misi ganaxleba da Tanamedrove standartebze
morgeba, raTa SevZloT, mivceT studentebs xarisxiani ganaTleba.
miuxedavad imisa, rom dRes saqarTveloSi yvela mexuTe studenti inglisur enas swavlobs, kargi mTargmnelis povna problemuria, gaizarda
sinqronuli Targmnis specialistebis moTxovna. Cveni azriT, saqarTvelos
umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemam unda gaiziaros warmatebuli gamocdileba
da SeimuSaos mTargmnelobiTi kompetenciebis aucilebeli minimumi, romelic iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli sabakalavro da samagistro saganmanaTleblo
programebis Seqmnisas.

arsebobs ki Targmanis swavlebis meTodika?

175

literatura

`qarTuli enis manqanuri Targmanis programa _ problemebi da perspeqtivebi~ www.ena.ge


`qarTul enaze 1991 wlidan mimdinare mTargmnelobiTi procesis mimoxilva~ _ ana kopaliani, salome beniZe. Tbilisi. 2012
`Targmnis xelovneba da swavlebis meTodi.~ danica seleskoviCi da marian
ledereri. Tbilisi. 2008
` , ~ _ . . .
2003
`Translator Training And Modern Market Demands~. _ Aula.int. 2005
Ana Osephashvili
Do translation-teaching methods really exist?
Translation is closely related to the field of semiotics. At the present stage
of development of the humanities it has already become an axiom. In the past
years there was widespread a false belief that excellent knowledge of the foreign
language is essential to make good translations. Modern translation theory has
specified theoretical knowledge, skills and abilities that every professional
translator should possess. But the question ~How to teach translation? _ still
remains unanswered as well as a good knowledge of both languages (the source
language and the target language). Translator is required to have a semiotic
thesaurus perception, extensive cultural knowledge and so forth.
Prominent academics and translators (M. Lederer, I. Alekseeva, V.
Vinogradov, I. Retsker, M. Semionova, S. Ter-Minasova, etc.) believe that
recently developed Field _ Translation Didactics is still developing and
making its first steps.
Development of the discipline of translation studies in Georgia is very
important. Since the influence of Russian language has changed by English language,
these changed circumstances require new approach to the translation training.
Despite the fact that every fifth Georgian student studies English language,
it is still very difficult to find a good translator. Demands for simultaneous
translators are rising.
We believe that Georgian higher education system should share other
universities innovative and successful experiences to develop minimum
qualification requirements for translators. We also believe that when Bachelors
and Masters degree programs in translation studies are updated, these new
requirements will also be taken into consideration.

qeTevan svaniZe
ilustrireba, rogorc
semiotikaTSorisi
transformaciis xerxi da
cota ram kosmosisa da
qaosis Sesaxeb...
amas rom vfiqrob, bednieri var
da yvela varskvlavi wynarad micinis
cidan...
gavrcelebuli ganmartebis Tanaxmad,
ilustracia aris naxati, foto, graviura an
sxva gamosaxuleba, romelic daerTvis
teqsts misi gaSlis, ganmartebis mizniT.
ilustracia emsaxureba mxatvruli nawarmoebis emociuri atmosferos gadmocemas,
Txrobis gmirebis vizualizacias, wignSi aRsaweri obieqtebis demonstrirebas (botanikuri ilustracia), teqnikuri dokumentaciis Tanmimdevruli instruqciis asaxvas (teqnikuri instruqcia).
ilustraciam farTo gavrceleba hpova
saJurnalo, sareklamo da mwignobrul saqmainobaSi. mcire zomis gamosaxulebebs SeuZliaT mkiTxvelamde iolad miitanon teqstis
ZiriTadi idea da vizualuri metaforis
rols asruleben,
teqstebis ilustrireba uZvelesi
droidan xdeba, rodesac iohan gutenbergma
wignis beWdvis iseTi meTodi gamoigona, romelic teqstze gamosaxulebis darTvis saSualebas iZleoda.
miuxedavad imisa, winamdebare statiaSi
ilustraciaze vsaubrobT,
problemaze
(Tumca, samecniero mimoqcevaSi gavrcelebu-

ilustrireba, rogorc semiotikaTaSorisi transformaciis xerxi da ...

177

li am terminis miuxedavad konkretulad am sakvlev masalas `problemas~


ver vuwodebT) muSaobis procesSi cxadi gaxda, rom swored verbalurTan
misi Sepirispireba, verbaluris gverdiT misi warmodgena gaxdida ufro aSkaras da TvalnaTels ilustraciis arssa da warmoaCenda mas, rogorc Targmanis (kerZod ki, semiotikuri, semiotikaTSorisi Targmanis) erT-erTi
xerxs. verbaluri teqstis gverdiT ilustraciis darTva an verbaluri
Setyobinebis ilustraciiT Canacvleba da am xerxiT siuJetis gadmocema semiotikaTSorisi Targmnis erT-erTi xerxia. TandarTuli ilustracia mkiTxvels teqstis vizualur aRqmaSi exmareba. rogorc wesi, ilustraciis Seqmnis dros gamomcemlebi iTvaliswineben rogorc sazogadoebis interess,
aseve wignis avtorTa moTxovnebsac. dReisaTvis ilustraciam axali daniSnuleba SeiZina: is iolad aRsaqmeli gaxda konkretuli mkiTxvelisTvis. Sesabamisad, saTanadod ilustrirebuli wignebi swored mkiTxvelTa kategoriis gaTvaliswinebiT iqmneba.
statiaSi sakvlevi masalis ganxilva xorcieldeba Semdeg veqtorze:
teqsts miiCneva sawyis wyarod, ilustracia ki _ samizne qmedebad.
SemTxvevaTa umravlesobaSi ilustracia SeiZleba miviCnioT Targmanad,
idenad ramdenadac procesi da meTodologia, romelsac ilustratori iyenebs, identuria verbaluri teqstis enaTSorisi Targmnisas mTargmnelis mier
ganxorcielebuli procesisa da mis mier gamoyenebuli meTodologiisa.
vsaubrobT ra Targmanis meTodologiaze, aRniSvnis Rirsia is faqti,
rom mTargmnelebi da ilustratorebi identur mTargmnelobiT xerxebsa da
meTodebs mimarTaven. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, iseTi mTargmnelobiT xerxebi,
rogoricaa damateba, gamotoveba, ganmarteba da verbaluri Targmanis sxva maxasiaTeblebi, ilustraciis Seqmnis procesSic gamoiyeneba.
ilustraciam verbaluri teqsti SesaZloa Caanacvlos: teqsturi
elementebis zusti gadmocemiT (ilustracia 1) da specifikuri elementebis xazgasmiT (ilustracia 2,3).
3.3. Cvens naSromSi kreolizebuli teqsti warmoadgens kompleqsur
teqstualur formas, romelSic verbaluri da araverbaluri elementebi
qmnian vizualur, struqturul, azrobriv da funqciur erTeuls.
uiliam Seqspiris komediaTa kreolizebuli teqstebis daxasiaTeba
funqciursemantikuri velis farglebSi gvaCvenebs, Tu rogor icvleba yvela kreolizebuli teqstis funqciuri datvirTa. komediaTa Cvens xelT arsebuli kreolizebuli teqstebis nairsaxeoba Semdegnairia: ilustrirebuli piesebi bavSvebisTvis; manga Seqspiri; grafikuli novelebi; klasikuri
komiqsebi da Seqspiri bavSvebisTvis.
g) grafikuli novelisTvis, rogorc sxva kreolizebuli teqstisTvis
damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi Tvisebebi: teqstis gamartiveba, verbalur teqstTan siuJeturad axlos mdgomi feradi gamosaxulebebi, TiToeuli gverdis Tavebad dayofa da dasaTaureba.
d) klasikuri komiqsi aris britanuli gamomcemlobis produqti, romelic aqveynebs literaturuli nawarmoebis grafikuli novelebs adaptire-

178

qeTevan svaniZe

buli formiT. arsebobs klasikuri komiqsebis gamomcemebis sami versia: originali, martivi teqsti da swrafi teqsti (quick text), romelic saSualebas
aZlevs nebismieri saxis mkiTxvels waikiTxos teqsti maTi SesaZleblobebisa
da saWiroebebis Sesabamisad. klasikuri komiqsebis gamomcemloba gaTvaliswinebulia skolis moswavleebisTvis, maswavleblebisTvis da zogadad, nebismieri dainteresebuli mkiTxvelisaTvis, visTvisac teqstis wakiTxva grafikuli
novelebis saxiT gacilebiT martivia.
ilustraciis, rogorc informaciis gadacemis erT-erTi saukeTeso saSualebis, damadastureblad gamodgeba amonaridebi teqstidan sxvadasxva
enaze, romelTa meSveobiTac xSir SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebelia amocnoba, Tu
romeli nawarmoebidanaa moyvanili es amonaridi, miuxedavad im martivi aqsiomisa, rom veraferi iqneba naTqvam, gagonils daweril Tu wakiTxul sityvaze ufro naTeli da gasagebi teqstTagan umravlesobaSi Cven verafers gavigebT an im martivi mizezis gamo, rom ar viciT esa Tu is ena, an is monakveTi
romelic aris mocemuli, ar gvawvdis informaciis im aucilebel minimums,
romelic saWiroa teqstis amosacnobad. xolo Tu ki imave nawarmoebidan
ilustracias moviyvanT, magaliTad, aseTs:
mxolod erTi gamosaxuleba, patara, eqvsi wlis bavSvis naxati gaxda
sakmarisi imisTvis, rom amdeni ucnobi teqsti erT
wamSi ase axlobeli, Tbili
da `Cveni~ gamxdariyo. da
axla, Tuki nebismier (CvenTvis nacnob Tu sruliad
ucnob) enaze daweril an naTargmn `patara ufliswuls~ vnaxavT, pasuxi SekiTxvaze,: `saidan aris aRebuli es amonaridi~, yovelTvis martivi da swori
iqneba: `es `patara ufliswulia~.
da am moTxrobis unikalurobaca da genialurobac swored mis ormxriv, kreolizebul bunebaSi mdgomareobs: sityvebi mxolod am, avtoriseuli gamosaxulebiT aRiqmeba srulyofilad da sworad. da nebismieri gamosaxulebac, roca ki mas vxedavT, swored im sityvebs gvaxsenebs, romlebic
maT `Tan axlavs~ _ maxrCobela gveli, romelsac spilo gadauylapavs, damixate batkani da a.S. maS, aris ilustracia Targmnis, semiotikaTSorisi
transformirebis da sxva niSanTa sistemiT miwodebuli igive informaciis
meqanizmi? ra Tqma unda, aris. CvenTvis, rasakvirvelia, cnobilia, rom rigi
mecnierebisa ar ganixilavs ilustrirebas rogorc Targmanis erT-erT
xerxs. magram Tuki vaRiarebT semiotikaTSorisi Targmanis arsebobas, niSanTa sistemebis monacvleobas informaciis gacvlis procesSi, maSin ratom ar
unda vaRiaroT ilustrireba rogorc niSanTa erTi sistemidan meore niSanTa sistemaze gadayvanis, anu semiotikaTSorisi cvlilebis, semiotikaTSorisi Targmanis ganxorcielebis saSualebas?

ilustrireba, rogorc semiotikaTaSorisi transformaciis xerxi da ...

179

vfiqrob, pasuxi cxadze cxadia.


CvenTvis cnobilia, rom rigi mecnierebisa ar aRiarebs ilustracias
rogorc Targmnis xerxs. magram, Tuki Cven veTanxmebiT r.iakobsoniseul
Targmanis tipologias, romelmac Tavis naSromSi `Targmanis Teoriis sakiTxebi sazRvargareTis lingvistikaSi~ (iakobsoni 1978:16-24) mogvca
Targmanis tipebis Semdegi klasifikacia:
`Cven ganvasxvavebT verbaluri niSnis interpretaciis sam xerxs: igi SeiZleba gadatanili iqnas imave enis sxva niSnebze, sxvadasxva enaze an sxva, simboloTa araverbalur sistemaze. Targmanis am sam tips SegviZlia vuwodoT:
1) Sidaenobrivi Targmani anu gadarqmeva _ verbaluri niSnebis interpretacia imave enis sxva niSnebis meSveobiT;
2) enaTSorisi Targmani anu kerZod Targmani _ verbaluri niSnebis
interpretacia romelime sxva enis sxva niSnebis meSveobiT;
3) semiotikaTSorisi Targmani anu transmutacia _ verbaluri niSnebis interpretacia araverbalur niSanTa sistemebis meSveobiT (iakobsoni
1978: 20).
ra gvaqvs mxedvelobaSi, roca semiotikaTSoris Targmanze vsaubrobT?
semiotikaTSoris Targmanebad Cven moviazrebT ilustrirebas (wignis grafikul gaformebas, komiqsebs, srul ilustrirebas verbaluri nawilis gareSe da a.S.), aseve verbaluri teqstebis ekranizacias _ animaciur filmebs, mxatvrul da satelevizio filmebs, film-parodiebs, satelevizio
speqtaklebs da a.S., amas garda _ sasceno dadgmebs, rogorebica Tojinebis
Teatri, speqtakli, miuzikli, saopero dadgma, sabaleto dadgma da a. S.
ratom aris ilustracia Targmani?
miuxedavad imisa, rom iakobsonis mokle klasifikacia ver uzrunvelyofs am SekiTxvaze pasuxs, is saerTod ar exeba ilustrirebul wignebs. pasuxi scildeba mis Teorias da misive varaudiT, mxatvruli nawarmoebi SesaZlebelia iTargmnos mxolod `kreatiuli transpoziciiT~ (iakobsoni
1959/2000: 118).
rekreaciis anu kvlavwarmoebis Teoria pirdapir kavSirSia ilustraciasTan. poeziis Targmanis msgavsad, ilustrireba mxolod SesaZlebelia
teqstualuri elementebis rekreaciiT. isini gansxvavdebian niSanTa sistemebisgan, magram enacvlebian igive teqstis sxva konstruqciebs, gansakuTrebiT ki, kanonikur novelebSi, romlebic umetes SemTxvevaSi ilustrirebulia sxvadasxva mxatvris mier. ilustracia ara mxolod kvlav qmnis teqstis literaturul da kulturul faseulobas, aramed aormagebs faseulobebs gansxvavebul kulturul sistemebSi yovel jerze, rodesac is aris
Sesrulebuli da warmogvidgeba rogorc teqstis refraqcia gadasvla
(refraction) /gadawera (rewriting) sxva kulturaSi zustad imave saxiT, romliTac xorcieldeba Targmani.
Tuki `patara ufloswuls~ davubrundebiT, kidev erTi ilustracia
iqcevs Cvens yuradebas:
rac sityvasityviT niSnavs damixate cxvari. marTlac, inglisur (Draw

180

qeTevan svaniZe

me a sheep), italiur (disegnami una pecora), espanur (Pntame un cordero)


(TargmanebSi `damixate cxvari~ meordeba. ai rusul da qarTul versiebSi ki
( , da damixate batkani). frangul enaSi gvaqvs rogorc
cxvris aRmniSvneli sityva le
mouton, aseve sityva lagneau,
romelic batkans aRniSnavs.
maSin Tuki Tavad originaluri teqstis avtorma le mouton
gamoiyena da inglisur, italiur, espanur Tu sxva enebze
mTargmnelebma swored ase
Targmnes es sityva, da ara
sityviT batkani saidan gaCnda
is nawarmoebis rusul versiaSi? da amaSi ~damnaSave Cveni azriT, swored
ilustraciaa. radgan frangul, originalur versiaSi verbalur informaciasa da mis araverbalur gamosaxulebas Soris erTgvari asimetriaa, aq informaciis erTgvar gaorebasTan gvaqvs saqme. italielma, ingliselma da
sxva mTargmnelebma am kreolizebuli informaciis verbaluri nawili, rusma da qarTvelma ki araverbaluri nawili Targmnes, radgan originalis avtoris mier Seqmnil naxatze swored batkania, da ara didi cxvari. Sesabamisad, xdeba ilustraciis verbalizeba saTargmn enaze, da ara Tavad verbaluri informaciisa.da aq kidev erTxel vsvamT SekiTxvas: aris gamosaxuleba,
ilustracia Targmnis, semiotikaTSorisi transformirebis da sxva niSanTa
sistemiT igive informaciis mowodebis meqanizmi? rasakvirvelia, aris.
da rac Seexeba komossa da qaoss: `patara ufliswuli~ kosmossa da qaoss uSualod, pirdapir exeba da amavdroulad, moTxrobis Sinaarsi igive
movlenebs qvecnobieradac gvaxsenebs: ratom pirdapir, advili misaxvedria,
(patara ufliswuli patara planetidan `asteroid B-612 Camovida dedamiwaze (rasakvirvelia, nomeri mxolod mosawyen ufrosebs sWirdebaT, bavSvebs _ araferSi.
dedamiwa patara ufliswulisTvis meSvide planeta aRmoCnda, romelic
man moinaxula, man eqvsi mezobeli asteroidi gamoiara, anu, kosmosSi imogzaura. patara ufliswuli Tavisi patara samyarodan, sakuTari, Tavisi saxlisodena planetidan, sakuTari kosmosidan, sadac yvelaferi Tavis adgilsa da Tavis rigzea, da romelsac igi yoveldRiurad gulmodgined asufTavebda qaosSi gamovida. Tumca, am mowesrigebulobis, simSvidis, garkveulobis miuxedavad, an iqneb, gamoisobiTac ki mxolod sakuTar kosmosSi arseboba ufliswulisTvis moswyenia. amitom misTvis erTaderTi gasarTobi mzis
cqeraa. is dRis ganmavlobaSi ramdenjerme gadaaadgilebs, ramdenime nabijze
gadaaqvs skami da ase, ramdenjerme SeuZlia mzis Casvlas ucqiros: erT dRes
ormocdasamjer vucqire mzis Casvlas! da cota xnis dumilis Semdeg dasZina: _ roca adamians umZims, mzis Casvlis cqera uyvars...
da moulodnelad misi kosmosis myudroebas vardi daarRvevs. ganicdis

ilustrireba, rogorc semiotikaTaSorisi transformaciis xerxi da ...

181

igi kosmosSi qaosuri sxivis SemoWras? (`me megona, rom umdidresi adamiani

viyavi, raki iseTi yvavili mqonda, romlismagvari meore ar moiZebneba qveynad... da swored vardis gamoCena cvlis mis cxovrebas _ ubiZgebs, datovos
Tavisi planeta, gaeqces mas, da misTvis aqamde ucnobs, ucxos, gaurkvevels,
Seucnobelsa da SeuCvevels _ qaoss eziaros.
rogorc vTqviT, dedamiwa patara ufliswulisTvis meSvide planeta
iyo, manamde man pirvel planetaze ucnauri xalxi, pativmoyvare adamiani,
loTs, saqmosans, mexuTeze ki mefarnes... ufliswuli gamodis sakuTari
kosmosidan da qaoss eziareba. Tumca, yvela planetaze igi sakuTar myudro
garss, sakuTar kosmoss poulobs, romelSic igi moxerxebulad moewyoba da
swored es simyudrove SigadaSig afiqrebinebs, rom siamovnebiT darCeboda am
planetaze. vin icis, iqneb es `patara simyudrove~ did qaosSi `bavSvis da,
zogadad, bavSvobis samyaro, bavSvobis kosmosia, bavSvobis, bavSvuri gulubryvilobis, mimndoblobis, bavSvuri sandoobis kosmosi, romelsac nebismier
qaosSi sakuTari simyudrovis, sakuTari `kosmosis~ intuiciurad migneba,
povna SeuZlia.
da ra unda iyos imaze ufro simSvidisa da myudroebis momtani Tvaluwvdenel kosmossa Tu uimedod mouwesrigebel qaosSi, rogorc patara
ufliswulis sityvebi: ,,amas rom vfiqrob, bednieri var da yvela varskvla-

vi wynarad micinis cidan...~


literatura:
antuan de sent-egziuperi `patara ufliswuli~, 2015.
iakobsoni 1978: .
( . _ .,. _ .
16-24
iakobsoni 2000: Jakobson, R. (1959/2000) On linguistic aspects of translation,
in L. Venuti (ed.) pp. 113118.
Ketevan Svanidze
Illustration as Means Intersemiotic Translation
According to the typology of translation, given by R. Jacobson, there are
three kinds of translation are to be differently labeled: Intralingual translation or
rewording is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same
language; Interlingual translation or translation proper is an interpretation of
verbal signs by means of some other language; Intersemiotic translation or
transmutation is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of nonverbal
sign systems.

marine sioriZe
qaosi da fiqcia frangul
`axal romanSi~:
warmosaxva da realoba
alen rob-griesTan
alen rob-gries nawarmoebebis pirvelad wakiTxvam mkiTxveli SeiZleba daabnios,
radgan igi ver naxavs maTSi tradiciuli romanisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs. robgries romanebis ganxilvisas azrTa ukidures
sxvadasxvaobaa. saqme isaa, rom kritikosebis
erTi nawili mis romanebs ise ganixilavs,
rom mwerlis Teoriul gamonaTqvamebs ar aqcevs yuradRebas, meoreni ki mxolod mis Teoriebs eyrdnobian. mweralma Teoriuli statiebis wera im mizniT daiwyo, rom Tavi daecva mozRvavebuli kritikisa da gauTavebeli
Tavdasxmebisagan, agreTve daxmareboda dabneul mkiTxvelebsa da kritikosebs Tavisi nawerebis gagebaSi. es aucilebeli iyo, radgan
is mcireodeni qebac, romelic aqa-iq gamoCnda, swor safuZvels ar eyrdnoboda: mis romanebSi aqebdnen ara imas, rac axali iyo, aramed Zveli, klasikuri romanisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs, imas, rac TviT avtors sakuTari Semoqmedebis naklad miaCnda.
franguli ,,axali romanis~ warmomadgenelTa Soris alen rob-gries gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs. misi Teoriuli kredo
da weris manera imdenad gansxvavdeba am mimarTulebis sxva mweralTa Teoriebisa da romanebisagan, rom calke msjelobis sagans warmoadgens. ,,romani arasodes yofila Tavis
Tavis ase radikalurad winaaRmdegi, rogorc

qaosi da fiqcia frangul `axal romanSi~ warmosaxva da realoba alen rob-greisTan

183

rob-gries romania, igi axal romanistebs Soris erTaderTia, romelmac


sruliad axali ram Semoitana literaturaSi~ (moro 1992:134).
sakmaod didxans kritikosebis erTi nawili rob-gries aRiarebda, da
zogierTi axlac aRiarebs ,,Sozizmis~ (frang. chose _ nivTi, sagani) warmomadgenlad. erT-erTma yvelaze cnobilma Tanamedrove kritikosma -rolan
bartma dasabami misca am saxelis damkvidrebas. misi azriT sagani rob-griesaTvis aRar aris adamianTa dakavSirebis saSualeba, SegrZnebebis da simboloebis niSani, is aris mxolod ,,optikuri winaaRmdegoba~ (is rac TvalSi
gvxvdeba). samyaro dayvanilia mxolod da mxolod mis zedapirul, ,,bukvalur~ aRweraze. samyaros axleburi xedva aris sagnebis aRwera. sagnebi arian ,,iq~, sanam ramed iqcevian, e.i. isini TavisTavad arian. sagnebis amgvari fenomenologiuri aRwera alen robgries pirveli mizania. mwerali iqceva
sagnebis romanistad, e. w. ,,Sozistad~. movusminoT isev robgries: `samyaro arc mniSvnelobis mqonea da arc absurduli (gaixseneT sartrisa da kamius koncefcia samyaros absurdulobis Sesaxeb), is ubralod aris. asevea
sagnebic, isini arc mnivnelobis matareblebi arian da arc absurdulni. isini arian ,,iq~. mwerlebi yovelTvis did mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen sagnebs. misi aRwera saWiro iyo socialuri, fsiqologiuri Tu metafizikuri faqtoris xazgasasmelad. igi yovelTvis saidumloebis, mniSvnelobis matarebeli
iyo. gamoxatavda individis miswrafebas, tanjvas, mizans (balzaki, zola da
sxva). sagans romantika, ,,Sinaganoba~ (intriorit) axasiaTebda. sinamdvileSi
ki sagani mniSvnelobas moklebulia, amitom mweralma mniSvnelobis mqone
saganTa samyaros nacvlad (fsiqologiuri, socialuri Tu sxva) unda Seqmnas uSualo, pirdapiri (immdiat) sagnebis samyaro. amgvar samyaroSi sagnebs didi roli ganekuTvnebaT, magram daclilni iqnebian santimentaluri
da metafizikuri mniSvnelobisagan. individic aRar iqneba samyaros centrSi.
is sagnebis mbrZanebeli veRar iqneba, radgan sagnebi misi arsebobis sayrdenebi ar arian. sagnebis sruli damoukidebloba naTlad Cans, robgries azriT,
deteqtiur romanebSi. im dros, rodesac damnaSave uars ambobs danaSaulis
aRiarebaze, mowmeebic TiTqos damnaSavis sasargeblod laparakoben, WeSmaritebas xsnis sagani, misi mdgomareoba Tu nakvalevi.
rob-grie sagnebs iseTive sizustiT aRwers, rogorc balzaki, magram
balzakisaTvis sagans aqvs mniSvneloba, forma, suni, miuTiTebs mogonebebsa
da analogiebze. maTi xatva dakavSirebulia romanis personaJebTan, isini
xazs usvamen maT Tvisebebsa da xasiaTs, iwveven saamur an piriqiT, usiamovno
mogonebebs. rob-gries mier aRwerili sagnebi ki moklebulni arian analogiebs, aRaraferze mianiSneben, araferze miuTiTeben, arafers eZieben, simbolos ar warmoadgenen da raime daskvnisaTvis ar arian aRwerilni. maTi aRwera garegnuli, zedapiruli formebisa da konturebis meSveobiT SeiZleba;
amgvari aRwera arc personaJis da arc sagnis raime Tvisebas privilegias ar
aniWebs. sagnis aRweriT mwerali mis ukan arafers malavs, rogorc es tradiciul romanSi xdeba. sagnis fenomenis iqiT araferi imaleba, arc alegoriuli, arc simboluri da arc metafizikuri. haidegeris naTqvami adamianis

184

marine sioriZe

Sesaxeb ,,adamianis yofierebis piroba aris ,,iq~ yofna, robgries sagnebze


gadaaqvs da mis ZiriTad miznad iqceva aCvenos damoukidebeli, TavisTavSi Caketili sagnebis ,,iq~ yofna. mas ar ainteresebs sagnis funqcia, romelic, misi azriT, iluziuria. saganSi mxolod misi ,,optikuri xedva~ aris realuri. misi realuri arsi misi gamoyenebis miRma iwyeba. ,,yoveli sagani, yoveli
movlena, yoveli forma aris sakuTari Tavis simbolo... Cveni samyaro... aris
niSnebis samyaro... magram ara raRac sxvisi niSani, ara raRac srulyofili,
romelic CvenTvis miuwvdomelia, aramed misi sakuTari niSani, arsis niSani,
romelic Cven unda aRmovaCinoT~ (oriol-buaie 1990: 97).
literaturis kritikosi, rolan barti, Tvlis, rom tradiciul romanSi sagans ar hqonda gankuTvnili misi namdvili adgili. is iyo yovelTvis adamianuri urTierTobis sayrdeni da raimes maniSnebeli. bolos da bolos, saganma unda ipovos Tavisi damoukidebloba da ise unda aRiweros, rom transcendenturi ar iyos, amitom cdilobs rob-grie, rom sagans moacilos is
mniSvnelobebi, romlebic adamianebma moaxvies Tavs. ugulebelyofs metaforebs da amiT sruliad ukargavs mkiTxvels xaliss raime miniSnebisa, an sagnis
poeturad aRqmisa. igi sagnis zust asls akeTebs, magram es sagani, erTi mxriv,
klasikuria, radganac geometriuli sizustiT ars aRwerili, meore mxriv ki
axleburi, radgan araviTar transcendentobaze ar miuTiTebs. sagnis amgvar
aRmwerels uwodebs swored barti ,,Sozists~. amrigad, barti Tvlis, rom
rob-grie aris sagnebis mniSvnelobis damamsxvreveli; magram kritikosi mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi meore periodsac gamoyofs, romelSic rob-gries ,,humanistad~ acxadebs. marTalia, arc meore periodSi iqcnen sagnebi simboloebad,
magram maT erTgvari mniSvneloba daekisraT (barti 1980: 125).
rob-gries SemoqmedebaSi siurealistebis didi gavlena igrZnoba. mwerals araerTxel aRuniSnavs, Tu ra sizustiT aRweres siurealistebma sizmarSi nanaxi sagnebi: skami, kenWi, sagnis vardna. sizmarSi bevri ram bundovania, magram sagnebi araCveulebrivi sizustiT cxaddebian, TiTqos gamaradisebulni arian. mwerals moswons agreTve siurealistebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli is idumaleba, romelsac isini yoveldRiurobaSi xedaven.
pirveli romani ,,saSlelebi~ kritikosebma sxvadasxvanairad axsnes.
zogma is klasikur tragediad miiCnia, zogma ki deteqtiuri tipis romanad,
zogma igi ,,Sozismis~ manifestad gamoacxada, zogma ki kinematografiul antiromanad, zogi Tvlis, rom masSi aRdgenilia Zveli miTi, zogi ki piriqiT,
fiqrobs, rom es romani aris cda literaturaSi miTis mospobisa.
cnobili frangi kritikosi pengo (1975) Tvlis, rom am romanis analizi advili ar aris da arc iZleva konkretul axsnas. rolan barti ukuagdebs
yovelgvar ,,argumentirebul analizs~ da yofs romans or nawilad: erTi
aris kvanZi (romelic mas srulebiT ar ainteresebs), meore ki sagnebi (bartis azriT romanis mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala). es sagnebi ,,antiklasikuria~, radganac maT mniSvneloba mocilebuli aqvT, maT mxolod Tvali xedavs. sagnebs arc funqcia aqvT da arc substancia, bartsac swored es moswons: ,,rob-griem samyaros mxolod Tvalebis ZaliT Sexedao~. am romanma

qaosi da fiqcia frangul `axal romanSi~ warmosaxva da realoba alen rob-greisTan

185

naTlad gviCvena, rom ,,araferi imaze Zneli ar aris, rom zustad vicodeT,
ras vxedavT~ (Merleau-Ponty _ ,,Phenomenologie de la perception~).
romanSi didi adgili uWiravs dros. avtori uaryofs Cveulebrivi,
sworxazobrivi drois Cvenebas drois Tanmimdevrul dinebas da cvlis mas
e.w. adamianuri droiT, romelsac adamiani TviTon qmnis awmyosa da warsulis
erTmaneTSi SereviT. erTi da igive movlenas sxvadasxva aspeqti aqvs, radgan
igi sxvadasxva adamianis mier aris danaxuli, e.i. dro da sivrce pirobiTia da
icvlebian damkvirveblisa da adgilis mixedviT. mkvlelobis garSemo ramdenime adamiani fiqrobs: valasi, komisari da garinati. maTi fiqrebi, cnobierebis
nakadi, Sinagani monologebi Sereulia realobis zust aRwerebSi. warmodgeniTi suraTebi gadaxlarTulia realobasTan, magram araferi migviTiTebs, sad
Tavdeba realoba da sad iwyeba warmosaxviTi ambebi.
marTalia, rob-grie uaryofs simbolizacias, miniSnebas, magram, amasTan, mkiTxvels misi romanebis interpretaciis srul Tavisuflebas aZlevs.
amiT vsargeblobT Cvenc. ,,saSlelebi~ iwvevs mTel rig asociaciebs, misi
kompozicia, mimdinareoba, adgilebi, epizodebi, gvafiqrebineben, rom romani
SesaZlebelia oidiposis tragediis Tanamedrove versia iyos. amerikeli
lingvisti _ moriseti Tvlis, rom ,,saSlelebi~ aris ,,klasikuri legenda
miTiuri da arqetipuri motivebiT~ (moriseti 1998:67).
mogvaqvs yvelaze mniSvnelovani msgavsebebi Zvel miTTan: epigrafad gamoyenebulia sofokles gadakeTebuli gamonaTqvami: ,,drom, romelic yvelafers uTvalTvalebs, uSenodac ipova gamosavali~. berZnuli tragediisa da
klasikuri franguli tragediebis msgavsad romans aqvs prologi, epilogi,
xuTi nawili (moqmedeba).
rob-griem romanis centralur Temad oidiposis miTi aqcia, fexdafex
mihyva da TiTqos aRadgina igi. magram sabolood miTi ki ar aRudgenia, aramed parodirebis saSualebiT gaaufasura. amisaTvis man originalur meTods
mimarTa: aRadgina Zveli miTis yvela mniSvnelovani, sakvanZo wertili da maTi sruli usargebloba aCvena; Zieba mimdinareobs danaSaulis garSemo, romelic ar momxdara. mTavari personaJis yoveli saqcieli motivirebulia
mkvlelobiT, romelic ar momxdara. da bolos, valasi sakuTar mamas klavs!
magram gana amaSi darwmunebuli varT? romanis kiTxvisas dabneuli mkiTxveli sul imas cdilobs, rom gaerkves ra xdeba, rogorc ki miniSnebas waawydeba, SvebiT amoisunTqavs, mixvda, rogorc iqna, rom oidiposis miTis aRdgenaa, magram Semdgomi teqsti isev eWvs badebs, mere isev miniSneba, isev gabaTileba da a.S. asevea sagnebis mimarTac. uamrav sagans Soris mkiTxveli im
sagnebs arCevs, romelTac SeiZleba mniSvneloba mianiWo, xolo imaT, romlebic asociaciebs ar iwvvevs, yuradRebas ar aqcevs. sakmarisia mkiTxvelma xeli Caavlos sagnis miniSnebas, rom igi ufasurdeba. ase, sul mudam trialebs
eWvi. mTeli romanic raimes mtkiceba ki ar aris, aramed ngrevaa, TavisTavis
negacia. `me mindoda momeTxro ambavi, romelic Tavis Tavs angrevs,~ ganacxada kidec mweralma.
TviT saTauris `saSlelebi~ mniSvneloba ase SeiZleba gavigoT: saWi-

186

marine sioriZe

roa waSla im memkvidreobis, kanonebis, formebis, fsiqologiis, metafizikisa da sxva faqtorebis, romlebic ar eSvebian adaminsa da romans, gamudmebiT
sdeven Tan da sakuTar TavisTavadobas akargvineben.
kritikosebi, romlebic rob-gries Semoqmedebas or periodad yofen,
mwerlis mesame romans `eWvianoba~ mis SemoqmedebaSi gardatexis momentad
miiCneven. miuxedavad imisa, rom pirvel periodSi igi ,,Sozistad~ aris aRiarebuli, meoreSi ki `humanistad~, misi bolo ori romani ufro axlo dgas
mis Teoriul mrwamsTan, vidre pirvelebi. rob-gries mizani, daweros ,,wminda~ romani, floberis Tqmisa ar iyos, ,,wigni araferze~, sadac kompoziciis,
struqturis da formis meSveobiT unda Seiqmnas iseTi nawarmoebi, romelic
mxolod fiqciaa da romelSic mxatvruli Rirebuleba da `mSveniereba~
mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan, SedarebiT ufro naTlad gamoCnda romanebSi: `eWvianoba~ da `labirinTSi~.
Cveni azriT, `eWvianoba~ rob-gries yvelaze abstraqtuli romania: sagnebis gauTavebeli aRwerebiT, ori adamianis a-si da frankis gauTavebeli saubrebiT, maTi sruliad meqanikuri moZraobebiT, erTi da imave scenebisa da
suraTebis akviatebuli gameorebebiT.
rob-grie saerTod TiTqmis yvela Tavis nawarmoebs an dasawyisSive warumZRvarebs xolme Sesavlis magiers, gafrTxilebas an kidev bolo gverdze
iZleva sakmaod bundovan miniSnebas romanis ZiriTadi xazisa. `eWvianobis~ bolo gverdidan vigebT, rom ,,am ambis mTxrobeli qmari, romelic uTvalTvalebs cols romanis centria. is mudam pirvel planzea, pirveli frazidan
bolomde, magram miTxveli ver xedavs mas, ar esmis misi. mkiTxveli grZnobs
mxolod mis `iq~ yofnas. is ganalagebs sagnebs, akvirdeba Jestebs, aZlevs samyaros formas, simagres, wonas. personaJs arc saxeli aqvs da arc saxe. is realurad ar arsebobs anonimuria, magram yovelive mis warmodgenaSi xdeba da
amitom mkiTxvelma igi konkretulad unda aRiqvas. es kaci eWvianobs colis
mimarT. eWvi ki iseTi vnebaa, romelic arafers iviwyebs: yoveli Jesti, yoveli
warmodgena da moCveneba samudamod CaibeWdeba adamianSi. romanSi mkiTxveli
ver grZnobs am ,,personaJis~ tanjvas, eWvianobiT gamowveul saSinel tkivilebs, rogorsac ganicdis, magaliTad, svani prustis romanSi. qmris eWviani
Tvali TiTqos meqanikurad iwers firze, rac misi TvalTaxedvis areSi xvdeba
(sagnebi, buneba, coli, meore mamakaci da sxva). unda aRvniSnoT, rom zog adgilas marTlac ostaturad aris daWerili eWvis atmosfero: xelebis moZraoba, werilis Cadeba, Tavis motrialeba. magram esaa da es. ganzogadeba an raime
daskvnis gamotana SeuZlebelia: Tumca arc avtori Txoulobs amas. nawarmoebis formam da kompoziciam unda aqcios mkiTxveli eWvian qmrad da mxolod maSin aRiqvams igi romans ise, rogorc es surs avtors.
romanis ,,labirinTSi~ patara Sesavali gvauwyebs, rom ,,es moTxroba
aris fiqcia da ara mtkiceba. is aRwers realobas, romelic aucileblad iseTi ar iqneba, rogoric mkiTxvels ganucdia. magaliTad, franguli armiis qveiTi jariskaci farajis sayeloze nomers ar atarebda, dasavleT evropis axalma istoriam ar icis raime mniSvnelovani brZola reixenfelsSi an mis maxlob-

qaosi da fiqcia frangul `axal romanSi~ warmosaxva da realoba alen rob-greisTan

187

lad, magram mocemuli realoba zustad materialuria, e.i. mas ara aqvs pretenzia hqondes alegoriuli mniSvneloba. avtoris winaswari gafrTxileba
da romanis emociuri Zala eWvs badebs, rom Txroba ar aris upirovno da obieqturi, rom masSi mxolod sagnebis aRwera ar aris ZiriTadi. ,,labirinTSi~
rob-gries romanebs Soris yvelaze amaRelvebeli da emociuria.
riT aRwevs amas avtori? upirveles yovlisa kompoziciiT. TiTqos
areul-dareuli scenebi da suraTebi (romlebic Tavdapirvelad gza-kvals
ubneven mkiTxvels) sagangebod aris ase ganlagebuli. romanis kompoziciiT
iqmneba labirinTi: Caxuruli oTaxi, kafe, bneli derefnebi, gauTavebeli quCebi, sagnebi da isev sagnebi; erTi dekori meoreTi icvleba, mere isev pirveli scenaa. personaJebi erTsa da imave adgilas sxvadasxva gziT midian, ukan
brundebian, gauTavebeli siaruli quCebsa da derefnebSi, CixSi moxvedra da
isev xelmeored gzis dawyeba, sul raRacis Zieba yovelive es ise ostaturadaa gadaxlarTuli erTmaneTSi, rom Tavisi struqturiT labirinTis
srul asociacias iwvevs da warmodgenaSi waruSlel STabeWdilebad isaxeba. pirveli wakiTxviT rac daulagebeli da areuli gveCvena, nel-nela dalagebuli, Sekruli da mTliani gamoCnda. kompoziciuri wonasworobis
TvalsazrisiT yoveli axali suraTi wina suraTis kanonzomieri gagrZelebaa. gadasvlebis dinamikuri balansireba SemTxveviTi ar aris, quCidan oTaxSi, oTaxidan quCaSi da sxva. roca oTaxis aRwerisas mTeli rigi sagnebis
Semdeg neitraluri Tvali miadgeba fardebs (romlis ukan fanjara igulisxmeba), an roca TviT sityva fanjara warmoiTqmeba, suraTi umalve icvleba
quCiT... roca jariskaci miapyrobs mzeras saxls da fanjaras, aRwera isev
oTaxze gadadis da a.S. ase mTeli teqsti harmoniulad gadadis erTi suraTidan meoreze.
romanSi TiTqos sruli obieqturobiT, neitralur-indiferentuli
toniT aris aRwerili sagnebi da gare samyaro. magram romanis pirveli da
bolo frazebi mowmoben, rom mTel am ,,ambavs~ viRac hyveba: e. i. am ambavs
mTxrobeli hyavs. ,,me marto var axla...~ am fraziT iwyeba romani. amrigad,
obieqturi aRwerebis nacvlad Cven aq gvaqvs mocemuli gamogonebuli, sizmariseuli, oniriuli samyaro. robgrie marTalia, roca Tavs imarTlebs:
,,Cemi aRwerebi yovelTvis adamianis TvaliT aris danaxulio~, `eWvianobaSi~
udavod asea, ase unda iyos ,,labirinTSic~.
amrigad, robgries moZebnili principi aRmoCndeba mniSvnelobas moklebuli sisavse (opacit), romelsac samyaro sTavazobs Cvens xedviT Wvretas (perception visuelle). rob-grie TiTqos cnobierebisagan damoukideblad
aRwers obieqtur realobas, magram namdvilad es subieqtis mier danaxuli
gaobieqturebuli aRweraa. Zalze padoqsalurad JRers, magram unda vTqvaT,
rom rob-gries Semoqmedeba aris gaobieqturebuli subieqturoba. obieqturia, radgan mwerali materialur samyarosa da sagnebs zustad aRwers, xolo subieqturia, radgan es aRwera erTi romelime adamianis mier aris warmodgenili Tu danaxuli. sruli obieqturobis SegrZnebas ki weris manera
iwvevs, igi mSrali da neitraluria.

188

marine sioriZe

literatura:

almani 1996: . Allemand, R-M. Le Nouveau Roman, d. Ellipses.


barti 1980: Sur la littrature, d. Presses universitaires de Grenoble.
moro 1992: Moreau, J-L. La nouvelle fiction, Paris, Citerions.
mursia 1998: Murcia, Cl. Nouveau roman, nouveau cinma, Paris, Nathan.
oriolbuaie 1990: Oriol-Boyer, Cl.. Nouveau Roman et discours critique,
Grenoble.
rikardu 1990: Ricardou, J.. Problmes du Nouveau Roman, Paris, Seuil.
rob grie 1985: Robbe-Grillet, A. Les Gommes, Paris, Seuil.
Marine Sioridze
Chaos and Fiction in ~New Novel: Imagination and Reality in Alain
Robbe-Grillets Literary Works
One of the prominent figures of French ~New Novel is Alain RobbeGrillet. His motto and style of writing is so different from his contemporaries
that it requires special investigation. Morro once said: Robbe-Grillet is the
exceptional member of The Nouveau Roman who brought absolutely new things
in literature.
Robbe-Grillet rejects the usage of symbols and gives the readers a chance
to interpret his novels in more than one way. Novel ~The Erasers evokes
different associations in readers. Its composition, setting, episodes make the
readers think that the novel was written in Ancient times. It is the novel that
resembles Ancient tragedy ~Oedipus. American Linguist Morriset says about
~The Erasers: ~It is a classic legend with mythical and archetypical motives.
Time is of great importance in Robbe-Grillets novels. The author fractures
timelines and uses so called Human time which is created by mixture of
present and past. One and the same event has different aspects as it is seen by
different people. It means that time and space changes according to person and
place.
~Jealousy is Robbe-Grillets abstract novel that is full of repetitive
descriptions of different objects, endless talks between two characters A and
Frank, descriptions of their mechanic movements. Even scenes are repeated. The
originality of ~In the Labyrinth is in using specific scenes and showing the
psychology and interiority of the characters.

