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PRESENTE

En ingls, hay cuatro tiempos verbales de presente. Utilizamos el presente


para hablar de algo que est ocurriendo ahora, o que es cierto ahora y en
cualquier momento.

Simple present para referirse a rutinas y hechos generales.

Present continuous para hablar de acciones que estn teniendo lugar


en este momento.

Present perfect para acciones repetidas, acciones en que la


dimensin temporal no es relevante y acciones que empezaron en el
pasado y an no han finalizado.

Present perfect continuous Para hablar de acciones en curso, en las


que tanto el proceso como el resultado son importantes.

SIMPLE PRESENT
EL "SIMPLE PRESENT" SE UTILIZA:

Para expresar hbitos y rutinas, hechos generales, acciones repetidas


o situaciones, emociones y deseos permanentes:
I smoke (hbito); I work in London (permanencia); London is a
large city (hecho general)

Para dar instrucciones o indicaciones:


You walk for two hundred meters, then you turn left.

Para hablar de eventos programados, presentes o futuros:


Your exam starts at 09.00.

Para referirse al futuro, detrs de algunas conjunciones: after, when,


before, as soon as, until:
He'll give it to you when you come next Saturday.

Cuidado! El "simple present" no se utiliza para hablar de lo que


est ocurriendo en este momento.
EJEMPLOS

Hbitos y rutinas
He drinks tea at breakfast.
She only eats fish.
They watch television regularly.

Eventos y acciones repetidos


We catch the bus every morning.

It rains every afternoon in the hot season.


They drive to Monaco every summer.

Hechos generales
Water freezes at zero degrees.
The Earth revolves around the Sun.
Her mother is Peruvian.

Instrucciones o indicaciones
Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water.
You take the No.6 bus to Watney and then the No.10 to Bedford.

Eventos programados
His mother arrives tomorrow.
Our holiday starts on the 26th March

Construcciones de futuro
She'll see you before she leaves.
We'll give it to her when she arrives.

FORMACIN DEL "SIMPLE PRESENT": TO THINK


Afirmativa

Interrogativa

Negativa

I think

Do I think?

I do not think

You think

Do you think?

You do not think

He thinks

Does he think?

He does not think

She thinks

Does she think?

She does not think

It thinks

Does it think?

It does not think

We think

Do we think?

We do not think.

They think

Do they think?

They do not think.

NOTAS SOBRE LA TERCERA PERSONA DEL SINGULAR DEL "SIMPLE PRESENT"

En la tercera persona del singular, el verbo siempre termina en -s:


he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.

Para las formas negativa e interrogativa, se emplea DOES (= tercera


persona del auxiliar 'DO') + el infinitivo del verbo.
He wants ice cream. Does he want strawberry? He does not want
vanilla.

Verbos que terminan en -y : en la tercera persona del singular, se


cambia la -y por -ies:
fly --> flies, cry --> cries
Excepcin: cuando una vocal precede a la -y:
play --> plays, pray --> prays

Aadimos -es a los verbos que terminan en:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch:
he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes

EJEMPLOS

He goes to school every morning.

She understands English.

It mixes the sand and the water.

He tries very hard.

She enjoys playing the piano.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
FORMACIN DEL "PRESENT CONTINUOUS"
El "present continuous" de cualquier verbo se compone de dos partes: el
presente del verbo to be + el "present participle" del verbo principal.
(Para formar el "present participle": raz+ing, e.g. talking, playing, moving,
smiling)
Afirmativa
Sujeto

+ to be

+ raz + ing

She

is

talking.

Sujeto

+ to be + not

+ raz + ing

She

is not (isn't)

talking

+ sujeto

+ raz + ing

Negativa

Interrogativa
to be

Is

she

talking?

EJEMPLOS: TO GO, "PRESENT CONTINUOUS"

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativ

I am going

I am not going

Am I going?

You are going

You aren't going.

Are you goin

He, she, it is going

He, she, it isn't going

Is he, she, it

We are going

We aren't going

Are we going

You are going

You aren't going

Are you goin

They are going

They aren't going

Are they goin

Nota: contracciones de las formas negativas: I'm not going, you're not
going, he's not going etc.
FUNCIONES DEL "PRESENT CONTINUOUS"
Como ocurre con todos los tiempos verbales del ingls, la actitud del
hablante es tan importante como el momento en que ocurre la accin o el
evento. Al emplear el "present continuous", nos estamos refiriendo a algo
que no ha terminado o est incompleto
EL "PRESENT CONTINUOUS" SE UTILIZA:

para describir una accin que est teniendo lugar en este


momento: You are using the Internet. You are studying English
grammar.

para describir una tendencia o una accin que est sucediendo en la


actualidad: Are you still working for the same company? More and
more people are becoming vegetarian.

para describir una accin o evento futuros que ya estn


programados: We're going on holiday tomorrow. I'm meeting my
boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter?

para describir una situacin o evento temporales: He usually plays


the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight. The weather
forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment.

con "always, forever, constantly", para describir y enfatizar una


sucesin de acciones repetidas: Harry and Sally are always
arguing! You're constantly complaining about your mother-inlaw!

CUIDADO! Hay algunos verbos que no suelen emplear la forma progresiva


VERBOS QUE NO SUELEN EMPLEAR LA FORMA PROGRESIVA
Los verbos de la siguiente lista suelen utilizar la forma simple porque hacen
referencia a estados, ms que acciones o procesos.
SENSACIN / PERCEPCIN

to feel*

to hear

to see*

to smell

to taste

OPININ

to assume

to believe

to consider

to doubt

to feel (= pensar)

to find (= considerar)

to suppose

to think*

ESTADOS MENTALES

to forget

to imagine

to know

to mean

to notice

to recognise

to remember

to understand

EMOCIONES / DESEOS

to envy

to fear

to dislike

to hate

to hope

to like

to love

to mind

to prefer

to regret

to want

to wish

MEDIDAS

to contain

to cost

to hold

to measure

to weigh

OTROS

to look (=parecerse a)

to seem

to be (en la mayora de los casos)

to have(cuando significa "poseer")*

EXCEPCIONES
Los verbos de sensacin y percepcin (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) suelen
utilizarse con can: : I can see... Pueden tomar la forma progresiva pero, en
este caso, su significado suele variar.

This coat feels nice and warm. (percepcin de las cualidades del
abrigo)

John's feeling much better now (est mejor de salud)

She has three dogs and a cat. (posesin)

She's having supper. (est tomando)

I can see Anthony in the garden (percepcin)

I'm seeing Anthony later (tenemos intencin de vernos)

PASADO
En ingls, existen cuatro tiempos verbales de pasado. Los empleamos para hablar de
acciones que empezaron y terminaron en el pasado, o de acciones iniciadas en el pasado y
que continan en el presente.

Simple past para acciones que empiezan y terminan en el pasado.

Past continuous para acciones iniciadas en el pasado que continan en el presente.

Past perfect para acciones que empezaron y terminaron en el pasado, con


anterioridad a otra accin tambin ocurrida en el pasado.

Past perfect continuous para acciones que estaban ocurriendo en el pasado hasta
que tuvo lugar otra accin.

SIMPLE PAST
FUNCIONES DEL "SIMPLE PAST"
El "simple past" se utiliza para hablar de una accin que concluy en un
tiempo anterior al actual. La duracin no es relevante. El tiempo en que
se sita la accin puede ser el pasado reciente o un pasado lejano.
EJEMPLOS

John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.

My father died last year.

He lived in Fiji in 1976.

We crossed the Channel yesterday.

Siempre se utiliza el "simple past" para referirse a cundo ocurri algo, de


modo que va asociado a ciertas expresiones temporales que indican:

frecuencia: often, sometimes, always


I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
I often brought my lunch to school.

un tiempo determinado: last week, when I was a child, yesterday,


six weeks ago
We saw a good film last week.
Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
She finished her work atseven o'clock
I went to the theatre last night

un tiempo indeterminado: the other day, ages ago, a long time


ago People lived in caves a long time ago.