Tamar siraZe
axali samyaro da panis
xelaxali dabadeba
(devid herbert lorensis
`ukanaskneli sicili~)
devid herbert lorensi meoce saukunis
pirveli naxevris yvelaze skandaluri reputaciis ingliseli mweralia. skandalis mizezi misi mouridebeli damokidebulebaa viqtorianuli moralis mimarT. igi ewinaaRmdegeba dromoWmul viqtorianul morals, magram, amave dros, ver urigdeba burJuaziuli samyaros `meqanistur civilizacias~,
radgan igi aClungebs adamianis instinqtur
sawyiss. lorensis esTetikis safuZvelia bunebriobis apoTeozi da samyaros sensualuri aRqma. fonad igi xSirad iyenebs socialur elementebs. romanebis ZiriTadi Temaa
adamianis sulieri da fizikuri harmonia. saukuneebiT gamomuSavebuli yalbi burJuaziuli zneobrivi normebis sawinaaRmdegod lorensi ibrZoda adamianis sxeulis emansipaciisaTvis. lorensis Semoqmedebam, misi winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTis miuxedavad, udidesi
gavlena moaxdina XX saukunis inglisuri
romanis ganviTarebaze.
`ukanaskneli sicili~ d. h. lorensis
nakleb cnobili novelaa im romanebis da
moTxrobebis fonze, romlebmac mas didi saxeli moutanes _ `vaJiSvilebi da sayvarlebi~, `cisartyela~, `Seyvarebuli qalebi~,
`ledi Caterlis sayvareli~, `qrizanTemebis
surneli~, `boSa da qalwuli~, `Wiamaia~.
TumcaRa, unda aRiniSnos, rom es moTxroba

190

Tamar siraZe

aranakleb saintereso mxatvrul saxeebsa da simbolur refleqsias gvTavazobs. statiis mizania warmoaCinos miTologiuri panis mxatvruli funqcia
_ gamoaRviZos meqanizirebuli samyaro da daubrunos mas pirvelqmnili ubraloeba, miamitoba, sisufTave da sicocxlis siyvaruli (akermani
2006:128).
ukanaskneli sicili inglisur enaSi idiomaturi gamoTqmaa da niSnavs
saboloo gamarjvebas an triumfs, gansakuTrebiT warumateblobis an dacinvis Semdeg, anu im dros, rodesac yvelaze nakleb aris gamarjveba mosalodneli. Sesabamisad, sicils da sicilis sxvadasxva formebs mniSvnelovani
datvirTva gaaCnia nawarmoebSi.
novela daiwera 1924 wels da asaxavs swored am drois londons; kerZod, moqmedeba viTardeba hemsTedSi, londonis erT-erT feSenebelur gareubanSi, Tormeti saaTis ganmavlobaSi, sami protagonistis monawileobiT _
mis jeimzi, mister marCbenqsi da policieli. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom dasawyisSi gamoyvanili personaJi lorenco aranakleb mniSvnelovani piria,
radgan swored is acilebs Tavisi ezodan (baRidan) stumrebs _ axalgazrda wyvils mis jeimzsa da mister marCbenqss _ Semdegi sityvebiT: `Look at
it! A new world! (lorensi 1999:47) `SexedeT, axali samyaro!~. maT Tvalwin axali TovliT dafaruli ulamazesi xedi gadaiSleba. es epizodi aSkarad warmogvidgens Tvalwin samoTxidan gaZevebul adamsa da evas, romelTac
axali samyaro da axali cxovreba elodeba win. niSandoblivia, rom rodesac
lorenco karebs gamoiketavs, ~The two were alone in the street, save for the
policeman at the corner (lorensi 1999:47) `ori arseba marto aRmoCnda
quCaSi, mxolod policieli iyo quCis kuTxeSi~.
ras moaswavebs maTTvis es damoukidebeli svla cxovrebis gzaze? avtori aRwers gzas da misi gavlis dros momxdar cvlilebebs, romelTac saboloo jamSi metamorfozisken mivyavarT.
saxlisaken mimaval gzaze, romelic amavdroulad dedamiwaze damkvidrebis procesis metaforuli saxea, mniSvnelovani ambebi xdeba. Tavdapirvelad,
mamakacs Tovlze fexi daucdeba da qudi Camouvardeba. qudis asaRebad daxrili, gogonas amoxedavs da TiTqosda masSi `satanuri axalgazrda mRvdeli~
gamoikveTeba: ~He seemed like a satanic young priest (lorensi 1999:48). iwyeba empiriuli da magiuri dualizmis seria, romelic fonad gasdevs mTel ambavs. mamakacs esmis sicilis xma, romelic ar esmis gogonas. marTalia, gogona
yrua da specialur sasmen aparats iyenebs, magram aparatis meSveobiTac uZluria gaigonos is, rasac did aRtacebaSi mohyavs misi partniori. sayuradReboa
lorensis mier daxatuli mamakacis portreti: ~His face had beautiful lines,
like a faun, and a doubtful martyred expression. A sort of faun on the Cross,
with all the malice of the complication. (lorensi 1999:48). [mas lamazi saxis
nakvTebi hqonda, favnis magvari, da meryevi wamebuli gamometyveleba. daaxloebiT jvarcmuli favnis msgavsi, garTulebebis mTeli siborotis gamomxatveli.] avtori dasawyisSive gviCvenebs, rom TiToeul personaJSi samyaros aR-

axali samyaro da panis xelaxali dabadeba

191

qmis diqotomia Zevs _ RvTiuri da miwieri, mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi, magia


da realoba, dionise da apoloni, pani da nimfa, satana da angelozi.
gogonas aRweraSic SeiniSneba, rom avtors surs igi romeliRac frinvels an cxovels mivamsgavsoT, da ara qals: ~The girl, with her alert pinkand-white face, looked at him sharply, inquisitively. She had an odd nymphlike inquisitiveness, sometimes like a bird, sometimes a squirrel, sometimes a
rabbit: never quite like a woman. (lorensi 1999:48). [gogonam mkvircxlad
da cnobismoyvared axeda Tavisi cqviti, moTeTro-movardisfro saxiT. masSi ucnauri, nimfis magvari cnobismoyvareoba Canda _ xan Cits gavda, xan
ciyvs, xanac bocvers, magram arasodes _ qals]. rogorc vxedavT, mamakacSi
panis sawyisi gamoikveTa, qalSi ki _ nimfis. rac Seexeba policiels, igi sazogadoebriv wesrigs ganasaxierebs, romlisTvisac ucxoa yovelgvari sigiJe, xmauri, mouwesrigebloba, vneba da xalisi. misTvis, rogorc sazogadoebisaTvis, dadgenili wesebis zedmiwevniT Sesrulebaa cxovrebis ganmsazRvreli da advilad urigdeba moaxloebul urbanizacias, soflis, da masTan
erTad bunebriobis, gaqrobas. policiels ar esmis sicili, gogonas msgavsad, magram mogvianebiT gogona buCqebSi viRac mamakacis saxes SeamCnevs da
gaixarebs _ rogorc iqna vixile, visi naxvac msurdao. ucnauria, magram
verc erTi Tanmxlebi mamakaci ver xedavs imas, rasac gogona xedavs. male
mister marCbenqsi erTi mandilosnis saxlTan SeCerdeba da ver gauZlebs
qalbatonis mier SepatiJebis cdunebas. mis jeimzi da policieli ganagrZoben gzas mis jeimzis saxlisaken. gzadagza kantikuntad Caiqroleben manqanebi, irgvliv sicarielea da ukacriel samyaros mxolod Tovlis da ucnauri
xmebis arseboba Tu avsebs. gogonas gamudmebiT Caesmis xmebi da grZnobs, rom
sadacaa `is mova!~(lorensi 1999:51). uceb Zlieri qarbuqi amovardeba, eklesiis kar-fanjrebs gamoaRebs. gogona ukve sicilis xmasac gaigonebs, rasac Tan erTvis ucnauri musika. eklesiidan gamosul musikis xmas policielic gaigonebs. gogona ambobs: ~And do you get the puff of warm wind?
Smelling of spring. Almond blossom, thats what it is! A most marvelous scent
of almond blossom. Isnt it an extraordinary thing! (lorensi 1999:56). panis
gamoCenis sixaruli nuSis yvavilobis sadaria gogonas cnobierebaSi, TiTqos gazafxuli moaxlovda, samyaro xelaxla daibada. saxlSi Sesuli gogona policiels madlobas uxdis, is ki darCenis da gaTbobis nebarTvas iTxovs, radgan Tavs SeuZlod grZnobs. policielisTvis damRupveli aRmoCndeba `panikuri~ sicilis gamarjveba da diliT is saxeSecvlili daxvdeba
gogonas, romelsac uve smena daubrunda da axali cxovrebisTvisaa mzad. mis
jeimzi mxatvaria. nawarmoebis bolos is Sescqeris axali TvaliT sakuTar
ferwerul tiloebs da laRi siciliT icinis. sauzmisTvis dabrunebuli
mister marCbenqsi aRmoaCens, rom mis jeimzi yru aRaraa da masSi ucnaurad
gadasxvaferebul pirovnebas xedavs. gogona yurTan maradiul sicils gaigonebs da mixvdeba marCbenqsis realur saxes. jeimzis epifania marCbenqsis
sikvdilis momaswavebelia. policieli ki dakoWlda, anu sazogadoebrivi

192

Tamar siraZe

wonasworoba dairRva da gzas uTmobs Tavdapirveli qaosisa da kosmosis Tanaarsebobis SesaZleblobas.


inglisuri provinciebis meqanizacia da urbanizacia lorensisTvis
samyaros kosmosur mTlianobaSi qaosis Semotanas niSnavda. soflis simSvide da idilia qarxnis sayvirebis xmam CaaxSo. adamianebmac TandaTan dakarges
bunebasTan harmoniuli Serwymis unari. maT dakarges is Tavdapirveli, `primitiuli~ realoba, rac miuwvdeneli da gaucnobierebelia Tanamedrove industriuli sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebisaTvis. rogorc n. yiasaSvili
aRniSnavs, `viqtorianuli inglisis dasasrulisa da meoce saukunis dasawyisis inglisuri sazogadoebis ganviTarebis erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan
socialur safuZvels inglisis soflis gaqroba, inglisis soflis meurneobis mTliani transformacia warmoadgens~ (yiasaSvili 1988). lorensi
iziarebs struqturalisturi Teoriis principebs da gvTavazobs panis dabrunebis anu xelaxla dabadebis ideas, raTa ar moxdes harmoniis saboloo
ganadgureba.
lorensis novelis literaturuli gaazreba srul TanxmobaSi modis
k. levi-strosis TvalsazrisTan, romlis mixedviT adamianis SegrZnebebi imdenad ar asaxaven, ramdenadac daSifraven garemomcvel sinamdviles, axdenen
mis kodirebas. yvela movlena da procesi gamoixateba simbolos saxiT. amdenad, SeiZleba laparaki iyos or struqturaze: adamianis gonebis struqturasa da adamianis garemomcveli fizikuri realobis struqturaze. amasTan,
meoris Seswavlis safuZvlad k. levi-strosi adamianis gonebis struqturas miiCnevs, romelic axdens Cveni gamocdilebis organizebas da gansazRvravs samyaros Cveneul xedvas.
Tanamedrove industriul da ~primitiul sazogadoebaTa Soris urTierTobas k. levi-strosi uwodebda Tanafardobas "cxel" da "civ" sazogadoebaTa Soris: pirvelni cdiloben awarmoon da moixmaron rac SeiZleba meti energia da informacia, meoreni ki ifarglebian arsebobis martivi da mwiri saSualebebis mdgradi kvlavwarmoebiT. magram Zvel da axal, ganviTarebul da "primitiul" adamians aerTianebs kulturis sayovelTao kanonebi,
adamianis gonebis funqciobis kanonebi.
"cxel" sazogadoebebSi Tavdapirveli kavSiri Tavad sagnebsa da SemecnebiT simboloebs Soris TandaTanobiT ganidevneba aracnobieris sferoSi,
da mis adgils pirobiTi kavSiri iWers. Sedegad icvleba Tavad samyaros xedva, misi pirvandeli saxe TandaTan bundovani xdeba. magram igi mTlianad ki ar
qreba, aramed inaxeba aracnobierSi. gza adamianis garemomcveli samyarosaken
sul ufro metad "ixergeba" sxvadasxva simboluri struqturiT. k. levistrosis azriT, jer kidev SemorCenili arqauli _ "civi" _ sazogadoebani axerxeben dausxltnen zemoT aRniSnul cvlilebas. maTSi SenarCunebulia Tavdapirveli kavSiri adamianis garemomcvel sinamdvilesa da misi cnobierebis simboloebs Soris; es kavSiri ar aris gandevnili aracnobier sferoSi. swored am "civi" sazogadoebebis arseboba aZlevs saSualebas Tanamed-

axali samyaro da panis xelaxali dabadeba

193

rove adamians, Seimecnos aracnobier sferoSi gandevnili sakuTari gonebis


struqtura.
Tanamedrove kulturis ama Tu im movlenis WeSmariti azri (anu rasac
is warmoadgens) dafarulia. am azris "amoReba" aracnobieri sferodan SeuZlebelia. amitom unda mivmarToT "civ" sazogadoebebs da movZebnoT maTSi
analogiuri movlena, rac mkvlevrisaTvis naTels gaxdis mis azrs. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, pirvelyofili adamiani gvevlineba erTgvar sarked, romelic Tanamedrove adamians Tavisi aracnobieri sferos danaxvis SesaZleblobas aZlevs, Sesabamisad, debs xids bunebasa da kulturas Soris.
d. h. lorensis novela exmianeba bunebasa da kulturas Soris xidis gadebis problemas da panis dabrunebiT gvTavazobs damakavSirebel xids am or
samyaros Soris. lorensi ar Ralatobs tradicias da saxismetyvelebis gamoyenebiT cdilobs personaJTa fizikuri da sulieri mdgomareobis Cvenebas
qvecnobieris gamoaSkaravebis fonze. nawarmoebi gadmogvcems sami personaJis transformaciis process zamTris erT Tovlian dRes, roca samyaros
ubrundeba ganaxlebuli pani da Cveuli ostatobiT axerxebs cvlileba Seitanos mTavari gmirebis yofierebaSi. Sinagani konfliqti da gare samyarosTan kavSiris Sesusteba an zogjer gaqrobac ki, lorensis interesis mTavari
mamoZravebeli RerZia. lorensi mogviwodebs axleburad SevxedoT samyaros
da mivendoT adamianis pirovnuli metamorfozis SesaZleblobas.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
akermani 2006:

Akkerman A. Femininity and Masculinity in City-Form:

Philosophical Urbanism as a History of Consciousness. In: Human


Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Apr. 2006), Springer, pp. 229-256
lorensi 1999: Lawrence D. H., The Last laugh, in: Modern Short Stories,
Penguin Publishing
yiasaSvili 1998: yiasaSvili n. `Tanamedroveoba da modernizmi~, krebulSi:
dasavleT evropis literatura (XX saukune), Tbilisi

Tamar Siradze
The New World and Rebirth of Pan
(David Herbert Lawrences The Last Laugh)
D. H. Lawrences short story The Last Laugh traces the path of three
main characters through transformative twelve hours in Hampstead, London
during the winter of 1924. The story addresses themes surrounding societys loss
of grounding in, and connection to, nature. Lawrence uses the idea of Acadian
deity Pan although he is not explicitly mentioned as the protagonist element

194

Tamar siraZe

that moves the characters through a series of events, moods and changes that
serve to highlight the above mentioned social concern. Lawrence generally plays
upon the considerable tension that exists within the dualities inherent in our
conceptions of the city and the country, masculinity and femininity, objectivity
and intangible, and, as in the case of the Last Laugh, the empirical and
magical. The never seen, yet palpable presence of Pan is used as a vehicle for
Lawrence to express and indeed work out some of his own internal conflicts and
yearnings for a more meaningful connection to nature. The inference can be
drawn that this highlights his rejection of the prevailing intellectual and class
exclusivity that he sees as forever preventing a full and unfettered relationship
with the natural world and the internal self. He makes this point in the story
primarily through the device of using Pan as a personality and as a symbolic
vehicle for a change in the way that we perceive and interact with the forces of
nature. Lawrence is pointing to the reader to the new way of looking at the world
and to the possibility of a metamorphosis of personality and lifestyle.

nana stamboliSvili,
anzor abuseriZe,
nunu baxtaZe
tropis saxeebi mxatvrul
teqstSi
rogorc cnobilia, ena aris literaturis specifikuri niSani, masala, romelic
iZleva sinamdvilis mxatvrulad warmosaxvis saSualebas. saliteraturo enis funqcias mxatvrul enaSi emateba sinamdvilis
mxatvruli warmosaxvis funqcia.
mxatvrul enas axasiaTebs garkveuli
mravalferovneba, romelic ZiriTadad sagnis an movlenis warmosaxvas emyareba. warmosaxva emyareba gadataniT mniSvnelobiT
naxmar sityvebs, romelsac tropebis saxiT
ganvixilavT. tropi Tropus (berZn. tropoi
`Sebruneba~ enobrivi mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualeba, romelic Cndeba mxatvrul teqstSi sityvis `gardasaxvis~ meSveobiT. aqedan gamomdinare, tropi ritorikuli figurebis garkveuli jgufia, romelic
nagulisxmevs da saTqmels pirdapir da sagnobrivad ki ar gamoxatavs, aramed aZlevs mas
irib, gadataniT mniSvnelobas da iseTnair
gamoxatvas, rom gamonaTqvamebisgan miRebuli STabeWdileba gaZlierebulad an ufro
Serbilebulad mogveCvenos. imis mixedviT,
Tu ra mizans isaxavs adamiani metyvelebis
procesSi, azrebi sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba
iqnas gamoxatuli. didi mniSvneloba aqvs
molaparakis emociebs, mis survilebs, azrebisa da grZnobebis iseTnair gamoxatvas, roca gamonaTqvamebisgan miRebuli STabeWdileba gaZlierebulad an ufro Serbilebu-

196

nana stamboliSvili, anzor abuseriZe, nunu baxtaZe

lad mogveCvenos. swored am miznebs emsaxureba tropebis mTavari saxeebi:


metafora, ironia, metonimia da sinekdoqe.
metafora berZ. metafor ~gadatana~ tropis yvelaze mniSvnelovani saxea. metafora warmoadgens dasaxelebis gadatanas erTi obieqtidan (sagnidan, pirovnebidan, movlenidan) meore obieqtze (saganze, pirovnebaze, movlenaze), romelic, garkveuli gagebiT, misi msgavsia. amave dros, rig SemTxvevebSi metafora azrovnebis mza Stampad iqceva. magram esTetikurad mimzidvel Stampad. erTgvari azriT, es mxatvrulad warmodgenili stereotipicaa.
magaliTad: In meinen Augenwimpern flimmerten ebenso kostbare Perlen
wie in den Glsern des Tals (Heine), (Cems wamwamebze ise cimcimebdnen
Zvirfasi margalitebi , rogorc saTvale xeobaSi).
aristotele `poetikis~ daskvniT nawilSi amtkicebs, rom `yvelaze
mniSvnelovania iyo gawafuli metaforebSi. magram amis gadaReba sxvisgan
SeuZlebelia: es niWis niSania, imitom rom kargi metaforebis Seqmna msgavsebis SeniSvnis tolfasia~. igi ambobda: `TusaTqmeliSedgebametaforebisagan, igigamocanaa.~
arCeven ubralo metaforas ~mze amovida, ~wvima saxuravze akakunebs~
da mxatvrul metaforas: ,,naxes,mzisaSesayreladgamoeSvamTvaregvelsa.
metaforis saxeebia: 1. gapirovneba (<laT.persona_saxe,pirovnebada
facere_keTeba) mxatvruligamosaxvisxerxi,romlisTvisacdamaxasiaTebeliasagnebisadamovlenebisadmiadamianuriTvisebebismiwera. igi gansxvavdebametaforisaganimiT,Tu metaforaSiyvelaTvisebisgadatanaSeiZleba
erTi sagnidan meoreze, gapirovnebaSi ki gadatanilia mxolod adamianuri
Tvisebebi. magaliTi qarTuli mxatvruli teqstidan: `dRemdaixurapirbade, mTebmadaxuWes Tvalebi.~
magaliTi germanuli mxatvruli teqstidan: ,,Dahinter miaut die
Kchentr -ukan samzareulos kari wripinebda, dahinter kratzt die Uhr~
(Borchert); (ukan saaTi wripinebda). ~Derr Befehlshaber bellte sein
Kommando~ (Borchert).(meTaurma dayefa(daiRriala) misi brZaneba). Ich
schliee dem Klavier den Rachen~-me fortepianos yels vxurav (Remarque)
2. alegoria (berZn. allegoria gadakrulad Tqma, gadakrulad naTqvami
sityva- mxatvruli xerxi, romlis saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia sxvadasxvagvar zneobriv TvisebaTa gansaxiereba konkretul saxeebSi. mag., qalRmerTi Temida, romelsac berZeni da romaeli moqandakeebi gamosaxavdnen axveuli TvalebiTa da sasworiT xelSi, samudamod iqca marTlmsajulebis simbolod. stilistikurad asxvaveben saerTo/zogad da individualur alegoriebs. saerToa iseTi gamoTqmebi, rogoricaa germanul enaSi: der
Sensenmann/Freund Heim (sikvdili). Liesschen Mller (gulubryviloba).
individualuria alegoriebi, romlebic xSirad mwerlis arCevanzea damokidebuli. mag., `In Hamburg ist die Nacht nicht wie in anderen Stdten-die sanfte
blaue Frau, in Hamburg ist sie grau.~ .~(Borchert)
3. metaforiis erT-erTi saxea sinesTezia (berZn. synaisthsis TanaSeg-

tropis saxeebi mxatvrul teqstSi

197

rZneba, erTdrouli SegrZeba). igi SeiZleba warmoiSvas garkveul STabeWdilebebze, ama Tu im xatovanebis SegrZnebebze. sinesTeziis movlenebi zogierT adamianSi dakavSirebulia cifrebis, musikaluri bgerebis an aso-bgerebis da a.S. `gaferadebul~ SegrZnebebze, roca eCvenebaT, rom cifri an
bgera garkveuli ferisaa.
sinesTeziis uamrav magaliTs vxvdebiT yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi, romelic bevr enaSi zusti SesatyvisebiT iTargmneba: dunkle Tne, schreinde,
weiche, kalte, warme Farben; Sdr. qarT. muqi, myvirala, rbili, civi, Tbili
ferebi. magram mwerlebTan gvxdeba e.w. okazionalizmebic. mag., duftende
Stimme -surnelovani xma (haine).
tropebi kategoriebad dayofisasa arCeven: naxtomisebur da mosazRvre tropebs. roca Semcvleli da Sesanacvlebeli cnebebis Sinaarsobrivi sferoebi erTmaneTs scildeba, saqme exeba naxtomisebur tropebs. metafora da ironia naxtomiseburi tropebis sferos miekuTvneba. mag., Er
donnerte den Ball ins Tor _ burTma karSi daiquxa, igulisxmeba: Er schoss
den Ball mit groer Wucht ins Tor _ man mTeli simZlavriT Seagdo karSi
burTi. zmna donnern (daquxeba), ekuTvnis amindis saxeebis Sinaarsobriv
sferos da mkveTrad gansxvavdeba sportis (der Ball- burTi) sferodan.
ironia- faruli, odnav SesamCnevi dacinva- xSirad axlavs metaforul
gamonaTqvamebs. mag., Das organisierte Verbrechen erpresst Schutzgeld von
Einzelhndlern. (organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufi sacalo movaWreebs
dacvis fuls sZalavs). amas aseTi axsna aqvs: fulis Sovna miRwevebis gareSe da iZulebis gziT gamoZalvaa. radganac mafia cdilobs, SeZlebisdagvarad regularuli wesrigis damcvelad mogvevlinos, gamoyenebaSia cneba
`dacvis fuli~ gamoTqma `dacvis fuli~-is gamoyenebiT erTis mxriv, vaWrobis asociacia Segveqmneba (fuli dacvis sanacvlod) meores mxriv ki, darajis (damcveli Zala).
metonimia da sinekdoqe mosazRvre tropebia, sadac Zireuli da Senacvlebadi, iribi cnebebi Sinaarsobrivad axlosaa erTmaneTTan. metonimia
(berZn. metonimia gadarqmeva, saxelis Secvla) erTi sityvis Senacvleba masTan logikurad dakavSirebul sityviT `enamokle metoqea enagrZelisa (T. saxokia). nagulisxmevi sityva sxva, masTan realurad kavSirSi myof sityviT
Seicvleba. xSirad amboben avtoris gvars misi nawarmoebis sanacvlod, mag.,
Ich lese Schiller. mTavari gansxvaveba metaforasa da metonimias Soris is aris,
rom metafora cvlis cnebas sruliad sxva sferodan aRebuli cnebiT, maSin
roca, metonimiis dros naTqvamsa da nagulisxmevs Soris mudmivi kavSiria.
marto amis aRiarebac sakmarisia maTi erTmaneTisagan gamijvnisaTvis.
saerTo orivesTvis swored is niSania, rom cvlian Sinaarsobrivad
dacilebul cnebebs. cnebebi Seicaven sxvadasxva asociaciebs (konotaciebs) da, mxolod saWiroebisamebr Seenacvlebian erTmaneTs.
sinekdoqe (berZn. synekdoch `TanwaReba~ `Tangageba~ metonimiis erTerTi saxea, roca xdeba zogadis aRmniSvneli sityvis Secvla kerZoobiTis
aRmniSvneliT, mTelis aRmniSvnelisa _ nawilis aRmniSvneliT. igi sti-

198

nana stamboliSvili, anzor abuseriZe, nunu baxtaZe

listikuri xerxia, romelic yvela saxis teqstSi da maT Soris mxatvrul


teqstSi gvxdeba. sinekdoqe cvlis erT cnebas iseTi meore cnebiT, romelic amavdroulad imave mniSvnelobis velSi Sedis da amiT TviTonvea sityvis nawili. mniSvneloba SeiZleba farTo an viwro gagebiT gamoiyenebodes.
mag., Wir leben alle unter einem Dach (Cven yvela erT Wers qveS vcxovrobT).
aq sityva Dach (Weri) gamoiyeneba rogorc mTliani saxlis an binis Semcvleli. analogiuria Dach ber den Kopf haben (Tavze Weri aqvs). uamravi aseTi
formulirebebi gvxdeba yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi, roca nagulisxmevi nawili gamodis mTelis Semcvlelad. am movlenas laTinurad Pars pro toto
(nawili mTelis magivrad) ewodeba da igi sinekdoqes gansakuTrebuli formaa. sinekdoqes Semdegi saxea Totum pro parte (mTeli nawilis nacvlad).
mag., Deutschland begrt das Handeln der USA (germania miesalmeba qmedebebs aSS -Si) aq miniSnebaa imaze, rom germania saqmianobis raRac meTods
iwonebs. amiT igulisxmeba, rom qveynis mTavroba miesalmeba garkveul qmedebas. gamodis, rom nawilis adgili mTelma daikava. garda amisa, aq metaforis erT-erT
saxesTan gvaqvs saqme, kerZod gapirovnebasTan
(Personifikation) radgan, qveyana gulisxmobs adamianebs, romelTac SeuZliaT swored mowonebis an ar mowonebis dafiqsireba.
zogjer Zalian Znelia sinekdoqes gamijvna metaforasa da metonimiisagan, radganac metaforac da metonimiac calkeul sityvebs Soris arsebul
msgavs urTierTkavSirebs emyareba. magram maT Soris gansxvavebacaa. metafora
erT cnebas meore cnebiT cvlis. magram sinekdoqesagan gansxvavebiT, es Semcvleli cneba misive semantikur vels ar ekuTvnis, igi arc mTavari da arc
qvecnebaa da arc nagulisxmevi sityvis nawils warmoadgens. mag., Dieses
Wstenschiff wird uns sicher ans Ziel bringen (sityvasityviT: es udabnos xomaldi Cven usafrTxod migviyvans daniSnulebis adgilze). saqme imaSia, rom
Wstenschiff-Si (udabnos xomaldi) _ igulisxmeba aqlemi, e. i. igi warmoadgens metaforas, Tumca aRniSnul cnebas araviTari kavSiri ara aqvs TviT aqlemTan. es niSnavs, rom erTi sityva Seicvala sxva iseTi sityviT, romelic
ar aris masTan naTesaur kavSirSi- ar ekuTvnian erT da imave semantikur vels
da warmoqmnilia sxva sityvaTa ojaxidan. sxva SemTxvevasTan gveqneba saqme,
Tu winadadebas gadavakeTebT: Diese Hcker werden uns sicher ans Ziel
bringen.~ es kexianebi (kuzianebi) Cven usafrTxod mogviyvans daniSnulebis
adgilze) -es ukve sinekdoqea, radgan aqlemis Hcker (kexi) am cxovelis mxolod erTi nawilia. aqedan gamomdinare, metafora enaTesaveba sityvas, radgan
igi cvlis ZiriTad sityvas sxva cnebiT, magram gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan
im niSniT, rom sinekdoqe mudam erTi da imave cnebaTa velSi Semavali sityvis
Semcvlelis rolSi gvevlineba. mag., Ein kluger Kopf- brZeni ufrosi (Wkviani
Tavi) ein kluger Mensch-Wkviani adamianis- is nacvlad, sadac Mensch (adamiani hiperonimia, xolo Kopf (Tavi) hiponimi (mTavari da daqvemdebarebuli
cnebebi, romlebic mniSvnelobaTa erT ojaxs ekuTvnian)
metonimiac hgavs sinekdoqes. zogjer mas metonimiis erT-erT specialur formadac Tvlian. magram maSinac ki, roca maT Soris erTmaneTSi aR-

tropis saxeebi mxatvrul teqstSi

199

revis motivebi aSkaraa, arsebobs zogierTi niSani, romelic orive cnebas


erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs. metonimia gulisxmobs, rom garkveul viTarebaSi erTi romelime cneba meoreTi icvleba. amavdroulad es Semcvleli
cneba realur damokidebulebaSia imasTan, rasac TviT sakuTriv pirveli
cneba gamoxatavs. mag., Dieses Eisen wird dein Ende sein! (sityvasityviT: es
es rkina Sen bolos mogiRebs!) sityva Eisen (rkina) _ iaraRis Semcvleli
cnebaa, radgan rkinisagan gamoiwrToba iaraRi. arsebobs realuri damokidebulebac metonimiasa da TviT pirvelad cnebas Soris. es ar aris damokidebuleba nawilsa da mTels Soris, rac sinekdoqes SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba
arsebobdes. ra moxdeboda Tu winadadebas gadavakeTebdiT:: ~Diese Klinge
wird dein Ende sein! (es dana Sen bolos mogiRebs) -es ukve iqneboda sinekdoqe, radgan Klinge (maxvili, danis piri) TviT aris iaraRis (xmlis) nawili. aqedan aSkaraa, rom metonimiasa da sinekdoqes Soris Zalian mokle manZilia. igi metonimiis gansakuTrebuli saxea. yvelaze mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba ki isaa, rom sinekdoqe yovelTvis nawilsa da mTels Soris damokidebulebas gulisxmobs, xolo metonimia sxva cnebis Semcvlelad gvevlineba, romelic masTan (metaforisgan gansxvavebiT) realur damokidebulebaSia. sinekdoqes mTelsa da nawils Soris damokidebuleba (Pars pro toto
und Totum pro parte), ase SeiZleba warmovidginoT:
Wir mssen uns unter vier Augen unterhalten- (sityvasityviT: oTx
Tvals Soris unda visaubroT), e.i. pirispir unda visaubroT, oTxi Tvali
cvlis pirovnebebs- igulisxmeba ori adamiani.
Unser tglich Brot gib uns heute puri Cveni arsobisa mogvec Cven dRes
(puri- sakvebis magivrad)
Er machte sich mit Kind und Kegel aus dem Staub. dedabudianad gauCinarda (idioma Kind und Kegel -cvlis ojaxs).
amrigad, tropi gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT xmarebuli yvela sityva da
winadadebaa, romelic sityvas xdis poeturs, metyvelebas eqspresiuls da
azrs mravalferovans. tropis yvela saxeebi: metafora, metonimia, Sedareba da sxv. Tavdapirvelad gamoiyeneboda leqsikis msgavsad, magram Semdeg
iqca mxatvruli nawarmoebis samkaulad.
sinekdoqe stilistikuri xer xia, romelic cvlis sityvas imave cnebaTa velSi Semavali cnebiT. amiT igi hgavs metaforas da metonimias, magram
metaforisgan mkveTrad gansxvavdeba, maSin roca sazRvrebi metonimiasa da
sinekdoqes Soris pirobiTia.
rogorc metaforebs da metonimiebs, ise sinekdoqebs SeuZliaT sistematiuri cvlileba. isini emsgavsebian erTmaneTs, magram gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan calkeulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSniT.
Cven vcadeT gagverkvia maTi Tavisebureba, maTi mniSvneloba da roli
mxatvrul teqstSi germanuli enis bazaze da, sakuTriv, qarTuli mxatvruli teqstSic, radgan tropis am saxeebis urTierTmimarTeba da naTesauri kavSirebi analogiuria yvela enebSi.

200

nana stamboliSvili, anzor abuseriZe, nunu baxtaZe

literatura

aristotele 1959 ,,poetika.


aristotele- , ` ~ VIII, 431b 30
aruTinova 1908: . . . `
~, `~
kolmeri da rob-santeri 2002: Lothar Kolmer / Carmen Rob-Santer:
Studienbuch Rhetorik, Paderborn ISBN 3-506-97017-8
lakofi da jonsoni 1998: Lakoff, George/ Johnson Mark/: Leben in
Metaphern. Konstruktion und Gebrauch von Sprachbildern, Heidelberg
Tedo saxokia 2012: qarTuli andazebi. Tbilisi
ruveti 1983: Nicolas Ruwet: Synekdochen und Metonymien,In:Anselm
Haverkamp(Hrsg.): Theorie der Metapher, Darmstadt S. 253-282
(bersetzung aus dem Frz.)

N. Stambolishvili, A. Abuseridze, N. Bakhtadze


Types of Tropes in Literary Texts
Feature specificity of language function is to live the fiction, artistic and
emotional contrast elevate imagine.
The language is characterized by a diversity that is mainly based on the
representation of an object or event. Imagination is based on shifting the meaning
of the words used, which we consider as a trope. The main types of trope:
metaphor, metonimia, synecdoche _ which serves the speaker's emotions, his
desires, thoughts and feelings in a manner of expression, or to enhance the
impression of the statements seem more relaxed.
Our goal is to find out the rhetorical trope _ a metaphor, and synecdoche
metonimia similarity and to isolate the motives; And their role in the artistic
features of the text and on the basis of the German language, as Georgian
correspondences, since these types of relationship between trope and kinship ties
are similar in all languages.

natalia surgulaZe
kinetikuri da somatizmebiT
motivirebuli
frazeologizmebis
SepirispirebiTi kvleva
frangul da qarTul enebSi
idiomebis motivirebas safuZvlad
udevs ara marto metyvelebis xatovani saxeebi, aramed sxva saSualebebic, romlebic
pirdapir ar aris dakavSirebuli xatovan gadaazrebasTan. erT-erTi aseTi saSualebaTagania simbolizacia.
enobrivi simbolos specifika enobrivi
niSnis motivaciaa, romelic dakavSirebulia
ara marto mniSvnelobis gadatanasTan, rogorc es tropebs axasiaTebs, aramed samyaros
suraTTan, fonur codnasTan da pragmatikasTan, am sityvis farTo mniSvnelobiT.
kinetikuri da somaturi idiomatikis
safuZvelze SevecdebiT warmovadginoT enaSi
mimdinare frazeologizaciis rTuli procesi, dakavSirebuli rogorc denotatis simbolizaciasTan, aseve metaforasTan.
I. kinetikuri idiomebi frangul enaSi
termins kinetikuri frazeologia vuwodebT idiomebs, romelTa motivirebas safuZvlad udevs erTi mxriv Jestis aRwera,
xolo meore mxriv, Sinagani organoebisa da
sxeulis nawilebis reaqcia garesametyvelo
da arasametyvelo gamRizianeblebze. veyrdnobiT ra aq r. iakobsonis cnobil gamonaTqvams, rom ,,samyaroSi momxdari yvela
movlena SeiZleba sityvierad gadmoices, ami-

202

natalia surgulaZe

tom mxedvelobaSi viRebT ganvlil frazeologizaciis process, verbalizebul Jestebs da Sinagani organoebis reaqciebs gare gamRizianeblebze~
(Cerdanceva 1988: 86).
Jestebis safuZvelze motivirebuli idiomebis Taviseburebebi swored
maTi sityvieri aRweraa da amasTanave masTan dakavSirebuli simbolikac, romelic TiTqmis arasdros emTxveva Tavad Jestis pirvelad simbolikas.
Jestebi, principSi, yovelTvis simboluria, Tumca rodesac Jesti verbaluri xdeba (sityvierdeba), is ufro xSirad ganicdis frazeologizacias. rogorc Cans, es imitom xdeba, rom sayrdeni komponentebi, romlebic monawileobs Jestis aRweraSi, kerZod, sxeulis garkveuli nawili, garkveuli
organo) erTnairad aRiqmebian enis yvela matareblis mier maTi sawyisi mniSvnelobebiT, Tavad Jesti ki aRiqmeba araerTmniSvnelovnad. simbolizacia ki
ufro xSirad moiTxovs erTmniSvnelovnebas, romelic upirvelesad miiRweva frazeologizaciis saSualebiT. xdeba erTgvari `xelSekrulebis dadeba~
imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom Jesti gulze an `mucelze dawyobili xelebi~
(`gulxeldakrefili~) (`Les mains croises~) frangul da qarTul sociumSi vlindeba maSin, rodesac adamianma ubralod ar icis, sad waiRos xelebi,
xolo frazeologizirebul SesityvebaSi Jesti `gulxeldakrefili~ SesaZlebelia niSnavdes raimes gakeTebis survilis arqonas, usaqmurobas an
piriqiT, Sromis Semdeg dasvenebas. amave Jestma SeiZleba gamoxatos raime
saqmis gakeTebis ganxorcielebis ususuroba.
kinetikur frazeologias miakuTvneben ara marto frazeologizebul
Jestebs, aramed gare gamRizianeblebiT gamowveul Sinagan organoTa reaqciebsac, aseve grimasebs, Tvalebis gamometyvelebas da a.S. aseTi midgoma gamoxatavs mis mimarT im Sexedulebas, rom misi funqcionireba ormxrivi komunikaciuri procesis matarebelia.
situaciis orive monawiles, imisgan damoukideblad, Tu romeli enobrivi sociumis warmomadgenlebi arian, Tavisi organizmis SesaZleblobebis,
upirvelesad ki Sinagani procesebis garegnuli gamoxatvis Sesaxeb garkveuli fonuri codna aqvT, romlebic dakavSirebulia gare gamRizianeblebze,
sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, maT garkveuli simbolika gaaCniaT, Tumca araerTnairad gamoxatuli.
sakuTari SegrZnebebis gamoxatvisas, adamianebi ar miiCneven TavianT
organizms erTgvar manqanad, romelic Tavisi funqciis `medan~ abstrahirdeba, amitomac sakuTar Tavze saubrisas, isini cal-calke organoebs im funqciebs ki ar miaweren, romelsac isini asruleben, aramed garkveuli doziT
im qmedebebs, romelTac TviTon miakuTvneben (Cerdanceva 1988: 89).
amasTan dakavSirebiT aucileblad rTuldeba urTierTgageba da ikveTeba frazeologizaciis warmomqmneli sistemis meqanizmi, e. i. motivirebuli Jestebis safuZvelze warmoiqmneba idiomebi, organoTa reaqciebi, romelTac gare gamRizianeblebi iwveven. unda aRiniSnos, rom verbalizaciis
dros aRiwereba Jesti da gansakuTrebiT, Sinagani organoebis reaqciebi, rac
SesaZlebelia Zalze miaxloebiTi iyos. frazeologizaciis procesi gan-

kinetikuri da somatizmebiT motivirebuli frazeologizmebis SepirispirebiTi kvleva...

203

sxvavdeba verbalizaciisagan upirvelesad imiT, rom frazeologiur erTeulsa da verbalur Jests, anu gare gamRizianeblis reaqcias Soris pirdapiri kavSiri ikargeba, e.i. ikargeba denotati, mxolod simbolo xdeba saerTo.
amasTanave simbolo gamoixateba sityva-niSnebiT an sityvaTSexamebiT, igi Tavisi arsiT niSnis niSnad gvevlineba. `kinetikuri idiomatika~ moicva `animalisturma somatizmebma~, romelTa saSualebiT sainteresod gaiSala metaforizaciisa da (enobrivi simbolikis) simbolizaciis procesi frangul da
qarTul enebSi.
Jestebis safuZvelze motivirebuli `animalisturi somatomebi~
frangul enaSi miuTiTeben:
a) Sinagan Tvisebaze: Montrer patte blanche (TeTri TaTis Cveneba) _ pirobiTi niSnis micema, raTa gza gauxsnan sadme (momdinareobs zRapridan
mgelsa da kravze) _ keTilsaimedo, loialuri adamiani; an fizikur mdgomareobaze: Ne battre plus que dune patte (cali TaTiT cema) _ ilajgamoclili; Trainer de laile (frTis Treva) moqancva, araqaTis gamocla;
b) sxvadasxva saxis moqmedebaze, kerZod, fizikuri Seuracxyofa; coller
/planquer un pain sur la gueule qn (puris saxeSi srola) _ silis gawvna,
gartyma; carder le poil de qn (vinmes balnis CeCa) _ mibegva; casser les pattes
qn (TaTebis momtvreva) _ zianis miyeneba; faire des pattes daraigne (obobas
sacecebis gakeTeba) _ Ritini, Rutuni; attraper par la peau du dos (zurgis
tyavSi xelis wavleba) _ qeCoSi Cavleba; tanner la peau (tyavis Trimlva) _
cema-tyepa; msurer leurs (brWyalebis azomva-gazomva) _ Zalebis mosinjva;
souffler au poil de qn (vinmes bewvze sulis berva) _ visime xelisgulze tareba; faire peau de tambour (dolis tyavis gakeTeba) _ Cxirkedelaoba (bibileiSvili 2010: 401, 403, 425-426).
mimikebis safuZvelze motivirebuli idiomebi miuTiTeben:
a) sxvadasxva tipis moqmedebaze: pincer le bec _ tuCebis mopruwva, gabutva, gafxorva; Faire le bec qn (niskartis gakeTeba) _ pranWva-grexa;
donner du bec (niskartis miSvera) _ kocna, ambori; claquer du bec (niskartis wkapuni) _ SimSilisagan kbilebis wakwaki;
b) saxis gamometyvelebis Secvlaze: avoir le bec de travers (moRrecili
niskartis qona) _ saxis moRreca.
g) Taire son bec _ ena daeba, ena gadaylapa, ena mucelSi Cauvarda
d) Tomber sur un bec usiamovnebas gadaeyara, xaTabalaSi gaexvia.
e) Donner du bec et de laile- yvela Rones xmarobs, Tavs ar izogavs, tyavidan Zvreba(bibileiSvili 2010: 50-51).
II. kinetikuri idiomebi qarTul enaSi
qarTulSic imave somatizmebiT motivirebuli idiomebi SeviswavleT,
magram frangulisagan gansxvavebiT aq `kinetikuri frazeologia~ warmodge-

204

natalia surgulaZe

nilia mxolod Jestebis safuZvelze motivirebuli idiomebiT, romelTa


birTvs realia `kudi~ warmoadgens da aRniSnavs sxvadasxva xasiaTis moqmedebas; `kudis qneva~ pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT niSnavs kudis mimoxvras aqeTiqiT, rodesac ZaRli an kata adamianisagan saWmels moelis, kuds aqnevs
xolme da amiT gamoxatavs Tavis alerss. adamianSi pirutyvis aseTi moqceva
aRZravs guluxvobasa da misTvis yvelafers gaametebinebs. aqedan gamomdinare, `kudis qneva~ iqca alersis, moferebis, gaiZverobisa da TvalTmaqcobis
simbolod. `kudis moqneva~ , romlis pirdapiri mniSvnelobaa kudis momarTva dasartymelad, cud, arasasiamovno saqmis Cadenas gulisxmobs; damorCileba, daWera da daufleba moiazreba idiomSi `kudSi xelis wavleba~. mZime
sasjelis simbolod SegviZlia CavTvaloT `kudiT dabma,~ vinaidan kudiT
dabmuls ar SeuZlia aiwyvitos. aranaklebi agresia igrZnoba idiomSi `kudiT daWera~ , rac vinmes Sepyrobasa da argamoSvebas niSnavs. `kudiT qva asrolina~ _ ese igi Zalzed SeaSina, gaaqcia. `kudze fexi ar damadga~ _ veras mavneb, veras damakleb, tyuilad memuqrebi. `kudi ver amiwevia~ _ metad
beberi var, davsustdi, Zal-Rone gamomelia (saxokia 1954: I t. 216-220).
Sinagan mdgomareobaze miuTiTebs Semdegi idiomi `bewvis aSla~ _ gabrazeba, an arasasiamovno ambis gagebaze dadebiTi an uaryofiTi emociis SegrZneba(saxokia 1954: I t. 33). fizikuri angariSsworeba moiazreba idiomSi
`zurgze tyavis aZroba~ , fizikur mdgomareobaze miuTiTebs `tyavi gaWima~(an fexi gaWima) (saxokia 1954: II t. 166-167) anu mokvda, xolo realia
`klanWi~ _ warTmevis, motacebisa da xelSi Cagdebis simbolod warmogvidgeba idiomSi `klanWis gamokvra~(saxokia 1954: I t. 212). .
uaryofiTi konotaciuri mniSvnelobebis sapirispirod Segvxvda idiomebi dadebiTi konotaciuri mniSvnelobiTac: `TiTze Sewva qaTmisa~ da `kudis aweva~. pirvel SemTxvevaSi nagulisxmevia adamiani, romelic yvela Rones ixmars vinmes saameblad, amdenad is Tavdauzogvelobis simboloa, xolo
meore SemTxvevaSi ki dasustebuli, davrdomili adamiania mxedvelobaSi,
romelsac daxmareba sWirdeba. aqedan gamomdinare, `kudis aweva~ an `kudi
avuwioT~ _ Svela-daxmarebis simbolod SeiZleba CaiTvalos.
amgvarad, Seswavlili empiriuli masalis analizis safuZvelze ganvixileT Semdegi cxovelTa somatizmebiT motivirebuli idiomebi: frangulSi -niskarti, tyavi, bewvi da TaTi, xolo qarTul enaSi: kudi, bewvi, klanWi
da tyavi.
SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom kinetikuri da somatizmebiT motivirebuli
idiomebi orive enaSi ufro uaryofiT konotacias gamoxataven, vidre _ dadebiTs.

kinetikuri da somatizmebiT motivirebuli frazeologizmebis SepirispirebiTi kvleva...

205

literatura:
arzamasceva 2009: . , ( ):
http://venec.ulstu.ru/lib/disk/2009/Arzamasceva.pdf
bibileiSvili 2010: bibileiSvili c., daraSvili l., gaCava r. frangul-qarTuli frazeologiuri leqsikoni. Tbilisi, gam-ba `diogene.~
Telia 1988: ..
. : .
. . C. 173-204
saxokia 1954: saxokia T. qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani I-II t. Tbilisi,
saxelgami.
Cerdanceva 1988: .. . .,.

N. Sourgouladze
Contrastive Research of Kinetically and Somatically Motivated
Phraseological Units in French and Georgian Languages
The aim of this paper is to discuss the lexical structure of phraseologisms
in the French and Georgian languages. Method of functional and semiotic
analysis allows us to investigate motivated idioms based on somatisms and
gestures in the paradigmatic and syntagmatic, inner and outer relations in the
conceptual field.
Motivation of idioms is based not only on figurative speech but on other
means as well, which are not directly related to the figurative interpretation. One
of the means is symbolizing. The specifics of the language symbol are
conditioned by motivation of linguistic sign, which is related not only to the
transfer of meaning, like tropes, but with the picture of the world, the
background knowledge and pragmatics, in a broader sense.

nana tonia

teqstiT TamaSi, rogorc


semiotikuri fenomeni
Tanamedrove samyaroSi mxatvruli qmnilebis Sefaseba xdeba SemoqmedebiTi xelovnebis axleburi specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT. SemoqmedebiTi niWi, rogori mZlavric ar unda
iyos igi, mudam aris dakavSirebuli sakuTari
xelovnebis teqnikur warsulTan. am warsulis Seswavlisa da gaazrebis xarisxi garkveulwilad ganapirobebs kidec niWierebis dones. Tanamedrove Semoqmedis individualizmi
upiratesad mis mier SerCeuli meTodis originalobiT ganisazRvreba, rac gulisxmobs im
skolis meTodis srulyofas, romelTanac Tavad Semoqmedia dakavSirebuli. aqedan gamomdinare, Semoqmedma, imitom rom iRvawos mis mier arCeuli gzis meTodis srulyofiT, unda
icodes, codna ki Tavis marwuxebSi aqcevs SemoqmedebiT fantazias. ase rom, Tanamedrove
xelovani misda uneburad xvdeba winaaRmdegobaTa sabediswero wreSi: xelovnebaTa teqnikuri evolucia mas imorCilebs, warsulis
teqnikur meTodTa gamocdileba ki garkveuli
codniT aRWurvavs, codna TavisTavad mecnierebaa. am logikas Tu mivyvebiT, unda vaRiaroT, rom teqnikuri progresi xelovnebas
sul ufro metad aaxlovebs mecnierebasTan.
magram mecniereba ver iarsebebda SemoqmedebiTi procesis gareSe, rameTu mxatvruli Semoqmedeba Tavad qmnis Semecnebis obieqtebs.
rodesac
vcdilobT,
SemoqmedebiTi
procesi CavtioT xelovnebis romelime arsebul formaSi, Cven mas meTodis tyveobisaTvis vwiravT. magram rodesac xelovans

teqstiT TamaSi rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni

207

surs axali sityva Tqvas mis mier arCeul SemoqmedebiT gzaze, misi
SemoqmedebiTi meTodi ukidures individualizaciamde midis. es ukiduresoba SemoqmedebiT miznad iqceva, rasac sabolood xelovnebis
formaTa daSla sdevs Tan.
xelovnebis formaTa kristalizacia antikur samyaroSi dasrulda.
klasikuri xelovnebisTvis niSandoblivi iyo formisa da Sinaarsis harmonia. Tanamedrove xelovnebis niSandobliv Tvisebad iqca ara formisa
da Sinaarsis harmoniulobis miRweva, aramed sulier ZvraTa siRrmiseul
simboloTa aRmoCena, rac mkiTxvels mravalgvari interpretaciis saSualebas aZlevs. magram es mkiTxveli saTanado codniT unda iyos aRWurvili, raTa man SeZlos avtoriseuli simboloebiT esTetikuri siamovnebis
miRebac. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom esTetizmis gancda TandaTanobiT adgils uTmobs filosofiur Wvretas, rac `mxatvruli qmnilebis~ amave
saxelwodebaSi odiTgan dakanonebul daniSnulebas Crdilavs.
warmosaxvis meTodis es cvlileba dakavSirebulia Semecnebis Teoriis im TvisebasTan, romlis Tanaxmadac maradiul drosTan mimarTebiT
Semecnebis SesaZlebloba matulobs. aqedan gamomdinare, Tanamedrove xelovnebam `maradiulis~ xedvis funqcia gamokveTa da scada amiT dapirispireboda klasikur xelovnebas. am dapirispirebam siRrmiseuli ZiebebiTa da simboloebiT datvirTa poeturi saxeebi, romlebic ukve naklebad arian esTetikuri gancdis matarebelni, isini Semecnebis meTodad
iqcnen. da Tu es asea, maT niSandobliv Tvisebad gamoikveTa ara mSvenierebis gancdis aRZvra, aramed cxovrebiseul movlenebSi maTi arqetipuli saxeebis danaxva. Tanamedrove samyaro informaciis samyaroa, romelic emsaxureba Tanamedrove xelovnebis demokratiulobas, rac klasikuri xelovnebis artistokratizms esTetizmis saburvels aclis. Cven
postmodernizmis epoqaSi vcxovrobT da gvsurs es Tu ar gvsurs am
epoqis principebs vemorCilebiT. postmodernizmis TeoretikosTa narkvevebSi am mimarTulebis cnobierebis aRmoceneba dakavSirebulia adre
arsebul RirebulebaTa rwmenis krizisTan da `avtoritetTa krizisad~
aris saxeldebuli. Tumca aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom am TeoretikosTa
argumentaciebSi pirvel adgilze ikveTeba mecnieruli determinizmis,
rogorc umTavresi principis kraxi, im determinizmisa, romlis safuZvelzec sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebma Seqmnes iseTi samyaros suraTi,
sadac dominirebda bunebriv, sazogadoebriv da fsiqikur movlenaTa sayovelTao materialur-mizezobrivi aucileblobiT ganpirobebulobis
idea. determinizmis principis uaryofasTan erTad postmodernizmisa
da poststruqturalizmis Teoretikosebma win wamoswies dasavleTevropuli racionalizmis tradiciebis kritikac.
postmodernistuli azri mivida im daskvnamde, rom yvelaferi,
rasac aRviqvamT arsebulad, sinamdvileSi mxolod warmodgenaa mis Sesaxeb, imavdroulad damokidebuli im Tvalsazrisze, romelsac Tavad
irCevs damkvirvebeli, xolo am Tvalsazrisis Secvla iwvevs arsebul-

208

nana tonia

ze warmodgenis kardinalur Secvlas. anu adamianis aRqma gansazRvrulia `multiperspeqtivizmiT~, sinamdvilis mudmivi cvalebadobiT, romelic ar iZleva imis saSualebas, rom SevimecnoT misi WeSmariti arsi _ misi kanonzomierebani da Zireuli niSnebi.
ase rom, postmodernistuli epistemes umTavres maxasiaTeblad istorizmisa da determinizmis uaryofa saxeldeba. mis TeoretikosTa (J.
derida, m. fuko, r. barti da sxva) poziciebis gansxvavebulobis miuxedavad, am mimarTulebas erTi safuZveli gaaCnia: es aris samyaros qaosurobisa da Seucnoblobis aRiareba. aqedan gamomdinare ki dasabuTeba imisa, rom `samyaro decentrirebulia~, romlis mimarTac adamianebs gaaCniaT
`epistemologiuri da ontologiuri orWofoba~ (Bertens1986:28)
istoriuli progresis iracionaluri xasiaTis Tema erTob misaRebi
aRmoCnda gasuli saukunis bolo periodis moazrovneebisaTvis, romlebic
Tavs postmodernistebsa da memarcxene dekonstruqtivistebs uwodebdnen.
panenobrivma da panteqstualurma poziciam poststruqturalistebisam,
romelTac adamianuri azrovneba dahyavdaT daweril teqstamde (imavdroulad literaturas, kulturas, sazogadoebas da istoriasac isini uwodebdnen teqsts) ganapiroba maT mier pirovnebis subieqturi suverenitetis kritika, ramac warmoSva mravali koncefcia. ase magaliTad: `subieqtis sikvdili~ Tavisi kulturuli tradiciis diad interteqstSi aTqvefili `cnobieris teqstiT~. komunikaciurobis poststruqturalistebis
mier SemuSavebuli kritika ZiriTadad efuZneboda teqstis adekvaturad
gagebisa Tu zusti interpretirebis SeuZleblobis gamovlinebas. bunebrivia, am debulebis dasamtkiceblad poststruqturalistebi mimarTavdnen iseT avtorebs, rogorebic iyvnen rembo, lotreamoni, rob-griie,
joisi da sxva iseTi Semoqmedebi, romlebTanac dominirebda azrobrivi
gaugebroba, orazrovneba, interpretaciis mravalferovnebis SesaZlebloba. swored aqedan momdinareobs deridas azri, romelic dekonstruqtivistebis ZiriTad Tezisad iqca: `SeuZlebelia teqstis adekvaturi azris
dadgena~ (Derrida1972:256271)
literaturuli teqstisadmi amgvari midgomiT dekonstruqtivistebi ganaqiqebdnen im `gulubryvilo mkiTxvelebis~ praqtikas, romlebic
lamobdnen mxatvrul nawarmoebSi aRmoeCinaT ararsebuli erTiani obieqturi azri. amerikeli mecnieri jozef mileri aRniSnavda, rom teqstis
kiTxva mkiTxvels subieqtur interpretaciaSi iTrevs. yoveli mkiTxveli
wasakiTx masalas Tavisi azrovnebis gansazRvrul sqemaSi aTavsebs. iSveliebda ra nicSes, mileri askvnida, rom `nebismieri teqstis mravalgvari
interpretaciis arseboba maCvenebelia imisa, rom wakiTxva arasodes aris
azris mignebis obieqturi procesi, aramed es aris azris Cagdebis procesi teqstSi, romelsac TavisTavad, SesaZloa, arc gaaCnia azri~ (Miller
1972:912). amitom mileri da misi mimdevrebi `kritikos-mkiTxvels~ sTavazoben gaacnobieros, rom arsebobs `aqtiuri interpretaciis Tavisufali TamaSi~, romelic paninteleqtualobis konvenciis CarCoebiT anu da-

teqstiT TamaSi rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni

209

savleTis kulturis werilobiTi tradiciiT aris gansazRvruli da rac


kritikoss SesaZlo mniSvnelobaTa `uZiro morevSi~ iTrevs.
dekonstruqtivistebis am mimdinareobas ramdenime skola gamoeyo.
maT Soris mniSvnelovania memarcxene dekonstruqtivistebis skola,
romlisTvisac miuRebeli aRmoCnda ielis manifestis apolitikuri da
aistoriuli modusi, misi SemosazRvruloba mxolod literaturiT da
misi gausvleloba romelime kulturologiur konteqstze, misi orientacia mxolod romantizmisa da modernizmis literaturaze. memarcxene
dekonstruqtivistebi literaturis interteqstualobis postulatze
dayrdnobiT literaturul teqsts ganixilaven `sayovelTao kulturuli diskursis~ farTo konteqstSi religiuri, politikuri da ekonomikuri diskursebis TanxlebiT, rac qmnis e.w. `socialur teqsts~.
XX saukunis literaturul kritikaSi gamoikveTa poeziis axali
koncefcia da igi aRqmuli iqna rogorc codna (Poetry as knowledge),
rogorc mecnieruli Semecnebisgan gansxvavebuli specifikuri forma. am
konceftualuri Teoriis mimdevarTa azriT, xelovnebani da mecnierebani erTi da igive cdis gansxvavebuli, damoukidebeli da tolfasi kategoriebi arian. poeziiT miRebuli cdona da gamocdileba unikaluria.
t. s. elioti, rodesac msjelobda `msoflaRqmis erTianobis~ sakiTxebze, aRniSnavda, rom poezia emociisa da azris erTianobaa. k. bruksi
sxvaobas mecnierebasa da poezias Soris enis doneze ganixilavda. misi
azriT, mecnierebis e.w. `referentuli~ ena abstraqtulia gansxvavebiT
poeziis emociuri enisagan, romelic datvirTulia mniSvnelobaTa damatebiTi simravliT. wignSi `natifad naZerwi urna~ (1947 w.) bruksi
werda: `mecnierebis ena es abstraqtul simboloTa enaa, romelic ar
icvleba konteqstis semantikuri wnexis qveS. mecnieruli terminebi
zusti (an sizustisaken mswrafi) niSnebi arian, romelTa mniSvnelobebic dadgenilia windawin. ar aris saWiro maTi gacudeba axali mniSvnelobebis miniWebiT... poetma ki sityva unda gaiazros ara calkeuli,
gankerZoebuli, damoukidebeli gagebiT, aramed mTeli misi potenciiT,
mniSvnelobaTa simravliT...~ (gv. 219). bruksis azriT, mecnieris mier
gaanalizebuli cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba gansxvavdeba amave gamocdilebis poeturi gaazrebisgan. poets moeTxoveba misi ganzogadeba, ise
warmodgena, rom yoveli CvenganisTvis axlobeli da mniSvnelovani gaxados. WeSmarit poets SeuZlia gagvinaTos goneba ise, rom Cveni msoflaRqmis erTianoba ar daarRvios, imavdroulad daamarcxos Cveni cnobierebis urTierTdapirispirebuli elementebi maTTvis axali erTianobis miniWebiT. k. bruksis, rogorc e.w. `axali kritikis~ (Newcriticism
umniSvnelovaniesi skola XX saukunis anglo-amerikul literaturaTmcodneobaSi) Teoretikosis damsaxurebad iTvleba is, rom man wina
planze wamoswia poeturi xelovnebis SemoqmedebiTi funqcia.
poeturi Semoqmedebis formulireba literaturuli kritikis yvela skolam scada. Tu Rrmad CavukvirdebiT, isini TiTqmis imeoreben

210

nana tonia

erTmaneTs ama Tu im niuansis wina planze wamoweviT. ase magaliTad, j.


k. rensomi saubrobda poetur SemoqmedebaSi Teoriul koncefciaTa saxeobrivi realizaciis Taobaze. poeturi energia, misi azriT, muSaobs
erTdroulad orTave ganzomilebaSi; Teoriulsa da poeturSi (Rensom
1941: 125). a. teiti miiCnevda, rom namdvili poezia aris codnis is
forma, romelsac Cven uwin ar vflobdiT (Tate1948:132). j. a. riCardsis wamodgeniT, poetis goneba drodadro ise Rrmad ganicdis realobas, rom bunebas arsebuli realobis simbolod miiCnevs. poetis goneba
Tavad qmnis kidec realobas, romelSic aTavsebs Tavissave grZnobebs,
aRmafrenas, faseulobebs, rac mecneirul aRmoCenaTa msgavsad ar eqvemdebareba versifikacias. es sulac ar amcirebs poeturi naRvawis SemecnebiT mniSvnelobas. `poezia, askvnida j. a. riCardsi, aris azris
gamoTqmis srulyofili forma~ (Richards1925:225).
leqsis Txzvis xelovnebaSi, cxadia, moiazreba Txzvis specifikuri
principi, Sinaarsobrivi formis Taviseburi kanoni, romelic gansazRvravs siuJetis, kompoziciis, mxatvruli enisa da Tavad bgeriTi Sesatyvisobebis niuansebs. magram es zogadi gansazRvra bevrs arafers
xsnis, ufro metic, mas SeuZlia SecdomaSic Segviyvanos.
TvalsaCinoebisaTvis yuradRebas ipyrobs e.w. figuruli poezia, grafikul-surTovani leqsebis Seqmnis tradicia, romelic elinisturi xanidan iRebs dasabams. mis fuZemdeblad miiCneven simias rodosels, romelic Zv.w. 300 wlis maxlobel xanebSi moRvaweobda. gadmocemaTa Tanaxmad, igi mravalricxovani seriozuli Txzulebis avtori yofila, Tumca
maTgan istorias SemorCa sami eqsperimentul-gasarTobi xasiaTis leqsiT,
romelic Semogvinaxa berZnuli epigramebis krebulma (AnthologiaPalatina).
iyo Tu ara simiasi e.w. figurul leqsTa gamomgonebeli, dazustebiT
amis Tqma SeuZlebelia, Tumca mimdevrebi ki mravlad aRmoaCnda rogorc
antikur, ise mTeli Semdgomi epoqebis poeziaSi (gordeziani 2016:245).
figuruli leqsebis aRsaqmelad saWiroa ramdenime komponentis
gaTvaliswineba: a) upirveles yovlisa, es aris poeturi qmnileba, metrulad gamarTuli, poeturi gamosaxvis saSualebebiTY warmodgenili
saleqso striqonebis erTianoba; b) es poeturi qmnileba winaswar gamiznul grafiks eqvemdebareba, rac teqnologiuri xasaiTis ostatobas
moiTxovs; g) es poeturi qmnileba xSirad `Tavsatexs~ warmoadgens da
mkiTxvels pasuxis mZebnelis rols sTavazobs. dameTanxmebiT, yovelive
amis srulyofilad Targmna, rbilad rom vTqvaT, urTulesia da mTargmnelisagan mravalmxriv codnasa da ostatobas moiTxovs. am SemTxvevaSi namdvilad gasaziarebelia dekonstruqtivistTa e.w. ielis skolis
manifesti, romelmac ganaviTara semiotikuri filosofiis umniSvnelovanesi figuris deridas mier wamoyenebuli Teza literaturuli teqstis sworad gaazrebisa da zustad Targmnis SeuZleblobis Taobaze.

teqstiT TamaSi rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni

211

literatura
gordeziani 2016: rismag gordeziani, innovacia, formalizmi, avangardi
antikur literaturaSi; Tb.
Bertens 1986: N. Bertens, The postmodern Weltanschauung and its relation with
modernism // Approaching postmodernism: Papers pres. at a
Workshop on postmodernism, 21-23 Sept. 1984. Univ. of Utrecht /
Ed. by Fokkema D. W., Bertens N.; Amsterdam, Philadelphia
Derrida 1972: J. Derrida, Structure, sign and play in the discourse of the
human sciences // The structuralist controvercy / Ed. by Masksey
R., Donato E.; Baltimore
Miller 1972: J. H. Miller, Tradition and difference, rev. of M. H. Abrams,
`Natural supernaturalism~ // Diacritics; (N. Y.) Baltimore, Vol. 2.
2, p. 9-12.
Ransom 1941: J. C. Ransom, The new criticism; Norfolk
Richards 1925: J. A. Richards, Principles of literary criticism; N.Y.
Tate1948: A. Tate, On the limits of poetry: Selected essays, 1928-1948; N.Y.

Nana Tonia
Text Game as a Semiotic Phenomenon
Since ancient times, literary criticism has gone through many stages. For
quite a while, up until Martin Heidegger and C. Lvi-Strauss, Western
metaphysical thought had been dominated by the logocentric tradition stemming
from the ideas of Plato and Aristotle. On its quest for the teleological truth, this
tradition sought to see an organized system a structure and the roots of thinking
in anything human thought could fathom.
More recently, a number of models of text analysis have emerged that
essentially oppose the idea of structuralism. One of the most popular among them is
the so called Yale School of deconstructionists which has developed the thesis put
forward by Jacques Derrida, a prominent figure in semiotic philosophy, on the
impossibility of accurate interpretation and translation of a literary text.
The Deconstructionists endeavor to prove that all systems of artistic
thinking are typically defined by "rhetorical" and "metaphysical" nature.
According to them, every system that entails certain ideological implications is a
reader-oriented "ideological strategy", "rhetoric of persuasion," and claims to be
the foundation for true axioms. Rather than ignoring the fundamental truths
characteristic of every historic period and recorded in artistic texts of pertinent
epochs, Deconstructionism seeks to reveal the internal contradiction of axiomatic
systems persisting on the linguistic level and outline a way to approximate their
meaning to the original text and thus achieve their translatability. However, there
are texts the effective translation of which is basically impossible.

mamia faRava
saxeldebis sakiTxisaTvis
toponimebSi
toponimias ,,miwis enasac~ uwodeben,
ramdenadac geografiuli saxelebi ,,mogviTxroben~ aq mcxovrebTa Sesaxeb, aqaur mcenareTa safarze, faunaze, geologiur da klimatur pirobebze... Cveni mizania sworad ,,
wavikiTxoT~ es moTxrobebi. mkvlevrebi Tanxmdebian, rom yoveli toponimi garkveuli
niSniT axasiaTebs geografiul punqts,
sxvagvarad, saxeldebisas saxelmdeblebi iTvaliswinebdnen konkretuli adgilisaTvis
damaxasiaTebel konkretul niSans. droTa
ganmavlobaSi daviwyebas eZleva es niSani
(SesaZlebelia, ,,daviwyebis~ mizezi adgilobrivi mosaxleobis cvlac iyos) da geografiuli saxeli iqceva adgilis saxel-simbolod, droSi icvleba sageografio saxelis fonetikuri saxe, Sedegad, sazogadoebis winaSe dgeba toponimis etimologiis
dadgenis amocana. Zieba umetesad ori mimarTulebiT warimarTeba: a. xalxSi Seiqmneba geografiuli punqtis Sesaxeb Tqmuleba-gadmocemebi, legendebi, romlebic ,,mogviTxroben~ konkretul istoriebs adgilis Sesaxeb,
,,adgens~ etimologiebs... Tumca umetes SemTxvevaSi es Zieba xalxis gonebamaxvilobis
maCvenebelia da Sorsaa realurisagan. miuxedavad amisa, toponimikuri Tqmulebebis Segroveba-Seswavlas aqvs mniSvneloba kulturuli mexsierebisa da eTnokulturuli
TvalsazrisiT. b. mecnieruli Zieba geografiul saxelTa Tavdapirveli saxisa da amo-

saxeldebis sakiTxisaTvis toponimebSi

213

savali niSnis dasadgenad.


aRvniSnavT, etimologiuri Zieba rTuli da Zneli saqmea, amasTan, mimzidveli da matyuara, Sesabamisad, Ziebis Sedegi ki xSirad aradamajerebelia, Cndeba azrTa sxvaobebi. magaliTisaTvis Sors ar wavalT, Cveni qalaqis
_ baTumisa da aWaris (aqve: Woroxi, maWaxeli) Sesaxeb sxvadasxva dros gamoTqmuli gansxvavebuli mosazrebebic kmara:
1. baTumi momdinareobs berZnuli baTea//baTossagan da Rrmas niSnavs (yauxCiSvili 1965: 1014; WumburiZe 1987:427; beqiriSvili 1982:53).
2. baTumi miRebulia Turquli baTTumi, batimisagan da talaxs, Waobs,
saflobs niSnavs sixaruliZe 1959:86)..
3. baTumi momdinareobs svanuri baCisagan da qvas, kldes niSnavs (yauxCiSvili 1951:22; Sdr. CxeiZe 1959:17; inaiSvili 1976:7786; qaldani
1983:8486)..
4. baTumSi gamoiyofa baT Ziri da um sadeterminacio sufiqsi, Zireuli masala ki floronimi unda iyos... (faRava 2009:314; faRava 2009(1),
289295).
gamoTqmulia sxva mosazrebac. baTumSi gamoyofen ba prefiqss: *ba
tobi>*batombi>*batomi>baTomi (Caganava 2009:285288).
moyvanili mosazrebebi yvela garkveulad argumentirebulia da aqvs
arsebobis ufleba.
amave konteqstSi SeiZleba ganvixiloT saxeluri fuZeebi aWara,
maWaxeli da Woroxi. dasaxelebuli geografiuli saxelebis Sesaxeb
gamoiTqva araerTi urTierTgamomricxavi mosazreba (ix. faRava, mgelaZe
2005:318). aRvniSnavT, rom samive fuZe erTi da imave Zireuli masalisagan
Sedgeba da amosavali mniSvnelobiT ukavSirdeba wyals.
sxvagvarad, ukve Catarebuli kvlevebiT toponim baTumis Tavdapirveli niSani unda iyos ,,Rrma~, ,,qva~, ,,talaxi~, dabolos, baT mcenareuli
fuZea, floronimia (Sdr. baTura. aseve um/om fuZiani toponimebi: soxumi, leCxumi, borjomi, Rorjomi...), xolo War, Wor, Wax saxeluri fuZeebisaTvis amosavali sema unda iyos wyali...
adgilis (miwis) saxelis SerCeva garkveuli niSnis mixedviT damaxasiaTebelia sxvadasxva kulturisaTvis, igi zogad, universalur movlenad unda CaiTvalos da, rac mTavaria, saxeldebis principi ucvlelia ase iyo
Zvelad, asea axlac.
meoce saukuneSi (192530, 193436, 196065 ww) ,,TurqeTis saqarTveloSi Zveli qarTuli geografiuli saxelebi TurquliT Caanacvles. axal
toponimebs saxeldebisas ramdenime principi daedo safuZvlad:
1. geografiul saxelTa erTi nawili, romelTa mniSvneloba gamWvirvalea, pirdapir Targmnes Turqulad (aseTi saxelebi arcTu bevria Woroxis
xeobaSi):
... Safiqles mTis iqiT [ars] gurji boRazis xeoba, anu saqarTvelos yelisa~ (vaxuSti 1973:141),- vkiTxulobT vaxuSti batoniSvilis SromaSi. aq
pirdapir TargmanTan gvaqvs saqme.

214

mamia faRava

Zveli geografiuli saxelebis Targmnis sxva SemTxvevebia:


alTun kala, romelic Zveli oqros cixis Targmania. aseTivea:
SeiTan kala eSmakis cixe.
dorT qilisa oTxTa eklesia.
qilise boRazi eklesiis kari (Sdr. jamikari). kari aq ezos mniSvnelobiTaa naxmari (ix. faRava 2014).
mamanin deresi qarTul-Turquli toponimia; Cans, igi mamaTxevis Targmania. mdebareobs istoriul klarjeTSi, longoTxevTan axlos. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom erTi, sakmaod gavrcelebuli varaudiT, awindeli eni rabaTi Zveli Satberdia (ix. faRava 2007), mamaTxevis aq arseboba mniSvnelovani faqtia (ix. klarjeTi 2016:64, sq. 248).
goldibi tbis Ziri.
buuq duzi didi mindori/veli, Sdr. didveli.
Camlugi naZvnari.
pantalugi pantnari/pantiani.
onjalugi onjebi/onjnari.
dermandere wisqvilis xevi. Sdr. wisqvili Rele (aWara).
oquz aTaRi xaris sawoli.
maral aTaRi irmis sawoli.
doquzfinari cxrawyaro.
yara goli Savi tba.
yamiS goli lerwmis tba.
sariCari yviTeli Wala (SavSeTi 2011:326). Cairi aWarulSi saTibs
(igivea rac Wala) da Tivasac aRniSnavs.
qirazli balvana.
msgavsi toponimebi Woroxis xeobaSi sxvacaa. axali, Turquli geografiuli saxelebis warmomavloba naTelia.
2. toponimTa didi nawilis semantika dabnelebulia, aseT SemTxvevaSi
axali niSani SeurCeviaT geografiuli punqtisaTvis, igi axali maxasiaTebelia saxeldebuli adgilisa.
axal niSnad upirvelesad aq gavrcelebuli mcenareTa safari gamouyenebiaT. ase iqca Zveli:
vanTa elmalad (Sdr. vaSlovani).
zendaba arfalad (Sdr. qernali).
iveTi misirlad (Sdr. simindiani).
muxobani uzumlud (Sdr. vaziani).
samjeli armuTlud (Sdr. sxlobani).
svirevani duTlud (Sdr. TuTnari).
tbeTi jevizlad (Sdr. nigvziani).
WinkaTxevi murRulad (Sdr. Sqeris yvavili)...
saxeldebisas SeurCeviaT sxva maxasiaTebelic:
bazgireTi madeni (q. wiaRiseuli).
gurnaTeli susuzi (q. uwylo).

saxeldebis sakiTxisaTvis toponimebSi

215

axaldaba Tefeqo (q. sofeli borcvze).


moqvTa savaSi (q. omi)...
Woroxis xeobaSive gvxvdeba toponimi sintagmebi:
yurT oli mglis gza/biliki.
taSli Tarla qviani yana.
yuru dere (SavS. morRelis axali saxeli) mSrali xevi.
qurTigil qurTebis ubani (SavS. cixisZiri).
demirjigil mWedlisubani (SavS. sxlobanis ubani).
Cans, zogi axali toponimisaTvis safuZvlad Zveli gadmocema daudviaT. aseTad migvaCnia: yizgoli (Sdr. qalis tba. SavS. sxlobanis ubani).
devegoli (aqlemis tba. SavS. tbeTi)...
Woroxis xeobis Turqul toponimiaze dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom geografiul punqtebze saxelebis gadarqmevis procesSi monawileobda adgilobrivi mosaxleobac. axali saxeli nebismieri araa, igi garkveuli niSniTaa
SerCeuli da, rac mTavaria, axali saxelebi saxeldebis Zveli principebiTaa
SerCeuli.
literatura:
yauxCiSvili 1965 simon yauxCiSvili, bizantieli mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb. georgika, 2, Tbilisi.
yauxCiSvili 1951 antikuri masalebi baTumis istoriis Sesaxeb. quTaisis
pedinstitutis Sromebi, 4, quTaisi.
WumburiZe 1987 zurab WumburiZe, ,, dedaena qarTuli, Tbilisi.
beqiriSvili 1982 ioseb beqiriSvili, narkvevebi baTumis istoriidan, baTumi.
sixaruliZe 1959 iuri sixaruliZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos toponimia, nawili, 2, baTumi.
CxeiZe 1959 jemal CxeiZe, baTumis istoriisaTvis, baTumi.
inaiSvili 1976 aslan inaiSvili, baTumis etimologiisaTvis. aWaruli dialeqtis dargobrivi leqsika, 1, Tbilisi.
qaldani 1983 maqsime qaldani, kvlav baTumis etimologiisaTvis. Jurnali
,,Woroxi~, 2, 1983, baTumi.
faRava 2009 mamia faRava, um/om sufiqsi qarTul toponimebSi da zogierTi
geografiuli saxelis etimologiis cda. SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis Sromebi, 13, baTumi.
faRava 2009(1) mamia faRava, kvlav toponim baTumis etimologiisaTvis.
kr. baTumi, warsuli da Tanamedroveoba, 1, baTumi.
Caganava 2009 guram Caganava, toponim ,,baTomis~ warmomavlobisaTvis. kr.
baTumi, warsuli da Tanamedroveoba, 1, baTumi.
faRava, mgelaZe 2005 mamia faRava,nugzar mgelaZe, aWara, maWaxeli, Woroxi
etimologiis cda. bsu Sromebi, 7, humanitarul mecnierebaTa seria,

216

mamia faRava

baTumi.
klarjeTi 2016 mamia faRava, meri cincaZe, maia baramiZe, malxaz CoxaraZe,
Tina SioSvili, SoTa mamulaZe, ramaz xalvaSi, nugzar mgelaZe, zaza
SaSikaZe, jemal karaliZe, klarjeTi, Tbilisi.
SavSeTi 2011 mamia faRava, meri cincaZe, maia baramiZe, malxaz CoxaraZe, Tina SioSvili, SoTa mamulaZe, vardo CoxaraZe, Tamaz futkaraZe, nugzar cecxlaZe, zaza SaSikaZe, jemal karaliZe, ,,SavSeTi,~ Tbilisi.
faRava 2014 mamia faRava, karfuZiani toponimebi klarjeTSi. 34-e respublikuri dialeqtologiuri sesia, Tbilisi.
faRava 2007 mamia faRava, xanZTisa da Satberdis lokalizaciisaTvis. Jurnali ,,mnaTobi~, 1, Tbilisi.
faRava 2011 mamia faRava, SavSuri Canawerebi, Tbilisi.
faRava 2012 mamia faRava, niko mari da misi mogzauroba SavSeTsa da klarjeTSi. gamokvleva wignze: niko mari, SavSeTsa da klarjeTSi mogzaurobis dRiurebi. qarTuli Targmani revaz diasamiZisa. mamia faRavas
saerTo redaqciiTa da gamokvleviT, baTumi.
Mamia Paghava
On the Issue of Naming in Toponyms
Historically the specific sign (inhabitants, vegetation cover, fauna, relief)
characterized to the place defined the naming of the geographical points. Over
time, the first definition of the toponym is forgotten and the name given to the
geographical point for specific sign becomes its name-symbol.
By analyzing the specific examples, the article discusses the cases of
replacing Georgian toponyms by the Turkish ones. There are two approaches:
when the old Georgian names are translated into the Turkish language
(Sakartvelos Keli Gurji Boghazi, Eshmakis Tsikhe Sheitan Kale) or the
new signs are chosen to name them (Vanta Elmali, Zendaba Arfali,
Bazgireti Madeni).
According to the author, a name is new and naming is old.

naTia qaTamaZe
sintaqtikis, semantikisa
da pragmatikis
istoriuli wanamZRvrebi
sintaqtikas, semantikas da pragmatikas Soris urTierTmimarTebis ganxilvas
mivyavarT q. morisTan da r. qarnafTan. mocemul klasifikacia udavod s. pirssac
ukavSirdeba, magram pirveli mecnieri, romelmac sakiTxs aSkarad naTeli mohfina
gaxldaT q. morisi, r. qarnafma ki misi
mosazreba niSandoblivad ganavrco. q. morisi iZulebuli iyo aReniSna, rom ,,pragmatika~ da ,,sintaqtika~ sakmaod bundovani
cnebebia (morisi 1971: 89).
adreul SromebSi q. morisi pragmatikas ganmartavda rogorc swavlebas ,,niSansa da misi momxmareblis urTierTmimarTebis~ Sesaxeb, semantikas niSansa da sagans
Soris urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb swavlebas, xolo sintaqsi misi TqmiT, gaxldaT
swavleba ,,niSanTa urTirTmimarTebisa erTmaneTTan~(morisi 1971:109). SemdegSi man
ufro daxvewili formulireba warmoadgina, romelic iTvaliswinebda ,,gavrcelebuli klasifikaciis Strixebis SenarCunebas
da mis Tavisuflebas yovelgvari SezRudvebisa da bundovanebisagan da terminebis
Tavisufal interpretirebas semiotikis
farglebSi~. ganaxlebuli gansazRvreba
Semdegia: pragmatika semiotikis nawilia,
romelic ukavSirdeba niSanTa warmoebas,
gamoyenebasa da efeqts qmedebaTa im nor-

218

naTia qaTamaZe

mis farglebSi, romelsac moicavs. semantika ukavSirdeba im niSandebis


process aRniSvnis yovel aspeqtSi; sintaqtika ki niSanTa kombinaciasTan asocirdeba ise, rom mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba specifikuri signifikacia an maTi damokidebuleba Sesabamis qcevis normebTan.
r. qarnafis definicia axlosaa q. morisis adreul formulirebasTan, miuxedavad imisa, rom r. qarnafs yovelive logikurobamde dahyavs:
Tuki kvlevisas eqsplicituri pozicia ukavia mTqmels an ufro zustad
Tu vityviT, enis momxmarebels, saqme gvaqvs pragmatikasTan, Tu mTqmels
gamoveyofiT da calkeul winadadebas da maTi aRniSvnis obieqtebs gavanaalizebT, am SemTxvevaSi semantikis sferoSi vimyofebiT, da Tuki sabolood am poziciidanac gamovalT da winadadebebs Soris urTierTmimarTebs gavaanalizebT, saqme gvaqvs (logikur) sintaqsTan (qarnafi 1942: 45).
rogorc Cans, am gansazRvrebaSi ,,momxmarebeli~ Canacvlebulia
ufro zogadi terminiT ,,mTqmeli~, magram bundovania ram gamoiwvia am
terminis zogadi xasiaTi: misma kavSirma werilobiTi sityvis avtorTan,
mTqmelTan, msmenelTan, mkiTxvelTan Tu mis momxmarebelTan. erTaderTi,
rac aSkaraa, aris is, rom pragmatikaSi r.qarnafi upiratesobas aniWebs
niSnis mwarmoebels da ara mimRebs. maSin, roca q. morisi adreul naSromebSi pragmatikas ganixilavs im TvalsazrisiT, rogor efeqts axdens niSnebi momxmarebelze. erT-erT gamomcemlobaSi gamoqveynda statiebi, sadac uamravi avtori gamoTqvamda Tavis mosazrebas zemoT ganxilul sakiTxze. aRsaniSnavia erTi fraza ,,pragmatika swavlobs niSanTa mimarTebas xalxTan.~
r. qarnafis TvalsazrisiT, semantikasa da pragmatikas Soris gansxvaveba uaxlovdeba enasa da logikas Soris diferenciacias. semantika
da pragmatika mniSvnelobis analizis fundamentalurad gansxvavebul
formebs warmoadgenen. pragmatika Seesabameba istoriulad arsebuli bunebrivi enis empiriul kvlevas maSin, roca wminda semantika swavlobs
konstriqciul enas, rogorc sistemas. deskrifciuli semantika ki misi
TqmiT, SeiZleba CaiTvalos pragmatikis nawilad (qarnafi 1956: 98). ase
Tu ise, miuxedavad imisa, rom, is wminda semantikasa da aRwerilobiT
semantikas ,,analizisaTvis fundamentalurad gansxvavebul formebad~
miiCnevda, Semdeg SromebSi daamtkica, rom wminda semantika SeiZleba CaiTvalos deskrifciuli semantikis modelad, misi es mosazreba aqtiurad gamoiyenes logikuri semantikis mimdevrebma bunebrivi enis analizisas. Tavis naSromSi r. qarnafis filosofiis Sesaxeb q. morisi werda, rom es ukanaskneli pragmatikas empiriul disciplinad miiCnevda da
gamoricxavda mis identurobas wminda semantikisa da wminda sintaqtikasTan (morisi 1971:123), ar arsebobs mizezi, ratom ar unda gamoviyenoT terminebi ,,wminda~ da ,,aRwerilobiTi~ im urTierTobis analizisas, romelic arsebobs niSansa da mis momxmarebels Soris, termini
,,logikuri~ SeiZleboda gamogveyenebina semiotikasTan mimarTebiT, r.
qarnafi am mosazrebas daeTanxma.

sintaqtikis, semantikisa da pragmatikis istoriuli wanamZRvrebi

219

q. morisi da r. qarnafi SeTanxmdnen, rom nebismier SemTxvevaSi


bunebriv enaSi mniSvnelobis analizisas yvelaferi daiyvaneba pragmatul aspeqtamde. r. qarnafi Tavis uaxloes naSromSi miiCnevs, rom
,,enas gaaCnia pragmatuli xasiaTi~ (qarnafi 1956: 134).
j. laionsi askvnis, rom miuxedavad didi mcdelobisa, semantikasa
da pragmatikas Soris srulfasovani gansxvavebis povna SeuZlebelia
(laionsi 1995: 54).
oriode sityviT SevexoT sintaqsis urTierTmimarTebas semantikasTan. lingvistebi da filosofosebi gamoyofen ori saxis idealuri
formulis principebs, romlebic ukavSirdebian winadadebisa da frazis
koncentracias, pirveli ganisazRvreba maTi gramatikuli xasiaTiT, meore ki _ maTi mniSvnelobiT. Tu semantika mniSvnelobas Seiswavlis, maSin
kombinaciuri aspeqti vrceldeba rogorc semantikaze, ise sintaqsze,
magram r. qarnafisa da q. morisis definicias es mosazreba ar esadageba, sintaqsis gansazRvrebis kritikis mizezi isaa, rom masSi ar aris
mocemuli gansxvaveba formas, leqsemasa da gamoTqmas Soris. aqedan gamomdinare, ar aris dadgenili, ra principiT unda gamovyoT sintaqsi
iseTi disciplinebidan, rogoricaa ena da morfologia.
da bolos, ganvixiloT TviT termini ,,semiotika,~ gansazRvrebisaTvis saukeTeso saSualeba gaxlavT sasignalo Teoriis gamoyofa. sasignalo sistemaTa (anu semiotikur sistemaTa) Soris saWiroa ganvasxvaoT bunebrivi da xelovnuri sistemebi. bunebrivSi ar igulisxmeba
maTi xatovani an Tundac simboluri xasiaTi. arc is, rom instinqturobiT xasiaTdebian. ,,bunebrivi~ niSnavs, rom isini ,,istoriulad arseboben~ da rom ganzrax ar arian Seqmnilni. SeiZleba sasargebloc kia
lingvistikis CarTva semiotikis zogad TeoriaSi, romelic dakavSirebulia yvela bunebriv da xelovnur sasignalo sistemasTan.
rogorc vnaxeT, pragmatikas bevri lingvisti ganixilavs, rogorc
semantikis kontrastul mecnierebas, magram aviwydebaT erTi ram, rom
lingvistika semiotikis nawils warmoadgens.
literatura:
qarnafi 1956: Carnap R. Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge, Mass MIT.
Press
frege 1974: Frege G . Logical structure of the language-London
lakofi 1969: Lakoff R. A syntactic argument for negative transportationChicago
liCi 1990: Leech G. M. Semantics. Penguin
levinsoni 1983: Levinson S. Pragmatics-Cambridge
laionsi 1995: Lyons J. Linguistic Semantics. Cambridge University Press.
1995.
morisi 1971: Morris Ch. Writings on general theory of signs.- Paris

220

naTia qaTamaZe

Natia Katamadze
Historical premises of Syntactics, Semantics and Pragmatics

The analysis presented in the article helps us to study the differences and
similarities in terms of relationship between semantics and pragmatics. The
difference between semantics and pragmatics is closely connected with the
differentiation between language and logic. Semantics and pragmatics represent
fundamentally different analysis of the meaning. Pragmatics corresponds to
historically existing empirical research of language whereas pure semantics
studies constructive language as a system. Descriptive semantics may be
considered as a part of pragmatics. Despite the fact that some scholars reckoned
pure semantics and descriptive semantics as ~fundamentally different forms of
analysis, later it was proved that pure semantics can be considered as the model
of descriptive semantics, this opinion was widely used by the followers of logic
semantics in terms of analyzing the language.

nana qajaia,
viqtoria sitnikova
mxatvruli teqstis
Targmnis semiotikuri
aspeqtebi
yoveli calke aRebuli kultura Tavis
specifikurobasa da kontrastulobas gansakuTrebuli sisavsiT mxolod sxva kulturasTan urTierTqmedebisas, kulturaTa dialogis WrilSi gamoavlens. teqstSi dafiqsirebuli kulturologiuri informacia
warmodgenas gviqmnis sazogadoebis, epoqis,
socialuri Tu erovnuli fenebis RirebulebaTa sistemaze. mxatvruli Targmani warmoudgenelia kulturuli konteqstis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe.
statiaSi gavaanalizebT kulturis semiotikuri aspeqtebis mxatvrul TargmanSi
gadmocemis Taviseburebebs. kvlevis obieqts
warmoadgens n. dumbaZis romanis `maradisobis kanonis~ rusuli da inglisuri Targmanebi. Cveni mizania Tvali mivadevnoT ucxoenovan variantebSi teqstis kulturuli aspeqtebis translirebis process, aRvniSnoT dafiqsirebul transformaciaTa Tavisebureba
da mizezebi, romanis erovnuli-specifikuri
koloritis ucxo kulturis warmomadgenlis mier aRqmis Tavisebureba, samyaros enobrivi da konceptualuri xatis gansxvavebebi.
am mxriv gamovyofT kulturuli specifikis
matarebel niSnebs, radganac mxatvruli teqstis adeqvaturi interpretaciisa da ucxo
enaze Sesabamisi gadmocemisaTvis maT pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba eniWebaT.
n. dumbaZis romanisa da misi rusuli

222

nana qajaia, viqtoria sitnikova

Targmanebis SedarebiTi analizi saSualebas gvaZlevs ganvixiloT teqsturi semiotikuri struqturebis kulturuli adaptacia semiosferaTa dialogis aspeqtSi.
gamomdinare iqedan, rom semiotika niSnebis samyaroa da miniSnebas
awarmoebs adamiani, niSnebs SeiZleba gaaCndeT sxvadasxva mniSvneloba. Cvens
konkretul SemTxvevaSi gvainteresebs is mniSvnelobebi, romlebsac sityva
iZens konteqstSi. n. dumbaZis romanis rusul variantSi sityvis konotaciuri mniSvneloba xSirad Canacvlebulia myari (saleqsikono) mniSvnelobiT.
Sedegad transformacias ganicdis mwerlis SemoqmedebiTi manera, erTgvarad knindeba teqstis mxatvruli mxare.
roman `nu geSinia, dedas~ rusuli Targmanis (mTargmneli z. axvlediani)
analizisas Cven yuradReba gavamaxvileT im saxe-simboloebze, romlebic, Cveni
azriT, mniSvnelovani azrobriv-mxatvruli datvirTvis matarebelni arian.
maTgan mniSvnelovania mzis simbolika _ mze rogorc sicocxlisa da ukvdavebis simbolo, agreTve mze rogorc adamianis Wirisufali da mokavSire.
mze n. dumbaZis romanebis tradiciul alegoriul saxe-simbolos warmoadgens. TiTqmis yvela romanSi mas gansakuTrebuli datvirTva gaaCnia da avtoris mxatvrul-esTetikuri poziciis erTgvar gasaRebs warmoadgens. rogorc e. eligulaSvili SeniSnavs, mze n. dumbaZis mxatvrul samyaroSi sicocxlisa da ukvdavebis simbolod iqca (eligulaSvili 1972: 236). amitomac
epizodebi, romlebSic figurirebs mzis simbolika, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens Targmanis TvalsazrisiTac. mxatvrul-Sinaarsobriv aspeqtSi
sainteresoa scena _ isidore daxvretis win. rusul TargmanSi dumbaZiseuli Txrobis manera erTgvarad nivelirebas ganicdis. mzis simbolo TargmanSi
garkveulwilad uferuldeba. `da yvelaferi es erTmaneTSi areuli, Sezavebuli gril niavsa da veeberTela mzes rom mohqonda, ukanaskneli WirisufaliviT rom efereboda gonj saxeze~ (dumbaZe 1989: 25). Targmani:
, , ,
, , ,
( 1986: 468-469). rogorc vxedavT, rusul variantSi Tavad mzis simbolo (`veeberTela mze~) ar figurirebs. mTargmnelma is
pirdapiri azrobrivi substitutiT Secvala _ . originalSi aRniSnuli azri mxolod igulisxmeba, mwerlis mier SeniRbulia. qarTvel mkiTxvels avtori aZlevs saSualebas Tavad gaiazros da Cawvdes aRniSnuli simbolos mxatvrul-Sinaarsobriv sisavses, rusi mkiTxveli ki am SesaZleblobas moklebulia, radganac dumbaZiseuli saxismetyveleba mTargmnelma gaSifruli saxiT SemogvTavaza.
originalSi avtori mzes saintereso da mniSvnelovani epiTetiT axasiaTebs _ `ukanaskneli Wirisufali~. aRniSnuli detali mzis simbolos erTgvarad avsebs, warmogvidgens mas mTlianobaSi. mze mwerlis mxatvrul samyaroSi
aramarto manaTobeli da mamoZravebeli Zalaa, is amave dros adamianis mokavSirecaa, mxsnelic. swored es detali ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli mTargmnelis mier, rac erTgar ukmarisobis grZnobas iwvevs.

mxatvruli teqstis Targmnis semiotikuri aspeqtebi

223

isidores gamojanmrTeleba aseve alegoriul konteqstSia naCvenebi.


midis simboluri brZola ori sawyisisa _ mzis (Sesabamisad, sicocxlis)
da `nabadiviT Savi cisa~ (sikvdilis). originalSi orive simbolo erT frazaSi orjer meordeba: `oTxi Tve eZebda nabadiviT Sav caze mzes isidore da
mexuTe Tveze gaxia nabadiviT ca da eaxla mas~. swored am erTi SexedviT
uadgilo ganmeorebis wyalobiT epizodi iZens gansakuTrebul dramatizms,
iqmneba erTgvari daZabuli foni, amaRlebuli JReradoba, romelic Tavisi
eqspresiiT mogvagonebs bibliur intonacias. personaJis rTuli da dramatuli brZola sicocxlisaTvis rusul variantSi naklebad dramatizirebulia, mTargmnelma Tavi aarida sikvdilis simbolos (`nabadiviT Savi ca~)
ganmeorebas da Sedegad daikarga emfaturoba da daZabuloba: ...
, , .
... ( 1986: 470).
kidev erT simboloze gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas. zRva rogorc cxovrebis, gancdis, tanjvis metafora. n. dumbaZis personaJebisaTvis, da Tavad
mwerlisaTvis, tanjva da simSvide SeuTavsebeli cnebebia. tanjva, gancda
duRs, iwvis adamianSi. dumbaZis gmiri ganicdis, itanjeba, ibrZvis, marcxdeba, kargavs axloblebs, ganicdis bavSvuri uSualobiT, imavdroulad kaJdeba, vaJkacdeba da sxvebsac gaiyoliebs. romanis personaJma avTandil jayelma
icis, Tu ra niSnavs axloblis, megobris dakargva. bavSvobidan moyolebuli
cxovrebisagan mware dartymebsaa miCveuli. megobris daRupvis Semdeg arc
dasveneba surs, arc garToba da mSvidi Zili. tanjva da sicocxle misTvis
didi xania sinonimebad iqca. tanjva misTvis zRvaa, saidanac mSrali ver gamoxval: ! , !
, !
! ? ?.. (dumbaZe
1986: 591). es gaxlavT nawyveti avTos Sinagani monologidan, romlis arsic
cxadi xdeba mxolod nawarmoebis mTliani problematikis konteqstSi. yovelgvari lokalizacia epizodis semantikas daamaxinjebs. mxolod am konteqstSi SeiZleba visaubroT metaforaze, romelic personaJis monologidan momdinareobs _ tanjvis zRva, ase SeiZleba vuwodoT am metaforas, romelsac n. dumbaZe Semfaseblur funqcias aniWebs. aseT gamocdas uwyobs avtori Tavis personaJebs _ vin arian isini? Seexo Tu ara cxovreba maTi sulis ufaqizes simebs? faqizi sulis adamiani wylidan, zRvidan (qveteqstis
doneze ki _ cxovrebidan, tanjvis zRvidan) mSrali ver amova.
aseTi gaxlavT n. dumbaZis mrwamsi. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom ganwmendisa da davaJkacebis amgvar gzas umzadebs is sayvarel personaJebs. ai, avTos monologis amgvari gagebisaken gvibiZgebs dumbaZiseuli xatovani, alegoriuli manera. rac mTavaria, es sakvanZo momenti Sesabamisad aris gadmocemuli rusul enaze, SenarCunebulia mwerlis mdidari xatovani azrovnebis
diapazonebi.
mwerali zemoT aRniSnul Temebs organulad ukavSirebs samSoblos
Temas. Tavad samSoblos sazRvrebic arsebul politikur sazRvrebs scdeba.

224

nana qajaia, viqtoria sitnikova

romanSi naCvenebia aramarto mavTulxlarTiT SemosazRvruli samSoblo,


aramed sazRvrebs miRma darCenili saqarTveloc. saqarTvelos istoriuli
bedis tragizmi erTi sazRvrispira soflis magaliTzea naCvenebi. swored am
konteqstSi SeiZleba gamoiyos kidev erTi simbolo _ `avadmyofi gaTxovili qaliSvili~ rogorc samSoblos niSani. saerTo ubedurebam _ xanZarma
droebiT gaaerTiana orad gayofili sofeli, romlis macxovreblebmac kargad ician, Tu ras niSnavs ganSoreba. am ganSorebis tkivils uxmod Cqmalaven
gulSi. samSoblo maTTvis politikosTa mowodebebisa da lozungebidan ki
ar iwyeba, aramed sazRvridan, gaxleCili ojaxebidan. samSoblos ideas isini
TavianT gulebSi swored im ganSorebis tkivilTan erTad inaxaven. ai, am tkivilis aRwerisas avtori iyenebs metaforas, romelsac Znelia vuwodoT pirobiTi: `gamoRma sofeli am dRes Sewuxebul mSobels gavda, romelic gaTxovili avadmyofi Svilis sanugeSod iyo wasuli da valmoxdili Sin brundeboda~ (dumbaZe 1989: 233). samwuxarod, metafora rusul variantSi daikarga, radganac fraza ar aris gadmocemuli. aRniSnuli azri mniSvnelovania ara mxolod Sinaarsobrivad. frazaSi gvesmis ara marto mesazRvre jayelis azri, aramed mwerlis poziciac. ufro metic, Tu am metaforamde Txroba warmoebda personaJis piriT, Cvens mier aRniSnuli fraza aSkarad mxolod avtors ekuTvnis, cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT dabrZenebul adamians, romelic kargad icnobs samSoblos istoriuli bedis peripetiebs. xdeba xmaTa Serwyma, avtoriseuli xmis gaZliereba. rusul TargmanSi ki aRniSnuli metafora ar fiqsirdeba, rac originalis polifoniurobas erTgvarad arRvevs, ikargeba avtoriseuli `reziume~.
mTargmnelobiT danakargebze saubrisas unda iTqvas, rom rusul TargmanSi mudmivad igrZnoba garuseba, lazaTiani guruli metyvelebis gauferuleba, ikargeba saxasiaTo epiTetebi, Sedarebebi. rig SemTxvevaSi amgvar
danakargi iZulebiTia, radgan saqme gvaqvs e.w. `uTargmnel~ leqsikasTan.
xSirad mniSvnelovani eTno-kulturologiuri informaciac ikargeba.
ase, magaliTad, mTaSi mwyemsebis qeifis aRwerisas mTargmnelma ar Tu ver
gadmoitana araCveulebrivi fraza _ `izabela krimanWuliT gadmobrZanda
baCanas jamSi~. epizodi sainteresoa imiT, rom aq SesaZlebelia gamoiyos kidev erTi semiotikuri niSani _ Rvino, rogorc qarTuli mentalitetis
erT-erTi safuZveli. am mokle, magram tevad winadadebaSi igrZnoba qarTveli kacis siyvaruli da mowiweba Rvinis mimarT. qarTveli kacisTvis Rvino
gasulierebulia, Rvino gadmobrZanda, da ara uxmod, aramed rakrakiT, krimanWuliT, zeimiT. qarTvelisaTvis is ar aris mxolod sasmeli, Rvino saqarTvelos istoriacaa, filosofiac da a. S. samwuxarod, rusuli Targmani amgvar kulturologiur informacias ver awvdis rusulenovan mkiTxvels.
politikuri konteqstis Semcveli niSnebi _ `trockisti kasio~.
romanSi avtori mogviTxrobs Tbilisis yoveldRiuri cxovrebis detalebze. avetik babaiancis `palevoi~ Teatri warmoadgens Seqspiris tragediis
Tanamedrove versias. am konteqstSi TiTqosda uneblieT naTqvami sityvebi
`trockisti kasio~ ara marto Rimils iwvevs mkiTxvelSi. mSvidobiani cxov-

mxatvruli teqstis Targmnis semiotikuri aspeqtebi

225

rebis aRweris fonze sityva `trockisti~ mkiTxvelis yuradRebas sruliad


sapirispiro Temaze amaxvilebs. sityva mianiSnebs 30-iani wlebis politikur bataliebze. garda amisa, aRniSnuli sityvebSi igrZnoba faruli kritika ideologiis zegavlenisa xelovnebaze, rac xSirad srualiad uazro
formebSi vlindeboda. rogorc aRniSnul momentSi, sadac sruliad Seusabamo movlenebia dakavSirebuli _ trockizmi da Seqspiris gmiri!
amgvarad, n. dumbaZis romanis `nu geSinia, dedas~ rusuli Targmanis
analizisas Cven gamovyaviT ideur-Sinaarsobrivad mniSvnelovani momentebi,
SevecadeT mogveZia saintereso informaciis matarebeli semiotikuri niSnebi da maTi TargmanSi gadmotanis Taviseburebebi. rig SemTxvevaSi leqsikur
erTeulTan erTad mniSvnelovani informacia da mwerluri stilis Taviseburebani ikargeba. mimRebi, anu mTargmnelisaTvis mSobliuri kultura garkveul zegavlenas axdens mTargmnelobiTi gadawyvetilebis miRebaze.
literatura:
eligulaSvili 1972: ..
. ., , 1972.
dumbaZe 1989: n. dumbaZe. Txzulebani 4 tomad. Tbilisi, `merani~,
dumbaZe 1986: .. 2- . ,
"", 1986 ( ).