She played the piano when she was a child.

Nota: el trmino ago es til para expresar distancia temporal en el pasado.


Se coloca despus del periodo de tiempo de que se trate: a week ago,
three years ago, a minute ago.
Cuidado: el "simple past" del ingls puede parecerse a un tiempo verbal de
tu propio idioma y, sin embargo, su significado puede ser distinto.
FORMACIN DEL "SIMPLE PAST"
FORMACIN DEL "SIMPLE PAST" CON VERBOS REGULARES
Afirmativa
Sujeto

+ raz + ed

skipped.

Negativa
Sujeto

+ did not

+ infinitivo sin to

They

didn't

go.

Interrogativa
Did

+ sujeto

+ infinitivo sin to

Did

she

arrive?

Did not

+ sujeto

+ infinitivo sin to

Didn't

you

play?

Interrogativa negativa

TO WALK
Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativ

I walked

I didn't walk

Did I walk?

You walked

You didn't walk

Did you walk?

He walked

He didn't walk

Did he walk?

We walked

We didn't walk

Did we walk?

They walked

They didn't walk

Did they walk

"SIMPLE PAST" DE LOS VERBOS TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO


Sujeto

Verbo
Be

Have

was

had

You

were

had

He/She/It

was

had

We

were

had

Sujeto

Verbo

You

were

had

They

were

had

NOTAS SOBRE LAS CONSTRUCCIONES AFIRMATIVA, NEGATIVA E


INTERROGATIVA
AFIRMATIVA
La forma afirmativa del "simple past" es sencilla.

I was in Japan last year

She had a headache yesterday.

We did our homework last night.

NEGATIVA E INTERROGATIVA
Para las formas negativa e interrogativa del "simple past" del
verbo "do" como verbo ordinario, se emplea como auxiliar "do", e.g.
We didn't do our homework last night.
La forma negativa del verbo "have" en "simple past" suele construirse
utilizando el auxiliar "do", aunque en ocasiones solo se aade not o la
contraccin "n't".
La forma interrogativa del verbo "have" en "simple past" suele emplear el
auxiliar "do".
EJEMPLOS

They weren't in Rio last summer.

We didn't have any money.

We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.

We didn't do our exercises this morning.

Were they in Iceland last January?

Did you have a bicycle when you were young?

Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Nota: para construir las formas negativa e interrogativa de todos los


verbos en "simple past", se utiliza siempre el auxiliar 'did''.
"SIMPLE PAST": VERBOS IRREGULARES

Algunos verbos hacen el "simple past" de forma irregular. Estos son los ms
comunes.
TO GO

He went to a club last night.

Did he go to the cinema last night?

He didn't go to bed early last night.

TO GIVE

We gave her a doll for her birthday.

They didn't give John their new address.

Did Barry give you my passport?

TO COME

My parents came to visit me last July.

We didn't come because it was raining.

Did he come to your party last week?

PAST CONTINUOUS
FUNCIONES DEL "PAST CONTINUOUS"
El "past continuous" describe acciones o eventos situados en un
tiempo anterior al presente, cuyo comienzo se sita en el pasado y
que todava no ha concluido en el momento de hablar. Dicho de otro
modo, expresa una accin incompleta o inconclusa del pasado.
Se utiliza:

Con frecuencia, para describir el contexto en una historia escrita en


pasado, e.g. "The sun was shining and the birds were singing as
the elephant came out of the jungle. The other animals were
relaxing in the shade of the trees, but the elephant moved very
quickly. She was looking for her baby, and she didn't notice the
hunter who was watching her through his binoculars. When the shot
rang out, she was running towards the river..."

para describir una accin incompleta que se vio interrumpida por otra
accin o evento, e.g. "I was having a beautiful dream when the
alarm clock rang."

para expresar un cambio de opinin: e.g. "I was going to spend the
day at the beach but I've decided to get my homework done instead."

con 'wonder', para formular una peticin muy educada: e.g. "I was
wondering if you could baby-sit for me tonight."