Nana Kajaia,Viktoria Sitnikova


Semiotic Aspects of Literary Text Translation
In attempt to follow the direction of the author's thoughts and the features
of their further reconstruction in another language, we have been analyzing the
important highlights in terms of artistic and semantic plan. We have noted the
originality of the narrative and the role of some stylistic techniques in incarnation
of author's intentions. The author in these episodes willingly uses the symbols for
expressing his position, which typically appears in the text in binary forms.In a
duel of opposite symbolic images the superiority is always on the side of the Sun
and Light.Quoting the G. Gverdtsiteli, "the sun is the most important and
beautiful symbol of light, goodness, love and the whole pure and sublime that
wanders from the novel in a novel.This is how N.Dumbadze expresses his moral
credo which despite some shortcomings was reflected in the other language.

Joanna Szerszunowicz
ON BIEVALUATIVE PHRASEMES
FROM A SEMIOTIC
PERSPECTIVE
Abstract
The general aim of the paper is to discuss the
phenomenon of bievaluative potential of phrasemes, i.e. the ability of certain fixed multiword
units to express two kinds of evaluation,
positive and negative, without changing their
form. The phenomenon will be described with a
focal issue on the semiotic aspects, especially
those related to semantics and pragmatics. The
feature of dual evaluation manifested in some
phrasemes will be discussed on the example of
selected Polish units which possess the ability
to express two different evaluations. Special
attention will be paid to the causes of dual
evaluation of phrasemes, including various
linguo-cultural factors.
1. Introduction
Phrasemes constitute a group of units
comprising various polylexical fixed expressions, which are reproducible (cf. Chlebda
2003). The phrases belonging to this stock may
be both figurative and non-figurative; therefore,
the term phraseme comprises several kinds of
multiword units, for instance, restricted collocations, idiomatic multiword combinations,
proverbial expressions, sayings, formulae and
winged words. Due to their widespreadness and
linguo-cultural significance (cf. Goshkheteliani
2013a, 2013b), such units are important research objects from a semiotic perspective,

On Bievaluative Phrasemes from a Semiotic Perspective

227

especially from a semantic and pragmatic viewpoint. In general, as secondary


nomination means, phrasemes tend to express not only meanings, but also
emotions and/or evaluation.
Evaluation consists in developing a positive or negative attitude to an
object, event, behaviour. It expresses approval or disapproval and allows for
considering an object as deserving or not deserving somebodys efforts (Sownik
etyczny 1990: 259). Generally speaking, fixed word constructions tend to express
or reflect the system of evaluation developed in a given ethnic community over
centuries. As stated by Pajdziska (2006: 129), phraseological units
communicate and implicate evaluation. Furthermore, such expressions constitute
a source of knowledge on the system of values and preferences of the language
community using these units.
The assessment of various phenomena, characteristics and processes
motivate various units, which, in turn, when used, reinforce given evaluations in
the society. Therefore, it can be assumed that numerous phrasemes are carriers of
the perception of different elements of the reality surrounding man, typical of the
community in question. Certain kinds of phraseological expressions are
predisposed to be such carriers, for instance, fossilized similes (ermk 1995;
Peters 2007). In fact, many expressions are monoevaluative, i.e. they carry only
one judgement, either positive (Polish: dziewczyna jak malina lit. a girl like a
raspberry, used about a girl: absolutely beautiful), or negative (Polish: gupi jak
but lit. stupid as a shoe very stupid).
As the evaluative connotation is a property of a given fixed expressions, a
special parameter, EVAL, can be introduced so that it could be described
properly (Nagrko 1982). The positive assessment can be marked with the
abbreviation posit. or +, while the negative one with negat. or . At the system
level, the function of such units is well defined either EVAL + or EVAL , yet
their contextual value may be different depending on the speakers intention: a
positively marked unit can be changed into a negative description and, vice
versa. It can be achieved by the language user employing special intonation and
accentuation, for instance, to introduce irony into the utterance. It can be
assumed that this property is shared by lexical and phraseological units and it
will not be the object of the analysis in the present paper.
Apart from monoevaluative phrasemes, phraseological stock of a language
may contain bievaluative units, i.e. fixed expressions functioning as carriers of two
different evaluations at the system level. They function as units which can perform
the following evaluative functions: they express a positive assessment or a negative
one, which means that the same phraseme is used to convey opposite judgements.
In terms of parametric description, it would be assigned EVAL + / .
The aim of the paper is to analyse the phenomenon of systematic
bievaluation of phrasemes, its causes and implications. From a semantic point of
view, the units are polysemous: at the level of the system, each of them can be
defined as having two meanings connoting different kinds of evaluation (e.g.
skazany na sukces lit. sentenced to success: positive markedness being very
talented and thus highly likely to be successful, EVAL +, negative evaluation
likely to be successful because of having influential family and friends, EVAL ).

228

Joanna Szerszunowicz

The general aim of the paper is to discuss the bievaluative potential of


phrasemes. The phenomenon will be analysed on the example of several fixed
expressions possessing the ability which are used in the modern Polish language.
The units chosen for the analysis are the ones included in lexicographic works. In
the present study, special attention will be paid to the causes of bievaluation and
the semantic and pragmatic aspects viewed from a linguo-cultural perspective.
2. Case studies: selected Polish bievaluative phrasemes in a semiotic
approach
The five case studies of Polish phrasemes which possess dual evaluative
potential offer an insight into the phenomenon of bievaluation of fixed
expressions. The units are deeply rooted in the Polish culture, therefore, they are
culture-bound and lacunary from a cross-linguistic perspective (cf.
Szerszunowicz 2014). The examples were chosen since their dual evaluation was
conditioned by different factors: historical change, political transformation,
interpretation difficulties, conscious action taken by a specific group of language
users and cultural knowledge of the native users of a given language.
2.1. Historical background as the key factor of changes: Matka Polka
In the modern Polish language, several phrasemes can express either
positive or negative evaluation. It should be stressed that the form of the unit
does not undergo any changes related with the difference in evaluation. The
causes of bipolar evaluation tend to vary. For instance, it can occur as a result of
historical changes observed over a longer period of time. A good example in case
is the Polish expression Matka Polka lit. mother Pole whose meaning shifted
from a woman who takes care of children, educating them to be patriots
towards a limited woman who takes care only of her family and does not have
her own interests and passions (Szerszunowicz 2013a).
In fact, several general dictionaries of the Polish language include the
phraseme Matka Polka: for instance, Uniwersalny sownik jzyka polskiego
provides the following definition: symbol kobiety polskiej matki, straniczki
ogniska domowego i patriotki lit. the symbol of a Polish woman mother, home
guardian and patriot (USJP, 2: 586). Another source, Praktyczny sownik
wspczesnej polszczyzny, also contains an explanation of the unit: idea
patriotycznego postpowania, zwaszcza rodzenia i wychowywania dzieci lit.
the ideal of patriotic behaviour, especially giving birth to children and educating
them (PSWP, 20: 361). As for the second meaning, it has not been registered in
printed sources. Yet, as shown by questionnaire studies (Szerszunowicz 2013a),
Polish native speakers are familiar with it.
The former meaning developed in the time of partitions of Poland, which
took place towards the end of the 18th c., when the country lost its independence
for 123 years and its territory was divided Russia, Prussia and Austria
(Kowalczyk 2003: 11). Under these circumstances, the Polish mother was
responsible for educating the child to be a patriot aiming to defend the country

On Bievaluative Phrasemes from a Semiotic Perspective

229

and to prepare their offspring for dealing with all activities in the case of the
death of her husband who was fighting for freedom of Poland (Budrowska 2000:
193). The role of a woman in the Polish community was defined by these tasks
(Walczewska 1999: 53). Thy notion was to sacrify the individual for the country,
to offer ones life and happiness to ensure the independence of the country and
the nation. Therefore, the expression Matka Polka conveyed positive evaluation
in those particular historic conditions. Yet, after the situation had changed, the
markedness of the phraseme did, too. The phrase is associated with Poles
tendency to focus on the past in an exaggerated way, at the expense of dealing
with the present time and planning their future.
As a result of the changes, the units started to be used to name a mother who
sacrifies herself for the family, resigning from her own education, career and
pleasures. From the point of view of a modern person, such sacrifice is not
desirable: the woman should combine both the pursuit of her development and
the family life. The expression Matka Polka can be used as a label denoting a
person without any ambitions, limited to house keeping and raising children.
This image of the Polish mother appears in modern texts of culture, for example,
Internet memes which often contain witty modifications of the phraseme.
Moreover, combined with visual elements, it can also be found on various
artifacts, such as cups or aprons.
In the modern Polish, both the former and the latter evaluations can be
expressed by the unit. The way the unit is used depends on the speakers
intention, on other words, it is the sender of the utterance who decides how to
use the evaluative potential of the phraseme in question. Therefore, it can be
concluded that the evaluation of the phraseme Matka Polka, bipolar at the level
system, is context dependent.
2.2. The influence of political changes: Polak potrafi
The course of history also influenced the connotative potential of the
phraseme Polak potrafi lit. A Pole can. Polish: Polak potrafi lit. A Pole can A
Pole can do great things, A Pole will always ruin everything) (Szerszunowicz
2013b). Originally, the phraseme was a communist slogan which was painted on
the wall of a steel work. Therefore, it evoked strongly negative association. In
one of the lexicographic sources consulted, the following explanation is found:
Polak potrafi ironiczne haso pochodzce z epoki Edwarda Gierka, mwice, e
Polacy s zdolni do kadej dziaalnoci zakoczonej sukcesem lit. an ironic
slogan from the epoch of Edward Gierek, saying that Poles are capable of
[doing] any activity successfully (PSWP, 30: 169). The explanation contains the
information regarding the stylistic markedness and presents the origins of the
phraseme.
Another source containing the unit provides plenty of information on its
origins: Polak potrafi! Mwic: Polak potrafi! Wyraamy pogld, e Polacy
umiej si zmobilizowa, i jeli tylko chc, s w stanie wiele osign. Obecnie
powiedzenia tego uywa si gwnie ironicznie by da do zrozumienia, e Polacy
nie maj oporw moralnych przed popenianiem zych uczynkw, e kreatywno,

230

Joanna Szerszunowicz

ktr si im przypisuje, potrafi spoytkowa do niecnych celw. Polak potrafi!


byo hasem propagandy lat 70. XX wieku, zwanej propagand sukcesu. Miao
wyraa dum Polakw i zachca ich do pracy na rzecz socjalistycznej ojczyzny
lit. Saying Polak potrafi! we express the belief that Poles are able to get
motivated, and if they only want, they can achieve a lot. Nowadays this saying is
used mostly to make it clear that Poles do not have moral objections to doing
something wrong, that the creativity attributed to them can be used for
dishonourable aims. Polak potrafi! was a slogan of propaganda of the seventies
of 20th c., called the propaganda of success. It was to express Poles pride and to
encourage them to work for their socialist motherland (SPP: 160). Again the
markedness is stressed and origins are given. It is worth adding that only in this
source some information on its current use is given of the unit.
The dictionary of winged words also contains the slogan. It provides the
following entry: Polak potrafi Haso wywieszone na budowie stalowni w hucie
Katowice (1975). Spopularyzowane przez tytu ksiki Tadeusza Strumffa
(ur. 1933) o hucie Katowice (1976) lit. A slogan hung on the construction site
of the steel works in the "Katowice" works (1975). Popularized by the title of a
book about the Katowice works by Tadeusz Strumff (b. 1933) (SSWSCPiO:
540). It is worth adding that the phraseme is employed in various texts of culture
which were created at that time: for instance, it slogan also appears in the
political drama Czowiek z marmuru (Man of Marble, 1976) directed by Andrzej
Wajda, a famous Polish director. The film depicts the fall from grace of a Polish
bricklayer, Mateusz Birkut, in Nowa Huta, showing the truth about the life in
1950s in Poland.
After the political transformation in 1989, the associations with the ideology
of the previous system have become weaker, particularly for the young
generation who perceives it as belonging to slogans like Yes, we can!, which
means that the potential of the phraseme has expanded. Nowadays, it can be used
both to express positive evaluation and negative assessment. This function of the
unit, i.e. expressing a positive evaluation, has been observed in the informal
variety of the modern Polish language, especially its spoken variety. It is also
attested in the journalese, especially in the headlines. The phrase Polak potrafi is
the title of a program presenting various Polish factories, shown on TVN Turbo
channel since 2008.
Moreover, the phraseme is used as the name of the crowd-founding website
www.polakpotrafi.pl Polak potrafi! Its objective is to collect money to finance
some creative ideas, projects etc. of various nature, for example concerts,
exhibitions, journeys, participation in international competitions etc. Everybody
can send the presentation of their projects and prospective donors may sponsor
fully or partially the idea they have chosen to support. Furthermore, in 2011, the
phrase also appeared in advertisements: for instance, it was used in the
commercial of Bank Zachodni WBK, a bank operating in Poland, featuring
Antonio Banderas, saying Polak potrafi, followed by the Spanish interjection
ol! The combination is to create a good impression of the service advertised by
means of expressing a positive evaluation of Poles and referring to their

On Bievaluative Phrasemes from a Semiotic Perspective

231

potential. It is worth adding that it was on television, the Internet, the radio, in
press and outdoors.
One more example of using the phraseme can be found in the sphere of
music, where the unit is employed in the function of a title of a song by Funky
Polak, a Polish hip-hop artist, born in 1975 in Kielce, currently living in the
USA. The choice of the title is significant, since the lyrics present a Pole as he
really is, giving a holistic presentation of the characteristics attributed to a
typical Polish person, as attested in the excerpt from the song: Polak potrafi,
wedle powiedzenia / dla Polaka nie ma sprawy nie do zaatwienia (...) lit. A
Pole can, according to the saying / there isnt a problem which he cant solve
(...). What the phraseme stresses in this context is the ability to cope with
difficulties and to find solutions to all problems under any circumstances.
In terms of pragmatics, such expressions can be employed in various
contexts, evoking different connotations. In fact, the bipolarity reflects the
autostereotype of a Pole which comprises both negative and positive elements.
As stated by Bartmiski (2003: 73), a Pole evaluates himself positively in the
aspects of personality characteristics (brave, proud, intelligent, educated, wise),
critically in the social aspect (laziness, being unsystematic).
Therefore, it is a useful device of expressing a complex evaluation which is
corroborated by the examples given above. In conclusion, The unit in question is
thus useful in various communication contexts in which there are references to
the stereotypical features of Poles. The phraseme Polak potrafi employed in
many newspaper articles, which either praise great achievements of Poles or
criticise them heavily for making serious mistakes. As for the former use, it tends
to be observed in press texts describing sports and scientific achievements, while
the latter in those whose focal issues are absurdities of Polish everyday life or
examples of extremely irresponsible behaviour of individuals.
2.3. Confusion regarding the meaning and evaluative connotations of a
phraseme: gruba kreska
In the case of winged words, they are associated with the source, i.e. the
author or the work. Originally, they perform a given function in the text,
verbalizing the thoughts in a particular way. In some contexts, the interpretation
of a phrase can be conducted in more than one way, which can give rise to dual
evaluative load of given words.
An illustrative example of this mechanism is observed in the case of the
Polish phraseme gruba kreska lit. a thick line, also gruba linia, tends to be used
in the journalese and in the political discourse. In the lexicographic work titled
Wielki sownik frazeologiczny jzyka polskiego (WSFJP), the areas of occurrence
are indicated by labels (dzien. polit.). This dictionary provides the following
definition of the phraseme: odcicie si od przeszoci przez zaprzestanie
rozliczania czyich dawnych przewinie, bdw, zych postaw (lit. dissociation
from the past by ceasing accounting somebody for their previous offences,
mistakes, wrong attitudes) (WSFJP: 328).

232

Joanna Szerszunowicz

The modern political Polish jargon incorporated the phraseme after it had
been used in the expos delivered by Tadeusz Mazowiecki on 24th August 1989.
He used the expression in the following way: Przeszo odkrelamy grub
lini. Odpowiada bdziemy jedynie za to, co uczynilimy, by wydoby Polsk z
obecnego stanu zaamania lit. We draw a thick line to mark the past. We will be
responsible only for what we have done to take Poland out of the present state of
collapse (SPP: 82). Mazowiecki himself stressed many times that by using this
phrase he meant dissipating from the Communist past and starting a new period
of Polish history.
Yet, at the beginning of the 1990s, Lech Wasa and his supporters used the
phraseme in question to convey a negative evaluation. The meaning which the
unit gained was forgiving mistakes and forgetting about the communist past,
encouragement to resigning from accounting the past, vetting and
decommunisation. The confusion regarding the interpretation of the meaning of
the excerpt from Mazowieckis speech resulted in its being used both to express
a positive evaluation and a negative assessment by representatives of various
political parties. The post-Solidarity group was divided into the supporters of the
thick line and its opponents.
In the contemporary political Polish discourse, the analysed unit can be used
to express two kinds of evaluation. In fact, the assessment conveyed by the
phraseme depends on the political orientation of the language users, the persons
beliefs and perception of political events and actions, for instance, the evaluation
of the vetting processes after 1989. Therefore, the connotative potential of the
expressions comprises bipolar evaluation, both positive and negative. The
interpretation of its value can be conducted only in a given context. It is worth
adding that it can be assumed that the extralinguistic knowledge regarding Polish
history and political events may be necessary for proper decoding the actual
meaning and evaluation of the phraseme.
2.4. Conscious modelling the meaning and evaluative potential by a group of
language users: moherowe berety
While discussing the causes of bipolar evaluative potential of phrasemes,
attention should be paid to another factor which is the adoption of a given unit by
two groups of language users, consciously employing the phrase to express the
evaluation desired by a given group. It means that each of them models the
evaluation according to their needs, so that the phraseme could be used to
express the assessment desired by a given group. This process may occur in
political discourse due to the fact that a phraseme can be employed as an
effective vehicle of manipulation. Its brevity and connotative potential contribute
to its attractiveness from the point of view of persuasive force.
In the modern Polish language, an example of such a phraseme is the unit
moherowe berety lit. mohair berets. Its dual evaluation results from a conscious
action taken by a group of persons aiming at attributing a positive markedness to
this unit, originally expressing a strongly negative evaluation. The Polish
expression moherowe berety lit. translated mohair berets is a depreciative, ironic

On Bievaluative Phrasemes from a Semiotic Perspective

233

phrase used to describe elderly people who identify themselves with the beliefs
expressed by the conservative movement of Polish Catholicism, who listen to
Radio Maryja, a Catholic radio station) and support Father Tadeusz Rydzyk
(Szerszunowicz 2013c).
The phrase was used for the first time in the article by Maja Narbut titled
Labirynty ksidza praata (Rzeczpospolita, 23.10.2004): Ekstatycznie wpatrzone
w praata Jankowskiego starsze kobiety oklaskami przyjmuj niemal kade jego
sowo. W Gdasku mwi si, e ksidz praat ma swj Legion moherowych
beretw, lit. Old ladies eyes are ecstatically fixed on Father Jankowski and
almost each of his words is met with their applause. In Gdask, the prelate is said
to have his own Legion of mohair berets. The phrase gained popularity due to
being widespread in press and on the Internet. The label began to be used
commonly after Robert Grecki from Gazeta Wyborcza published a photograph
showing the 14th anniversary of Radio Maryja in 2005 on the Internet.
As for the motivation of the phraseme, the basis of connecting the source
domain and the target domain of the metaphor is the stereotypical perception of
persons who take part in masses and other religious meetings such as elderly
women in characteristic headdress. In military terminology, there are informal
names, for instance, in the US army green berets, or in the Polish army red
berets (SPP: 154).
The phraseme can be found in various texts of culture, in which it expresses
negative evaluation. One of them is the satirical song Moherowe berety (Mohair
Berets) recorded by a Polish group Big Cyc on an album of the same title
released in 2006. Next, a rock band El Doopa recorded a song Moherowy ninja
(Mohair Ninja; the album Gra?). In 2006, a Polish cabaret OT.TO prepared a
hip-hop song Moherowi ssiedzi (lit. Mohair neighbours), while another cabaret
called Neo-Nwka chose the mohair berets as their skits subject. On YouTube,
one can see several short films which comprise both parodies and documentaries.
What is more, a computer game Moherowe berety (lit. Mohair Berets; part one
and two) was invented: it features an elderly lady who can activate a beret, comb
it, throw it and defend the saffron milk cap. The saffron milk cap alludes to the
surname of Father Rydzyk in Polish the saffron milk cap is rydz). The game
was a commercial of the House brand and completing it ensured the prize of a
20% discount in their shops till the end of 2005 (Szerszunowicz 2013c).
The persons called moherowe berety, basing on the retorsio argumenti rule,
promoted a different usage of the phraseme, i.e. as a positive lable emphasizing the
values and traditions of the group. A Polish group Kapela znad Baryczy playing
modern town folk based on the dialect of South Greater Poland and Easter
Borderlands was asked by Father Rydzyk to write a song Moherowe berety as a
response. A my kochamy moherowe berety! / Te nasze mamy w nich piknie
wygldaj. / To dumne mamy i mdre kobiety, / Co sw rodzin i swj polski dom
kochaj. / My uwielbiamy berety moherowe / Za ich odwag i ycie dla Kocioa!
/ I caujemy z szacunkiem siw gow, / Bo moherowy beret serce ma anioa (lit.
And we love mohair berets! / Our mothers look beautiful wearing them. / They are
proud mothers and wise women, / Who love their family and their Polish home. /
We adore mohair berets / For their courage and life for the Church! ? And we kiss

234

Joanna Szerszunowicz

the silver head with respect, / Because the mohair beret has the heart of an angel
(SPP: 155). The song was played at the 17th anniversary of Radio Maryja in Toru
where Father Rydzyk was wearing a miniature beret pinned onto his cassock.
To sum up, it can be concluded that for the majority of language users, the
unit moherowe berety is a carrier of negative evaluation. The derivative mohery
(lit. mohairs) can also be used in the same function and so does the form
moheroidy, created so that the word resembled the word hemoroidy (lit.
hemoroids). The last unit has a strongest evaluative load and is most offensive.
If the phraseme is used by those called by the name, it performs the
autoidentifying function, acting as a symbol of solidarity among the group
members. Therefore, in such a situation, it is positively marked and the opposite
is the phraseme aksamitne kapelusze (lit. velvet hats), connoting materialistic
values, nihilism and conformity (SPP: 154-155).
2.5. Native users cultural knowlegde as a cause of bievaluation: skazany na
sukces
The knowledge of a given culture may explain some cases of dual
evaluation, which is related to the interpretations of constituents on the cultural
background. For instance, in the Polish culture, many expressions and short
forms of culture reflect the widespread belief that having influential family
members and friends may be more important for being assigned high positions
than professional knowledge and skills. One of such units is the idiom krewni i
znajomi krlika lit. Rabbits relatives and friends, a phrase from the childrens
book titled by A. A. Milne, naming incompetent persons who because of such
help have been given well-paid high posts in spite of lack of qualifications,
experience etc. or who have been promoted rapidly due to the influence of
relatives (Nowakowska 2005).
Several years ago, the phraseme skazany na sukces lit. sentenced to success
started to be used in press texts: from the linguistic point of view, the unit was
created as a result of violation of collocability rules. The constituent skazany na
sentenced to is followed by words denoting various kinds of punishment, for
instance, skazany na doywocie lit. sentenced to life, skazany na wizienie lit.
sentences to imprisonment. In the standard Polish language, it was the only
pattern of using the element skazany na.
Due to the usage widespreadness of collocational patterns different from that
one, the dictionary of modern Polish phraseological units published in 2003
included the information regarding the changes, listing as many as three
explanations of the expression in question, mainly: dzien. by pod przymusem,
presj, nie mie wyboru lit. journalese to be under pressure, to have no choice,
praw. dosta okrelon kar lit. legal jargon to receive a given punishment,
dzien. art. mie okrelone przeznaczenie, doznawa jakiego losu journalese
jocular to have a given destiny, to experience a given fate.
In the case of the phraseme skazany na sukces, the combined meaning can
be derived from those of the constituents: skazany na sentenced to, thus
unavoidably having to be subjected to and sukces success, i.e. unavoidably

On Bievaluative Phrasemes from a Semiotic Perspective

235

going to be successful. The cultural knowledge of the situation in Poland allows


for two semantic interpretations, basing of indicating different causes of the
achievements of the described person. In the interpretation mentioned above,
being very talented / skilled etc. and thus highly likely to be successful, the unit
conveys a positive markedness, since the achievements are well deserved and
should not be questioned.
Yet, the cultural awareness of the native speakers of Polish provided the
grounds for another interpretation, i.e. likely to be successful because of having
influential friends. The last explanation given in the dictionary complies with the
interpretation. The phraseme at issue expressing this meaning reflects cultural
perception of success which has undergone changes: after the transformation of
1989, the success began to be desired in all spheres being successful could result
from being talented and working hard. With the new political system and free
market economy, branches of foreign, mainly American corporation started to be
opened in Polish cities and the career path was open to well educated persons with
adequate hard and soft skills. Yet, at the same time, the previous perception of
achievements, associated with belonging to the Communist Party and being
promoted due to influential acquaintances, was also part of the collective memory.
Therefore, the expression can be used as an exponent of both kinds of
evaluation, depending on the speakers intention and the context. In fact, the use
of positively marked noun sukces success results in a special stylistic effect due
the innovative character of the word combinations in question. The stylistic clash
between the constituents contributes to the originality of the expression, thus
being especially attractive for the journalese and the informal variety of Polish.
3. Conclusions
From a semiotic perspective, phrasemes whose evaluative potential
comprises both positive evaluation and negative assessment constitute an
interesting phenomenon. Although this feature is observed in a relatively small
number of Polish units, yet is deserves to be studied due to its nature: without
changing the combination of constituents, such phrasemes tend to express one
kind of evaluation which is either positive or negative.
The duality may be conditioned by various factors of linguo-cultural
character, which is of interest in the semiotic approach, especially from the point
of view of semantics and pragmatics. The duality of evaluation tends to be
conditioned by changes in the semantics of the units. Providing that an
expression starts to be used in a new meaning, an evaluative connotation
different from the one the unit has already had may develop. The decoding of
the quality of the phraseme evaluation occurs in a given context which can be
analysed by means of tools of pragmatics.
The analysis conducted shows that the bievaluative phrasemes reflect
cultural changes, for instance, those occurring in the sphere of history and
politics, as it is the case of the Polish units Matka Polka and Polak potrafi.
Another course of evaluation duality of phrasemes determined for the Polish
units was the doubts concerning the interpretation of the original meaning of the

236

Joanna Szerszunowicz

unit used by a politician in its speech. Finally, the bipolar evaluation expressed
by the expression moherowe berety results from a conscious action taken by a
group of language users named by the unit.
The analysis of the Polish phrasemes leads to the conclusion that the
secondary evaluative connotations may develop at various times: it can be
observed after centuries, decades or months. The relation between the primary
connotation and secondary one vary: both can be widespread or one of them can
dominate significantly over the other.
From the point of view of pragmatics, such fixed expressions are worth
analysing since they occur in various contexts. Its meaning and evaluation can be
interpreted only by means of multiaspectual analysis, including such factors as
the speakers characteristics. Only then can the true semantics and evaluative
connotations of a given expression be determined. Furthermore, the phrasemes
analysed are rich in cultural connotations which are evoked in some
combinations in a particular text. Such expression function as complex labels,
therefore they are useful in the process of communication: brief, with rich
semantics and numerous associations.
In fact, the phrasemes which express dual evaluation are deeply set in the
Polish culture: all of them name phenomena or attitudes related to Poles.
Therefore, it will be worth studying the phrasemes expressing dual evaluation
across languages and cultures. First, it would allow for determining whether such
units are observed in many languages and if yes, the quantitative analysis could
be conducted; then, a qualitative one might follow in order to give an insight into
the nature of such phrasemes in particular languages.
Bibliography
Dictionaries
PSWP Praktyczny sownik wspczesnej polszczyzny [A practical dictionary of
the contemporary Polish language] (1999), Ed. Halina Zgkowa, Vol. 1-50,
Pozna: Wydawnictwo KURPISZ.
SP Kosiska Katarzyna (2004), Sownik przysw, czyli przysownik [A
dictionary of proverbs proverbcionary], Warszaw: wiat Ksiki.
SPP Zimny Rafa, Nowak Pawe (2009), Sownik polszczyzny politycznej po
roku 1989 [A dictionary of political Polish after 1989], Warszawa:
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
SSWSCPiO Markiewicz Henryk, Romanowski Andrzej (2007), Skrzydlate
sowa. Wielki sownik cytatw polskich i obcych [Winged words. A great
dictionary of Polish and foreign quotations],Krakw: Wydawnictwo Literackie.
USJP Uniwersalny sownik jzyka polskiego [The universal dictionary of the
Polish language] (2003), Ed. Stanisaw Dubisza, Vol. 1-4, Warszawa:
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
WSFJP Mldner-Nieckowski Piotr, Wielki sownik frazeologiczny jzyka
polskiego [The great phraseological dictionary of the Polish language],
Warszawa: wiat Ksiki.
Literature

On Bievaluative Phrasemes from a Semiotic Perspective

237

Bartmiski Jerzy (2003), Miejsce wartoci w jzykowym obrazie wiata [The


place of values in the linguistic picture of the word], [in:] Jzyk w krgu
wartoci. Studia semantyczne, Ed. idem, Lublin: Wydawnictwo
Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skodowskiej, pp. 59-86.
Budrowska Bogusawa (2000), Macierzystwo jako punkt zwrotny w yciu
kobiety [Motherhood as a turning point in a womans life]. Wrocaw:
Funna.
Chlebda Wojciech (2003), Elementy frazematyki. Wprowadzenie do frazeologii
nadawcy [Elements of phrasematics. An introduction to the senders
phraseology], ask: Oficyna Wydawnicza LEKSEM.
ermk Frantiek (1995), Functional System and Evaluation, [in:] Travaux du
Cercle linguistique de Prague n.s. Prague Linguistic Circle Papers, Vol.
1, Eds Eva Hajiov, Miroslav ervenka, Oldich Leka, Peter Sgall,
Amsterdam, Philadelphia : John Benjamins, pp. 73-84.
Goshkheteliani Irine (2013a), Idioms in Cross-Cultural Communication, [in:]
Intercontinental
Dialogue on Phraseology 2: Research on Phraseology across Continents, Eds
Joanna Szerszunowicz, Bogusaw Nowowiejski, Takaaki Kanzaki,
Katsumasa Yagi, Biaystok: University of Bialystok Publishing House,
pp. 19-36.
Goshkheteliani Irine (2013b), Influence of Culture and Mentality in the process
of Borrowing Proverbs in the Georgian Language, [in:] Parmiologie.
Proverbes et formes voisines, Vol. 2, Eds Jean-Michel Benayoun, Natalie
Kbler, Jean-Philipe Zouogbo, Sainte Gemme: Presses de Universitaires
de Sainte Gemme, pp. 155-164.
Kowalczyk Izabela (2003), Matka-Polka kontra supermatka [Mother Pole
versus supermother], Czas Kultury, No. 5, pp. 1121.
Nagrko Alicja (1982), O waciwociach semantycznych przymiotnikw
oceniajcych [On semantic characteristics of evaluative adjectives],
Poradnik Jzykowy, No. 9, pp. 614-620.
Nowakowska Beata (2005), Nowe poczenia wyrazowe we wspczesnej
polszczynie [New word combinations in the modern Polish language],
Krakw: Wydawnictwo LEXIS.
Pajdziska Anna (2006), Wartociowanie we frazeologii [Evaluation in
phraseology], [in:] Studia frazeologiczne, ask: Oficyna Wydawnicza
LEKSEM, pp.129-147.
Peters Pam (2007), Similes and other evaluative idioms in Australian English,
[in:] Phraseology and Culture in English, Ed. Paul Skandera, Berlin, New
York: De Gruyter Mouton, pp. 235-255.
Sownik etyczny [A dictionary of ethics] (1990), Ed. Stanisaw Jedynak, Lublin:
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skodowskiej.
Szerszunowicz Joanna (2010), Evaluation in culture-bound proverbs and
proverbial expressions as a translation problem, [in:] 3 Colquio
Interdisciplinar sobre Provrbios. 3rd Interdisciplinary Colloquium on
Proverbs. Actas ICP09 Proceedings, Eds Rui JB Soares, Outi
Lauhakangas, Tavira: Tipografia Tavirense, pp. 222234.

238

Joanna Szerszunowicz

Szerszunowicz Joanna (2013a), Lakunarno jednostki Matka Polka a jej


dwujzyczny opis sownikowy [Lacunarity of the unit Matka Polka and
its bilingual lexicographic description], Prace Jzykoznawcze, Vol. 15,
No. 2, pp. 69-82.
Szerszunowicz Joanna (2013b), The autostereotype reflected in phraseological
units as a translation problem. Polak potrafi: a case study, [in:]
Parmiologie. Proverbes et formes voisines, Vol. 3, Eds Jean-Michel
Benayoun, Natalie Kbler, Jean-Philip Zouogbo, Sainte Gemme: Presses
de Universitaires de Sainte Gemme, pp. 263-280.
Szerszunowicz Joanna (2013c), On Lacunae in Contrastive Phraseology, [in:]
Phraseologie im interlingualen und interkulturellen Kontakt. Phraseology
in Interlingual and Intercultural Contact, Eds Melania Fabi, Sabine
Fiedler, Joanna Szerszunowicz, Bielsko-Biaa, Budapest, Kansas,
Maribor, Praha: Zora, pp. 161-175.
Szerszunowicz Joanna (2014), The Phenomenon of Lacunarity in LinguoCultural Research, w: International Conference Proceedings. Humanities
in the Information Society II, Ed. Marina Giorgadze, Vol. 1, Batumi:
Shota Rustaveli State University Publishing House, pp. 241-244.
Walczewska Sawomira (1999), Damy, rycerze, feministki [Ladies, knights,
feminists], Krakw: eFKa.

joana SerSunoviCi
ormagi Sefasebis mqone frazemebis semiotikuri perspeqtiva
statiis mTavari mizania formaucvleli, ormagi (rogorc dadebiTi, ise uaryofiTi) Sefasebis mqone frazebis potencialis ganxilva.
sakvanZo sakiTxebze msjeloba mimdinareobs semiotikur aspeqtSi. empiriul masalad gamoyenebulia polonuri Sesityvebebi, romlebic gamoxataven sxvadasxva saxis Sefasebas. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas vuTmobT
lingvokulturuli Sinaarsis mqone frazebs.

Tina SioSvili
mSobliur kerasTan
patarZlis gamosaTxovari
ritualuri
leqs-godeba klarjul
zepirsityvierebaSi
qarTuli tradiciuli saqorwilo ceremonialis da masTan dakavSirebuli xalxuri poeziis erT-erTi saintereso mxarea
mSobliur kerasTan patarZlis gamoTxovebis
rituali da leqs-simRerebi, rac saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi iyo gavrcelebuli.
sapatarZlosTan tradiciulad ikribebodnen misi megobari qaliSvilebi da sasiZos
naTesavebi,
romelTa
daswrebiTac
sruldeboda tradiciuli gamosaTxovari
rituali da masTan dakavSirebuli leqs-simRerebi. es Tavyriloba TiTqmis bolo dromdea daculi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi. profesorma qsenia sixaruliZem gamoTqva
mosazreba, rom qarTul saqorwilo ceremonialSi sasiZos mxridan saCuqrebis miRebis
wesi, romelic axla niSnobis dResTan aris
dakavSirebuli, SesaZlebelia, Zvelad gamosaTxovar Sekrebas ukavSirdeboda (sixaruliZe 1960: 261). am tradicias, romelic
TiTqmis bolo dromde fiqsirdeba, mxolod
garTobis funqciaRa SemorCa.
gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi daweril naSromSi qs. sixaruliZe imasac miuTiTebda, rom ,,Cvenamde ar aris moRweuli, agreTve, mSobliur ojaxTan patarZlis gamosaTxovari simRera-godeba, rac gavrcelebuli iyo ruseTSi (sixaruliZe 1960: 261),
Tumca iqve miuTiTebda, rom es srulebiTac

240

Tina SioSvili

ar niSnavs imas, TiTqos CvenSi ar iyo amgvari simRerebi da amis dasturad


moixmobs aleqsandre yazbegis ,,xevisber goCaSi aRweril saqorwilo rituals, romlis Tanaxmadac, ZiZiasa da guguas qorwilis aRwerisas, mweralma SesaniSnavad daaxasiaTa patarZlis gamosaTxovari simRerebis tradicia: ,,oTaxSi Semovidnen xazua, viRaca moxucebuli kaci, onise da ymawvili qalebi, romelnic Semoexvivnen ZiZias. daiwyes gamosasalmebeli simRera, sadac sagrZnobeli sityvebiT ymawvils Tavis warsulTan da megobrebTan asalmebdnen da tiriliT da kocniT TviTonac esalmebodnen (yazbegi 1948: 252). rogorc prof. qs. sixaruliZe mianiSnebs, ,,al. yazbegs am
SemTxvevaSi aRwerili aqvs TviT qorwinebis dRe, magram amas ar aqvs mniSvneloba, radganac saqorwilo ceremonialSi Serwymulia ara mxolod misi
sxvadsxva momenti, aramed _ sxvadasxva epoqis damaxasiaTebeli wesebic.
amas garda, patarZlis ojaxTan gamosaTxovari simRera-godeba sruldeboda
qalis vaJisas wayvanis momentSic. gamosaTxovar teqsts an TviTon patarZali asrulebda, an kidev, rogorc al. yazbegs aqvs aRwerili, misi toli
qaliSvilebi (sixaruliZe 1960: 261). aqve mkvlevari paralels avlebs da
am rituals ukavSirebs mecxramete saukuneSi mesxeTSi Caweril leqss:
patarZeulis cixesa
gamouTxrian Zirsao,
gamoiyvanen lamazsa,
cremliT dahbanen pirsao...
(umikaSvili 1964: 109)
mSobliur kerasTan sapatarZlos gamosaTxovari Sekrebis tradiciuli xasiaTis dakargvas qsenia sixaruliZe ukavSirebs naturaluri meurneobis rRvevas, rac ~erTgvarad mainc amsubuqebda qalis xvedrs; daqorwinebisas mas aRar hqonda safuZveli moTqma-godebisa (sixaruliZe
1960: 262).
sabednierod, ZirZvel istoriul kuTxeebSi _ SavSeTsa da klarjeTSi _ srulyofilad dafiqsirda saqorwilo ceremonialis es arqauli Semadgeneli nawili: imerxevSi patarZlis gamosaTxovar leqs-simReras dedoflisaTvis xelis gulze da TiTebze inis dadebis ritualis
dros mRerian, rasac ~yina gejes (inis Rames) uwodeben:
maRal-maRal mTebidan
saxli ar dadgan.
abanj memleqeTSi
gogo ar mice!
yina meitane, ane,
TiTi daawe, ane!
ameRam musafiri var,
Cem ukan dawe, ane!
(futkaraZe 2009: 15)
msgavsi varianti gavrcelebulia, agreTve, klarjul zepirsityvierebaSic. sofel avanaSi (avjilari) mkvlevar vardo CoxaraZis mier
2007 wels Cawerili gamosaTxovari leqs-simReris Tanaxmadac, sapa-

mSobliur kerasTan patarZlis gamosaTxovari rituali leqs-godeba...

241

tarZlo wuxs imis gamo, rom mSobliuri saxlidan Sors yofna mouwevs
da ixveweba, amis Semdeg ucxo mxareSi aRar gaaTxovon qaliSvili. erTi
Ramis stumari, dedas sTxovs, masTan dawves:
maRal-maRal mTebidan
iq saxli ar dadgano!
abanji memleqeTSi
gogo ar mice!
yina meitane ane,
TiTi daawe, ane!
amesRam mosafiri var,
Cem ukan daweq, ane!
sayuradReboa, rom CveneburebisaTvis Soreul sofelSi gaTxoveba
erTgvar sasjelad aRiqmeba,~_ nenema metyoda, imso Sor sofelSina
migceo, mamalis xma ar unda moideso, _ gagvando bursas provinciis
mustafa qemalfaSas raionis sofel yarafinarSi mcxovrebma klarj muhajirTa STamomavalma 80 wlis ruyie ildirimma (Caiwera Tina SioSvilma 2014 wlis 15 ivliss).
mSobliuri keris datovebis win patarZlis ,,moTqma-godebas~ warmoadgens, agreTve, klarj muhajirTa STamomavlebs Soris dafiqsirebuli gamosaTxovari leqs-simRera (mTqmeli qojaelis provinciis goljuqis raionis sofel murkveTSi mcxovrebi 69 wlis osman SimSeqi. Caiwera Tina SioSvilma 2013 wlis 9 ivliss), romelSic gamoTqmulia
qaliSvlis sevda-wuxili dedasTan ganSorebis gamo:
nene, nene, geyrebi,
nene, Sen ver geyrebio!
rogoro mozobeli,
gzaze gedegeyrebio.
sofel devsqelSi mkvlevar vardo CoxaraZis mier 2007 wels Cawerili leqs-simReris (mTqmeli nabie ilmazTurqi) Tanaxmad, gamoTqmulia qaliSvilis wuxili imis gamo, rom xanmokle iyo mamis saxlSi misi yofna:
civi qari meiqrola,
kalaSia, kalaSi;
ra male moaTave
babos saxlis TalaSi!..
maradideli mTqmelis _ meriem kahramanisagan 2013 wels Cven mier
Cawerili varianti SedarebiT ufro amaRlebuli ganwyobilebis gamomxatvelia, Tumca mamiseul saxlTan gamoTxovebiT gamowveuli sevda masSic gamosWvivis:
mival, mival, adaSi,
vardi vikref kalTaSi;
ra male movaTave
mamis saxlis TalaSi!..
(SioSvili, maxaraSvili 2014: 153)
klarjuli zepirsityviereba mxolod patarZlis gamosaTxovari

242

Tina SioSvili

ritualuri leqs-simRerebiT rodia mdidari; aranaklebia patarZlis


dedis grZnobebis gamomxatveli leqs-simRerebic. jivaneli mTqmelisagan
_ resmie Cavdanisagan prof. ramaz xalvaSis mier 2007 wels Cawerili
leqs-simRera SvilTan sapatarZlos dedis tradiciul gamosaTxovar
wuxilze miuTiTebs; esec ritualuri tirilis erT-erTi gamovlinebaa:
wyali midis adaSi,
vardi vikref kalTaSi;
Cveni gelinis nene
zis da tiris CardaxSi.
amave Temas exmianeba sof. devsqelSi hajer ilmazisagan 2007
wels mkvlevar vardo CoxaraZis mier Cawerili leqsic:
ojaxis karSi kata
,,miav, miav _ iZaxis;
Cveni gelinis nene
,,e ra meqna! _ iZaxis.
amrigad, istoriuli saqarTvelos ZirZveli kuTxis _ klarjeTisa
da TurqeTis respublikis Sida regionebSi gadasaxlebuli klarji muhajirebis STamomavlebis zepirsityvierebaSi bolo dromde cocxal
folklorul brunvaSia sapatarZlos kerasTan gamoTxovebis tradiciuli leqs-godeba, anu ritualuri tirili, rac saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi didi xania, daviwyebas mieca.
literatura:
sixaruliZe 1960 _ qsenia sixaruliZe, saweCveulebo poezia. _ krebulSi ,,qarTuli xalxuri poeturi Semoqmedeba~, t. I, Tbilisi;
umikaSvili 1964 _ petre umikaSvili, xalxuri sityviereba, t. II, Tbilisi;
futkaraZe 2009 _ Tamaz futkaraZe, qorwili imerxevSi, baTumi;
yazbegi 1948 _ aleqsandre yazbegi, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. II,
Tbilisi;
SioSvili, maxaraSvili 2014 _ Tina SioSvili, giorgi maxaraSvili, klarjuli zepirsityviereba (masalebi). bsu humanitarul mecnierebaTa
fakultetis qarTvelologiis centris ,,krebuli~ t. VIII, baTumi.
Tina Shioshvili
Ritual Verse-Lament of Brides Farewell to
Native House in Klarjian Folklore
The samples of brides ritual lament are still in live folklore circulation to
this day among the descendants of Klarjian Muhajirs settled in inland region of
Turkish Republic and the inhabitants of the ancient historical part of GeorgiaKlarjeti. The laments are performed either by brides or their mothers. They have
been long forgotten in other parts of Georgia.

Tamar CoxaraZe
Tandebulis zogierTi
Tavisebureba samxrul
kiloebSi
TandebulTan dakavSirebiT samxrul
kiloebSi saintereso suraTi ixateba. niSandoblivia, rom SavSuri, aWaruli, klarjuli da taouri kiloebi bevr saerTos
avlenen.
upirvelesad ganvixilavT Tandebulis
zmnisarTze darTvis SemTxvevebs, rac, sazogadod, ucxo ar aris da istoriulad Cans
damaxasiaTebeli qarTuli enisaTvis. metic, SesaZloa, pirvelad zmnizedaze Tandebulis darTva uZvelesi viTarebis amsaxveli iyos, yovel SemTxvevaSi manamdeli,
vidre Tandebuli saxels miekedleboda da
misi mxlebeli gaxdeboda. amasTan, SesamCnevia, rom umeteswilad Tandebuli daerTvis adgilisa da drois zmnizedebs. am
faqtSi unda veZioT TviT Tandebulis
fesvebi.
amdenad, gasakviri araa, rom zemoxsenebuli SemTxvevebi bunebrivia samxruli kiloebisTvisac, Tumca, cxadia, aq TvalSisacemia swored am kiloebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli formebi. moviyvanT ramdenime magaliTs
SavSuridan: igzemidan ar ari petrol
(weTileTi); Cveni babo iyo igze da mokda (ifxrevli); Telgan isea, Telgan (ziosi)...
msgavsi formebi gvxvdeba aWarulSic:
wvimis wveTi agze demeca, ha (qeda); iqSi iyo ... (erge)...
ken Tandebuli kes saxiTaa. daerTvis

244

Tamar CoxaraZe

igi saxelebsac, zmnizedebsac: aqeTke xarT Tqven (bazg.); haide, ase CuuyveT
qomoTke (nioleTi).
ken (>ke) Tandebuli daerTvis gan TandebuliT nacvalsaxelisagan nawarmoeb zmnizedas: Telgniske ari gza (ustamisi);
gamoyenebis sixSiriT ke Warbobs kens. n mokvecili ken qarTuli enis sxva dialeqtebisTvisacaa damaxasiaTebeli.
klarjuli: wineske midis; zeiske Seiara (futkaraZe 1995:17);
taouri: parxliske mixualT? ...wimiyvaneT mSobliskeo (eliasxevi)...
aRvniSnavT, rom ken>ke qarTuli enis mravali dialeqtisaTvis
aris damaxasiaTebeli. cocxali metyvelebidan ke zogjer samwerlobo
enaSic iCens Tavs (faRava 2011 (I) :231-155).
Tvis Tandebuli SavSursa da aWarulSi dasturdeba Tvin//Tin
formiTac: kareb vakeTeb... futkrebisTin (bazgireTi); aq movasxi Cem kacisTin (CaqvelTa)...
-Tvin//Tin gvxdeba aWarulSic, sxva samxrul kiloebSic: baRnisTvin
minda, ar momatyvilo (orTabaTumi); CemTin xomar vakeTef, TqvenTin
minda (maxo)...
Tvis varianti iSviaTia.
S. niJaraZe aRniSnavs, rom ,,qobuleTur metyvelebaSi gavrcelebulia Tvis Tandebulis badali nanaTesaobiTari viTarebiTis -izda||>iza
forma, rac, eWvi araa, gurulis gavlenas miewereba da mohyavs aseTi
magaliTi: Seni guliza; arif buZeizda (niJaraZe 1975:129 Sdr. imnaiSvili 2006:68). analogiuri movlena marTlac dasturdeba gurulSi:
foTSi dadioden Tebziza, mariliza, puriza; amis gulobiza gavakeTe;
Seni guliza akeTefs...
S. niJaraZis mosazrebas TiTqos amarTlebs gurulSi povnieri
formebi, magram aris winaaRmdegoba, kerZod, -iza(<izda) gvxdeba baTumis mimdebare soflebis (orTabaTumi, kapreSumi, agara, yorolisTavi,
ganTiadi...) mkvidrTa metyvelebaSic: baliza amxela xeze eisleba? marto
mizda unda yvelaferi... (orTabaTumi); baRniza muucia Tofi, yeza ar
qnas (agara)...
-iza dasturdeba SavSurSic: ama muslimanobiza amgvarobai kai ar
ari (nioliTi)...
rogorc vxedavT, -iza//-izda Tandebulis xmarebis areali gafarTovda. Cans, igi araa romelime erTi kuTxis kuTvnileba.
samxruli kiloebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia dan Tandebuli:baTomidan
wamosulan pirvelaT bursas (qob. muhaj.); baTomidan erTi qali gamieTxva aqa... (CaqvelTa); maWaxlidan, zedvakidan evkide simindi (svirevani);
samxruli kiloebSive danis paralelurad ixmareba damic. magaliTad, SavSurSi: Cven karidam gevxede (manatba); iqidam, aba, ase iqiTa Relidam,
am Cveni soflis gaRmidam Rele aris (xoxlevi);
msgavsi viTarebaa aWarulSic: hidam mobrZandiT Tquen, xulidam xoS
ar mobrZandiT?

Tandebulis zogierTi Tavisebureba samxrul kiloebSi

245

sayuradReboa, rom -dam gvxdeba qobuleTel muhajirTa metyvelebaSic, rac imis dasturia, rom adre aRniSnuli Tandebuli qobuleTurSic ixmareboda: ,,size yanidam Semearda... (xaxutaiSvili, 2009;).
-dam Tandebuli Woroxis auzSi sxvaganac dasturdeba:
klarjuli: Tovlidam dedes akeTeben; rizedam mevtane; Cvenidam
gayrilan (qarTla).
taouri: buzdolabidam delia; baTumidam xarTa? aq yofilan Cveni
dedeebi, aWaridam mosulan (xevai)...
niSandoblivia, rom dam Tandebulis gavrcelebis areali gacilebiT farToa, vidre es arn. Ciqobavas warmoedgina, igi saerToqarTuli
movlenaa.
SavSurSi Si Tandebuls zogjer Sigan zmnizedac axlavs da
gvaqvs erTgvari tavtologia:
vaSlsa CavhyriT qvabSi, wyalSi Sigan, mexarSvis, yabSi Sigan
ebervis, TefsSi Sigan (xoxlevi);
gvxdeba Si Tandebulis amosavali -Sigan formac: alTunebi veRar
upovnian im bebeqebSigan (xevwrili); vakiTxebdi kidev samsunSigan (ziosi).
iSviaTad, magram Sigan naTesaobiTis formas axlavs: diobanis Sigan
Teq ar laparakoben (zaqieTi).
moyvanil magaliTSi Sigan calke mdgomi sityvaa da igi jer kidev
araa daclili zmnizedis mniSvnelobisagan.
gvxdeba Cveulebrivi formiTac: kroWebSi, qilkebSi, kolofeb akeTebden SeSidan...(zen.); Cixoridan aq gameveTxue ustamisSi (ustamisi);
dasturdeba calke mdgomi Sina Tandebuli, oRond saxelis fuZesTan:
qarTul Sina TurqCa Serevlia (bazgireTi).
SavSurSi, iSviaTad magram mainc, dasturdeba Ci(<Si) Tandebuli:
donegCi rom iqnebi, darCebi Sua gzaSi (dasabobi);
-Ci (<Si) gvxdeba qarTuli enis bevr dialeqtSi. maT Soris aWarulsa da taourSi:
aWaruli: sofelCi aRar Cerdebian, garbian (xulo); midRemCi ar
vifiqrebdi (orTabaTumi);
taouri: imeTCi Cveni dedeebi yofilan iSte (eliasxevi)...
maS ase, SavSur kiloSi Senaxula Si Tandebulis amosavali forma Sigan;
ze Tandebuli:
axal welze is adeTi maqvan, dilaze arna delapariko (qlaskuri); gaTendeba, dilaze dedofal gamevyvanT gareT (ziosi); kacebi jameze wevlen, ilocven (ziosi);
SavSurSi dadasturda SemTxveva, roca ze Tandebuli cvlis Sis: erTi emis efendi iyo oladavrze (xoxlevi)...
analogiuri magaliTebi dasturdeba aWarulSic: qorwilSi viyavi//qorwilze viyavi...

246

Tamar CoxaraZe

SavSurSi Tan Tandebuli Cveulebriv micemiT brunvasTan ixmareba.


saliteraturo enisagan gansxvavebiT, xmovanfuZian saxelebze darTvisas
micemiTi brunvis niSani ikargeba: iq Cem daTan arian (bazgireTi); ho,
zaTi musaTan verafer ver damaxsenebs (ziosi);
aRvniSnavT, rom analogiuri SemTxvevebi sxva kiloebSi ar gvxvdeba (yovel SemTxvevaSi CvenTvis araa cnobili). TiTo-orola SemTxveva
dadasturda aWarulSi.
n. maris CanawerebSi gvxvdeba san: weuda qeloRlanma qoroRlisan
igive forma aWarulSic dasturdeba Zmasan, dasan (ZmasTan, dasTan) da
misTana SemTxvevebi.
paralelurad gvxvdeba Tan formac: ver ikadra arxataSTan esa am
kacma... da sx.
SavSurSi viT Tandebuli veT formasac gviCvenebs: SeSasaveT dadian falazebi; wuril-wurilia, lobiasaveT; kinasaveT ari qirqiti; muSi ari erTi, baTumsaveT, iq wavlen (xoxlevi)...
aRvniSnavT, rom viT>veT dasturdeba aWarulSi (niJaraZe,
1975.:129), imerulSi (ZoweniZe, 1973.:80).
aWarulsa da klarjulSi dasturdeba -ven formac: TurisTaven
arebiT, bevri fara gindanan (klarj.); sunag katasaven aafarebden Tvalebze (qob. muhaj.)...
Tandebulis funqciiT ixmareba sxvadasxva Sinaarsis zmnizeda.
farTod aris gavrcelebuli Tandebulis mniSvnelobiT ukan (aseve win,
erTad...) romelic daerTvis saxels da aRniSnavs dros. SevniSnavT, rom ukan
da sxva zmnizedebic umetesad daerTvian saxelis fuZes: ega daniSnulia, bairam ukanna meiyvanos (manatba); aT dRe ukan mival (nioliTi.).
ukan gvxdeba naTesaobiT brunvasTanac: marti iciT? nisani? martis
ukan qi aris, nisani? (CaqvelTa).
iSviaTad ukan dasturdeba micemiT brunvasTan: sam dRes ukanna moides
(CaqvelTa).
mesame piris CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelis micemiTi brunvis forma dairTavs ,,ukan~ zmnizedas: imas ukan rusebma nelnela wamocimcimden (manatba.);
pirveli piris nacvalsaxelis mravlobiTis formasTan brunvis niSani
(albaT s) ar Cans: Cven vqeneT da Cven ukan ara (Caq.).
rogorc damowmebuli magaliTidan Cans, ukan ,,Semdgomi, momdevno, gviandeli viTarebis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba~ (afridoniZe, 2002.:34).
oriode SemTxvevaSi ukan adrindel, wina viTarebas aRniSnavs: erTi
kvire ukan mosuliyavi, ka iyo (ustamisi);
adgilis aRsaniSnavad saxelTan gvxvdeba uknedan: karCxalis haman uknedan; wiTveTi SavSeTis uknedanaa (bazgireTi); jinali(s) uknedan aWaraa (daviTeTi).
ukan analogiuri funqciiT ixmareba aWarulSic. Sesabamisad, aWarel muhajirTa STamomavlebis metyvelebaSic: Cem ukan dabaduli arian
(bursa).

Tandebulis zogierTi Tavisebureba samxrul kiloebSi

247

ukans igive mniSvneloba aqvs klarjulsa da taourSic:


taouri: qalis ukan moidoda (=qalis Semdeg modioda) (Sdr. futkaraZe, 1995.:32).
klarjuli: erT Tves ukan (=erTi Tvis Semdeg) moval (ix. faRava,
2011 (I) :251; faRava...2016:567; cincaZe, 2015).
Cans, ukan Tandebuli aRniSnuli funqciiT mTliani samxruli metyvelebis kuTvnilebaa.
zmnizedis gamoyeneba Tandebulis funqciiT damaxasiaTebeli movlenaa qarTuli samwerlobo enisa da kiloebisaTvis. funqciuri Tanaxvedris mizezi maT saerTo warmomavlobaSi unda veZioT.
amgvarad, samxruli kiloebi TandebulTan dakavSirebiT bevr saerTos
avlenen da amasTan, xSirad asaxaven qarTuli enis uZveles viTarebas.
literatura:
afridoniZe, 2002: afridoniZe Suqia, Cveni ena qarTuli, Tbilisi;
imnaiSvili, 2006: imnaiSvili grigol, guruli dialeqti, Tbilisi;
klarjeTi, 2016: klarjeTi, monografia. avtorebi: mamia faRava, meri cincaZe, maia baramize, malxaz CoxaraZe, Tina SioSvili, SoTa maulaZe,
ramaz xalvaSi, nugzar mgelaZe, zaza SaSikaZe, nugzar mgelaZe...
masalebi, 2005: taouri metyvelebis nimuSebi, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos samecniero
kvleviTi centris krebuli, t. IV, baTumi.
masalebi, 2009: klarjuli masalebi, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos samecniero-kvleviTi centris krebuli, t VI, baTumi;
niJaraZe,1975: niJaraZe SoTa, aWaruli dialeqti, baTumi;
faRava, 2011 (I): faRava mamia, Tandebuli SavSurSi, lingvisturi qarTvelologiisa da afxazologiis problemebi, III, Tbilisi;
faRava, 2016: faRava mamia, muhajirTa STamomavlebTan, baTumi;
futkaraZe, 1993: futkaraZe SuSana, Cveneburebis qarTuli, wigni pirveli,
baTumi;
SavSeTi, 2011: SavSeTi, monografia, avtorebi: mamia faRava, Tina SioSvili,
SoTa mamulaZe, meri cincaZe, malxaz CoxaraZe, zaza SaSikaZe, nugzar ceclxaZe, Tamaz futkaraZe, maia baramiZe, jemal karaliZe, vardo CoxaraZe, Tbilisi;
ZoweniZe, 1973: ZoweniZe q., zemoimeruli kilokavi, Tb.,
cincaZe, 2015 meri cincaZe, ,,ukan~ sityvis mniSvnelobisa da sintaqsuri
funqciisaTvis klarjulSi. bsu humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakulteti, qarTvelologiis centri, krebuli 10, baTumi.
xaxutaiSvili, 2009; qobuleTuri kilokavis masalebi (muhajirTa STamomavlebis metyvelebis mixedviT), rsu-s kvleviTi centris krebuli.,
VI, baTumi.

248

Tamar CoxaraZe

Tamar Chokharadze
Some Peculiarities of Prepositions in the Samkhruli Dialects
The paper represents the analysis of some peculiarities of prepositions in
the Samkhruli dialects, in particular, the cases of preposition linking to an
adverb, supporting by the appropriate examples. The preposition linking to an
adverb is historically typical to Georgian language. It can be judged by a number
of aspects caused by the phenomena: 1. For the first time the preposition linking
to an adverb reflects the ancient situation, at least, the one until a preposition had
got its name and became the part of it. 2. The primary adverbs are derived from
conjugated words and the preposition linking to them is a reflection of a
historical situation as well. 3. It should be noted that a preposition mostly links
the adverbs of time and place. This fact itself points to the origins of a
preposition. The fact is that the Samkhruli dialects as well as written Georgian
and other dialects have been faced with the cases of the preposition linking to an
adverb.

malxaz CoxaraZe
mesx muhajirTa kvali
klarjeTis mosaxleobaSi
istoriul samxreT saqarTveloSi, Woroxis auzis TurqeTis teritoriaze moqceuli nawilis mosaxleobaSi, SeiZleba gamoiyos kategoria, romelic Tavs ,,axisxadan~ (axalcixidan) mosuls, ,,axisxel
Turqs~ uwodebs. Turqul cnobarebSic arTvinis provinciis mosaxleobis nawili
moxseniebulia axalcixel Turqebad an
yivCaRebad.
aRniSnul teritoriaze axalcixelTa
Casaxleba faqtia, magram arc isaa saeWvo,
rom CasaxlebulTa umravlesoba Turqi ki
ara, qarTveli iyo.
rogorc cnobilia, ruseT-osmaleTis
1828-1829 wlebis omis Sedegad, osmalTa
batonoba rusuliT Seicvala da samcxe-javaxeTi, ase Tu ise, daubrunda saqarTvelos, romelic manamde qceuliyo ruseTis
koloniad.
erTi mxriv ruseTis Zaladobrivi politikis da meore mxriv osmaleTis propagandis ESedegad istoriuli mesxeTis
mosaxleobis didi nawili mSobliuri miwa-wylidan aiyara. S. lomsaZis varaudiT,
,,samcxe-javaxeTma omSi daRupulTa da
omis Sedegad TurqeTSi gadaxvewilTa saxiT dakarga daaxloebiT 60 000 kaci _
mosaxleobis ori mesamedi, ZiriTadad,
qarTveli mahmadianebi~ (lomsaZe 1975:
320).
muhajirTa es sakmaod didi talRa
ruseTis xelqveiT moqceul teritorias

250

malxaz CoxaraZe

gaerida da osmaleTSi gaifanta.


amis Semdgom, qarTvelTa TvalsawierSi, axalcixelTa kvali ukve
me-19 saukunis ukanaskneli meoTxedis korespondenciebSi Cndeba. magaliTad, zaqaria WiWinaZe sagangebo yuradRebas uTmobs devsqelis xeobas da
aRniSnavs, rom iqauri mosaxleoba qarTulia, magram cxovrebis wesiT da rigiT gansxvavdeba klarjeTis da masTan aWaris, maWaxlis, SavSeTis... qarTvel
muslimTagan. ,,soflebic ufro javaxeTis soflebs waagavso,~- aRniSnavs igi
da mizezebis garkvevas mosaxleobaSive cdilobs. mogzauri gadmogvcems
imas, rac piradad mousmenia moxucebisgan. Sesabamisad, wyaros sandooba
eWvs ar iwvevs. yofiTi detalebis Sesaxeb z. WiWinaZis respondentebic miuTiTeben da iqve ganmartavdnen: ,,....aseTi gansxvaveba mitom aris, rom Cven aq
didis xnis mosulebi ara varT, Cven gurjistanidan movsulvarTo, axalcixidam. aq Zvelad vinc mdgaran, osmaleTSi gaurekiaT, radganac qristianobaze magra mdgaran da sjulis gamocvla ar sdomebiaTo...~ (WiWinaZe 1913:142)
devsqelSi Cawerili narativis mixedviT gadasaxlebis iniciatorebad
osmalebi Canan, mizezad ki dasaxelebulia qristianobis erTguleba. koleqtiur mexsierebaSi epoqebis da movlenebis aRreva Cveulebrivi ambavia, magram am SemTxvevaSi micemul narativs, SesaZloa, savsebiT realuri istoria
edos safuZvlad, razec qvemoT gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas. z. WiWinaZis CanawerSi ki religiuri (qristianuli) motivi kidev ufro mwvavdeba: ,,Cvenebic
aq mitom mourekiaT, radganac Cveni Zvelebi gurjistanTan axlos yofilan
da sjulis gamocvlisTvis osmalTan bevri Cxubi hqoniaT gamarTulio. aq
mosvlis Semdeg ki male gaTaTrebulan, magram TaTrobaSic didxans SeunaxavT qristianobao. amis gulisTvis naxevarze meti gamwydara Cvenis Zvlebisao (WiWinaZe 1913:143)...
informacia axalcicxelTa Sesaxeb mocemulia `droebis~ korespondenciaSic, sadac aRniSnulia, rom `arTvinSi mometebuli nawili axalcixidan
arian gadmosaxlebulni 1829 wels, roca rusma aiRo axalcixe~ (m-Svili,
1981)
rogorc Cans, samcxe-javaxeTidan ltolvilTa nawili mainc maxlobel provinciebSi dasaxlda. am azrs, garda Tanamedrove SavSeTklarjeTSi ,,axisxadan mosulebis~ arsebobisa, mogzaurTa Canawerebisa
Tu Zveli presis masalebisa, ganamtkicebs isic, rom XIX saukunis 30iani wlebis aWara-qobuleTis da sazogadod, Woroxis auzis mosaxleobaSi dasturdeba fena, romelic oficialurad iwodeboda axalcixel
muhajirebad, kerZod, osmaleTis imperiaSi CvenTvis saintereso regionSi
1835 wels Catarebuli mosaxleobis aRweris sakmaod bevri ixsenieba
,,axalcixel muhajirad.~ maTi arseboba dasturdeba qobuleTSic, qvemo
aWaraSic, zemo aWaraSic, SavSeTSic da klarjeTSic.
aRniSnuli monacemebze saubrisas veyrdnobiT zaza SaSikaZis informacias, romelmac mogvawoda TurqeTis ministrTa sabWos osmaluri arqivis
reestris (muslimi mamakacebis aRwera kodi NFS. D N 027 59) dokumentebi

mesx muhajirTa kvali klarjeTis mosaxleobaSi

251

(davTari).
am davTris 41-51-e gverdebze dafiqsirebulia Rorjomis xeobaSi (aWara), kerZod, agaraSi mcxovrebi 34 komli axalcixeli muhajirebisa
(Ahshav Muhacirleri).
RorjomSi axalcixelTa Casaxlebis Sesaxeb miuTiTebs zaqaria WiWinaZec. soflebis CamoTvlisas zemo aWaraSi asaxelebs sof. tunaZes,
romelSic ,,15 komli aq gadmosaxlebula 1829 wels mesxeTidam~ (WiWinaZe 1913: 183).
da rakiRa sityvam moitana, barem imasac aRvniSnavT, rom Tanamedrove
Rorjomis mosaxleobam kargad icis axalcixidan gadmosaxlebul gvareulobaTa Sesaxeb. magaliTad, rogorc profesori nugzar mgelaZe ganmartavs,
mgelaZeTa (sof. agara), iremaZeTa (sof. iremaZeebi) da RorjomelaZeTa (sof.
RorjomelaZeebi) gadmocemiT, maTi sami winapari daaxloebiT ori saukunea
samcxidan, qvablianis xeobis sofel flatedan Camosaxlebula. isini sxvadasxva sagvareuloSi mfarvelobis da zedsiZeobis gziT Sesulan da sakuTari genealogiuri jgufisTvis pirvelsacxovrisis saxelwodeba daumkvidrebiaT (mgelaZe 2000: 144).
mesx muhajirebze miuTiTebs z. WiWinaZe qedis raionSic da asaxelebs sofel aliqoRlis1, romelSic ,,dasaxlebulan mesxeTidan mosuli
qarTveli mahmadianebi,~ muhajirobisas gadasaxlebula 10 komli (WiWinaZe 1912: 126).
RorjomelTa Tu qedelTa mexsiereba mesxTa migraciis mraval aspeqts inaxavs, magram gansaxilvel Temas rom ar gavcdeT, mxolod faqtis
aRniSnviT davkmayofildebiT da amave dros mivuTiTebT, rom warmodgenili
informacia ueWvod adasturebs axalcixidan qarTveli da Sesabamisad, qarTulenovani mosaxleobis migracias. xolo Tu isev klarjeTs da z. WiWinaZis Canawerebs mivubrundebiT, unda aRvniSnoT, rom mogzauri dabejiTebiT
miuTiTebs: axalcixidan gadmosaxlebuli devsqelelebi, klarjeTis sxva
xeobebisgan gansxvavebiT, ,,metad mZimed da ufro javaxuris kiloTi laparakoben qarTulad. enaSi TaTruli sityvebi SehparviaT, TiTqmis igive osmaluri sityvebi, rac sxva mxaris mahmadianebSi aris Sereuli. qalebma osmaluri laparaki srulad ar ician. eseni locvis dros ,,alahis~ magier xSirad ,,RmerTs~ axseneben: ,,RmerTo gviSveleo,~ ician agreTve qarTuli Selocva~ (WiWiniZe 1913:142)...
samcxe-javaxeTidan gadasaxlebulTa Soris, regionis mosaxleobis
imJamindeli eTnikuri Semadgenlobidan gamomdinare, umravlesoba qarTveli muslimani rom iqneboda, zemoTac mivuTiTebdiT. qarTul garemoSi dasaxlebulni, SeinarCunebdnen qarTul enas da identobas, magram,
rogorc Cans, araqarTul garemosa Tu savaWro gzebTan an mimosvlis1

aliqoRli (// aliqoRlebi) erT dros qedis raionis sofel oqtombers erqva. dRes es toponimi SemorCenilia oqtombris Temis sof. meZibnas erT-erT ubanSi.

252

malxaz CoxaraZe

Tvis SedarebiT ufro Ria xeobebSi dasaxlebulma, sakuTar miwa-wyals


da fesvebs mowyvetilma mesxebma sabolood dakarges kavSiri winaprebTan da gaTurqdnen. esaa albaT umTavresi mizezi imisa, rom, Tanamedrove
TurqeTSi mesx muhajirTa kvali Zalian Znelad iZebneba.
rac Seexeba qristianobis motivs klarjeTSi dasaxlebul mesxeTTa
pirvel TaobaSi, ver gamovricxavT, XIX saukunemdel Zaladobrivi migraciis talRebsac, magram arc is unda daviviwyoT, rom 1828-29 wlebis omisSemdgom mesx muhajirebs Soris varaudoben farul qristianebsac mesxeTidan. rasac adasturebs zaqaria WiWinaZis Canawerebic (WiWinaZe 1912: 68)
da sxva avtorebic. S. lomsaZe, moixmobs ra araerT dokuments, aRwers
mesxeTis qristianTa gasaWirs da aRniSnavs: ,,am dros samcxe-javaxeTis
soflebSi mravali qristiani da ufro meti ,,faruli qristiani~ cxovrobda. marjvena napiris javaxeTisa da axalcixis aqeTa soflebis umetesoba, axlad mahmadiandeboda. saWiro iyo sruliad mcire yuradReba,
rom mTeli es soflebi marTlmadidebel qristianebad darCeniliyvnen,
magram aseTi yuradReba aravin gamoiCina. carizmis moxeleni mcxovreblebs mimarTavdnen, rogorc Turqebs, maTi qarTvelobis gagonebac ar
surdaT. mouwodebdnen ara mama-papaTa zne-Cveulebisa da sarwmunoebis
aRdgenisken, aramed, TurqeTSi gadasaxlebisken~ (lomsaZe 1975: 314).
unda vivaraudoT, rom gadasaxlebul farul qristianTa Soris RvTismsaxurebis inercia erTxans axal sabinadroSic gagrZeldeboda. yovel SemTxvevaSi, es faqtebi z. WiWinaZis zemoT moyvanil Canawerebsac logikur CarCoSi
aqcevs da Sesabamisad, damajereblobas matebs.
aq kidev erTxel gavixsenebT, rom me-19 saukunis bolo meoTxedSi qarTulenovani sivrce ufro samxreTiTac vrceldeboda da rom muhajirTa STamomavlebSic davafiqsireT xsovna irsadan da sinkoTidan gadasaxlebulTa qarTuli metyvelebis Sesaxeb. Tanamedrove irsaSi, magaliTad, zogjer winaaRmdegobrivia ara mxolod sxvadasxva respondentis, aramed erTi adamianis informaciac. magaliTad, irseli qadrie gurelis TqmiT, 1. misi winaprebi
axalcixidan mosulan; 2. deda da mama qarTvelebi iyvnen da qarTulad laparakobdnen (Tavad qarTuli ar icoda); winaaRmdegobrivi ki am istoriaSi
isaa, rom misi azriT, Woroxis auzSi mcxovrebi ,,axisxelebi~ Turqebi
arian... vfiqrobT, es winaaRmdegobac erTgvarad avsebs Cvens mosazrebebs
Woroxis auzis ,,axisxelTa~ qarTuli fesvebis Sesaxeb.
Tanamedrove Turquli istoriografia ugulebelyofs ,,axisxelTa~
realur vinaobas da maT Turqebad, ZiriTadad, yivCaRebad miiCnevs. aswleulebis win dawyebuli propaganda gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda XX saukunis II naxevridan (metadre, fahreTTin kirzioRlus e. w. skolis
farglebSi) da absurduli Teoriebi mesxTa Tu klarjTa vinaobis Sesaxeb TandaTan myarad dainerga adgilobrivi mosaxleobis TaobaTa cnobierebaSi. am ,,Teoriebis mixedviT,~ Woroxis auzis araqarTulenovani mosaxleobis umravlesoba yivCaRia _ daviT aRmaSeneblis dros Tu ufro
gvian mosuli yivCaRebis STamomavali.

mesx muhajirTa kvali klarjeTis mosaxleobaSi

253

mizanmimarTulad gayalbebuli suraTis Tanaxmad, a) ufro adre Camosaxlebuli yivCaRebis pirvelma nakadma SeiTvisa adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
tradiciebi da cxovrebis wesi, aRiara qristianoba, aSena eklesiebi da monastrebi, cixeebi da xidebi. osmalobisas ki Tavis Tavdapirvel religias
_ islams daubrunda; b) ufro gvian Camosaxlebuli axalcixelebi Tavidanve
muslimi Turqebi iyvnen.
naTelia, rom umowyalod damaxinjebuli suraTi mosaxleobis cnobierebis deformacias da TviTSemecnebis ,,koreqtirebas~ isaxavs miznad
da Sesabamis Sedegsac aRwevs. aq unda davesesxoT z. SaSikaZes, romelic
mokled da naTlad ganmartavs TurqeTSi Zalian didi xnis ganmavlobaSi
mimdinare process, propagandis arss da amasTan, miuTiTebs, rom `qveyanaSi
gaCnda da TandaTan mwyobr sistemad Camoyalibda xelovnuri, yalbi istoria, romelic ,,aswavlis~ ama Tu im eTnikur jgufs sakuTar warsuls ise,
rogorc TurqeTis saxelmwifos esaWiroeba.
am mZlavri ideologiuri manqanis msxverpli aRmoCndnen TurqeTSi
mcxovrebi qarTvelebic. saqme isaa, rom daxurul Turqul sivrceSi aRzrdil Taobebze efeqturad imuSava am meTodma. maT daSretodaT istoriuli mexsiereba da warmodgenac ar hqondaT sakuTari warsulis Sesaxeb _ mamapapiseul teritoriaze stumrad grZnobdnen Tavs da osmalebic mxsnelebad, ufros Zmebad miaCndaT. XX saukunis 50-iani wlebidan amas daemata pirdapiri brZola nacionalur umciresobaTa mSobliuri enebis winaaRmdeg da
dRevandeli viTarebac am yvelafris Sedegia~ (SaSikaZe 2015: 12).
imasRa davamatebT, rom ideologiuri strategiis diapazoni ganusazRvrelia da xSirad moulodneli kuTxiTac gamovlindeba xolme.
amis naTeli magaliTia Tundac cekva ,,sari CiCekis~ Tanmxlebi legenda,
romelic arTvinis provinciaSi yvelgan SeiZleba moismino da romelsac
aSkarad atyvia Tanamedrove Turquli istoriografiis gavlena anu, legenda redaqtirebulia ideologiuri manqanis moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad:
legendis Tanaxmad, Woroxis sanapiroze mcxovrebi gaqristianebuli
yivCaRebis gamusulmanebis mizniT egviptidan jarTan erTad wamosula
Seixi da Woroxis sanapiroebs mosdgomia, aq unaxavs cisferTvaleba qera gogo da imwamsve gagiJebamde Sehyvarebia; arc gogo darCenila gulgrili, magram gogos mama musulmanze gaTxovebis sastiki winaaRmdegi
yofila.
gogos sarwmunoeba Seucvlia da SeixTan erTad gaqceula, magram
gzaSi dawevian mamis jariskacebi da orive daxocavT (Sahini 1997: 28).
bevri rom ar gavagrZeloT, cisferTvaleba yivCaRi gogonas ambavi
mxolod erTi detalia mZlavri ideologiuri manqanisa. sazogado suraTis siyalbe ki, saistorio wyaroebze rom araferi vTqvaT, Woroxis
auzis ,,axisxelebad~ da ,,yivCaRebad~ wodebuli mosaxleobis koleqtiur mexsierebaze araTu dakvirvebiT, Tvalis gadavlebiTac naTlad Cans.
Tumca iq WeSmaritebas iSviaTad Tu eZebs vinme mosaxleobis am nawils,
ZiriTadad, akmayofilebs wlebis ganmavlobaSi myarad Canergili infor-

254

malxaz CoxaraZe

macia sakuTari vinaobis Sesaxeb. albaT didi dro aRarc mexsierebaSi


CarCenili fragmentebis waSlas dasWirdeba da qarTuli mosaxleobis
didi nawilis ,,gayivCaRebis~ procesic dasruldeba...
literatura:
lomsaZe 1975: lomsaZe S., samcxe-javaxeTi (XVIII saukunis Sua wlebidan XIX saukunis Suawlebamde), Tbilisi.
mgelaZe 2000: mgelaZe n., samcxuri warmomavlobis genealogiuri (naTesauri) jgufebis istoriis zogierTi sakiTxi aWaraSi, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis axalcixis filialis krebuli ,,mesxeTi, istoria da Tanamedroveoba,~ axalcixe.
SaSikaZe 2015: Turquli istoriografiis tendenciebi saqarTvelos mimarT, xelnaweri, baTumi.
CoxaraZe 2015: CoxaraZe m., xanZTa da aTormet savaneTa mxaris Zveli
salocavebi, monografia, baTumi.
WiWinaZe 1912: WiWnaZe z., qarTvel mahmadianTa gadasaxleba osmaleTSi,
muhajiri, emigracia, Tbilisi.
WiWnaZe 1913: WiWnaZe z., musliman qarTveloba da maTi soflebi saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi.
Sahini 1997: ahin , 1997: ahin Remzi, ahin Zeki,Akaln Zeki, Artvin Yresi
Folkloru Halk Kltr Aratrmas,Mays.
Malkhaz Chokharadze
Muhajir Meskhetian Traces in the Population of Klarjeti
Among the modern population of Klarjeti there is a part that is called the
`Akhiskhan Turks~, because they come from `Akhiskha~ (Akhaltsikhe),
As it is known, after the Russian-Turkish war in 1828-1829 SamtskheJavakheti became a part of the Russian Empire. The Muhajir eviction was
followed by the war, and quite a lot of Meskhetians settled in the Chorokhi basin.
The paper deals with the ethnic identity issues of the Akhaltsikhean
Muhajirs. Such facts as the historical sources (both Georgian and Turkish) and
literature, the press materials of the 19th century and travelers notes, on the one
hand, and the collective memory data of the modern population, on the other
hand, show that the Akhaltsikhean Muhajirs, settled in Klarjeti, were mostly
Georgians. Eventually, part of them has Turkishized, while the others still keep
Georgian language and identity in some places.

mariam CoxaraZe
adamianis sakuTari
saxelebi qarTulsa da
TurqulSi
qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi
,,saxelis~ ramdenime mniSvnelobaa mocemuli.
erT-erTis mixedviT saxeli aris sityva, romelic aRniSnavs visme an rasme; rac hqvia, rasac
uwodeben visme an rasme, saxelwodeba, rasac
yovel calkeul pirovnebas, individs uwodeben sxvebisgan gasarCevad~(qegl 1990:879).
saxelebSi, upirveles yovlisa, moiazreba sityvebi, romlebic garemomcveli sagnobrivi samyaros nominaciur proeqcias asaxaven. yovel sagansa Tu movlenas enaSi aqvs
(SeiZleba hqondes) Tavisi saxeli. sagani
mravalia da maTi saxeldebis Sedegi, Sesabamisad, mravalferovan suraTs iZleva; sagnis
(obieqtis) arsebobas sagnis saxeli afiqsirebs. amrigad, yvela sityvas, romelTac brunebis unari aqvs, enaTmecnierebi saxels uwodeben. amgvar sityvaTa Soris yvelaze mravalricxovania arsebiTi saxelebi (WumburiZe 1992:5). rac Seexeba adamianis saxels, igi
Sedis arsebiT saxelTa erT jgufSi, romelsac sakuTari saxelebi hqvia.
saintereso suraTs warmoaCens adamianTa saxelebis Sedareba sxvadasxva enobriv
samyaroSi. yvela enas adamianis saxelebTan
Taviseburi midgoma gaaCnia, romelsac safuZvlad, ZiriTadad, motivacia udevs. Cvens SemTxvevaSi saanalizod aviReT adamianis sakuTari saxelebi qarTulsa da Turqul enebSi.
ori qveynis, saqarTvelo-TurqeTis teritoriulma siaxlovem, istoriulma warsulma

256

mariam CoxaraZe

Tu sxva faqtorma ganapiroba qarTulsa da Turqul enebSi erTnairi an


msgavsi fuZeebis adamianis saxelTa arseboba. qarTulSi sakuTari saxelebis
garkveuli jgufi swored Turqulidan, an Turquli enis meSveobiTaa Semosuli. ase rom, qarTulSi gvxvdeba sakuTriv qarTuli, Turquli, sparsuli
da arabuli saxelebi, romelTagan zogi semantikurad msgavsia, zogi ki
sruliad gansxvavebuli.
Turqulenovan jgufebSi qarTuli sakuTari (adamianis) saxelebis swavlebisas Cven erT-erT meTodad Sedarebas viyenebT. roca Turqulenovan msmenels, Tu students Tavis mSobliur enaSi vuZebniT qarTuli saxelis Sesatyviss, ra Tqma unda, mas ufro uadvildeba damaxsovrebac da sakiTxis aTvisebac. swored es davisaxeT miznad, roca sakvlevad yuradReba SevaCereT adamianis sakuTar saxelebze qarTulsa da Turqul enebSi.
sxvadasxva xalxSi adamianis saxelebad xSirad gvxvdeba: ciur mnaTobTa,
cxovelTa, frinvelTa, mcenareTa... saxelwodebani, aseve, sityvebi, romlebic
dakavSirebulia grZnobebTan, fizikur Tu sulier miswrafebebTan da a. S.
saxelebis umetesoba aramotivirebulia, konkretuli Sinaarsi ar gaaCnia, an dakarguli aqvs garemoebaTa gamo. magram arsebobs motivirebuli saxelebic. aseTebia qarTulSi: ia, mzia, mzisadari, narCita, mayvala, mzeqala, vardo, vefxia da misTanani. maTSi naTlad Cans, romeli sityvebisgan arian warmoqmnili isini(WumburiZe, 1992:7). am niSniT saintereso suraTs iZleva adamianis
sakuTar saxelTa Sedareba Turqulsa da qarTulSi. aq mravali Tematuri
jgufis gamoyofa SeiZleba, Tumca Cven mxolod ramdenimes gamovyofT:
a) saxelebi, romlebSic warmoCenilia adamianis garegnoba, fizikuri
SesaZleblobebi, moraluri Rirsebebi:
qarTulSi: nazi (nazibrola), koxta, zviadi, raindi, guladi...
TurqulSi: Nur (nur)msubuqi, saTuTi, nazi; Su (su) wyali; Doan
(doRan) Sevardeni; Kartal (qarTal)arwivi; Demir (demir)rkina; Kaya
(qaia) didi qva; Ate (aTeS) cecxli.
b) saxelebi, romlebSic warmoCenilia pirovnebis grZnobebi, miswrafebebi:
qarTulSi: imeda, yvaryvare (miRebulia ,,uyvars~ zmnis Ziris gaorkecebiT), nugeSa, fiqria.
TurqulSi: Umut (umuT)imedi; Sevgi (sevgi) siyvaruli; Hlya (hulia) saocnebo; zgr (ozguri) Seufasebeli.
g) saxelebi, romlebic gulTan da sulTan aris dakavSirebuli:
qarTulSi: gulsunda, gulisvardi, guliko, gulisa, gulnara, gulizari, gulTamze, gulia. `gul~da `sul~ Zirebi gvxvdeba mamakacis saxelebSic: gulo, sulo, suliko...
Gl Ziriani saxelebi gvxvdeba TurqulSic. igi yvavil vards ukavSirdeba (Gl~ Turq.=vardi). misgan aris miRebuli sakuTari saxelebi:Gl (guli); Glah (gulSahi); Glengl (gulenguli); Glseren (gulsereni);
Birgl (birguli); Nurgul (nurguli);, Sengl (Senguli); Aslgl (asliguli), Glcan (guljani)...

adamianis sakuTari saxelebi qarTulsa da TurqulSi

257

rogorc qarTulSi, aseve TurqulSic gulTan dakavSirebuli saxelebi kompozitebia.


d) saxelebi, romlebSic warmoCenilia adamianis Wkua-goneba, warmateba:
qarTulSi: bedisa, bedia...
TurqulSi: Zeki (zeqi)Wkviani , Uur (uRuri) warmateba; Derin (derini)Rrma, siRrme....
e) saxelebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia naTelTan da mnaTobebTan:
qarTulSi: mzisa, mziana, mzia, mzeona, mziula, mzisadari, mzexaTuni,
mzevinari, iamze, iaTamze, pirimze, qalTamze, mTvarisa, varskvlavisa, TinaTini, naTela, Suqia, naTia...
qarTulisTvis ucxo ar aris `naTelTan~ da `mnaTobebTan~ dakavSirebuli saxelebi: `Suqis~ gamoyeneba aq fizikuri Tvisebis metaforul gamoxatvas ki ar unda gulisxmobdes, aramed masSi ufro Sinaarsiseuli (arsiseuli) mxarea gamovlenili, igive pirovnuli xibli, aura (Sdr. mniSvnelobebi: ,,silamaze~ da `mSveniereba~). aseTi adamiani (Cveulebisamebr, qali)
`SuqT utevs~ (anu `aSuqebs, abrwyinebs~ (arabuli, 2015:7). aseTi saxelebi
TurqulSi mcired dasturdeba. am tipisaa: Yldz (ildizi) varskvlavi ,
Gne (guneSi) mze...
v) saxelebi, romlebic ukavSirdeba: miwas (dedamiwas), cas, mxares,
wyals, zRvas, mdinares. aseTi saxelebi qarTulSi TurqulTan SedarebiT
mcirea.
qarTulSi: cisana, cicia, cicino, cisia, cismara, cismari, ciuri
TurqulSi:Toprak (Tofraqi) miwa(dedamiwa); Asya (asia) azia; Su
(su) wyali; Deniz (denizi) zRva; Nehir (nehiri) mdinare...
z) saxelebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia mcenareebTan, xeebTan, yvavilebTan:
qarTulSi: vardo , vardua, vardiko (vardiko gvxvdeba vaJis saxeladac), ia, iasamani, enZela...
TurqulSi: Gl (gul) vardi; Meneke (meneqSe)ia;Yasemin (iasemin)iasamani; Kardelen (kardelen)enZela; inar (Cinari) alvis xe; Baak
(baSaqi)xorbali, iek (CiCeqi) yvavili...
T) saxelebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia frinvelebTan:
qarTulSi: gedia , gvritia//gvrituna, guguli, Ciora, Cito, SoSia...
TurqulSi: Kartal (qarTali) _ arwivi.
i) saxelebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia cxovelebTan:
qarTulSi: loma, lomi, lomkaci, lomkacia, daTvia, vefxia, mgela (gela), ZaRlika, nukri
TurqulSi: Aslan (lomi)aslani) (igivea, rac qarTulSi gavrcelebuli saxeli aslani, romlis kninobiTi formaa aslanika); Kak (quCak)
kozaki. magaliTebidan Cans, rom am tipis saxelebi qarTulSi bevria, TurqulSi mcire.
aRsaniSnavia isic, rom TurqulSi iSviaTad, magram mainc dasturdeba
wodebis, Tavazianobis gamomxatveli sityvebi sakuTar saxelebad. aseTebia:

258

mariam CoxaraZe

Hanim (hanim)qalbatoni; SulTansulTani. am tipis saxelebi qarTulSi ar


dasturdeba.
TurqulSi erTi da igive saxeli Serqmeuli aqvs qalsac da mamakacsac.
aseTebia: Baak (baSaq) xorbali; inar (Cinar)alvis xe; Ekin (eqini)mosavali; analogiuri situaciaa qarTulSic: suliko, guguli, vardo, nukri.
rogorc qarTulSi, ise TurqulSic adamianis sakuTar saxelebad
gvxvdeba: dReebis, Tveebis, ferebis da Zvirfasi qvebis gamomxatveli sityvebi, magaliTad: ianvara, ivliane, martia, maisa, paraskeva, SabaTa... brola, margalita, firuzi... Ekim(eqim)oqtomberi; Eylul (eilul) seqtemberi; kasm
(qasim)noemberi, Perembe (ferSembe)xuTSabaTi...Zmrt (zumruT)zurmuxti, Elmas(elmas) almasi...
amrigad, qarTulsa da TurqulSi adamianis sakuTari saxelebi warmomavlobiT da mniSvnelobiT msgavsicaa da gansxvavebulic. zogi motivirebulia, zogiaramotivirebuli. saxeldeba garkveuli istoriuli epoqebis
xsovnasac inaxavs. marTalia, droTa ganmavlobaSi adamianma Tavi mianeba mnaTobebis, cxovelebisa da frinvelebis Tayvaniscemas, magram Sesabamisi cnebebi darCa adamianTa sakuTar saxelebSi.
literatura:
arabuli 2015: arabuli avTandil, Suq-leqsemis sakraluri SinaarsisTvis
xevsurulSi, XXXV respublikuri dialeqtologiuri samecniero
seriis masalebi, baTumi.
qegl 1990: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tbilisi.
WumburiZe 1992: WumburiZe zurab, ra gqvia Sen? Tbilisi.

Mariam Chokharadze
Proper Names of People in Georgian and Turkish Languages
Personal proper names have generally lost their lexical meaning. However,
there are many names with certain meanings. For example: Ia, Mzia, Mzisadari,
Narchita, Makhvala, Mzekala, Vardo, Vepkhvia, etc. These names are lexically
uploaded because their meanings are clearly generated from specific words. As
we can see, people are often called by the names of animals, birds and plants, as
well as the ones of different celestial lights. For instance: Deniz (a sea), toprak (a
land), yamur (a rain), Defne (a daphne), Rzgar (a wind) ada (an island),
nar (a chenar, a plane tree _ one of the species of maple), Doa (a nature)
Lale (a tulip), Nergis (a narcissus), Damla (a drop), etc.
The paper deals with the issues of relationship between the origin and
meaning of peoples proper names, as well as some principles of giving names in
Georgian and Turkish languages.



, .
.

, ,
, , , ,
- . - (, , ) ; , , ;

.


,
.

,

:

260

nanuli CxaiZe

1) ( ,
, );
2) ( - , , ,
);
3) (, , ,
,
).

,

.
,
(, ),
().
, -
. ,
,
,
.
,
:
''putin-herakles 12 gmiroba''-gamofena moskovSi _ samoqalaqo presa (2014-10-07)

ruseTis prezidentis
vladimer putinis 62 wlis
iubile misma mxardamWerebma
gamofeniT aRniSnes. `bibisis~ cnobiT, maT ruseTis
prezidenti antikur personaJs herakles Seadares. moskovis erT-erT galereaSi
mowyobil gamofenaze vladimer `putin-herakles~ 12
gmirobaa gamosaxuli, TiToeuli gmiroba Sesabamisadaa axsnili. magaliTad, nemeis lomis mokvla terorizmTan brZolas daukavSires, erimanTosis taxis motaceba _ yirimis
"dabrunebas", aSS-sTan brZola ki herakles miwisqveSa ZalebTan brZolasTan.
(http://ici.ge/news/putin-herakles-12-gmiroba-gamofena-moskovsi(video)---samoqalaqo-presa.html).

precedentulobis semiotikuri meqanizmi qarTul kulturaSi

261


:
, _
, , ,
, , , , (
2004:16). ,
, ,
;
. ,
, ,
. :
, ,
;
,
, , , , ;
-.
,
,
:
mosemdinaraZe: , , , , , ,
!
08 05 2012 13:34:41 nanaxia: 4226

TiToeuli waqceuli ZegliT mag pirovnebas mxolod amaRleben!


_ babu, cota xmamaRla melaparake! ar mesmis kargad... mepatieba, 94 wlis, oTxi Tvis da sami dRisa var! _ mafrTxilebs omis veterani, Tadarigis polkovniki, mose mdinaraZe.
eriha! 94 wlis adamians dReebic axsovs! marTlac da, imedi ar gamicrua tite lepsaiam, saqarTvelos omisa da samxedro Zalebis veteranTa centraluri kavSiris Tavmjdomaris moadgilem, rekomendacia rom gauwia Cems axlandel respondents!
, , :
, .

, ,

262

nanuli CxaiZe

. ,
: ,
,

.
, , , , , , , . , ,
.
, ,
. ,

.
,
.

, , , :
, , .
, , .
.
,
, .
, , .
,
.
( 2004:21).

(, , , , .),
, , . ,
:
, -, ;
:
salamuri( ),
salesiqva, savarcxli( ).
, , ,
: , , , ,
.

precedentulobis semiotikuri meqanizmi qarTul kulturaSi

263

,
, ,
,

,
, -.
( ).
, ,
( , , ,
, .) ,
.
, .., ., .
., ,

, ,
.
,

, .
:
.. . ., 1987.
.., .. //
. 1994, 1.
. .
, 2004.
NanuliChkhaidze
Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University
Semiotic Mechanism of the Mrecedence in the Georgian Multure
The intensity of the information flow in the modern world has triggered the
response in the form of compressing and condensing information exchanged.
People involve more and more economic forms for expressing their ideas which
include the precedent units, as apart from the nomination they contain emotional as
well as short evaluative characteristics of the person in question. For an utterance
or a proper name becoming a precedent phenomenon they have to undergo all
stages of the precedent semiotic mechanism. The system of the Georgian
precedents are rather diversified and reflects the most significant phases of the
Georgian national and cultural development; consequently, it is crucial to study the
semiotic mechanism for the Georgian precedent phenomenon.

sofiko CxartiSvili
berZnuli kalanda da
masTan dakavSirebuli
folklori
berZnul tradiciebs Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs kalandas, saaxalwlo ciklis dResaswauls, Tumca `kalandis Tqma~ sxva dResaswaulTa repertuarSic
damkvidrda. igi erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli da popularuli tradiciaa, romelsac Soreuli istoria aqvs.
kalanda () konkretul marTlmadideblur dResaswaulebTan dakavSirebuli sazeimo Sinaarsis erTgvari sasimRero
uwyebaa, romelsac jgufurad da kardakar
mosiarule adamianebi, umetes SemTxvevaSi
bavSvebi asruleben.
berZnebi kalandas weliwadSi ramdenjerme amboben: saSobaod, axal wels da naTliRebas; es aris periodi 25 dekembridan
(qristeSobidan) 6 ianvramde- (naTliRebamde), romelic cnobilia rogorc `TormetdRiani~ . TiToeuli dResaswaulis dros kalandas Tqmis tradicia
da masTan dakavSirebuli ritualebi gansxvavebuli SinaarsiT da formiT sruldeba.
SesaZlebelia, erTi da imave dResaswaulis
SemTxvevaSi Seicvalos kalandis teqsti da
Sesrulebis forma, rac damokidebulia saberZneTis calkeuli regionis Taviseburebebsa da adaT-wesebze.
kalandas Tqmas, miuxedavad imisa, Tu
romel dResaswauls ukavSirdeba igi, saerTo maxasiaTeblebic gaaCnia: aq gansazRvru-

berZnuli kalanda da masTan dakavSirebuli folklori

265

lia ritualuri dalocvis forma. rogorc wesi, yvela saxis kalanda Seicavs maspinZlis xotbas, xolo keTili survilebis obieqtebi Tanmimdevrulad xdebian ojaxis wevrebi. aseve, kalandas mTqmeli bavSvebi aucileblad
unda daasaCuqros maspinZelma, raTa momaval wels kvlav estumron da dalocon ojaxi.
berZnuli adaTis mixedviT, qristeSobis winadRes, 24 dekembers bavSvebi dilaadrian iwyeben kalandas Tqmas. Zvelad, kardakar Camovlis
dros, patarebs xelT eWiraT qaRaldis feradi fanrebi an gemebi, axla ki
isini musikalurma samkuTxam, e.w -m Secvala, romelzec didi
mondomebiT ukraven da mRerian:
, saRamo mSvidobisa, batonebo,
, amgvarad unda mogmarToT ?
qristes RvTiur dabadebas
. vauwyeb Tqvens saxls.
qriste ibadeba dRes,
, qalaq beTlemSi
, cani siamovnebas Rebuloben,
. xarobs mTeli buneba.
mRvimeSi ibadeba,
cxenebis TavlaSi,
cebis mbrZanebeli
da yvelas poeti (4, gv. 257-258)
es berZnuli saSobao kalandas yvelaze metad gavrcelebuli da miRebuli variantia. yvela ojaxis kari iReba am tradiciuli saSobao simReris da
keTili survilebis mosasmenad. kalandas gamgone diasaxlisi valdebulia
uxvad daasaCuqros bavSvebi imiT, rac gaaCnia (iqneba es xurda fuli Tu tkbileuli). im SemTxvevaSi, Tu romelime maspinZeli kars ar gaaRebs an xelgaSlilobas ar gamoiCens, bavSvebi ironiulad amboben:
, , Cemo batono, Sens qudSi
aTasobiT rwyilia,
, , b zogi kvercxs
debs,zogi zis da zogi ki Cekavs . (iqve, gv. 258)
marTlmadidebeli berZnebisTvis qristeSoba gansakuTrebulad gamorCeuli dRea. soflebSi, rogorc wesi, klaven Rors, zogan- mamals an qaTams. qalaqebSi saSobao sufris mSvenebas wabliT farSirebuli indauri
warmoadgens, dResaswaulis aucilebeli atributi ki berZnuli saSobao puria. ,,arsebobs sami saxis saSobao berZnuli puri: iesos saxvevebi, keriis
bliTi da ubralo saSobao kveri. ukanasknels adreul saukuneebSi iseTi sididisas amzadebdnen, rom naTlisRebis CaTvliT, anu, mTeli Tormeti dRis
ganmavlobaSi miirTmevdnen. dResdReobiT ki wyliskurTxevis dResaswauls
Tavisi, aseve gansakuTrebuli cxobila amSvenebs nuSiTa da jvriT. rac Seexeba iesos saxvevebs, is axladmologinebuli RvTismSoblis pativsacemad
cxveba qristeSobis an naTlisRebis Rames~ (1, gv. 24-25)

266

sofiko CxartiSvili

saSobao sufra mTels ojaxs aerTianebs: tradiciisamebr, berZnebma


jer Tafli unda miirTvan da Semdeg- danarCeni. sanam Wamas daiwyeben, xelSi
maRla aweven qristes purs, rac niSnavs, rom `amaRleben sufras~ .
saSobao sufras arc keTili survilebi aklia. yvelaze metad gavrcelebuli survilebis formaa: ! _ `janmrTeloba!~,
! _ ,,kargi weliwadi!,~ ! _ ,,baraqa!~
berZenTa rwmeniT, Sobis Rames Camoivlis wminda basili da misi saxelobis cxobilas akurTxebs, ojaxs dalocavs da bavSvebs SeZlebisgvarad
daasaCuqrebs. ojaxis wevrebs SeuZliaT nakurTxi cxobilas namcecebi ezoSi, soflad kiyanebsa da mdeloebze mimoabnion, raTa baraqa, soflad ki uxvmosavlianoba daibedon. Tanamedrove berZenTa saSobao cxobila warmoadgens ara mxolod erTgvar Sesawirs RvTisadmi, aramed garkveuli saxis wyalobacaa micvalebulTa mosaxsenieblad.
cnobilia, rom Zvelad ~Sobis dilas mRvdeli ojaxebSi dadioda xolme da maspinZlis saSobao cxobilas orad xleCda. Tu marjvena xelSi didi
naWeri aRmoCndeboda, es niSnavda, rom momaval wels xorbali meti iqneboda,
vidre _ simindi, romlis raodenobasac puris marcxena nawili gansazRvravda. gamodis, rom TviT sasuliero piris mier Sesrulebuli rituali
marTlmadidebel saberZneTSi misnobis saxes iRebda. sadResaswaulo dReebSi didi gaqaneba hqonda misnobis sxva formebsac (magaliTad, berZeni qaliSvilebi did mniSvnelobas aniWebnen Tu pirvelad vis saxels gaigebdnen Sobis
dilas, Cems sabedosac igive erqmevao~(1, gv. 2324)
dResdReobiT miRebulia qristeSobas, iseve rogorc aRdgomas, naTliis xeldamSvenebuli stumroba naTlulTan da misTvis didi qristianuli
dResaswaulebis am saxiT milocva.
eladaSi saSobaod gemis morTvis adaTicaa damkvidrebuli. saberZneTi
xom uZvelesi sazRvao qveyanaa da uamravi ojaxisTvis swored zRvaa saarsebo wyaro. marTalia, bolo dros gemi naZvis xem Caanacvla, magram berZnebi
tradicias ar iviwyeben da bevr saxls, iseve rogorc quCebs kvlav amSveneben gaCiraRdnebuli gemebi.
axali wlis winadRiT, 31 dekembers, berZeni bavSvebi an ufrosebi iseve rogorc Sobis win, saxlidan saxlSi dadian da saaxalwlo kalandas amboben. amjerad xelSi uWiravT vaSli an forToxali, zogan varsklavi an qaRaldis gemi, zogan ki zemoT CamoTvlilT enacvleba xis toti. simReris
dros, rogorc wesi, am totiT ojaxis ufross exebian, rac sicocxlis miniWebis simbolos warmoadgens. ojaxis mepatrone, madlierebis niSnad, bavSvebs aZvlevs xurda fuls an tkbileuls.
marTalia, kalandis teqsti saberZneTis regionebis mixedviT gansxvavebulia, magram arsebobs saaxalwlo kalandas teqstis yvelaze metad cnobili da gavrcelebuli variantic:
Tvis dasawyisi, wlis dasawyisi,
Cemo maRalo rozmaris xeo,

berZnuli kalanda da masTan dakavSirebuli folklori

267

kargi sawyisi axal wels,


' ! eklesia wminda taxtiT !~ (4, gv. 12)
saaxalwlo kalandaSi moixsenieba ieso qriste, romelic berZenTa
rwmeniT axal wels dedamiwaze gaivlis da adamianTa gulebs madlierebiT
aRavsebs:
dasawyisi, roca qriste gamoCnda , wmindani da sulieri,
miwaze gaivlis
. da Cven s guls moigebs~ (iqve, gv. 12)
mogvianebiT kalandaSi wminda basilic ixsenieba:
, wminda basili modis,
, , Cven ar gvkadrulobs
, kesariidan
. Sen xar didebuli qalbatoni (4, gv. 12)
rac Seexeba axal welTan dakavSirebu;l berZnul tradiciebs, axali
wlis dilas saberZneTis yvela ojaxSi Sedis ojaxis wevri an gareSe piri mekvle,
(ZiriTadad bavSvebi), romelsac ojaxis ufrosis azriT `kargi fexi
aqvs,~ - ` ~. mekvles, rogorc wesi, xelSi uWiravs broweuli, romelsac xeTqavs SesasvlelTan. broweuli aris ojaxuri bednierebis
da simdidris simbolo, amitomac berZnebi erTmaneTs Cuqnian broweulis suvenirebs. yvela berZnuli ojaxis saaxalwlo sufra savsea tkbileuliT:
, , , , rameTu rogorc xalxSi amboben: `Tu sufra mdidaria saaxalwlod , mdidaria mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi.~ _ , - .saaxalwlo sufraze aucileblad unda idos broweuli, raTa weliwadi broweuliviT savse da baraqiani iyos. berZnuli saxalwlo sufra warmoudgenelia wminda basilis cxobilas- -s gareSe. mas amzadeben rogorc
soflebsa da dabebSi, aseve qalaqebSi da gamocxobis Semdeg zemodan alamazeben sxvadasxva mosarTaviT. adaTis mixedviT, vasilopitaSi unda Caidos
moneta, rac wminda basilis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli. erT-erTi gadmocemis Tanaxmad, ,,misi episkoposobis dros kabadokiis eparqoss gadasaxadi gauZvirebia. mrevls Suamdgomloba moZRvrisaTvis uTxovia. maSin wminda mamam
TioToeul maTgans ojaxis yvelaze Zvirfasi nivTi gamoatanina Turme da win
waruZRva. mitropolitis gamoCenam da misma saubarma iseTi STabeWdileba
moaxdina eparqosze, rom am ukanasknelma gadasaxadis miReba gadaifiqra.
xalxi gaxarebuli wamoemarTa ukan, magram erTad Segrovil uamrav monetasa
da Zvirfas beWeds Soris sakuTaris povna-amocnoba gaWirda. maSin, sulieri
mamis kurTxeviT, SabaT saRamos uamravi kveri gamocxva da TiToeul maTganSi eparqosisaTvis gadadebuli Zvirfaseuloba Caido. kverebi xalxs daurigda da moxda saswauli: yovelma adamianma cxobilaSi Tavisive nivTi aRmoaCina~ (1, gv. 22)
axal wels, roca mTeli ojaxi Seikribeba da vasilopitas daWris

268

sofiko CxartiSvili

dro mova, ojaxis ufrosi jvars gadasaxavs da pirvel naWers Wris wminda
basilisTvis, Semdeg-ojaxisTvis, momdevno naWrebi urigdebaT ojaxis ufross da xandazmul wevrebs, Semdeg ki-asakiT umcrosebs. Tumca, es Tanmimdevroba yvelgan erTnairad ar aris daculi: zogan pirvel naWers qristesTvis gadadeben, meores- RvTismSoblisTvis, mesames _ ojaxisTvis da a.S.
wminda basilis cxobila saaxalwlod iWreba ara mxolod ojaxebSi, aramed
yvela samsaxurSi da mas, visac moneta Sexvdeba, gadaecema saCuqari. iRblianma moneta unda Seinaxos momaval wlamde, raTa iRbali iyos misi gzamkvlevi
axal wels.
yoveli axali wlis 5 ianvars diliT, saberZneTSi bavSvebi kvlav amboben kalandas, amjerad es naTlisRebis kalandaa:
, dRes naTlisRebaa,
. didi sixaruli da wylis kurTxeva,
qvemoT, mdinare iordanSi,
, , zis Cveni qalbatoni, RvTismSobeli,
, uWiravs sakravebi da sanTeli
: da wm. ioanes Txovs:
" , wmindao ioane, batono da naTlismRebelo,
, mominaTle RvTis Svili,
, raTa avide zemoT, caSi,
. Sevagrovo broweulebi da sakmeveli.
, , dila mSvidobisa, dila mSvidobisa! (6)
naTlisReba saberZneTSic did qristianul dResaswauladaa aRiarebuli, vinaidan esaa dRe, rodesac moinaTla macxovari da swored am dRes xdeba wylis kurTxeva yovel weliwads, maSasadame, ganidevneba borotic. naTlisRebis wina
dRes, eklesiaSi xdeba e.w. `pirveli kurTxeva,~ ris Semdegac mRvdeli
Camouvlis ojaxebs jvriT xelSi da akurTxebs saxlebs. pirvel nakurTx
wyals soflebSi, baR-bostnebsa da wyaroebTanac moabkureben, raTa gandevnon boroti sulebi.
naTliRebis dRes, 6 ianvars, imarTeba uzarmazari ceremonia, romelSic monawileoben samRvdeloebis, qalaqebisa Tu soflebis mmarTveli organoebis warmomadgenlebi, morwmuneeebi. es nakadi miedineba zRvisken an
mdinarisken, xSir SemTxvevaSi samxedro orqestris TanxlebiT. rogorc ki
mRvdeli akurTxebs wyals da jvars wyalSi gadaagdebs, axalgazrdebi mis
sapovnelad da amosaRebad gayinul wyalSi gadaxtebian. is, vinc pirveli
ipovis jvars da mRvdels amoutans, dailoceba da eZleva am jvriT saxlebis Semovlis uflebac. ra Tqma unda, saberZneTSic miRebulia nakurTxi wyalis saxlSi waReba da misiT yoveli kuTxis kurTxevac. nakurTx wyals
ojaxis TiToeuli wevri svams. zRvasTan axlos mdebare qalaqebSi zRvis nakurTx wyalSi saxlidan waRebul xatebs deben, xolo soflebSi nakurTx
mdinaris wyalSi- samuSao iaraRebs. iTvleba, rom am ritualiT mTeli wlis

berZnuli kalanda da masTan dakavSirebuli folklori

269

ganmavlobaSi iqnebian dalocvilebi da yoveli nivTi, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi dabinZurda, kvlav iwmindeba da iZens Tavis pirvandel Zalas da
Rirebulebas.
amgvarad, rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, kalandis Tqma mniSvnelovan berZnul
tradiciaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba. aRsaniSnavia, rom bavSvebi mniSvnelovan
rols TamaSoben zamTris ceremoniebis SesrulebaSi. saberZneTis zogierT
regionSi naTliRebis dResaswaulze maT saxlis kurTxevis uflebac ki eZlevaT da amgvari gamonaklisis mizezad mravali saukunis win am dRes herodes mier bavSvebis daxocvis faqti miiCneva.
gamoCnda, rom kalandebSi gansazRvrulia ritualuri dalocvis forma
da misi Sesrulebis aucilebel pirobas mTqmelis dasaCuqreba warmoadgens.
aseve dadasturda, rom Tanamedrove kalandis Tqmis procesSi saberZneTSi SenarCunebulia Zveli elementebi da amasTan damkvidrda bevri siaxlec. bevr
ritualSi, warmarTuli kvalis arsebobis miuxedavad, qristianuli elementebi gansakuTrebuli simravliT gamoirCeva.
miuxedavad imisa, rom kalanda mTel marTlmadideblur samyaroSi gavrcelebuli tradiciaa da mas uZvelesi fesvebi aqvs, berZnuli kalanda da
masTan dakavSirebuli folklori gansxvavdeba sxvebisgan da naklebadaa
cnobili qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis, amitomac am Temis Seswavla da warmoCena Zalze mniSvnelovan problemad gvesaxeba.
literatura:
abulaSvili, 2005 _ medea abulaSvili, `ritualis fenomeni berZnul
xalxur simRerebSi~ , disertacia Tsu., Tbilisi.
giorgaZe , 1993 _ marine giorgaZe, `qarTuli xalxuri kalendaruli sawesCveulebo poezia~, Tbilisi .
, 1992, ,
, .
-, 2009- -,
. ., .
12
www.zaliosparadosi.blogspot.com
http://www.stixoi.info/stixoi.php?info=Lyrics&act=details&song

270

sofiko CxartiSvili

Sofia Tschartisvili
Greek Kalanda (New years day) and folklore connected to it

Among customs connected to New year, special role plays tradition of


Kalanda, which is the celebration of New Year cycle, however ~saying Kalanda
was introduced in other festivals too. It is one of the wide-spread tradition, which
has ancient history.
Kalanda () is certain kind of song declaration of solemn character
that is linked with concrete orthodox celebrations. It is performed by group of
people, especially children who walk from door to door.
The Greeks say Kalanda several times during a year: on Christmas, On
New years day and on Epiphany day. In each case the tradition and rituals
connected to Kalanda are varied in their meaning and form. Even in one and the
same festival it is possible to meet changes in texts and form of kalanda
performance since these changes are caused by originality and traditions of
different regions of Greece. Despite the different festivals to which Kalanda is
connected, it has some common characteristics. There is defined ritual of
blessing. As a rule all forms of Kalanda include the panegyric of a host and
objects of kind wishes are alternatively: family members. Kalanda sayer children
should be rewarded by the host, in order to make them come again the next year
and bless the family.
In spite of the fact that Kalanda is wide-spread tradition all over orthodox
world and it has ancient roots. Greek Kalanda and its traditions are not known to
Georgian society. We consider this theme interesting as research of this or other
traditions helps us to learn more about folklore and national ideology of Greek
people.

nana cecxlaZe
ras gviqadis qaosi
Tanamedrove qarTul
saliteraturo enaSi
ena ganuwyvetliv da sxvadasxvanairad
icvleba sxvadasxva drosa da sazogadoebaSi.
mravali mecnieri dakavebulia ormagi mizniT: erTi mxriv, axsnan, meore mxriv ki iwinaswarmetyvelon enis momavali. enobrivi
cvlileba mravalaspeqtiani movlenaa, romelsac safuZvlad udevs socialuri da fsiqologiuri faqtorebic.
sazogadoebriv-politikur
cvlilebebs mohyveba qaosi. TviT werilobiTi enac
ki mraval inovacias uRebs kars da am procesze kontrolis daweseba TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. am viTarebaSi gasarkvevad sakmarisia
ramdenime aTeuli wlis win gamocemuli
prozauli nawarmoebis wakiTxva.
ikveTeba aseTi tendencia: a) mkvlevrebi
enaSi mimdinare yovelgvar process uaryofiTad afaseben; b) amaod cdiloben enis cvlilebis SeCerebas; g) ukidures SemTxvevaSi,
enaTmecnierebi ar amJRavneben misdami araviTar interess; d) iSviaTad isini romelime
cvlilebis sargeblianobas asabuTeben, Tumca norma ar icvleba; e) formaTa siWrele
dasturdeba TviT leqsikonebSic.
V-XI saukuneTa qarTuli werilobiTi
Zeglebis ena monoliTuri iyo. ,,TviT pirveli mwignobruli Zeglic ki normatiulia,
radgan misi Semqmneli mihyveboda raRac wesebs...yoveli momdevno avtori ki iTvaliswinebda arsebul enobriv gamocdilebas da nergavda mas~ (arabuli 2005:10).

272

nana cecxlaZe

,,cnobili araa raime gramatikuli traqtati an normaTa krebuli, magram V-XI saukuneTa qarTul werilobiTs ZeglebSi saliteraturo enis
normebi mtkicedaa Camoyalibebuli da mwerlebi da gadamwerebi mkacrad icaven mas~ (sarjvelaZe 1984: 89).stabilurobis SenarCuneba Janrobrivadac
iyo Sepirobebuli, saero literaturaSi cocxal metyvelebasTan daaxloebis Sedegad gaCnda Wreli formebi.
ena viTardeba, icvleba, masTan erTad icvleba normac. Znelia, warmovidginoT sazogadoeba, romelic icvleba, ena ki ucvlelia. ,,cvalebad saliteraturo enas ver eqneba ucvleli norma (Ciqobava 1979:14-15). saliteraturo enis normebi saukuneebs uZlebs, cocxali metyvelebisa ki gacilebiT
swrafi tempiT icvleba.
enis ganviTarebis procesSi Tavs iCens mocile formebi. Tu ar iarsebebs variantebi, arc romelime maTganis arCevis saWiroeba dadgeba; an Tu es
arCevani calkeuli individis nebaze iqneba damyarebuli, maSin ena ver mowesrigdeba. ,,mocile formaTagan upiratesoba eniWeba imas, romelic Seesabameba
enis ganviTarebis ZiriTad xazs, mis bunebriv tendenciebs da perspeqtiulia
enobrivad~ (arabuli 2005:35).
rogoria enobrivi cvlilebebis mizezebi da meqanizmebi? ratom ikargeba erTi da SenarCundeba sxva enobrivi formebi an erTeulebi? ra Zalebi
ewinaaRmdegeba enobriv cvlilebebs? u. labovis paradigmis mixedviT, ,,enis
cvalebadoba... eqvemdebareba struqturirebas~. n. ladaria wers: ,,cvlilebebis kvleva saaTis isrebze dakvirvebas hgavs, roca isrebis moZraoba ar
Cans, magram Tu Tvals aarideb da mogvianebiT kvlav Sexedav, SeamCnev, rom
isrebi gadaadgilda~.
zogjer iqmneba winaaRmdegoba normasa da metyvelebas Soris.
r. saRinaZe msjelobs, rom gramatikuli da normirebuli xSirad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan, amasTan, dResdReobiT norma CamorCeba enis ganviTarebas. ,,enaSi zogjer aris paraleluri formebi, es asea saliteraturoSi, cocxal metyvelebaSi ki arCevani gakeTebulia (saRinaZe 2009:119).
normis dadgenisas aucilebelia angariSi gaewios enis Sinagan kanonebsa da miswrafebas unificirebisa da sistemis erTianobisaken, simetriulobisaken. SesaZloa, swored aq ikveTeba enobriv erTeulTa normad qcevis tendencia.
normis mixedviT, av da am TemisniSnian zmnebs I TurmeobiTSi gadahyveba
Temis niSani (damidgams ara damidgmia, Semisvams da ara Semisvia). XX-XXI
saukunis mweralTa Semoqmedebasa Tu zepir metyvelebaSi gabatonebulia ia
daboloebiani formebi.
av- da am-TemisniSniani zmnebi I TurmeobiTSi omonimuri mniSvnelobisaa:
damimalavs 1.is me mas; sampiriani, momavali dro; 2. me is; orpiriani, warsuli
dro. z. WumburiZe aanalizebs amgvar formebs da askvnis, rom ia daboloebiani
formebi ki araa uarsayofi, isini amdidreben da aumjobeseben enas. isini ki ar
unda ugulbelvyoT, aramed arCevanis Tavisufleba mivceT enas da is Tavad
dagvanaxvebs, romels miecema upiratesoba (WumburiZe 1956: 69).
g. gogolaSvilis azriTac, minaxavs da minaxavxar zmnaTa erTaderT li-

ras gviqadis qaosi Tanamedrove qarTul saliteraturo enaSi

273

teraturul formebad miCneva enis kanonzomierebis winaaRmdeg wasvlaa. Znelia, am SemTxvevaSi kanonmdebelma ajobos enas (gogolaSvili, 2010:474); ia
daboloebaze gadasvla kanonzomieri procesia da mas normatuli barierebi
ver SeaCerebs (iqve 473).
t. futkaraZe aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ase msjelobs: analogia saerTod enaSi Zlier moqmedi principia. ,,normirebisas aucilebelia
gaTvaliswineba enis ganviTarebis Sinagani kanonebisaTu unifikaciis principi ugulebelyofilia, sistema enisa zaraldeba, sabolood, sistema irRveva, rac zogjer enaSi arsebuli Secdomebis safuZvelic xdeba~ (futkaraZe, 2006). amrigad, moZvelebuli normebi aferxebs enis ganviTarebas.
amdenad, normaTa darRvevis mizezia ara mxolod, rogorc v. Tofuria
aRniSnavda, ,,Cveni daudevari, uyuradRebo mopyroba literaturuli enis
normaTa dacvisaTvis~ (Tofuria 1965:45), aramed enaSi mimdinare procesebi,
enis Sinagani ganviTarebis kanonis moqmedeba.
analogiis gziT fuZedrekadi da uTemisniSno zmnebis paralelurad
enaSi gavrcelda TemisniSniani formebi: weravs, texavs, Cexavs, CeCavs, wmindavs, iWiravs, bricavs, kvnitavs, kriWavs, grixavs. es procesi kargad Cans
sawyisebSic: Cexva, texva, werva, drikva, fliTva, glijva, drikva. SeiniSneba
aRrevac, av Temis niSani mokveTili aqvs iseT zmnas, romelic orTemiania:
qarTuli media sagangebo zarebs reks (cincaZe 2013:172). amgvar aRrevas
xSirad vxvdebiT qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriaSi (mag.-d savrcobiani zmna iuRleba -od savrcobianTa msgavsad).es aris tipobrivi aRreva.
yvelaze sayuradRebo faqtia paralelur formaTa arseboba leqsikonebSi. saliteraturo enaSi arsebobs principebi, romelTa gaTvaliswinebiTac unda mieniWos erT romelimes upiratesoba, magram leqsikonebSi uamravia aseTi forma. Tu isini Tanabrad kanonieria gramatikuli sistemis TvalsazrisiT da klasikosebis enaSi gadaWriT arc erTs ar aqvs upiratesoba,
SesaZlebelia darCnen paralelurad. zogjer aseTi sityvebi stilistikuri
niuansebiT gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan. siave- avoba; sikarge- kargoba; sialale- alaloba; siamaye- amayoba; siarme- armoba; sibedSave- bedSaoba; sidamwvre- damwvroba.
dRes winaaRmdegoba SeimCneva ara mxolod saliteraturo enis normebsa da cocxal metyvelebas Soris, aramed TviT normebSic. amis Sedegia normaTa darRvevis SemTxvevebi, enobriv formaTa variantebi.
vercerTi da verc erTi. 1. vercerTi ver SevniSne; 2. verc erTi da verc
meore ver gaimarjvebs. miuxedavad amisa, qarTuli enis orTografiul leqsikonSi (1998) swor dawerilobad miCneulia arc erTi, verc erTi.
aqve unda ganvixiloT araerTi da ara erTi: ara erTi, aramed ori wigni
SeviZineT; wignis SesaZenad araerTi msurveli movida.
analogiuria momdevno formaTa dawerilobis sakiTxic: arcerTi da
arc erTi; a) 1. arcerTi pasuxi araa swori; 2. arc erTi da arc meore wasvlas aRar apirebda.
aseTi xarvezebi gasworebulia `qarTuli enis eleqtronuli orTografiuli leqsikonSi,~Tumca zogi avtori kvlavac emyareba qarTuli enis

274

nana cecxlaZe

orTografiul leqsikons (1998), radgan cvlilebebis gatarebis saxelmwifo politika ar arsebobs. erTiani erovnuli gamocdebisTvis mosamzadebel
krebulebSic araerTi araerTxel erTad iwereba, rac Secdomaa.
bolo xanebSi gamoica saskolo orTografiuli leqsikoni, Jurnalistis stilistikuri cnobari da a.S.), sadac Setanilia dRes arsebuli
zogi siaxle. `qarTuli enis eleqtronuli orTografiuli leqsikonSi~
(avtorebi: Wabuki qiria, vaxtang imnaiSvili, qeTevan goCitaSvili, rati
sxirtlaZe). Setanilia yvela dRes arsebuli siaxle, magram maTi damkvidrebisTvis unda arsebobdes saxelmwifo instancia, raTa siaxleebi damtkicdes da yvelasTvis savaldebulo gaxdes.sistematiurad unda gamoices orTografiuli leqsikonis Casworebani. 2015 wlis 22 ivniss saxelmwifo
enis Sesaxeb parlamentma miiRo kanoni, Tumca sakanonmdeblo normebi qaosuria da srulyofamde maT jer kidev bevri aklia.
saxelmwifo enis dacvas sWirdeba enobrivi politika, sakanonmdeblo
da instituciuri uzrunvelyofa. ar arsebobs struqtura, romelic enis
siwmindeze izrunebs. is uSualod parlaments unda eqvemdebarebodes da saministroebsac konkretuli normebis dacvas Tu teqstebis Casworebas
avaldebulebdes.
II. sxva SemTxvevaa, roca enaSi TavCenil rig movlenas calsaxad uaryofiTad miviCnevT, magram procesi intensiuria. mag. globalizaciis pirobebSi
kalkirebiT SesaZlebelia gaaqtiurdes derivatic: inglisur enaSi arsebobs unarianobis aRniSvneli sufiqsi ,,able,~ magaliTad: controllable- kontrolirebadi, payable _ anazRaurebadi, eatable _ Wamadi, penetrable _
SeRwevadi. qarTul enaSi uxvadaa ad sufiqsiani saxeli, romlebic dRemde arabunebrivad JRers: gansjadi saqme, amoRebadi Tanxa, ganviTarebadi
qveynebi, mogvarebadi problema, Sesrulebadi moTxovnebi, mirTvadi gza,
anazRaurebadi dro, cnobadi saxe, yurebadi filmi da mravali sxva..
Tanamedrove qarTulSi dasaxelebul formaTa gaCena ukavSirdeba ramdenime mizezs:,,1. SesaZleblobis (posibiliturobis) gamoxatvis survils; 2.
ekonomiurobisaken swrafvas; 3. gasaTvaliswinebelia ucxo enaTa gavlenac.
bevr evropul enaSi Sesabamisi semantikis gamosaxatavad kompaqturi mimReoburi formebi arsebobs~ (omiaZe 2009: 166).
mecnierTa umravlesoba amgvar formaTa gavrcelebas uaryofiT enobriv tendenciad miiCnevs (n. naTaZe; m. cincaZe, m.baramiZe, n. cecxlaZe, m.xaxutaiSvili).
amgvari formebi xSirad sruliad gansxvavebul semantikas gadmogvcems. mag.: ganviTarebadi ganviTarebis procesSi myofs aRniSnavs sazogadod, magram masmediis enaSi igi ganviTarebulis antonimadaa gamoyenebuli:
,,saqarTvelos... ganviTarebad, ufro sworad ki ganuviTarebel qveynad miiCneven~; ,,ganviTarebad qveynebSi informaciaze moTxovna ufro metia, vidre
ganviTarebul qveynebSi~ (cincaZe...2009:15). kontrolirebadi teritoria
arc SesaZleblobaze miuTiTebs da arc momaval droze. is niSnavs kontrolqveS myofs. mag: mtrisgan kontrolirebad haerSi SevafrineT TviTmfrinavi
(iqve, 15).

ras gviqadis qaosi Tanamedrove qarTul saliteraturo enaSi

275

am tipis formebSi Cans sxva mniSvnelobac. gayidvadia produqti, romelic ara Tu SeiZleba gaiyidos, aramed kargad gaiyideba, gasavliania, bevri
myidveli eyoleba; yurebadi SeiZleba iTqvas araTu karg filmze, aramed
iseTze, romelsac bevri mayurebeli hyavs. aq wamyvania mayureblis simravleze miTiTeba. smenadi musika- aq ki msmenelTa simravlea dominanturi; kiTxvadic iseTi nawarmoebia, romelsac bevri mkiTxvelis hyavs. abiturientebisTvis weradia is Tema, romelsac bevri irCevs dasawerad.
am jgufSi erTiandeba iseTi formebi, romlebSic moqmedeba ganxorcielebis procesSia. mag.:moxmarebadia produqti, romelic ukve moixmareba (da
ara momavalSia SesaZlebeli misi Sesruleba) da Tan bevri momxmarebeli
hyavs. moTxovnad produqtSic asaxulia moTxovnis intensiuroba.
rac Seexeba cnobad saxes, is ukve nacnobs niSnavs: ,,Cemi brendi cnobadi da moTxovnadia.~
am tipis formebma zmnis piriani formebic Caanacvla da frazas waarTva
dinamikuroba: es saxeli qarTul tradiciebTan asocirebadia; k. buaCiZis naTeli xsovnis gamoxatva advilad axsnadia. unda iyos: aixsneba an asocirdeba. ufro metic, iqmneba aRweriTi konstruqciebi: mag.: yvelaferi iqneba
asrulebadi _ yvelaferi asruldeba; gza mirTvadi iqneba samxreTis gzasTan... miuerTdeba samxreTis gzas. es ganxorcielebadi iqneba _ es ganxorcieldeba. migvaCnia, rom zemodasaxelebul magaliTebSi amgvar formaTa gamoyenebis araviTari saWiroeba ar arsebobs. momaval droze aq iqneba zmnac miuTiTebs. Tu enis ekonomiurobis principiT vsargeblobT, aq piriqiT, uxvsityvaoba gamodis (cecxlaZe, xaxutaiSvili, 2014: 260).
amgvar formaTa mimarT gasaTvaliswinebelia araerTi niuansi: ,,rekomendebuli alternativebi yovelTvis adekvaturi ar aris: xan wamyvani semantikuri niuansia dakarguli, xan kidev mravalkomponentiani struqturaa SemoTavazebuli~ (omiaZe 2009: 166).
amoRebadis nacvlad ajobebs gamoviyenoT amosaRebi, gansjadis nacvlad gansasjeli. gasayidsa da gayidvads Soris sxvaoba ufro didia.
amrigad, yurebadi tipis formebis Secvlisas yuradReba unda mieqces
imas, xom araa semantika bundovani. jer semantikaa gasaTvaliswinebeli, Semdeg ki _ ekonomiuroba. unda SemuSavdes norma, romelic gamijnavs misi gamoyenebis SemTxvevebs, radgan es procesi intensiurad mimdinareobs.
amrigad, enaSi TavCenili TiToeuli tendencia sxvadasxva aspeqtiT unda gaanalizdes, erTmaneTisgan unda gaimijnos: I. cvlilebebi, romlebic
enis ganviTarebis Sinagan kanonzomierebas emyareba da II. cvlilebebi, romlebic enis ganviTarebis istoriul xazs ewinaaRmdegeba.
erTi mxriv, enis Sinagan ganviTarebas xeli rom ar SevuSaloT, normebi
iqneba gadasaxedi. axali kosmosi gaamartivebs enas. meore mxriv, sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli ucxoenovani kalkebi Tu barbarizmebi semantikuri da
stilistikuri niuansebiTac Tu ,,daitvirTebian,~ didia albaToba, moipovon
arsebobis sanqcia. amgvari qaosi ki safrTxeSi Caagdebs enobriv sistemas.

276

nana cecxlaZe

literatura:

arabuli 2005: a. arabuli, qarTuli metyvelebis kultura, Tb.;


afridoniZe 2002., S. afridoniZe Cveni ena qarTuli, Tb.,
Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebi, I, Tb., 1989.
Tofuria 1965:v. Tofuria, qarTuli ena da marTlweris zogierTi sakiTxi,
Tb., 1965, Tb., 1988.
iv. gigineiSvili, qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1998.
ladaria 2002: ladaria n., sociolingvistika, fondi ,,Ria sazogadoeba- saqarTvelo~, socialur mecnierebaTa seria Tbilisi, gamomcemloba ,,
mecniereba~;
omiaZe 2009: omiaZe s., ad/d mawarmoeblis sityvaTwarmomqmneli funqciis gaaqtiureba Tanamedrove masmediis enaSi, ike XXXVII Tb.;
sarjvelaZe 1984: sarjvelaZe z., qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis
Sesavali.
saRinaZe, 2009: saRinaZe r., gramatikuli da normirebuli enaSi ,,humanitaruli mecnierebebi informaciul sazogadoebaSi~, I saerTaSoriso
konferenciis masalebi, baT.
Ciqobava 1979: arn. Ciqobava, saliteraturo ena da norma: qsks, II, Tb.,
futkaraZe 2006: t. futkaraZe qarTuli enis istoria, Tb. quTaisi;
SaniZe 1990: SaniZe mz., sityua arTronTaTs- Zveli qarTuli gramatikuli traqtati. Tb.;
cecxlaZe, xaxutaiSvili, 2014: cecxlaZe n, xaxutaiSvili m., stilistika;
cincaZe ... 2009: cincaZe m., baramiZe m., _ ad sufiqsian sawyisTa sakiTxi
Tanamedrove qarTulSi, ,,humanitaruli mecnierebebi informaciul
sazogadoebaSi~, I saerTaSoriso konferenciis masalebi, baT.
cincaZe 2013: cincaZe m., qarTulad xsnilad ubnobdi, gamomcemloba ,,horosi~
WumburiZe 1956: WumburiZe z., qarTuli saliteraturo enis da stilis sakiTxebi. Tb.
Nana Tsetskhladze
What does Chaos Predict in Modern Georgian Language?
The article studies the phenomenon of chaos in modern Georgian:
contradiction in the norms, parallel language forms even in the dictionaries,
while the choice in the spoken language has been made.
On one side, regulatory barriers hinder the inner development of the language.
That is why these regulations should be reviewed. That kind of chaos predicts new
cosmos simplification of the language. So, the negative criticism of any processes
in the language development is wrong. The regulation should not fall behind the
language development. On the other side, if the foreign calques are encumbered with
the semantic and stylistic nuances, these calques will be allowed.

levan xalvaSi
filosofiuri polemikis
komunikaciuri aspeqti
aristoteles mier `nikomaqes eTikaSi~
gamoTqmuli SeniSvna- `ideebi SemoiRes Cvenma
axlobelma adamianebma, magram Cven Tu filosofosebi varT, WeSmaritebis gamo axloblobaze da Zvirfasze xeli unda aviRoT~
(aristotele 1984: 59), romelmac SemdgomSi miiRo andazis saxe: platoni Cemi megobaria, magram me mirCevnia WeSmariteba, kargad
gadmoscems antikuri azrovnebis dramatizms, mis SemoqmedebiT Zabvas. pirdapiri gagebiT igi Seicavs uTanxmoebas, magram platonisa da WeSmaritebis dapirispireba qmnis
ganaCeniviT Seuval aqsiologias, romelsac
Tan erTvis gadawyvetilebis miRebis paTosi:
WeSmariteba, mecnierebis mTavari Rirebuleba, ar aris platonTan, platoni ar aris marTali, amitom me ar SemiZlia viyo mis mxares!
miuxedavad amisa orive filosofosis naazrevma erTnairi SefasebiT `obieqturi idealizmi~ gauZlo dros da TiToeuli dResac
mecnieruli azrovnebis ganmsazRvreli faqtoria.
filosofiis ori korifes: platonisa
da aristoteles, Semoqmedeba kargadaa Seswavlili kritikul literaturaSi, Cveni
interesi am Temis mimarT gamowveulia Semdegi garemoebiT: Zveli berZnebidan moyolebuli filosofia swavlobda samyaros da azrovnebas. marTalia, filosofosebi msjelobdnen enis Sesaxebac, magram XX saukunemde filosofias ena ar hqonda gamocxadebuli Tavisi kvlevis obieqtad.

278

levan xalvaSi

samyaro, azrovneba, ena yofierebis sami ganuyofeli nawilia, amitom


msoflmxedvelobrivi filosofiuri koncefcia yovelTvis saWiroebs enis,
ufro farTod, komunikaciis problemis Sesaferis gadawyvetas. sainteresod migvaCnia platonisa da aristoteles filosofiuri koncefciebi SevadaroT erTmaneTs komunikaciuri poziciidan.
ZvelberZnuli filosofia fizikurTan SedarebiT gonebriv samyaros
aniWebda upiratesobas, radgan samyaros arsi goniTaa sawvdomi da ara
grZnobiT. gonebrivi samyaro grZnobaSi mocemuli fizikuri samyaros safuZvelia. is namdvilia, xolo grZnobieri samyaro maradcvalebadobis gamo
qaosuri da moCvenebiTia. mxolod amis gaTvaliswinebiT gasagebi xdeba sokrates sityvebi `fedonSi~: `sikvdilis win gedebi mRerian ise nazad da warmtacad, rogorc arasdros umReriaT da es simRera sixarulis simReraa,
maT axarebT im RvTaebisken miqceva,romelsac emsaxurebian (platoni
1966:59).
platonis filosofiur Ziebas aqvs erTi mimarTuleba _ fizikuri qaosidan maradiuli zeciuri wesrigisaken, esaa Tavganwiruli swrafva arcodnidan codnisken, sikvdilidan sicocxlisken, rac SesaZlebelia sakuTar TavSi
grZnobebze gamarjvebiT, ris Sedegadac filosofosi sulierSi gadadis da
poulobs safuZvels fizikuris asaxsnelad. platonTan maradiuli ideebi
(eidosebi) yvelafris amxsnelia. eidosis codna ganapirobebs fizikuri sagnis
codnas. eidosi usazRvroa, amitom codnac sagnis Sesaxeb ar aris Caketili.platonis sokrate xalisiT mogzaurobs azrTa `idumalebis wylebSi~
(platoni 1966:88), misi msjeloba xSir SemTxvevaSi warmoadgens sagnis Sesaxeb dasmul kiTxvebis kaskads. sokrate ganmartavs, magram Tavs aridebs gansazRvras anu sagnebisTvis mkacri sazRvrebis miCenas. meTodologiiT nakarnaxevi msjelobis amgvari manera damabnevelia ubraloebiT. sokrate ufro mets
ekiTxeba da eTanxmena oponents, vidre uxsnis da umtkicebs, magram ajerebs. es
mogvagonebs kung-fus `loTis~ stilis ostats, romlis RviniT galeSili kacis msgavsi moZraobebi giqmnian masze advilad gamarjvebis iluzias, sinamdvileSi ki yovel erTmaneTTan TiTqos Seuwyobel moZraobas aqvs sabrZolo daniSnuleba.
sokrates sametyvelo qceviT aRfrTovanebulma platonma gaakeTa mTavari aRmoCena: arsebobs obieqturi WeSmariteba _ sokrates sofisTebTan polemikaSi gamarjvebis saSualeba. sityvieri orTabrZolis dros mxareebs aqvT
gansxvavebuli sagnis Tavisi xedva-gageba, miuxedavad amisa mokamaTeebi axerxeben urTierTgagebas da, ufro metic, erTmaneTis gadarwmunebas. amis karg
ilustracias warmoadgens alkibiades aRiareba: `sokrates rom vusmen, guls
ipyrobs gancvifrebisa da aRtacebis grZnoba, misi sityvebi udides zegavlenas
axdenen Cemze, mxolod sokrates winaSe vwiTldebi, me vgrZnob, rom Zala ar
Semwevs veurCo mas...~ (platoni 1964:69). aRniSnulis axsna SeiZleba mxolod
erTiT: urTierTobis dros mosaubreTa metyvelebaSi gansxvavebuli (subieqturi) gagebis miRma saerTo (obieqturi) konstantebis daSvebiT. logosSi
mocemul yvelasaTvis saerTos, WeSmaritsa da mdgrads platonma eidosebi

filosofiuri polemikis komunikaciuri aspeqti

279

(ideebi) uwoda. urTierTobis obieqtur safuZvels ideebi Seadgenen, xolo


subieqtur mxares _ ideebis gansxvavebuli gageba. logosSi obieqturi WeSmaritebis uaryofiT sofistebs SemohqondaT qaosi komunikaciaSi. maTgan gansxvavebiT sokrate ar iWerda oponents arcodnaSi, piriqiT, igi iWerda mas
codnaSi, romelic obieqturi anu saerTo da WeSmariti iyo yvelasaTvis. sainteresoa amasTan dakavSirebiT sokrates erTi replika: `Zvirfaso agaTon, Sen
WeSmaritebasTan kamaTis Tavi ara gaqvs, xolo rac Seexeba sokratesTan kamaTs, eg advili saqmea savsebiT~ (platoni 1966:46).
amrigad, obieqtur WeSmaritebas ideebi warmoadgenen, isini gasagebs
xdian yovelives, saerTo arian yvelasaTvis da amitom Semecnebisa da komunikaciis safuZvels Seadgenen. vin Seqmna ideebi? sokrates rom Seeqmna eidosebi, sxvebisTvis isini ar iqnebodnen gasagebi da aqedan gamomdinare, arc WeSmariti. adamianis goni xasiaTdeba individualobiT, xolo ideebi universaluria. fizikuri samyaros farglebSi platonma ver daadgina adgili, saidanac yvela adamians SeeZlo gaeTavisebina universaluri ideebi, da dauSva
maTi damoukidebeli arseboba am qveynis gareT. ideebi saerToa yvelasaTvis,
radgan erTia maTi pirvelsamyofeli _ maradiuli zeca, xolo TiToeul
adamians maradiuli ideebi eZleva ukvdavi sulis meSveobiT. sokrates upiratesoba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mas sxvebze ufro meti sisruliT SeeZlo
gaexsenebina sulSi mocemuli eidosebi.
gza WeSmariti codnisken platons daanaxva sofistebTan mokamaTe sokratem, xolo ideaTa universalobis axsnam miiyvana igi maradiul samyaroSi.
platonis TeoriaSi cnebebi: `Semecneba~ (=`dialogi~), `eidosebi~, `maradiuli samyaro~, `ukvdavi suli~ urTierTganpirobebulia.
oci weli gaatara aristotelem platonis akademiaSi, magram uaryo eidosebis maradiuli samyaro. `metafizikasa~ da eTikebSi igi cdilobs, daasabuTos eidosuri samyaros ararseboba. magram kargadaa cnobili, rom mistikuri miuwvdomelia logikuri analizisaTvis. axal aRTqmaSi ufali ieso
qriste igavurad gviyveba caTa sasufevlis Sesaxeb, ufali arafers amtkicebs, saxarebaSi sadme ver vxvdebiT silogizmis figurebs. aristotele Sesabamis pasaJebSi aclis eidosebs mistikurobas da aTanabrebs maT gonis cnebebTan (logosebTan) an materialur movlenebTan. `rogor SeiZleba ideebma,
romlebic sagnebis arsebia, maTgan calke iarsebon?~ _ kiTxulobs is `metafizikaSi~ (, 1976:88). romel ideebzea laparaki, logosebze
Tu mistikur eidosebze? erTisTvis SeuZlebeli SesaZlebelia meoresTvis.
`nikomaqes eTikaSi~ vkiTxulobT: `pativiscema, gansjisunarianoba, siamovneba sikeTis saxeebia, magram maTi gaerTianeba erT ideaSi SeuZlebelia~ (aristotele 1984:61). platonis eidosebi idealuri erTsaxovani arsebia~
(platoni 1966:46) da ara materialur movlenaTa SenaerTebi. aristotelesaTvis eidosebis uarmyofeli ZiriTadi argumenti aris is, rom isini arseboben sxva samyaroSi, igi ver xedavs kavSirs ideebsa da fizikur sagnebs Soris. magram platonTan es kavSiri mistikuria, Tumc materialur planSi gamoixateba msgavsebaSi, ise rogorc mistikuria Tavad ideebic. platonis

280

levan xalvaSi

idea ar aris mocemuli saganSi, aramed `sagani mSvenieria imitom, rom WeSmarit, TavisTavad mSvenierTanaa wilnayari, TavisTavad mSveniers ziarebuli~
(platoni 1966:90), ise rogorc, magaliTad, yoveli mziani: dRe, dila adgili da a. S. gulisxmobs mzes da mze ar aris mxolod sagnebze mofenili sxivebi da miT umetes ar aris mziT mofenil saganTa SenaerTi.
eidosuri samyaros uaryofiT platonis filosofiuri memkvidreobidan aristoteles xelT SerCa maradcvalebadi materiis Seuswavladi qaosi,
amitom misTvis uaRresad mniSvnelovani iyo gaerkvia, `ratom aris moZraoba
da rogoria is~ (, 1976:308). swored materiis moZraobas gaixdis stagireli Tavisi gansjis sagnad da amiT Seabrunebs filosofiur refleqsias platonisagan sxva mimarTulebiT. platonis dialogebis cisken
frenis sixaruls Caenacvleba `metafizikis~ mkacri akademizmi da `organonis~ ganyenebuli analizi. Tu platonis sokrate xalisiT ganmartavs samyaros, aristotele daucxromlad gansazRvravs mas. samyaros ganmsazRvrelia
masTan ara eidosebi, aramed adamiani, romelic azrovnebis (dianoia) saSualebiT cdilobs logikurad miiRos zusti definiciebi. kacobriobis istoriaSi aristoteles didi damsaxureba miuZRvis samyaros logikur gamoTqmadobaSi anu mecnieruli suraTis SeqmnaSi. me-19 saukunis `pozitivisturi
revolucia~ sxvasTan erTad gamiznuli iyo am erTi kacis gabatonebis winaaRmdeg azrovnebaSi.
platonTan megobrobaze xelis aRebiT aristotelem aRar daitova arCevani, mas unda gaemarTlebina moZraoba da gaexada materia Seswavladi. maradcvalebad materialur sagnebSi stagirelma gamoyo maTi ucvleli arsebiTi elementi _ formebi _ mecnieruli Seswavlis safuZveli. yoveli sagani moZraobs Tavisi formis gasanamdvileblad (`entelexia~). samyaros
yovlismomcveli moZraoba mimarTulia arsebulis srulqmnisken, igi amTlianebs formasa da materias, sulsa da sxeuls. moZraoba SeuZlebelia mamoZraveblis gareSe, romelic Tavad ar aris moZravi, radgan aseT SemTxvevaSi
masac dasWirdeboda mamoZravebeli. uZravi pirvelmamoZravebeli RvTaeba
moZraobis mizezicaa da mizanic. Tu platonTan moZraoba qmnis qaoss azrovnebisTvis, aristotelesTan teleologiuri moZraoba amyarebs wesrigs. xolo sayovelTao dinamikuri wesrigis safuZveli pirvelmamoZravebelia.
fizikur sagnebSi formis gamoyofiT da moZraobaSi kanonzomierebis
dadgeniT aristotelem moZrav materias mianiWa gnoseologiuri mdgradoba
(platonTan mdgradia mxolod eidosebi), amitom sxva antikur moazrovneebTan SedarebiT igi ndobiT ekideba grZnobier aRqmasac. traqtatSi `sulis
Sesaxeb~ aristotele mniSvnelovan nawils uTmobs SegrZnebebs da ideebTan
erTad azrovnebis elementad gamoyofs warmodgenebs: `suli arasdros azrovnebs warmodgenebis gareSe (aristotele 1976:438).
formebi namdvili (realizebuli saxiT) mocemulia fiziur sagnebSi,
xolo SesaZleblobaSi (wminda saxiT) _ gonSi (aristotele 1976:434),
rac, erTi mxriv, SesaZlebels xdis igiveobriobis principiT adamianis mier
fizikuri samyaros Seswavlas, meore mxriv, ki ganapirobebs adamianisagan sa-

filosofiuri polemikis komunikaciuri aspeqti

281

ganTa damoukidebel arsebobas, warmodgenebis meSveobiT azrovneba SeTanxmebulia fizikur sinamdvilesTan. azrovnebis struqturebi obieqturad
arsebuli samyaros asaxvaa (logikuri paralelizmi). mecnierebis qvakuTxedad qceuli aristoteleseuli azris definicia `azri aris Tqma, romelic
adasturebs an uaryofs rasme risame Sesaxeb~ (aristotele 1978:119) gulisxmobs obieqturad arsebul Seswavlad sagans. aristoteles swrafva
fizikuri samyaros aRiarebisken aRwevs maqsimums `kategoriebSi~, sadac filosofosi ganasxvavebs `pirvelad arsebs~ (konkretuli sagnebi, magaliTad
`calkeuli adamiani~, `calkeuli cxeni~) da `meorad arsebs~ (saxeebs, gvarebs, magaliTad `adamiani~, `cocxali arseba~) (aristotele 1978:55). pirveladi arsi erTeulia ricxviT, meoradi arsebi ki `ar aRniSnaven erT raRacas (aristotele 1978:59). `pirveladi arsebi sxva danarCenisTvis qvemdebarea da sxva danarCeni iTqmeba maT Sesaxeb an mocemulia maTSi~ (aristotele 1978: 56), ese igi cneba iTqmeba konkretul saganze da ara piriqiT anu,
Tanamedrove terminologiiT, gamonaTqvamis farglebSi sagani cnebasTan mimarTebaSi yovelTvis subieqtia (pirvelia), xolo cneba (idea) yovelTvis
predikati (meore). samyaros logikuri kanonebiT Semmecnebeli aristotele kategoriulia: `pirveladi arsebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneboda sxva
danarCeni~(aristotele 1978:56). Tu grZnobier aRqmas ganvixilavT azrovnebis ganuyofel nawilad, maSin moyvanili debuleba iqneba absoluturi, xolo `kategoriebi~ _ sruliad SeuTavsebeli `metafizikasTan~. magram aRqmaze dafuZnebul azrovnebasTan erTad aristotele dauSvebs aRqmisagan Tavisufal `RvTaebriv azrovnebas~, romelic mimarTulia ara sxvaze,
aramed TavisTavze: gonis pirvelsawyisebze da pirvelmizezebze (aristotele 1976:310,316). aRqmisaTvis fizikuri pirveladi arsia, magram aRqmaze dafuZnebuli azrovneba ver adis idealur pirvelsawyisebamde da pirvelmizezebamde. swored am ukanasknelebs swavlobs aristoteles filosofia.
materialisturi da idealisturi Tvalsazrisebis Serigeba aristotelesTan SeiZleba mxolod aRqmaze dafuZnebuli azrovnebis da TavisTavadi `RvTaebrivi azrovnebis~ garCeviT, rac miiRweva aRqmis `pirveladi arsebis~ da gonis `pirvelsawyisebis~ gamijvniT.
srulyofili msoflmxedvelobrivi sistemis asagebad misma avtorma aucileblad unda gadawyvitos Semecnebis problema.amasTan erTad gnoseologiaSi subieqtivizmisagan Tavis dasaRwevad man unda mouZebnos axsna komunikaciis problemasac. am ukanasknels aristotele wyvets materialisturad fizikuri sinamdvilis saSualebiT.masTan saxelebi gamoxataven gonSi fizikuri
sagnebis amsaxvel warmodgenebs, romlebic `erTia yvelasaTvis, ise rogorc
erTia sagnebic~(aristotele 1978:93). magram moyvanili debuleba Tavad saWiroebs dasabuTebas. gasagebia, rom warmodgenebis erTianoba gamowveulia
fizikuri sagnebiT. ismis kiTxva, ratomaa erTiani adamianebisTvis Tavad sagnebi? amas aristotele xsnis gonSi da sagnebSi mocemuli `formebis~ erTianobiT. magram aristoteles unda gaeca pasuxi am azrTamsvlelobis bolo kiTxvazec: ra ganapirobebs adamianTaTvis `formebis~ universalobas?

282

levan xalvaSi

universaloba gulisxmobs erTianobas da droSi mdgradobas. platonTan komunikaciis problema wydeba mistikuri ideebis (eidosebis) saSualebiT, romelTa mdgradi sayovelTaobis ganmapirobebelia maradiuli samyaros arseboba. aristoteles araseriozul saqmed miaCnia filosofiaSi miTebis moSvelieba (aristotele 1976:111). magram miTebis gareSe logikurma
msjelobamac miiyvana platonis yvelaze ganTqmuli mowafe da oponenti maradiulTan: `maradiulis gareSe SeuZlebelia warmoqmna. warmoqmnis dros
unda iyos raRac, rac warmoiqmneba da raRac, risganac warmoiqmneba, xolo
bolo wevri am rigisa unda iyos arawarmoqmnili, warmoqmna ar SeiZleba
ararsebulisagan~(aristotele 1976:109).
`Tu pirvelsawyisebi warmavalia, maSin maTac unda hqondeT sxva pirvelsawyisebi~ (aristotele 1976:112).
aristoteles msjelobis Tanaxmad, sagnebi warmoqmnadia, radgan materialuri da dayofadia. formebi ki TavisTavad aRebuli arc materialuria, arc
dayofadi da aqedan gamomdinare arc warmoqmnadi (aristotele 1976:201).
formebis maradiuloba ganpirobebulia maTi adgilsamyofeli gonis RvTaebrivi qmnadi nawiliT, romelic damoukidebelia sxeulisagan, Seureveli da
amitom ukvdavi da maradiuli (aristotele 1976:436). esaa maradisoba maradiuli cis gareSe _ metafizikis safuZvlad qceuli SeuZlebeli idea. platonTan adamianis suli masSi Semavali goniT ukvdavia, radgan maradiuli samyaros nawilia. maradiuli samyaros uaryofa gamoricxavs adamianSi maradiuli gonis daSvebas. goniT SemosazRvruli individualuri maradisoba gaugebaria imitomac, rom aristoteles mier masSi ganTavsebuli forma-ideebi ver
iqnebian universaluri, rac SeuZlebels xdis komunikacias.
amrigad, platonTanac da aristotelesTanac WeSmaritebis dadgena saWiroebs universalur maradiul wesrigs. magram am ukanasknelis adgilsamyofeli or did filosofoss esmoda gansxvavebulad. pirvelTan amgvar wesrigs amyarebs zeca, meoresTan _ goni. miuxedavad amisa, platonis eidosebic da aristoteles pirvelsawyisebic maradiuli arsebia. amrigad, kiTxvac, ra gansazRvravs WeSmaritebas: eidosebi Tu pirvelsawyisebi? _ pasuxis orive SemTxvevaSi maradiuls gulisxmobs da rwmenas moiTxovs. cxadia
mxolod is, rom Tavisi maswavleblebis, sokratesa da platonis kvaldakval aristotelemac cxovrebis gzad WeSmaritebis Zieba airCia. amitom aRdges unda samarTlianoba da andazad qceulma gamonaTqvamma `platoni Cemi
megobaria, magram me miyvars WeSmariteba~ miiRos Tavisi namdvili saxe:
`platoni Cemi megobaria, amitom miyvars me WeSmariteba~.
literatura:
platoni 1966: platoni, fedoni, `nakaduli~, Tb.;
platoni 1964: platoni, nadimi, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~;
aristotele 1976: , . 4- .1, , ;
aristotele 1978: , . 4- .2, , ;
aristotele 1984: , . 4- .4, , .

filosofiuri polemikis komunikaciuri aspeqti

283

Levan Khalvashi
Philosophical Polemic Aspect of Communication
With two leading actors of philosophy, Plato and Aristotle, the truth needs
a universal condition of eternal order and the place of one was named differently
by Greek philosophers. The first of these consider the Eternal Heavens, whereas
the Second consider it as the Human Senses.
Philosophical Theories of Plato and Aristotle are compared by the
communication position in the paper.

mzia xaxutaiSvili
berZnizmebi qobuleTur
metyvelebaSi
samecniero literaturaSi enaTa kontaqtebis Sesaxeb araerTi saintereso informaciaa. rogorc cnobilia, enaTa minimaluri kontaqtic sakmarisia sityvis sasesxeblad. sainteresoa sityvaTa integraciis
gzebi. es gzebi Zalian mravalferovania da
lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT araerT sayuradRebo SemTxvevas warmogvidgens. saqarTvelos saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi mraval saxelmwifosTan uxdeboda mWidro urTierToba, ramac mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina
qarTul enaze. am mxriv gamorCeulia berZnulqarTuli enobrivi urTierTobani,
romlebic saukuneebs iTvlis. upirvelesad
Rirssacnobia superstratuli danaSrevebi,
romlebic aRniSnul urTierTobebs mohyva da
SeiZleba iTqvas, dRemde grZeldeba. profesori korneli danelia Zvel samwerlobo
qarTulze berZnulis mZlavr gavlenaze saubrobs da dasZens, rom `ucxo enis kvali
enis Sida SreebSia aRbeWdili~. gavlena aseve
TvalnaTliv Cans naTargmn ZeglebSi. ra Tqma
unda, igi ZiriTadad leqsikaze aisaxa. amis
Sesaxeb mkvlevari aRniSnavs: `amgvar ZeglebSi dominanti leqsika, berZnulia, Tumca gramatikuli wyoba, sintaqsuri konstruqciebi,
sesxebis saintereso araerT magaliTs gvaZlevs~ (danelia 1998: 66).
qarTul-berZnuli enobrivi urTierTobebis Sedegia qristianobasTan dakavSirebuli leqsika. rogorc cnobilia, Tavdapirve-

berZnizmebi qobuleTur metyvelebaSi

285

lad wirva-locva berZnulad aRevlineboda. qarTul enaze ki ufro gvian.


religiuri terminologia amis Semdegac uxvad daesesxa berZnuls. esenia:
aiazma, angelozi, diakoni, eklesia, embazi, episkoposi, kaTalikosi, litania, martvili, monasteri, olari, paraklisi... garda qristologiuri terminebisa, qarTul enaSi sxva berZnulenovani enobrivi erTeulebic dasturdeba: aloe, andamati, barbarosi, disko, zefiri, Teatri, melani, iadoni, istoria, kanoni, keisari, kitri, klite, leqsi, litra, margaliti, mumia,
neqtari, palata, sabani, svindisi, stafilo, tabla, finiki, fasi, qaragma, kalami, qafuri...
zemoT aRniSnuli enobrivi kontaqtebisa da interferenciis Sesaxeb
samecniero literaturaSi araerTi nakvlevia. Cven yuradReba amjerad SevaCereT ara adreuli xanis, aramed gasuli saukunis migraciis Sedegad gamowveul enobriv kontaqtebsa da am urTierTobiT gamowveul sesxebaze, leqsikur danaSrevebze, superstratul Sedegebze aWarul dialeqtsa da qobuleTur kilokavSi.
saqarTveloSi berZnuli mosaxleoba CvenSi ZiriTadad XIX-XX saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi gadmosaxldnen im regionebidan, sadac e. w. pontos anu pontoeli berZnebi mosaxleobdnen. pontoel berZnebi elinTa Soris metad gamorCeulni arian. maT pontoelebi ewodebaT, radgan isini TurqeTis erT-erT
SavizRvispira raionSi, pontoSi, mosaxleobdnen. antikuri xanidan isini kompaqturad saxlobdnen XIX-XX saukuneebamde maT eWiraT mravalricxovani dasaxlebebi aRmosavleTiT, rizes da dasavleTiT girusuns Soris. am arealis
centrebi iyo trapizoni, oenoe, samsuni (Zv. amisosi) da gumuSxane (Zv. argirupolisi). sxvadasxva wyaroze dayrdnobiT, Tavis droze yofila 102 elinuri dasaxleba pontos raionSi. marTalia, amave regionSi sxva xalxebic mosaxlobdnen, pirvel rigSi ki qarTvelurenovani tomebi, upiratesad lazebi, romelnic am teritoriaze WeSmarit avtoqTonebad gvevlinebian, magram otomanTa imperiis sabuTebis mixedviT berZnulenovani mosaxleoba pontos regionSi
yvelaze mravalricxovani yofila (gordeziani1990: 5-8).
pontoel berZnebs istoriulad urTierToba hqondaT qarTvelur tomebTan. am urTierTobebis Sedegi unda iyos lazurSi pontouri dialeqtis
gavlenis kvali.
saqarTveloSi mcxovreb pontoel berZnebTan mkvidri mosaxleobis
enobrivi kontaqtebi inteferenciis saintereso suraTs gvaZlevs. pontos
berZenTa yofis, maTs kulturasTan ziarebis bedniereba mec mxvda wilad.
davibade da gavizarde im quCasa da ubanSi, sadac pontoeli berZnebi kompaqturad saxlobdnen. maTi komunikaciis ena pontouri iyo. Cem Tvalwin sruldeboda yvela is rituali, romlebic marTlmadideblobas ukavSirdeba da is
yofiTi tradiciebi, romlebic aRniSnuli eTnosisTvis iyo niSandoblivi.
xSirad gvixdeboda qristianul dResaswaulebze erTad yofna (Cvens bavSvobaSi mkvidri mosaxleoba naklebad dadioda taZrebSi).
sazogadod, samecniero literaturaSi gansxvavebuli mosazrebebia aWaruli dialeqtis kilokauri diferenciaciis Sesaxeb. S. niJaraZe naSromSi

286

mzia xaxutaiSvili

`aWaruli dialeqti~ aRniSnul sakiTxze wers, rom `qobuleTuri metyvelebis profilis gansazRvrisas srulad araa damowmebuli faqtorebi, romelTac ganapirobes misi pozicia aWarul dialeqtSi~ (niJaraZe 1975: 5). amave sakiTxze msjelobs prof. m. faRava statiaSi `enobrivi situacia samxreT saqarTveloSi da samxruli metyvelebis dialeqturi Sedgenilobis sakiTxi~ (faRava 2003). qobuleTuri kilokavis Taviseburebebs sxvadasxva garemoeba ganapirobebs, maT Sorisaa berZnuli enis danaSrevi, romelic aRniSnul eTnosTan
yofiTi Tu enobrivi komunikaciis realuri dasturia. unda iTqvas, rom nasesxeb leqsikaSi nawili berZnizmebisa dasturdeba rogorc aWarulSi, ise qobuleTur kilokavSi, Tumca gvxvdeba imgvari leqsikuri erTeulebi, romlebic mxolod qobuleTurSi an oden aWarulSia damowmebuli.
baruTi Tofis wamali, denTi. qobuleTel muhajirTa STamomavlebis metyvelebaSi dasturdeba aRniSnuli sityva: `Tofis wamalia, baroTs vuZaxiT.~ es sityva aseve dasturdeba aWarulSic. gasiraveba rigze
dawyoba, dalageba, gamwkriveba. aRniSnuli leqsikuri erTeuli dasturdeba
rogorc qobuleTurSi, aseve aWarulSic; variozi (berZ. ) rkinis
didi uroa. aWarulSi sityva `variozi~ uros gverdiT gamoiyeneba, iseve,
rogorc qobuleTurSi.
koriza (berZ. ) baRlinjo. es sityva dasturdeba lazurSi, rogorc korida da niSnavs kedlis tils (Tandilava 2013). igi aseve gvxvdeba
aWarulsa da qobuleTurSic: korizasaven unda wuuWylito Tavi, ase ityvian CvenSi gvidasturebs qobuleTeli oTar jinWaraZe.
sira mijna, jeri. lazurSi sira (Turq) rigi, xazis mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba (Tandilava 2013). aWarulsa da qobuleTur metyvelebaSic
dasturdeba. `axla Cemi siraa,~ anu Cemi jeria.
fide sajze saxeldaxelod gamomcxvari Txeli fenaa rogorc
aWarulSi, aseve qobuleTur kilokavSic. lazurSi fide Txeli kveria
(Tandilava 2013).
lodosi (berZ. ) Tbili, moRrubluli amindi, romelic aCqarebs Tovlis dnobas. lodoss ityvian, Tibili qari rom muuqrolebs,
gviTxra xelvaCaurelma xatije msxalaZem. lodozi lazur leqsikonSi ganmartebulia rogorc berZnizmi da niSnavs: samxreTis qari/trapizonis qari
(Tandilava 2013). aRniSnuli leqsema am mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba aWarulSi, magram igi ucxoa qobuleTurisaTvis.
sinori sazRvari, mijna (aWar.). lazurSi sinori (berZ.), aseve sazRvaria (Tandilava 2013). sinori sazRvris mniSvnelobiT ucxoa qobuleTurisaTvis.
fedevra (berZn. ) yavaris mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba qobuleTel muhajirTa STamomavlebis metyvelebaSic: fedevra Txeli ficaria,
yavarigvizustebs qobuleTel muhajirTa STamomavali TaxTabaSis mkvidri
jemal cecxlaZe. yavari ganmartebulia sabasTan, rogorc Txeli ficari.
qegl-is mixedviT yavari Turquli sityvaa da niSnavs napob Txel ficars Senobis saxuravad. lazurSi fedevra ar dasturdeba.

berZnizmebi qobuleTur metyvelebaSi

287

qeremeTi kramitia qobuleTursa da aWarulSic. qegl-is mixedviT, kramiti silanarevi Tixis gamomwvari firfitaa, xmaroben Senobis
saxuravad. lazur leqsikonSi qeremeTi, romelic aWarulSi fonetikuri
saxecvlilebiT dasturdeba, gvxvdeba rogorc keremidi. aRniSnuli sityva
transliterirebulia berZnulidan lazurSi. savaraudod, swored lazuria dasaxelebuli leqsemis aWarulSi integraciis gza.
qireza (berZ. qerazas (bali) + ai (Turq. Tve) ivnisi. lazurSi qerezai/qerezari ivnisia, rogorc TurqulSi. aWarulSic `qireza~ ivnisis saxelwodebaa, `im Tvis, romelSic sxali mova gvixsnis maxoeli saime gogitiZe. rogorc Cans, `blis Tvis,~ anu ivnisis mniSvneloba aWarulSi SeinarCuna sityva `qirezam,~ igive sityva saxeldebisTvis gamoiyenes
da msxals uwodes. xolo qobuleTurSi aRniSnuli sityva mxolod ivnisSi
mosuli msxlisaTvis gamoiyeneba.
qobuleTur metyvelebaSi dasturdeba sityva kondo. igi momdinareobs
berZnuli kondakisagan ().es aris sagalobeli, romelSic mokledaa aRwerili esa Tu is dResaswauli an wmidanis cxovrebis umniSvnelovanesi movlenebi.kondaki am terminiT qarTul RmrTismsaxurebaSi moixseneba
wigni, romelSic moTavsebulia wirvis tipikoni, aseve marTlmadidebluri himnografiuli poeziis da musikis Janri. kondakis sagaloblis Semqmnelad iTvleba romanoz tkbiladmgalobeli (melodosi, aResrula VI s-s
pirvel naxevarSi). adre romanoz melodoss miawerdnen mxolod Sobis kondakis avtorobas, Tumca bolo dros aRmoCenilma 30-mde kondakis xelnawerma daadastura is faqti, rom wm. romanozi iyo sadResaswaulo kondakebis mravali sxva krebulis avtori. mis mier Seqmnili kondaki Tavdapirvelad warmoadgenda mravalstrofian sagalobels, romelSic yoveli strofi agebuli iyo pirveli, e.w. kukulias metruli sazomis mixedviT. swored
metri iyo kondakis yvela strofis gamaerTianebeli. eg. velesis aRweriT,
TiToeuli strofebis dakavSireba an anbaniT an akrostiqiT (taepis sawyisi
asoebiT Sedgenili teqsti).
kondakis warmoSobas xsnian Semdegi garemoebiTac: mravalstrofian
troparSi yoveli strofis orjer gameoreba (orpiruli Sesrulebis gamo)
droTa ganmavlobaSi Seicvala Sesrulebis axali formiT, romlis mixedviTac meordeba mxolod bolo muxli, rogorc misamReri yvela danarCeni
troparisaTvis (strofisaTvis). axalma struqturam warmoSva axali sagalobelikondaki. saxelwodeba kondakioni (gragnili) axsnilia am JanrisaTvis darTuli sagaloblebis simravliT, romlebic ise ebmodnen erTmaneTs, rogorc etratis nawilebi joxze daxveul gragnilSi.
al. Rlontis `qarTul kilo-TqmaTa sityvis konaSi vkiTxulobT: kondo (aWar.) gombio. davazustebT, rom aRniSnuli sityva mxolod qobuleTurSi dasturdeba. qobuleTeli mzia wulukiZis TqmiT, `konduebi gogvebi
arian. Cven vityviT inaiSvilis, gogitiZis, cecxlaZis konduebi,~ _ Tumca
aRniSnul sityvas konotaciuri Seferiloba axlavs, kerZod dabali tanis
gogonebs qobuleTSi `kondos//konduebs~ uwodeben. Cans, berZnulma sityva

288

mzia xaxutaiSvili

- m (sagalobeli, gragnili) qobuleTurSi axali mniSvneloba SeiZina.


kondo qobuleTurSi metaforuli mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba. aRniSnul leqsemas ironiuli elferi axlavs. `degesia konduebi,~ amas maSin
ityvian, roca kacs bevri gogo SeeZineba da dacinviT ase hkadreben gviTxra
Cvenma informatorma, zeniTelma cicino kaxiZem. kondulas moferebiT ityvian. `konduebi deibada.~ kondoebi//konduebi regresuli disimilaciis safuZvelze oe kompleqsi ue nairsaxeobiTaa warmodgenili.
masalis analizi imis Tqmis saSualebas gvaZlevs, rom berZnizmebis,
romlebic dasturdeba rogorc aWarulSi, ise qobuleTur kilokavSi, integraciis gza gansxvavebulia. rigi berZnizmebisa gvxvdeba mxolod aWarulSi, iseve rogorc lazurSi da am SemTxvevaSi Turqulia integraciis
gza. Rirssacnobia berZnizmebi, romlebic mxolod qobuleTurSi gvxvdeba
da igi ucxoa aWarulisaTvis, rac uSualo sesxebis dasturia.
ra Tqma unda, berZnebTan komunikaciis dros mkvidri qarTvelebs, am
SemTxvevaSi qobuleTelebs, transliteraciiT gadmohqondaT iseTi sityvebi, rogorebicaa: iasos (gamarjoba}, posise (rogor xar?), kala(kargad),
kexome (ar maqvs), exo(maqvs) da a.S. magram ver vityviT, rom adgilobrivTa
metyvelebaSi isini bilingvizmis resurss warmoadgenda. unda aRiniSnos,
rom dasaxelebuli leqsikuri erTeulebi mxolod mizanmimarTulad pontoel berZnebTan komunikaciis dros gamoiyeneboda.
literatura:
gordeziani 1990: berZnebi saqarTveloSi (koleqtiuri monografia, redaqtori r. gordeziani), Tbilisi;
danelia 1998: danelia korneli, narkvevebi qarTuli samwerlobo enis istoriidan;
Tandilava 2013: Tandilava ali, lazuri leqsikoni, Tb.
abulaZe 1973: abulaZe ilia, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tb.,
baqraZe 1987: baqraZe dimitri, arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da
aWaraSi. baTumi
niJaraZe 1975: niJaraZe S., aWaruli dialeqti, baT.,
faRava 2003: enobrivi situacia samxreT saqarTveloSi da samxruli metyvelebis dialeqturi Sedgenilobis sakiTxi, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, SromebiV, baT.
xaxutaiSvili... 2009: xaxutaiSvili m., futkaraZe S., qobuleTuri masalebi//rsu humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos samecniero-kvleviTi centris ,,krebuli~, t. VI,
baT.,
al. Rlonti 1984: qarTul kilo-TqmaTa sityvis kona, Tb.
jorbenaZe 1989: jorbenaZe b., qarTuli dialeqtologia, I, Tb.

berZnizmebi qobuleTur metyvelebaSi

289

Mzia Khakhutaishvili
Greek Borrowings in Kobuletian Speech
The article deals with Pontic Greeks migration, linguistic contacts and the
experience in the last century, caused by borrowings, in particular, lexical
sedimentary the super-strata in the Ajarian dialect and Kobuletian sub-dialect
(keremeti, baruti, gasiraveba, variozi, koriza, Sira, FIDE, kireza). A number of
Greek borrowings can be found only in the Adjarian dialect, as well as in Laz
Language (lodosi, sinori) but here we have the case of Turkish integration. There
are Greek borrowings which are only found in Kobuleti and are alien to Ajarian
dialect. This fact confirms the case of borrowing (pedevra, Kondo).

Tamar xitiri
realobis SigniTa mxare:
drosa da maradisobis
problema milorad paviCis
prozis qronotoposSi
serb prozaikoss _ milorad paviCs
xSirad moixsenieben, rogorc `evropuli
postmodernizmis winamZRols~. msoflio
aRiareba paviCs moutana `xazarulma leqsikonma,~ msoflio literaturis erT-erTma
yvelaze ucnaurma nawarmoebma. es wigni tradiciuli xazovani Txrobis sazRvrebs scildeba da eleqtronul hiperteqsts uaxlovdeba. amis gamo kritikosebi paviCs moixsenieben, rogorc `homerosis tol mTxrobels~,
mis romans ki `eleqtronul odiseas~ uwodeben. Tumca, 1997 wels v. rudnevi werda:
`raRac mxriv, `xazaruli leqsikoni~ postrmodernizmis kvitesencias warmoadgens,
raRac mxriv ki _ mis uaryofas~ (9,345).
udavod rTulia paviCis teqstebis misticizmSi, misi nawarmoebis metafizikurad rTul
struqturaSi garkveva. jer kidev 90-ian
wlebSi TviT paviCi ambobda: `Tu Rrmad CaixedavT sakuTar TavSi, aRmoaCenT bevr iseT
rames, rasac verasdros SeamCnevT, Tu irgvliv mimoixedavT~ (2,245). maSin mwerali
gulwrfelad saubrobda mis SemoqmedebaSi
folkloruli tradiciis arsebobaze, barokos epoqis rusul da serbul Tqmulebebze,
bizantiuri igavebis gansakuTrebul rolze,
misTvis mniSvnelovan ezoTerul teqstebze.
aRsaniSnavia, rom paviCis teqstebis mistikuri spontanuroba moCvenebiTia, Cven wi-

realobis SigniTa mxare: drosa da maradisobis problema ...

291

naSea rTuli proza, namdvili Tavsatexi, romlis amocnobisTvis saWiroa


swori gasaRebis qona.
amgvarad, Cven gvsurs SevexoT erT principulad mniSvnelovan sakiTxs,
romlis swori gaazreba paviCis prozis gagebis gasaRebs warmoadgens. es
aris droisa da maradisobis problema milorad paviCis prozis qronotipSi,
postmodernistuli teqstis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani problema.
daviwyebT mwerlis arc ise kargad cnobili moTxrobiT: "
". mTxrobeli mogviTxrobs maloniSeCebis Stos Sesaxeb _ vin
rodis daibada, swavlobda, gardaicvala. mTxrobeli ar cdilobs, rogorme
gaarTos an daainteresos mkiTxveli, keTilsindisierad da mosawyenad mogviTxrobs sxvebisTvis naklebad saintereso ojaxis istorias. moTxrobis erTaderTi mxatvruli momentia mcire miniSneba `cud sisxlze~ am modgmaSi, romelic Taobidan TaobaSi gadadis, TiTqos maloniSiCebi icvlian sxeulebs, gadadian erTidan meoreSi, rogorc ki sxeuli icriceba. klanis wevrebis kargi
mexsiereba gamomdinareobs ara nivTebis, enebis, saxeebisa da saubrebis kargi
damaxsovebis unaridan, aramed SesaZleblobidan gaigon yvelaferi maTi winacxovrebiseuli gamocdilebidan, isev imave `memkvidreobiTi jadosgan~. `cudi
sisixli~ (da Tundac protagonisti meZavis arseboba) ar aCvenebs mkiTxvels
seqss `bizantiel lamazmanTan~, gmiris odisea ar aCvenebs XI saukunis batalur sadomazoxistur scenebs, imdroindel saukeTeso filosofosebTan
swavla ar CaiTrevs mas `sicarieleSi~, `kormCa~ ar SesTavazebs arc cisfers,
arc Roris qons... magram zustad `kormCa~ aris igavi samyaroze da adamianze,
martivi formiTa da Rrma azriT, rogorc Seefereba igavs.
maS, rogoria, protagonistis azriT, es samyaro, raSia WeSmariteba da
ra aris adamianis roli? vercerT kiTxvas vupasuxebT, Tu ar mivaqcevT yuradRebas, vin da ras aswavlida maloniSiC-umcross, novelis mTavar gmirs.
mas aswavlida ioane italosi, saxeli romelic bevr mkiTxvels arafers
eubneba, magram Tu movaTavsebT paviCis teqsts XI saukunis bizantiis sulieri areulobis istoriis realur konteqstSi, davinaxavT, rom ioane itali
iyo cnobili bizantieli filosofosi, aristotelizmis mimdevari, Tavisi
eretikuli msoflmxedvelobisTvis anaTemas iyo gadacemuli da es anaTema
Sesulia liturgikul CinSi , romelic
aRevlindeba didi marxvis pirvel kvira dRes. italis anaTemis teqsTSi Sesulia aseve mRvdel bogomilis eretikosobis anaTema, romelic cnobili
dualistur-religiuri bogomilebis mimdinareobis avtori iyo (1, 145).
am SemTxvevaSi maloniSCebis modgmis istoria wardgeba bogomilis
cxovrebis Txrobad, romlis suli saukuneebSi mogzaurobs, STamomavlebSi
saxldeba da winaswar gansazRvravs maT beds. paviCis mier moTxrobili italosis azrebi aris erTgvari winaswarmetyveleba-axsna, Tu ra mouvida sinamdvileSi am `cudi sisxlis~ mqone ojaxs. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom maloniSC-umcrosis erT-erTi maswavlebeli _ presviteri kozma Zalian hgavs
patriarq kozma atikels, romelsac XII saukuneSi bogomilebis daxmarebisa
da maTi eretikosobis maxrdaWeraSi daadanaSaules.

292

Tamar xitiri

rogorc kozma ambobda, `nebismieri suli, sanam daberdeba, icvlis ramdenime sxeuls, gadadis erTidan meoreSi, rogorc ki sxeuli gaicriceba~.
italosis mixedviT ki, adamiani aris forma, romelic imyofeba CvenSi dabadebidan sikvdilamde. es aris raRac arsebuli, rac icvlis Tavis materialur `garegnobas~. an, rogorc paviCi ambobs, adamiani gansazRvravs Tavis adgils samyaroSi da sakuTar TavSi, saidanac is gamova da sadac dabrundeba.
aq unda davubrundeT TviT bogomilebis eretikosobas, radgan SeuZlebelia milorad paviCis drois/maradisobisa da teqstis koncefciis gageba
bogomiluri mikrokosmis sistemis gaazrebis gareSe. dasaxeleba `bogomilebi~ mRvdel bogomilis saxels ukavSirdeba, romelmac pirvelad gaaxmovana eretikosuli azrebi bulgareTSi mefe petres dros (927-968). mcire
gamokvlevebSi bogomilebis mimdinareoba aRwerilia, rogorc neomaniqevelebisa da pavlikanebis ideebis memdvidreebi, bogomilebidan ki gamoyofen
maT pirdapir mimdevrebs _ bosniisa da serbeTis katarebs da patarenebs
(farTod cnobili iyo bogomiluri seqta Sclavonia dalmaciaSi, axlandel
xorvatiaSi. Turq-osmalebis mier am teriotriis dapyrobamde, adgilobrivi aristokartiac iyo bogomil-patarenebis swavlebis mimdevari). bogomilebis werilobiTma wyaroeba TiTqmis ver moaRwia Cvenamde (yvelaze cnobili, laTinur versiaSi Senaxuli bogomil-katarebis `saidumlo wigni~ _
karkasoniis da vienis sia).
bogomilebis swavleba ambobs: rogorc RmerTs, aseve satanas, RvTis nebiT hqonda Seqmnis Zala. bogomilebs swamda, rom erT-erTi mTavarangelozis, satanailis dideba `iyo iseTi <...>, rom mas SeeZlo zeciuri saTnoebebis marTva <...> satana iyo yvelafris Semqmneli da mamas baZavda <...> mamaCemma gardaqmna is ampartavnobisTvis: mas waarTves naTeli, misi saxe gaxurebul rkinas daemsgavsa da yvelafriT daemsgavsa adamianurs. Tavisi kudiT
satanam waaTria RvTis angelozebis mesamedi~. garkveul dros satanaili
ajanyda. is Tanamonawile angelozebTan erTad Camoagdes cidan, amis Semdeg
satanailma Seqmna dedamiwa da adamiani Tixisgan: `Semdeg moufiqrda mas misi
msgavsi adamianis Seqma, rom emsaxuros mas~. Semdeg satana aiZulebs or dacemul agelozs Sevidnen Tixis sxeulebSi. qriste `saidumlo wignSi~ uxsnis
ioanes, riTi gansxvavdeboda RvTis monawileoba da satanas monawileoba
adamianis SeqmnaSi: `mismine, Zvirfaso iaoane: xalxi ambobs, rom mamaCemma
TvalTmaqcurad Seqmna adamiani Tixisgan; magram man Seqmna yvela RvTiuri Zala wminda sulisgan, eseni ki (ori angelozi) maTi danaSaulis gamo iyvnen
Tixis sxeulebiT movlenili da maT mokvdavebi qvia~. `da isev me, ioane, vkiTxe RmerTs: `rogor iwyebs adamiani Tavis arsebobas sulisgan, rodesac imyofeba xorciel sxeulSi?~ da miTxra RmerTma: ,,dacemuli angelozebisgan saxierdebian qalis sxeulSi da xorcs isxamen xorcis survilisgan, da ibadeba suli sulisgan da xorci xorcisgan; ase Zalauflebs satana am samyaroSi~. mogvianebiT sataniili kargavs Semqmnelis Zalas, magram jer kidev
flobs materialur samyaros. sataniilma dakarga Tavisi RvTiuri saxeli
(sufiqsi-il) da amgvarda gaxda cnobili, rogorc satana. adamianebis gada-

realobis SigniTa mxare: drosa da maradisobis problema ...

293

sarCenad RmerTma gamoagzavna Tavisi Svili, ieso, romelic mariamis meSveobiT gankacda. ieso Sevida mariamis erT yurSi da meoredan gamovida: `Casuli
smenidan Sevida da smeniT gamovida~, ase mas ar miuRia namdvili, materialuri sxeuli, ar iyo gankacebuli orTodoqsuli gagebiT. misi adamianuri
forma aris iluzia, moCveneba, magram mainc, mizezi misi gaCenis adamianTa Soris aris maTi gadarCena. bogomilebis interpretaciaSi mariami angelozia,
romelic RmerTma dedamiwaze gaagzavna qristes mosavlenad. amgvarad, bogomilebi Tvlidnen, rom vinme mariamis Tayvaniscema, rogorc RvTismSoblisa
mcdaria, iseve, rogorc jvris Tayvaniscema.
bogomilebma istorias warudgines tipuri dualisturi antisistema,
romlis safuZvelSi devs materialuri samyaros uaryofa (samyaro da adamiani Seqmnilia satanis mier da borotebis qmnilebas warmoadgenen, adamianma
aseve xeli moawera raRac dokuments da aris satanis msaxuri da ara RmerTis.) aqedan momdinareobs bogomilebis mkacri asketizmi, TviTmkvlelobis
miReba SimSiliT; qorwinebis akrZalva da eklesiis, ritualebis, xatebis
uaryofa, rogorc codvili materialuri samyaros gamovlenebisa. miuxedavad amisa, bogomilebis apokalipsi ar aris pesimisturi, radgan cxovreba da
materia aris araferi, magram suli, bevri gardaqmis Semdeg, gadarCeba. RmerTi Tixis sxeulebSi myof angelozebs gadarCenis saSualebas aZlevs. saSinel samsjavroze RmerTi `gamoyofs erTs meoresgan, rogorc mwymsi da rCeulebs marjvniv daayenebs da ityvis: `modiT, mamaCemis dalocvilebi, daemkvidreT sasufevelSi, romelic TqvenTvisaa gankuTvnili samyaros gaCenidan~. da mere etyvis maT, vinc mis marjvnivaa: `wadiT Cemgan, wyeulebo, maradiul cecxlSi, romelic gankuTvnilia satanisTvis da misi angelozebisTvis~. da mamas brZanebiT wavlen eseni maradiuli tanjvisaken da marTlebi
maradiuli sicocxlisaken...~ (7,130)
bogomilebis optimizmi _ istoriuli asketizmis mqone optimizimia,
romelic misi gamoxatvis absolutur simaRlemde _ TviTmkvlelobamde _
midis, imitom rom adamianis arsebobis materialuroba aris axlandel droSi, warsulSi ki namdvili, WeSmariti, angelozuri mdgomareobisgan ganSoreba. bogomilis cxovrebis gza daJinebuli mcdelobaa WeSmaritebasTan da
sikeTesTan dabrunebisa, ris ganxorcieleba SeuZlebelia dedamiwaze. bogomilebTan suli, an angelozi moZraobs wreze, RmerTisgan RmerTamde: angelozi Tavisufali iyo _ sxeulma tyved aiyvana suli _ suli ganTavisuflda sxeulisgan. rogorc paviCis erT-erTi moTxrobis- `kiris samoTxis~gmiri ambobs: `me mivxvdi, saiT midis Cemi gza. mas mivyavar warsulSi~. warsuli aris gza sawyisTan dabrunebisa; WeSmarit, RvTiur sawyisTan. paviCis
gmirebi Cabmuli arian am wreSi: `Seni Cangali...yovelTvis ki ar hqonda oTxi
kbili, rogorc axla, aramed,rogorc yvela qmnilebas,ori mxare hqonda...mogvianebiT, aseTi ori orkbiliani Canglis SeerTebiT gamovida oTxkbiliani. yvela mis kbils gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs. pirveli kbili mamis principi an simboloa. meore kbili mas ekuTvnis, vinc qmnis,magram TviTonac Seqmnilia. es sityvaa. mesame kbili Seqmnili, magram TviTon arafers

294

Tamar xitiri

qmnis, rogorc Sen, Svilo. meoTxe kbili ekuTvnis imas, vinc ar arisSeqmnili
(rogorc pirveli) da arc TviTon qmnis. es pirveli kbili isvenebs,radgan is
visac Seqmna SeuZlia, SeuZlia arc Seqmnas. is isev mamas ekuTvnis,rogorc
gzis dasasruls, romelic mTavrdeba iq, sadac daiwyo~(`loginisamisTvis~).
filosofiis istoriis mkvlevari ernest trelCi uZveles, kerZod, antikur, gnostikur mikrokosmze wers: `es aris swavleba maradiulidabrunebisa~. es msoflmxedveloba efuZneboda `udroo metafizikurucvlel kanonebs~, udroo arsebebis logikur dakvirvebasa da mis ganviTarebas azri
hqonda `myari montaJis ganxorcielebisaTvis~ (11, 18). aq aucileblad unda aRvniSnoT tiorliCis gancaxdebis metafizikuroba. TiTqos amis dasturad r. svetlovi wers:`...nebismieri miTologiuri suraTi, Tundac iseTi damuSavebuli, rogorc sikeTisa da borotebis brZola maniqeistur teqstebSi, miznad isaxavs pirvel rigSi garkveul wreSi gancdis Setanas da ara informaciulobas. Tu ar daveTanxmebiT amdebulebas, mTeli gvianantikuri religiuri kultura, romelmac datova kosmogenuri apokalifsebis aseTi
didi raodenoba, CvenTvis daxurulidarCeba. rogor SeiZleba gavigoT kultura, sadac yvela meore morwmunemzadaa moyves borotebis gaCenis miseburi
versia?~ (10, 239).
raze aris dafuZnebuli `swavleba maradiul dabrunebaze~? zustad
imaze, rom istoria aris WeSmaritad arsebuli maradisobis anareklebis
usasrulo grova. kultura, am TvalsazrisiT, aris maradiuli ideebis jamis anarekli, fenomeni, romelsac aqvs udroo da msoflio azri. rogorc
aRniSnavs igive terliCi: `swavleba maradiul dabrunebaze mTlianad ukargavs azrs istorias, gardaqmnis mas arsebulis usasrulo da uazro anareklebis grovad~. aseTi istoriisa da kulturis ganviTareba ar aris sworxazovani, is Caketil wreze moZraobs da, Cveni azriT, warmoadgens ara ganviTrebas, aramed gameorebas, ukve momxdaris maradiul anarekls, Tumca idealTan miaxlovebis mizniT. esaa `ganviTarebis~ arsi.
aseTi moZraoba wreze SesaZlebelia mxolod mikrokosmis erTobis
aRiarebis SemTxvevaSi. paviCi wers: `erTianobidan Cndeba mravalferovneba,
radgan suli (rogorc Cveni kuWi), romelsac ar SeuZlia aRiqvas erTianobis didebuli Sinaarsi, anawilebs mas, ReWavs da erTianobas aqcevs mravalferovnebad, rom SeZlos misi nawilebis dataceba.~ (`logini samisTvis~). paviCis es azri TiTqmis imeorebs sityvebs, romelsac hermes trismegistuss
miaweren: `arsebulisgan pirveli aris maradiuli Seuqmneli RmerTi _ samyaros Semqmneli. meore pirvelis mier aris Seqmnili Tavis xatad; es samyaro, romelic man Seqmna, romelsac icavs da kvebavs: samyaro warmoiSva mamisgan da amitom is marad cocxalia. ukvdaveba maradisobisgan gansxvavdeba.
RmerTi ar iyo vinme sxvis mier Sobili <...> is sakuTar Tavs Sobs maradiulad. mama, sakuTari Tavisgan Sobili, maradiulia da samyaro, mamisgan Sobili aris ukvdavi. <...> mamam sxeuli samyarod aqcia, misca mas moculoba, burTis forma, misca mas Tvisebebi da aqcia ukvdavad da maradiulad materialurad <...> man moaqcia samyaros sxeuli ukvdavebaSi, radgan eSinoda, mate-

realobis SigniTa mxare: drosa da maradisobis problema ...

295

ria, gafantvis survilSi ar dabrunebuliyo pirvelyofil qaosTan, rameTu


es mdgomareoba misTvis damaxasiaTebelia <...> aqac, dedamiwaze, man SeinarCuna es Tviseba SekumSvisa da gafarToebisa, is, rasac adamianebi `sikvdils~
uZaxian <...> rac exeba miwieri sxeulebis dabrunebas maT pirvelad mdgomareobaSi, is gamoixateba maT CaSlaSi dauyofel sxeulebad, anu ukvdavebis
sxeulebad da amgvarad xdeba danaklisi, azri wydeba, magram sxeuli ar nadgurdeba~ (4, 42, 430).
imave Temaze saubrobs paviCis leandre: `Tu Cven gaviazrebT, rom maradisoba moevlineba, rogorc RvTis dalocva, rogorc naTelis erT-erTi gamovlena, <...> da dro modis satanisgan, romelic taZris marcxvniv dgas, naTeli
gaxdeba is, rom garkveul adgilas unda iyos maradisobisa da dros `oqros
kveTa~ <...> samyaros am nawilSi dro Cerdeba da amiT Cveni cxovreba SesaZlebeli xdeba~. (`qaris SigniTa mxare~). TiTqmis zedmiwevniT aris warmodgenili
hermes trismegistusis sistema: arsebobs maradisoba (RmerTi), magram aseve
arsebobs materialuri samyaros arsebobis raRac forma _ usasruloba, ukvdaveba, magram ufro naTlad aq Cans bogomiluri mikrokosmis arsi: maradisoba aramaterialuria, es RvTis samefoa. usasrulobas, materialuri samyaros, gaaCnia dasawyisi _ Seqmnis momenti, magram ar aqvs dasasruli. es, amasTan erTad, adaminianis samyarocaa. adamianis cxovrebis realuri dasasruli
_ sikvdili _ am SemTxvevaSi aris mxolod ukvdavebis sawyis mdgomareobasTan dabruneba, materiis usasruloba wvrili nawilebis erTianobaSi. sikvdiliT gaTavisufelebuli suli ki brundeba misTvis Cveul maradisobis samyaroSi, RmerTTan.
romanis `qaris SigniTa mxare~ gmirebi hero da leandre arian Seyvarebulebi berZnuli legendidan, vis siyvarulsac berZnul variantSi xeli SeuSales miwierma movlenebma, magram Seyvarebulebi sikvdilSi gaerTiandnen.
paviCis herosa da leandres dro hyofs: hero XX saukunis Tanamedrovea,
leandre _ Suasaukuneebis (elinisturi) gmiri. miuxedavad amisa, isini sikvdilSi erTiandebian, maradisobaSi. aRsaniSnavia is faqtic rom, paviCs SemTxveviT ar aurCevia es wyvili. rogorc cnobilia, hero cxovvrobda seetSi
/Tu sestosSi, leandre _ abidosSi. berZnul legendaSi, tradiciulad,
xazgasmulia, rom es qalaqebi helespontis or sxvadasxva sanapirozea ganlagebuli. paviCisTvis ki herosa da leandres sacxovrebelis adgilmdebareoba sxva raRaciT aris niSandoblivi.
mwerali cvlis miTs maradiul siyvarulze bogomilebis religiur miTad samyaros Seqmnisa da masSi adamianis adgilis Sesaxeb. paviCs aRelvebs
ara siyvaruli-erosis problema, aramed siyvaruli-aRapesi. sulieri siyvaruli _ aRape _ ainteresebs mwerals, rogorc teodiceis xSiri problema, amitomac, sikvdilis sakiTxs romanSi centraluri adgili uWiravs.
amgvarad, maradisobis sivrce _ adamianze proeqciaSi _ aris sikvdilis sivrce. bogomilebis swavlebidan gamomavali paviCi wers: `grZnoba sxeulSi mxolod gadis, magram masSi ar mTavrdeba. binZuri da Savi grZnoba gamodis miwidan da mixoxavs <...> mzisken, rogorc nergi, sufTa da gamWirvale

296

Tamar xitiri

ki miwaze eSveda sinaTlidan~ (`wm. markusis cxenebi~). `rac Seexeba sikvidls, mas SeuZlia isrialos drois RerZze zemoT da qvemoTac <...> dro
gamomdinareobs sikvdilidan. rameTu sanam iarsebebs sikvdili, iarsebebs
droc <,,,> sikvdili imyofeba im mxareSi, saidanac miedineba dro. ese igi
dro miedineba sikdilis gavliT da Cerdeba sicocxleSi. zutad im wertilSi erTmaneTs kveTs maradisoba da dro...~ (`qaris SigniTa mxare~). es moZraoba, es dro _ maradisobis CarCoebSi, magram usasrulobis parametrebSia. maradisobis moZraobis forma moCvenebiTi umoZraobaa. adamianisTvis arss sikvdili warmoadgens. maradisoba xom simdablea, statika, yvelaferi is, rac
gamoxatavs cocxalisTvis sikvdils. maradisoba mdumarebaa. am absoluturi
mdumarebis, umoZraobis, simdablis, Cveuli xorcieli cxovrebis uaryofis
gadmocema paviCs mxolod sikvdilis meSveobiT warmoudgenia.
miRebul drois sistemaSi maradisobis areali iqneba warsuli dro,
rameTu suli ganeSora RmerTs, misi warsuli iyo WeSmariti, momavali ki
Zalian saeWvoa. amitomac WeSmaritebis saxe, ideali, yovelTvis warsulSia
_ is arsebobda Seqmnis momentamde, amitomac paviCs gmirebi sul warsulSi
ixedebian: `marcniv <...> xedavda kargad da Sors, da iq, rogorc cnobilia,
SeiZleba Seni sikvdili dainaxo, Tu Tvalebi SeeCveva <...> sibneles <...> gamoxedva ikargeboda siSoreSi, nislian warsulSi <...> misi mogonebebi masze
ufrosia <...> is ufro Rrmad iZireboda warsulSi~ (~naweri cxenis sabanze~) Taviseburad, warsulisken adamiani moZraobs maradisobis gavliT. am
dros adamiani aris maradiulis anarekli, eqo. `adamiani SeiZleba aRiqmebodes eqod, imitom rom miiCneoda ukve arsebuli personaJebis saxed da xatad~,- wers a. panCenko Zvel slavur teqstebze dayrdnobiT (8, 70).
tradiciul qristianobaSi adamiani RvTis saxe da xatia, anu igive anarekli? bogomilebis eretikul swavlebaSi es momenti rTuldeba imiT, rom
samyaro Seqmnilia satanis mier, da ara RmerTis mier, sxvagvarad, adamiani satanis saxe da xatia, is imyofeba sicrueSi, borotebaSi, ver uaxlovdeba WeSmaritebas. suli ki RvTis xatia, gadarCena/dabruneba/gaTavisufleba misTvisaa
gankuTvnili. da es gadarCena mgomareobs `maradiul dabrunebaSi, warsulSi.
materialuris uaryofa, samyaros uaryofa, romelic axasiaTebs yvela religiur antisistemas, bunebrivad midis iqamde, rom adamiani mTlianad xvdeba
warsulis tyveobaSi. aqedan gamomdinareobs bogomilebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli awmyos uaryofa, maT Soris realuri adamianis ugulebelyofa.
es motivi paviCmac aitaca: adamianis suli, misi Sinagani `me~ mweralTan
warsuli saxis anareklia, maT Soris nebismieri adamianis anarekli, misi eqo. misi Crdili, rameTu datyveebuli suli xetialobs xorcidan xorcSi da elis
mis gaTavisuflebas: `yvela suls miaqvs dros is monakveTi, romelic mas ufro
metad uxdeba: (`varSavis kuTxe~). `Sens sikvdils SeuZlia Senze orjer didxans icocxlos~ _ ambobs paviCis erT-erTi gmiri. ase SesaZlebeli xdeba ukvdavi sulis gadasaxleba, radgan mas SeuZlia sikvdilis Semdeg ganviTardes.
zustad amitom serbi stevo zduri aris germaneli evgena fosis Crdili-anarekli. da rodesac stevo poulobs fosis saflavs, mas esmis `misi nabijebis miwis-

realobis SigniTa mxare: drosa da maradisobis problema ...

297

qveSa eqo samareSi~ (`evgena fosis sikvdili~). `marilis gemos~ gmiri nedelko
mixailoviCi, mTeli cxovreba RiRinebda ra erT simReras, bolos am simReris
motivis gaSivfris dros xvdeba, rom mas gaaCnia namdvili `saidumlo saxeli~ _
neboiSa mitriCi. `SeiZleba, Cven yovelTvis sxvadasxva sxeuli gaqvs, iqve qudis
qveS, imave saxeliT. is Cven ar gvekuTvnis, mas vcvliT, rogorc naTels naTelze.
Cveni sityvebi bageebidan bageebSi gadadis, ufro sworad, Cvens sityvebs yovelTvis viRacis bageebi iyeneben da sityvebi rCeba, sxeulebi ki icvleba~,- fiqrobs
`saidumlo serobis~ gmiri. bogomilebis sistemaSi, iseve, rogorc milorad paviCTan, sityva aris RmerTi. ieso mariamSi Sedis smenidan da smenidan gamodis, is
aris sityva. sityva aris sxeuliT Sepyrobili sulis gamovlena. radgan paviCis
logikis mixedviT, suli-sityva Tavisufali xdeba adamianis sikvdilis Semdeg,
cocxali suli-sityvis gadasaxleba raRac mxriv sityva-sikvdilis gadasaxlebas niSnavs. miT umetes rom, maradisobis sivrce aRiqmeba mwerlis mier, rogorc
sikvdilis sivrce. `warmoidgineT, rom arsebobs vinme, vinc icis yvelaferi
Cvens Sesaxeb <...> vinc icis, rogor SeiZleba SemoisazRvros Cveni samyaro, is,
rasac zecas vuZaxiT da usazRvrod vTvliT. vinc sxvanairad ver gagvagebinebs
Tavisi arsebobis Sesaxeb Tu ara sikvdiliT. <...> sikvdilis ierarqia _ erTaderTia, rac aerTianebs sxvadasxva realobis gadakveTis sistemas erT, uxilav
sirvceSi, sadac sikvdili, rogorc Sav sarkeSi, usasrulobamde meordeba...~
(`Wadrakis partia meqsikuri figurebiT~). amitomac, mexsiereba, paviCis mixedviT, ar SeiZleba iyos piradi gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, is aris sxvisi sulis miReba da misi amocnoba. mexsiereba aris erTgvari `saTavso~, pre-cnobieri,
maradisoba-sikvdilis atributi.
`qaris SigniTa mxaris~ protagonisti herom sikvdilis win `daiyvira
saSineli, Rrma, TiTqmis kacuri xiT~ _ masSi cxovrobda imave romanis paraleluri gmiris. leandres suli-sikvdili. zustad ase protagonisti
gogo `Wadrakis partiidan~ acxadebs, rom is aris batoni Svarcis moxuci
coli. SeSinebul mSoblebs, romlebsac bavSvis mentalur daavadebaze aqvT
eWvi, uwevT Segueba imis Semdeg, rac Svili aCvenebs maT, sad damarxa wina
cxovrebis dros yulaba fuliT. zog moTxrobaSi piriqiT, Txroba suls
mihyavs, romelic romeliRaca sxeulSi imyofeba, gmiri mxolod novelis
bolos amCnevs, rom is aRar aris is pirovneba, romelic adre iyo, ukve didi
xania cxovreobs sxva sxeulSi, Tumca, garegani msgavsebebis miuxedavad, Tavidanve unda ganvasxvavoT paviCis sikvdilis ganmarteba postmodernistulisgan. Tanamedrove postmodernistul esTeTikaSi muSaobisas paviCi paradoqsulad uaryofs postmoderns, rogroc mosflmxedvelobas, Rrmad rCeba
istoriaSi, konkretulad Tavisi xalxis warsulSi. postmodernisTvis damaxasiaTebeli istoriuli dros TamaSi-amocana, `yofnisa da aryofnis TamaSi, derridas ganmartebiT, sruliad miuRebelia paviCis mikrokoncefsiis
mimarT. zustad aq vlindeba `daZabuloba TamaSsa da istorias Soris~, romelzec gvafrTxilebs filosofosi (5, 367). paviCis adamiani aris RerZi,
romelzec ecmeva epoqebi. mwerlis `mistiuri postmodernizmi~ gamowveulia istoriis metafizikaSi, nacionalur sulier tradiciaSi CaRrmavebiT,

298

Tamar xitiri

maT logikasa da wesebs miyveba. gansakuTrebiT kargad es Cans sikvdilis fenomenis axsnaSi. postmodernizmSi sikvdili warmodgenilia, rogorc `araferi~, Savi sarke, dacema, `gauCinarebuli realobis mwvave metafizikuri
cduneba: ~ ,,Tvali aRaraa gaSlili sivrcis generatori <...>aq ar arsebobs
horizonti, araviTari horizantaluroba, es rogorc mqrTali sarkea, romelsac eyudeba gamoxedva da mis ukan araferia~ (3, 122). am dros paviCTan
sikvdili maradisobaa, idealuroba, RmerTTan yofnis sivrce, amitomac mis
gmirebs sikvdilis SiSi ar gaaCnia: leandris rusi maswavlebeli aiZulebs
gmirs iswalos laTinuri aforizmi: `midi da ganmaTavisufldi am SiSisgan:
Tu is WeSmaritia, ar damtanjos, Tu ki ar aris WeSmariti, aRar meSinodes~.
Tu SiSi gamomdinareobs sicarielidan, ar udna geSinodes, Tu SiSi RvTiuria, ar SeiZleba geSinodes, radgan is madlia. paviCTan sikvdili maradisobaa da ara TamaSi; ara sicariele, aramed umaRlesi samyaros Tan yofna. mwerali wers `bogomilebis istoriaSi~ :~ maT sjerodaT, saSineli samsjavros dRes yvela sarke ibrwyinebs zewrebis qveS da codvilebis anareklebi
sasjels ver gaeqcevian.~
adamians SeuZlia maradisobas sizmrebis gavliTac Seexos _ es misi
Taviseburi naxtomia umaRles sferoebSi, rameTu sizmari _ forma droebiTi sikvdilisa, rodesac sul SeuZlia Tavisuflad ifrinos. `es Sinagani
moZraoba sizmaRsi gacilebiT ufro daxvewilia, vidre garegani, imitom rom
umoZraoba idealuria, is yvelafris pirvelmizezia da misi siwynare moZraobasac moicavs~ (`qaris SigniTa mxare~). hero da evstaxia moTxrobidan
`kverci~ iwyeben Tavisi sizmrebis Caweras. paviCis mirebis sizmrebis aRricxva aZlevs maT erTgvar gagebas imisa, Tu ra xdeba maradisobaSi. sizmris bunebaze fiqrs isini miyavs sulis fenomenis amocnobamde, `ramden adamians
vxdebi Cems sizmrebSi~ `sizmrebi reinkarnacias ganicdian~ _ fiqrobs hero. aq ixsneba sizmris gramatika _ maradisobis gramatika: `sityvebis lingvistika araorgvarovanad miuTiTebs imaze, rom arsebobs sizmarSi mimdinare dros nawilaki <...> yvelaferi magonebs raRacas, rac jer kidev ar ganmicdia <...> raRac avansi, mosebobs, momavali cxovrebidan aRebuli...~ (`qaris SigniTa mxare~). sizmris Seswavla iqamde midis, rom sizmris dro _
erTgvari warsuli momavali, dabrunebuli warsuli, romelic Sen piradad
ar ganicade, amitomac Rebulob, rogorc momavals, magram moZraoba midis
winaswar daTqmuli daboloeisken warsulSi. rogorc paviCis erT-erTi gmiri ambobs, `vin icis, ganaxldeba momavali Tu winaswar arsebobs, erTxel da
samudamod mocemuli~ (`saidumlo seroba~).
gamodis, rom maradisobis mxare sinamdvileSi sulac ar aris statikuri, is uCqaresi energiaa, romelic gaugebaria adamianisTvis, magram es ar
aris zmniseuli moZraoba, rogorc es xdeba materialuri samyaros realobaSi, es Taviseburi arsebiTi saxelebis, nominatiuri moZraobaa, romelic adamianis aRqmis Taviseburebebis gamo aRiqmeba, rogorc statika. `sizmrebis
enaSi inaxeba yvela arsebiTi saxeli~, _ ambobs hero `da zmnebs, sinamdvilisgan gansxvavebiT, ar gaaCniaT dro~.

realobis SigniTa mxare: drosa da maradisobis problema ...

299

rogorc sizmars, aseve `sikvdils, naTelia, gaaCnia saocari siCqare,


rogorc misi erT-erTi umTavresi prerogativa,~- ambobs paviCi. am Sinagani
samyaros energia Zlieria da yovlisSemZle. miuxedavad imisa, rom adamians
maradisobis mxare statikuri hgonia, masSi ubralod ar arsebobs moZraoba,
rogorc Secvlis forma, radgan WeSmareba erTia da ucvleli. CvenTvis aseTi moZraobi yvelaze xelmisawvdomi geometriuli aRmniSvneli aris wre.
zustad aq Cndeba originaluri paviCiseuli cneba `Sinagani dro~. Sinagan dros udidesi siCqareebi gaaCnia _ sizmris siCqare, magram misi siCqaris
sidide nulis tolia, es moZraoba WeSmaritebaSi, mizanSi, wreSi, amitom
leandri yvelas umoqmedo da zarmacad miaCnia, Tumca masSi udidesi siCqare
inaxeba. paviCis protagonists ar SeuZlia iarsebobs Cveulebriv, materialur samyaroSi _ misi siCqare miwieri samyaros siCqareebs ar emTxveva.
paviCis mixedviT, sizmris garda, arsebobs kidev erTi mxare, sadac SesaZlebelia adamianis kontaqti maradisobasTan. SemTxveviTi araa, rom sizmari agebulia arsebiT saxelebze _ sityvaze, am dakvirvebis Semdeg mwerali midis literaturis, rogorc adamianis maradisobis arealSi gasvlis,
gansakuTrebuli koncefciis Seqmnamde, radgan literatura efuZneba sityvas. erofeevi usayvedurebs aviCs, rom serbi prozaikosis `gonis TamaSi~
arRvevs mis mier gamocxadebul `literaturis wess~ `xels nu uSliT
sityvebs~ (6, 46). aq isev Secvlaaa: paviCi gulisxmobs ara prozis esTetizirebul sityvas, ara sityvbiT TamaSs, romelic axasiaTebs postmodernizms.
paviCi gulisxmobs sxva tradicias, romlis mixedviT sityva aris RvTis
erT-erTi saxeli, erT-erTi hipostasi, amitomac sityvas TviTon miyavxar,
mas ubralod xeli ar unda SeuSalo.
`sizmridan SeiZleba gaxvide mxolos miTxrobaSi,~ _ amCnevs paviCis
gmiri `vaxSami restoranSi `kiTxviT niSanTan~, radgan mxatvrul teqstSi,
rogorc sizmarSi, yvelaferi dauyonebliv midis dasasrulisken. isev is
moZraoba wreze, `maradiuli dabruneba~ imisken, rac ukve iyo: `yvelaferi
rac aq pirvelad damemarTa, zoran miloSeCs daemarTa ukve meored,~ _ mwerali amTavrebs am moTxrobas gardacvlil megobrebTan SexvedriT.
davubrundeT usasrulobis fenomens, mxares, romelsac aqvs dasawyisi,
magram ar gaaCnia dasasruli, materialuri samyaros mxares, romelsac adamianic ekuTvnis. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, es aris dros mxare, adamianis xorcis moZraobis mis warsul materialur sasrulobis dabruneba usasrulobaSi. moZraoba wreze, magram moZraoba, romelsac garkveuli dro sWirdeba.
Tu am moZraobis drois sazRvrebis dadgenas SevecdebiT, maSin es sasruli
formebis moZraoba usasrulobaSi unda moiTavsos awmyo droSi. paviCis Tanaxmad, awmyos warsulisadmi daqvemdebareba axasiaTebs. paviCis teqstebis
qronotopi bogomilebis teqstebis analogiaa: warsuli, rogorc WeSmariti dro, dominantia momavlis da awmyos, amitomac teqstis sivrce fenebad
iyofa, masSi erTdroulad realizdeba ramdenime sivrcobrivi safexuri, da
arc erTs ar gaaCnia realobis statusi. paviCis gmirebi warsuls ekuTvnian:
is ganszRvravs maT qmedebebs da beds, isini Wadrakis figurebi, romliTac

300

Tamar xitiri

TamaSdeba winaswar gaTvlili Wadrakis etiudi. maT sikvdilis Tavisuflebac ki ar gaaCniaT, isini isev da isev ganicdian `presaxis~ sikvdils.
am SemTxvevaSi niSandoblivia novela `wminda markis cxenebi, an romani
troaze~. novelis gmiri _ Cveni Tanamedrove _ erTdroulad imyofeba am
samyaroSi da troaSi. magram romelSi? saqme isaa, rom troa,
Tragurium/Treu/Trau, iyo dalmaciaSi. am qalaqSi mdebareobda erT-erTi umsxvilesi `absoluturi bogomilebis~ sazogadoeba _ dragoviCebi. dragoviCebis zegavlenis qveS imyofeboda teli samxreTi makedonia da trakia (7.
243). meTerTmete saukuneSi samxreT trakiaSi moRvaweobda bogomilebis
erT-erTi cnobili maswavlebeli marko mesopotamieli. SesaZlebelia, misi
cxenebi arian paviCis moTxrobaSi, Tumca, SesaZloa es iyos sxva bogomiluri mqadageblis markos cxenebi, meTormete saukunis lombardiis kastorebis
lideri, magram davubrundeT moTxrobas. protagonistis Zmas oden priamuJeviCi qvia. SesaZloa is troeli priamosis axali gansaxierebaa. ireva xalxebi da droebi; saxelebi paviCTan dublirdeba, warsulidan nasesxebia, bogomibis mikrokosmSi xom ar arseboben sakuTari saxelebi, yvela maTgani
eqoa, anarekli warsulisa. magaliTad, `kvercxis~ gmiris saxeli evstaqia,
savaraudod modis saxelidan evstati, ase erqva masalianebis eresis erTerT damfuZnebels (ramac biZgi misca bogomilebis swavlebis ganviTarebas).
evstaTi qadagebda meeqvse saukuneSi, paTlagoniaSi, Semdeg siriaSi. merve saukuneSi misma swavlebam bulgareTamde moaRwia, imisTvis, rom bogomilebis
swavlebaSi gadaizardos. sxvaTa Soris, evstati aRiarebda qalisa da kacis
Tanasworobas, imas, rom qalsac SeuZlia iyos mRvdeli da mqadagebeli, amitomac paviCma uboZa Tavis qal gmirs misi saxeli, rom evstaqias Tavidan gaevlo maradisobis Secnobis gza da daetovebina awmyo, warsuli momavlis
rwmeniT, sizmris samyaroSi, maradisobaSi...
niSandoblivia aseve moTxroba `logini samisTvis~ gmiris saxeli, anjelara _ angelozi. da angelozTan axlos unda iyos bogomilebis umaRlesi mRvdlebi, romlebmac wminda suli miiRes cxovrebaSive, vinc apostolur cxovrebas eweoda da bogomilTa Soris wmindanad iyo miRebuli. codvaze ganwiruli Cveulebrivi morwmuneebisgan gansxvavebiT, isini miwer arsebobaSi aRwevdnen ucodvilobas. isini Cuqnidnen namdvil `wminda naTlobas~ Tavze xelis dadebiT.
milorad paviCis gmirebi sinamdvilis realobaSi ganicdian araerTxel
gameorebul siuJets, TviT mwerali imeorebs siuJetebs da mxolod saxelebs cvlis. amaSi, ra Tqma unda, SeiZleba davinaxoT postmodernistuli
TamaSi, magram Cven aq vxedavT bogomilebi mikrokosmis anarekls _ es maTi
TamaSia. aq ver vipoviT postmodernistul droebis gaTanabrebas, aq, simarTle rom vTqvaT, saerTod ar aris droebis mravalferovneba _ warsulis
Zalaufleba momavlis ararsebobis dros. Tavisuflebisken sul miiltvis
raRac erTi sepyrobili suli, romelic icvlis xorciel CarCos. mwerali
ki yovelTvis cdilobs gaweros misi moZraoba, moZebnos ufro Sesatyvisi
sityva an, rogorc paviCis erT-erTi personaJi ambobs: `Cven nasesveb droSi

realobis SigniTa mxare: drosa da maradisobis problema ...

301

vcxovrobT~ (`karamustafas vaJebi~). ase, `varSavis kuTxis~ gmiri ucxo qveyanaSi poulobs mSobliuri saxlis anarekls `samzareulos onkanic ki iyo
iq, sadac mamaCemis saxlSi. erTaderTi gansxvaveba imaSia, rom mSoblebis saxlSi yvelaferi marjvniv iyo, aq ki, piriqiT, marcxniv.~ yvelaferi sarkiseul anarekls warmoadgens. bogomiluri mikrokosmi awmyo dros mxolod
warsulis gadaTamaSebad aqcevs. es erTgvari arapirovnuli dro, araistoriuli _ `ara~ aq naTlad gamoxatavs bogomilebis antisistemis uaryofit
energias. arapirovnuli _ radgan pirovneba ar arsebobs, arsebobs eqo, anarekli. araistoriuli imitom, rom fataluria, obieqturad moZraobs dagegmil dasasrulamde, istorizmi ki aq ar arsebobs. dekoraciebi icvleba,
magram movlenebi igive rCeba da aq paviCi amboxdeba. bogomilebTan warsulis
diqtatis gaTvaliswinebiT, awmyo dro aris mxolod cnobili siuJetis gadamRereba ukana mimarTulebiT. paviCi keTilsindisierad mihyveba aseT dros
da zustad asaxav smas, magram bogomilenis miTis struqtura emociurad
ver akmayofilems mwerals. bogomiluri miTis ucnauri drois struqtura
aiZulebs mwerals ufro kargad Caixedos mis TiToul detalSi.
siCqares unda hqondes mimarTuleba _ moZraobis veqtori. da fundamenti feTqdeba, rogorc ki paviCs es veqtori, moZraobis mimarTuleba Semoaqvs. davuSvaT, moZraoba wriulia, magram axla, paviCTan mas aqvs mimarTuleba. Tu arsebobda dasawyisi, maSin dasawyisidan moZraobis veqtori SeiZleba
aRqmuli iyos plusad; wreze brunvis garkveul momentSi ki is Teoriulad
SeiZleba aRqmul iyos, rogorc ukan moZraoba, dasawyisisken da am droidan
es moZraoa iqneba uaryofiTi, minusiani, Tumca, es xdeba isev im wreSi. plusisa da minusus arsebobis aRiareba badebs maT gansakuTrebul urTierTobas;
plusma SeiZleba sZlos minusi, minusma mougos plus. sxvagvarad rom
vTqvaT, mwerals teqstSi Semoqvs moZraobis subieqti.
zustad aseT TamaSzea agebuli moTxroba `wiTeli kalendari~. gmirs uCndeba ucnauri grZnoba, rom 1917 wlis oqtombris diliT orma dRem, oTxSabaTma da xuTSabaTma, adgilebi gacvales. 25 oqtombers, oTxSabaTs, protagonistma waikiTxa leninis broSura droebiTi mTavrobis uflebamosilebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb _ am dros is ajanyebul jariskacebTan eraTad, alyas urtyamda zamTris sasaxles da droebiT mTavrobas. sasaxlis Sturmi daiwyo erT
dReSi, 26 oqtombers. da ukve Sturmis Semdgom gmirma iyida 26 oqtombris gazeTi `droebiTi mTavrobis moambe~, sadac gamoqveynebuli iyo ukve gadamdgari
mTavrobis dekreti. absurdi ar aixsneba revoluciis qaosiT. paviCi Tavis ganmartebas gvTavazobs: `droebiTma mTavrobam erTi dRiT daagviana dekretiT,
leninma ki Tavis broSuraSi erTi dRiT iCqara.~ samTavrobo 26 unda yofiliyo 25 da leninis 25 ki _ realuri 26. `misi oTxSabaTi xuTSabaTi gaxda xuTSabaTze adre... ase gaCnda zedmeti 24 saaTi... wiTeli kalendari gaSveuli
iyo~. vecdebiT Cvens konteqstSi am istoriuli kazusis proeqcirebas.
momavali dro paviCTan ganixileba ara rogoc ubralo sikvdili maradisobaSi, warsulis diqtatura; momavals SeuZlia aqtiuri iyos da adamiani axla ar aris ubralod eqo, is iZens pirovnuli sawyisis saSualebas,. `arsebobs

302

Tamar xitiri

codna, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi vlindeba da ucnobia Cveni winaprebisTvis~ _ amCnevs `saidumlo serobis~ gmiri. `saidumlo serobis~ personaJebis saxeebi emTxveva leonardos cnobil naxats, magram protagonisti amCnevs,
rom erTi saxe. iudasi, mTlianad ar emTxveva winasaxes. finalSi aRmoCndeba,
rom iudas rols TamaSobs TviTon protagonisti. paviCis gmiris kiTxva: sad
var me? _ aris am `mes~ Zebnis dasawyisi, pirovnebis, saxelis SeZena.
bogomilebis mikrokosmSi sakuTari saxeli SauZlebelia arsebobdes,
radgan yvelaferi materialuri satanis Seqmnilia, siborotiT da sicruiTaa dafaruli, es _ fsevdoarsebobaa, magram raRac momentSi paviCi gansxvavebulad axdens adamianis gansazRvras: ki, eqo, Crdili, magram ara ubralo
WurWeli moxetiale sulisTvis, aramed erToba sulierisa da materialuris. magram es harmonia SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu samyaro
Seqmnilia RmerTis da ara satanis mier. samyaro, romelic Caflulia sibinZureSi, codvaSi, mainc inarCunebs madlis SesaZleblobas _ imitom rom arsebobs qriste, RvTis Svili, romelic gankacda kacobriobis gadasarCenad.
paviCi abrunebs sakuTari prozis samyaroSi qristes gankacebis SesaZleblobas, amiT realurad xdis aRorZinebis, adamianis gadarCenis SesaZleblobas, rogorc RvTis saxes da xats aqac, dedamiwaze. milorad paviCi _
bogomilizmis brwyinvale reformatoria. is qeds xris maTi rwmenis sisufTavis winaSe, gatacebulia maTi miTologiiT, is amtkicebs momavali dros
SesaZleblobas. misi leandre _ mSenebeli, dabadebidan bogomili, aSenebs
idealur koSks camde. magram is ufunqcioa qalaqis dacvisaTvis, is Zalian
maRalia, mas uberavs umaRlesi qarebi, magram ver amCnevs miwier qars. leandres metoqe, aRiarebuli ostati sandali, piriqiT, aSenebs dabal saguSago
koSks, is imdenad dabalia, rom mis arsebobas azri ar aqvs. WeSmariti simaRle amaT Soris imyofeba. orive koSki mxolod afeTqebis dros _ sikvdilis
momentSi _ amCnevs erT da igive qars.
adamians SeuZlia miaRwios WeSmarit simaRles. paviCis azriT, adamiani
aris `drois mSenebeli~: `gansakuTrebuli marmarilo gvaqvs aSenebisTvis _
saaTebi, dReebi da wlebi, sizmari da Rvino ki SemaerTebeli xsnaria~. aq mniSvnelovania aqtiuri pirovnuli sawyisi. amitomac leandri, dampyroblebisgan
gaqcevisas, uars ambobs mis mier aSenebulis dangrevaze, piriqiT, is Seqmnas da
aSenebas iwyebs. da rodesac is uyurebs RvTismSoblis xats, sadac gverdiT
ioane naTlismcemeli udgas da xeliT uWiravs Cvili iesos fexidan Camovardnili sandali, leandri xvdeba: `Seikra wre, uwyveti xazi, romelic aerTianebs adamians, mis xels, bavSvis terfs, qalis mkerdsa da mis gamoxedvas adamianisken~, _ da mTeli es moZraoba xatze gardaisaxeba asoSi _ zustad im
wreSi, rac daxazesleandris mier aSenebuli RvTismSoblis taZrebi, Tu Sexedav maT zemodan.zustad is aso, romlidanac iwyeba RvTismSoblis saxeli berZnulSi- . zustad am himnSi _ himnSi qals, samyaros, miwas, sicocxles _ paviCiuaryobs bogomilur eretikosul swavlebas.
RvTismSoblis siwminde principulad mniSvnelovania paviCis mikrokosmSi,rogorc `axali sicoxlis~ siTbo. axali wre _ es ukve marTlmadi-

realobis SigniTa mxare: drosa da maradisobis problema ...

303

debuliSeqmnis wrea, `cocxali sicocxlis~, da ara bogomiluri askezis


wre,sicocxlis ganadgurebis. paviCi ar uaryofs bogomilebis miTs, magrammirebisTanave sakuTar interpretacias aZlevs `maradiul dabrunebas~. aradangreva _ aramed Seqmna. maSin suli namdvilad wava usasrulobis wreze
dadaubrundeba RvTiur sawyiss.
rogorc ar unda icvlebodes milorad paviCis teqsti, is mainc gvagonebsCvens kuTvnilobas istoriisadmi, mis maradiul, metafizikur wrebrunvaSi,romlis gareSec adamiani marTlac gardaiqceva `arafrad~, sicarieled.istorizmis principze dayrdnobili paviCis qronotoposs mkiTxveli
Sehyavs istoriis metafizikaSi da marTlac `ucxod~ gamoiyureba postmodernizmis samyaroSi.
rogorc vnaxeT, milorad paviCis Semoqmedebis gageba SeuZlebeli xdeba
filosofiis, istoriisa da religiebaTmcodneobis sabaziso sakiTxebis codnis gareSe. Cveulebriv mkiTxvels paviCi sTavazobs Tavsatexs, romelic misTvis SeiZleba mosawyeni da mosabezrebeli gaxdes. drosa da maradisobisproblemis gaazrebiT Cven davinaxeT, Tu ra imaleba paviCis spontanuriprozis
somboloebs miRma, Tu ras gulisxmobs mwerali maradiul gameorebaSi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom paviCis prozis protagonistebi xSirad miTologiur gmirebs ukavSirdebian, amitom mkiTxelisTvis mniSvnelovanianawarmoebSi Caqsovili miTologemebis swori gageba da gaazreba. am mxriv, paviCs proza ara
mxolod sulier sazrdos aZlevs mkiTxvels, aramed aviTarebs mis inteleqts.
literatura:
angelevi 1969: . . :
, ...
// , 1997. 8.
bogdiiari 2000: . . .: Ad Marginem,
.
1998.
derida 2000: . . .:
.
erofeevi 2001: . , ,.
ivanovi 1970: . . :
,.
panCenko 2000: . . .:
..
rudnevi 1997: . . XX .
. .: ,
svetlovi 2001: . . . //
. . .: ,
triolCi 1994: . . .: .

304

Tamar xitiri

Tamar Khitiri
The problem of time and eternity in Milorad Pavic's prose

This article focuses mainly on the problem of time and eternity in the prose
of one if the best known postmodernist writers Milorad Pavic. He is believed to
be modern Homers and his best known novel
''Dictionary of the Khazars'' is mentioned by critics as ''electronic Odyssey''
But the phenomena of Pavic's prose is difficult to understand for readers,
because they must have the keys to understand the hypertext.
And the main part is to understand the philosophy and theosophical views
of writer, which are connected with philosophy of bogomilisim.
For Pavic the history is eternally repetitive reality and all that is happening
has already happened before. Connected with bogomilism, his micro universe
shows us how people live and die, but their souls continue living in different
times, in different bodies, repeating the circle.
And there is no way out, just purification of the soul, to be closer to God
and to go away from Devil. According to Bogomils, human is creation of Satan
and only human's soul belongs to God. Pavic goes further and gives people
chance to change this, to become closer to God and tear the circle of eternal
repetitive events.
Therefore the understanding of Milorad Pavic's prose is impossible without
understanding of his micro universe, his philosophy and realizing of what time
and space means to him in bogomilic point of view.

SoTa jijieSvili
,,neopatristikuli sinTezis~ meTodi Tanamedrove
Teologiis Suqze
adreuli Suasaukuneebis da Semdgomi
bizantiuri Teologia exeboda ,,rwmenis~
(zogadad sarwmunoebis) fenomens, romelic
romelic adamianis fundamentur SesaZleblobebs ganekuTvneba da amas akeTebda ,,Signidan~da ara ,,garedan~ dakvirvebis meTodiT.
es ar iyo e.w. postmodernuli epoqa,sadac
TavisTavad araa gaazrebuli, romRmerTi arsebobs da eklesias eniWeba mniSvnelovani
mdgomareoba. im epoqebSi bunebrivad iTvleboda, rom arsebobs RmerTi dasaWiroa eklesiuri organizmi, eklesiuri swavlebiT
,,qristes mistiuri sxeuli~. rogorc cnobili berZeni kanonisti _ prof. p. bumisi
wers: ,,eklesia ar aris martivi sxeuli
(korpusi), an (mxolod) iuridiuli piri,
Sedgenili fizikuri pirebisagan, romlebic
amaTuim drois SualedSi cxovroben dedamiwaze. eklesia aris RmerTkacebrivi organizmi, romlis Tavi aris qriste, xolo sxeuli
_ yoveli qristiani ,,caTa Sina da queyanasa
zeda, vinc ki ganekuTvneba an mozeime, an mebrZol eklesias. saerTod, qristianul eklesias yoveli sxva organizaciisagan is ganasxvavebs,rom masSi samociqulo memkvidreobisa da swavlebis (Teologiis) dacviT arsebobs da moqmedebs suliwminda~(bumisi
2010:76). es adamianebs swamdaT upirobod(yovel SemTxvevaSi umravlesobas mainc).
SeiZleba masebs ise naTlad ar esmodaT, rac
swamdaT, magram swamdaT pidapir, martivad,

306

SoTa jijieSvili

rTuli gaazrebis gareSe. ,,qristianuli eklesiis RmerTi aris RmerTi istoriuli gamocdilebisa~(ianarasi 1992:53).
Tanamedrove globalistur sazogadoebebSi sxva suraTia: Tuki adamiani
ar fiqrobs RmerTze da maradisobaze, ar gaiazrebs amas, aqedan gamomdinare, mas
ar swams RmerTi da/an umetes SemTxvevaSi fiqrobs, rom ar sWirdeba es, amitomzogierTi Tanamedrove Teologis dakvirvebiT, morwmune epoqidan urwmuno epoqaSi gadasvla ki ar moxda,aramed moxda gadasvla saerTo konkretuli qristianuli faseulobebidan amorful, ganusazRvrel warmodgenebze konkretikis
gareSe.
Tanamedrove Teologiam unda miawodos adamians dRevandel konteqstSi pasuxebi mTel rig konkretul sakiTxebze.upirobo rwmenas unda daaxmaros Sesabamisi inteleqtualuri instrumentaliebi. es aris misi erTerTi ZiriTadi amocana sxva amocanebTan erTad.Teologiam unda gaxsnas wm. mamaTa saukuneebiT dagrovili gamocdileba, maTi naazrevi, sadac RmerTi da
misdami rwmena ganixileba ara rogorc mxolod idea, aramed upiratesad rogorc pirovneba, radgan rogor SeiZleba mimarTo ideas, an urTierToba
gqondes masTan. aq saWiroa SegrZneba imisa, rac STambeWdavia, rac ipyrobs
adamianTa gulebs bibliis kiTxvisas, liturgiis mosmenisas Tu Teologiuri traqtatis gacnobisas.aqve unda iTqvas, rom es ar gaxlavT inteleqtualuri varjiSi pirdapiri gagebiT, radgan am SemTxvevaSi igi Sewyvets Tavis
arsebobas da gadaiqceva ,,gvianantikuri epoqis azris istoriad~ an sxva raRac ganyenebul filosofiur spekulaciebad. ,,qristianuli doqtrina aris
eklesiis moZRvreba,igi momdinareobs ubralo laTinuri sityvidan -,,rac
unda iswavlo~- doceo -swavleba,xolo dogma,msofliom aiRo berZeni mamebisagan,rac niSnavs ,,miviCnev~, ,,mjera~ (ziziulasi 2008: 5). Teologia (Teologi) pirdapir miemarTeba RmerTisaken, masTan uSualo urTierTobisaken
(locvis fenomeni).rogorc vl.loski wers:,,RvTismetyveli ar eZebs
RmerTs msgavsad raime sagnisa, aramed TviT RmerTi eufleba RvTismetyvels
iseve,rogorc Cven gveufleba visime pirovneba...RmerTma pirvelma ipova
igi~(loski 2007:3). e.i. am procesSi mTlianad aris adamiani ,,CarTuli~ Tavisi gonebiTa da azrovnebiT, sinergizmis principis Tanaxmad.
postbizantiurma Teologiam dRevandelobamde didi da ekliani gza
gamoiara istoriulad, ra problemebi idga da dgas mis winaSe meoce,agreTve
ocdameerTe saukunis dasawyisSi,SevecdebiT gavaanalizoT zemoTwamoWrili sakiTxebis pasuxad.
istoriuli diskursis kvaldakval bevri Teologi saubrobda wm. mamebze
ise, TiTqos es aris pirovnebaTa jgufi,romlebic koleqtiurad muSaoben da weren erTsa da imaves. maSin roca, eklesiis mamebi cxovrobdnen umetesad sxvadasxva epoqaSi da werdnen sxvadasxva kulturul-istoriul konteqstSi. aseve
araerTxel Sediodnen erTmaneTis SexedulebebTan disputSi, gamoTqvamdnen e. w.
,,pirad saRvTismetyvelo azrebs~-TeoloRumenebs, romelTac ar iRebs eklesiis swavlebis sisavse. am SemTxvevaSi rogor gaigeba ,,consesus patrum~-wm. mamaTa
SenmTanxmebluri azri? nawili Teologebisa fiqrobda,rom es aris erTgvari

`neopatristikuli sinTezis~ meTodi Tanamedrove Teologiis Suqze

307

,,jami Teologiisa~, arsebobda meore Sexedulebac, romlis Tanaxmadac aq igulisxmeba erTsulovneba mTavar sakiTxebSi, magramazrTa sxvadasxvaoba calkeul punqtebSi.mitr. ilarioni (alfeevi) wers: ,,marTlmadidebluri swavlebiT,
RvTismetyveluri sizustis mTavari kriteriumia e.w. consensus partum _ ,,mamebis SeTanxmeba~ doqtrinis mTavar sakiTxebSi.magram ar SeiZleba es consensus
gavigoT, rogorc wm. mamaTamieri azris raRac xelovnuri ,,saerTo mniSvneli~,
romelic TiTqosda ,TiToeuli avtorisagan yovelgvari individualuri da misi yvelaze mkafio azris mokveTiT Seiqmna. vgoneb, ,,mamebis SeTanxmeba~gulisxmobs maT Tanamoazreobas mTavarSi, calkeul punqtebSi SesaZlo azrTa sxvaobis pirobebSi. amitom wminda mamaTa mravali kerZo azri, romelic sarwmunoebis
RvTivganaTlebul mamaTa sulieri Ziebis nayofebs warmoadgens, xelovnurad ar
unda moikveTos RvTismetyvelebis gamartivebuli sqemebis an ,,Sejamebis~ Sesaqmnelad~ (alfeevi 2013:18). am da kidev sxva fundamenturi sakiTxebis Zieba dadga dRis wesrigSi mecxramete saukunis bolosa da gansakuTrebiT meoce saukuneSi,rogorc aRmosavleTis, ise dasavleTis eklesiebSi. unda iTqvas, rom aRmosavleTis marTlmadidebluri eklesiis Teologia garkveuli stagnaciis Semdeg, rasac Tavisi obieqturi da subieqturi mizezebi hqonda, mecxramete saukunis meore naxevarSi aRorZinebis gzas adgeba. eklesiis wm.mamaTa umdidresi memkvidreobis mecnieruli Seswavla da gaazreba iwyeba, romelic Tavis apogeas meoce saukunis meore naxevarSi aRwevs. es procesi Cans e.w. ,,parizis~ skolis
warmomadgenlebTan, ruseTis emigraciuli eklesiis TeologebTan _ dekanozi
s. bulgakovi, arqimandriti kipriane kerni, prof. vl. loski, i.meindorfi da
sxvebi.maT dasaxes wm. mamaTa memkvidreobis Seswavlis gzebi.gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia mama giorgi florovskis damsaxureba,romelsac lomis wvlili miuZRvis mamaTamieri memkvidreobis gaazrebaSi, kerZod ki, idea ,,neopatristikuli
sinTezisa~. rogorc Tavad ambobda,Teologiis Seswavlam didi xania miiyvana im
ideamde,romelsac uwodeben ,,neopatristikul sinTezs~. es unda iyos ara ubralod mamaTa gamonaTqvamebisa da mtkicebulebebis krebuli, aramed SemoqmedebiTi gadafaseba, sinTezi sulieri xedvebisa,romelic zegardamo miecaT wminda
adamianebs da mimarTuli unda iyos Tanamedrove adamianisadmi, raTa Tanamedrove
kiTxvebsa da gamowvevebs gasces pasuxi.
1936 wels aTenSi Catarebul pirvel marTlmadidebluri Teologiis
saerTaSoriso konferenciaze florovskim ganacxada,rom marTlmadidebluri Teologia aucilebelia `daubrundes mamebs~da ganTavisufldes dasavluri Teologiis `babilonis tyveobidan~, romelic warmoiSva enisa da azrovnebis doneze. am Temas is araerTxel miubrunda da sakuTar SromebSi
xSirad iyenebs termin `fsevdomorfozas~. es termini aRniSnavs im xangrZlivi procesis aRweras, rac gaiara marTlmadideblurma Teologiam, miuxedavad xazgasmuli apofatizmisa, laTinizaciisa da vesternizaciis gzaze. es azri garda Cvens mier dasaxelebuli rusuli diasporis Teologebisa, aitaces iseT tradiciul marTlmadideblur qveynebSi, rogorebicaa: saberZneTi, serbeTi, rumineTi da sxva. kerZod, mama dimitru staniloem, aw ukve wm. iustine popoviCma da 60-iani wlebis berZenma Teologebma.es niSnavda

308

SoTa jijieSvili

sakuTari identobis gamoyvanas pietizmisa da gabatonebuli akademiuri


sqolastikis sazRvrebidan. am gamosvlam miiRo`neopatristikuli sinTezis~ forma, romlis ganmasxvavebeli niSani gaxda `Teologiis egzistencialuri xasiTi,~ romelic TavisTavSi moicavda sakuTari tradiciis SenarCunebas da amavdroulad ganaxlebas. am inovaciurobis mixedviT miviReT meoce
saukune, rogorc tradiciebis gadaxedvis saukune.marTlmadideblur Teologias mieca saSualeba gamxdariyo Tanamedrove samyaros nawili, da/an dialogSi gamoexata sakuTari Sinagani SemoqmedebiTi niWebi.
Teologiurma moZraoba `mamebTan dabrunebam~ kvlevis gzaze dasaxa
Semdegi mniSvnelovani debulebani:
1.gamococxleba bibleistikisadmi minavlebuli interesisa;
2.jansaRi tradicionalizmisadmi Semobruneba;
3.ganyofa ori tradiciisa _ sakuTari da dasavluri;
4.susti reaqciebis daZleva Tanamedrove Teologiis mimarTebisa samyarosadmi
da sxva.
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, mTeli meoce saukunis ganmavlobaSi es sakiTxebi gadaiqca ZiriTad amocanad imdenad, rom daCrdila yvela Teologiuri
sakiTxi da sxva sirTuleebi (maT Soris politikuri), romlebic warmoiSveba Tanamedrove samyaroSi. ase rom, es saukune gaxda erTgvari `ganmaaxlebluri~ saukune qristianul TeologiaSi, magram es iyo reaqcia Tanamedroveobis mimarT. neopatristikam mouwoda ra `mamebisaken dabrunebisaTvis~,
Tundac SemoqmedebiTi gaazrebiT, scada gaeTavisuflebina marTlmadidebluri moZRvreba modernistul- dasavluri gavlenebisagan, rac ar aZlevda
mas saSualebas, rom Rrmad Caexeda Tanamedrove gamowvevebSi da saTanado pasuxi gaeca misTvis. am yvelafris gaTvaliswinebiT, florovski moiTxovda
`elinizmidan~ argasvlas,ramac morigi, SeiZleba iTqvas,radikalurad gansxvavebuli problemebis dasma gamoiwvia. magaliTad, dekanoz aleqsandre
Smemani ufro Sors wavida,Tqva ra: `marTlmadidebluri Teologia unda daeyrdnos sakuTar patristikul safuZvels,magram unda wavides mamebze
`win~, raTa upasuxos axal situacias, romelic Seiqmna filosofiuri ganviTarebis aswleuliT. am sinTezSi an rekonstruqciaSi axalma dasavlurma
filosofiurma tradiciam da ara berZnulma, unda aRWurvos Teologia Tavisi konceptualuri struqturiT~. amgvari xedva ukve postpatristikis
iers iZens,radgan `elinuri~ filosofiuri terminologiuri aparati icvleba mTlianad Tu ara, mniSvnelovanwilad axali drois filosofiur _
terminologiuri aparatiT.es ver ganxorcielda maSin, radgan SeeCixa mTel
rig dogmatur reaqciebs. miuxedavad amisa,am ideam didi gamoxmaureba hpova
dasavleTis Teologiur-samecniero wreebSi.(i.ozeri, h.fon balTazari, a.de
lubaki, J.danielu, v. felkneri, v.iegeri,i. kvasteni, j. keli, l. prestiJi,
bermonazoni gabriel bunge, s. broki da sxvebi.)meoce saukunis saerTo Teologiuri mecniereba warmoudgenelia am mecnierTa gareSe, romelTac SeZles TavianT naSromebSi daeZliaT is konfesiuri barieri, rac aSorebdaT

`neopatristikuli sinTezis~ meTodi Tanamedrove Teologiis Suqze

309

Zvel qristianul tradicias. maT SeZles dasavluri samyarosaTvis gaexsnaT


aRmosavleTis eklesiis mamaTa memkvidreoba, romelic TiTqmis miviwyebuli
iyo dasavleTSi da axali suli STaberes mas.
`neopatristikuli sinTezis~ meTodis erTgvar gagrZelebas warmoadgens da dRes aqtualuri xdeba e.w. `konteqstualuri meTodi~. igi SeiZleba
gamoyenebul iqnes romelime erTi saeklesio avtoris kvlevisas. rac ufro
kargad viciT am avtoris konteqsti, ufro meti Sansia adeqvaturad gavigoT misi saRvTismetyvelo sistema. ar SeiZleba msjeloba ama Tu im saeklesio avtorze, Tu ar ici misi `ena~, Sesabamisad misi qveynisa da eklesiis istoria,konkretuli istoriuli epoqa.es meTodi uaryofs xelovnurad
amoglejil citatebs ama Tu im avtoris Semoqmedebidan, Tu ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli misi mTliani Teologiuri konteqstis sistema.
`konteqstualuri meTodi~ aseve SesaZleblobas iZleva gakeTdes SedarebiTi analizi ramdenime mamis Semoqmedebisa, romlebic ama Tu im saxiT dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan. oRond winapirobiT, rom ar SeiZleba xelovnurad SevaweboT erTi avtori meoresTan,romelic cxovrobda sruliad gansxvavebul epoqasa da mis konteqstSi. saWiroa realuri kavSirebis povna avtorebs Soris mTel rig sakvanZo sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi. am meTodiT SesaZlebelia gakeTdes SedarebiTi analizi qristianobisa sxva religiur sistemebTan.
Tuki Tanmimdevrulad iqneba gamoyenebuli `konteqstualuri meTodi~,SeiZleba wm. mamaTa SemoqmedebaSi gairCes _ ra aris droiTi da ra maradiuli, anu
erTis mxriv ra aris istoriulad faseuli da saukuneebs gamotarebuli, romelic aucilebelia Tanamedrove qristianisaTvis da meore _ ra gvevlineba istoriis kuTvnilebad, romelic daibada da darCa sakuTari konteqstis SigniT,
romelSic cxovrobda mocemuli saeklesio avtori. davaskvniT, rom konteqstis rekonstruqcia Tanamedrove Teologiis erTerTi mTavari prerogativaa.
Tanamedrove Teologebi mitr.ioane ziziulasi,mitr.ieroTeos vlaxosi, mitr. kaliste ueari, dekanozi endriu laufi da sxvebi miiCneven,rom wm.
mamebs unda SevxedoT ara rogorc mxolod teqstebis Semdgenlebs, aramed
rogorc adamianebs, romlebsac SeuZliaT Cveni daxmareba Ziebis procesSi,
mogvcen pasuxebi kiTxvebze, SeiZleba pirdapir ar gvipasuxon, magram isini
mogvcemen raRac ideebs.
mamaTa citatebis gamoyenebis ori erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli xerxi arsebobs: erTi, rogorc principebis krebuli, roca Tavad principebi
gvainteresebs da meore _ SeiZleba citireba sxvanairadac,rogorc poeti
iyenebs citatas,raTa naTeli gaxados raRac.es ar aris mokled azris gadmocema,aramed daformulireba imisa, rac TvalSi sacemia, rac STambeWdavia,
arsobrivia, anu wm. aTanase didis termin fronema-Ti.
Seasrula Tu ara `neopatristikuli sinTezis~ meTodma Tavisi mowodeba
meoce saukuneSi? `dabuneba mamebTan~ Cafiqrebuli iyo, rogorc erTgvari `paradigmis Sereva~ marTlmadideblur TeologiaSi. es man nawilobriv SeZlo. Tanamedrove Teologiam, ra Tqma unda, ar unda daiviwyos an gardahxdes wminda mama-

310

SoTa jijieSvili

Tamier azrovnebas, magramunda SeZlos da moiyvanos igi dialogSi rTul da


zogjer provokaciul sakiTxebTan,romelsac ayenebs modernisa da postmodernis epoqa. marTlmadideblurma Teologiam unda gamoimuSavos sakuTari midgoma
im sakiTxebze,rasac ar Sexebia wminda mamaTamieri azri, raTa gadalaxos fundamentalizmi, romelsac awydeba Tanamedrove saeklesio sazogadoeba, pirispir
darCenili realur Tanamedrove globalistur samyarosTan.
literatura:
alfeevi 2013: mitr. ilarioni (alfeevi)., sarwmunoebis saidumloeba, Tbilisi;
bumisi2010: bumisi p., kanonikuri samarTali, Tbilisi;
ziziulasi 2008: John D.Zizioulas., lectures in Christian dogmatics, New
York;
ianarasi 1992: ., , ;
loski2007: loski vl., dogmaturi RvTismetyveleba, Tbilisi.
Shota Jijieshvili
~Neopatristic Synthesis Method in the Light of Modern theology
Development of theology as a science proceeded in a very interesting way
from late medieval period well into 19th and especially in the 20th centuries, in
the western as well as eastern churches. It should be noted that after certain
stagnation, which had its objective reasons, the theology of the Eastern Church
rose on its higher level of development in the 19th century. The scholarly study of
the richest heritage of the holy fathers starts and reaches its apogee in the 20th
century, the second half in particular. It is well seen with the representative of the
so called ~Parisian School and the theologians of the Russian emigration church
Archimandrite Sergei Bulgakov, Archimandrite Cyprian Kern, Vl. Lossky,
protopresbyter John Meyendorff. They outlined the ways of further study of the
holy fathers heritage. The merit of Father Georges Florovsky is of special
significance. He had a lions share in understanding holy fathers heritage,
namely, the idea of ~Neopatristic Synthesis. As he writes, the study of theology
led him long ago to the idea called ~Neopatristic Synthesis. It should be a
collection of not only holy fathers expressions and convictions but creative
reevaluation and synthesis of spiritual visions divinely granted to the holy fathers
and directed towards modern humanity. At the same time, it should respond to
modern problems and questions. The article also deals with western theologians
approach towards this issue and gives comparative analysis of the methods.

gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30
E-mail: universal@internet.ge; universal505@ymail.com