EJEMPLOS

They were waiting for the bus when the accident happened.

Caroline was skiing when she broke her leg.

When we arrived he was having a bath.

When the fire started I was watching television.

Nota: con los verbos que no suelen conjugarse en "past continuous" se


emplea normalmente el "simple past".
FORMACIN DEL "PAST CONTINUOUS"
El "past continuous" de cualquier verbo est compuesto de dos partes: el
pasado del verbo "to be" (was/were) y la raz del verbo principal +ing.
Sujeto

was/were

raz + ing

They

were

watching

was

reading

wasn't

reading

she

reading?

she

reading?

Afirmativa
She
Negativa
She
Interrogativa
Was
Interrogativa negativa
Wasn't
TO PLAY, "PAST CONTINUOUS"

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativ

I was playing

I was not playing

Was I playing

You were playing

You were not playing

Were you pla

He was playing

He wasn't playing

Was he playi

We were playing

We weren't playing

Were we play

They were playing

They weren't playing

Were they pl

PRESENT PERFECT
FORMACIN DEL "PRESENT PERFECT"
El "present perfect" de cualquier verbo est compuesto por dos elementos:
la forma apropiada del verbo auxiliar to have (en presente) y el "past
participle" del verbo principal. La forma del "past participle" de un verbo
regular es raz+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. En cuanto a los verbos
irregulares, consulta la Tabla de verbos irregulares de la
seccin 'Verbos'.
Afirmativa
Sujeto

to have

past part

She

has

visited.

Sujeto

to have + not

past part

She

has not (hasn't)

visited.

Negativa

Interrogativa

to have

sujeto

past part

Has

she

visited?

to have + not

sujeto

past part

Hasn't

she

visited?

Interrogativa negativa

TO WALK, "PRESENT PERFECT"

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I have walked

I haven't walked

Have I walked

You have walked

You haven't walked.

Have you walk

He, she, it has walked

He, she, hasn't walked

Has he, she, it

We have walked

We haven't walked

Have we walk

You have walked

You haven't walked

Have you walk

They have walked

They haven't walked

Have they wa

FUNCIONES DEL "PRESENT PERFECT"


El "present perfect" se emplea para sealar un vnculo entre el presente y el
pasado. El tiempo en que transcurre la accin es anterior al presente
pero inespecfico y, a menudo, recae un mayor inters sobre
el resultado que sobre la propia accin.
CUIDADO! Puede que, en tu idioma, exista un tiempo verbal con una
estructura similar pero es probable que su significado NO sea el mismo.
EL "PRESENT PERFECT" SE UTILIZA PARA DESCRIBIR

Una accin o situacin iniciada en el pasado y que contina en el


presente. I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= todava vivo all.)

Una accin realizada durante un periodo de tiempo an no


concluido. Shehas beento the cinema twice this week (= la semana
todava no ha terminado.)

Una accin repetida en un periodo temporal inespecfico situado entre


el pasado y el presente. We have visited Portugal several times.

Una accin que ha concluido en un pasado muy reciente, lo que se


indica mediante 'just'. I have just finished my work.

Una accin para la cual no es importante el momento preciso en que


aconteci. He has read 'War and Peace'. (= lo relevante es el
resultado de la accin)

Nota: Cuando queremos dar o pedir informacin sobre cundo, dnde o


quin, empleamos el "simple past". Consulta cmo elegir entre el "simple
past" y el "present perfect".
ACCIONES INICIADAS EN EL PASADO Y QUE CONTINAN EN EL PRESENTE

They haven't lived here for years.

She has worked in the bank for five years.

We have had the same car for ten years.

Have you played the piano since you were a child?

CUANDO SE HACE REFERENCIA A UN PERIODO TEMPORAL INACABADO

I have worked hard this week.

It has rained a lot this year.

We haven't seen her today.

ACCIONES REITERADAS EN UN PERIODO INESPECFICO, ENTRE EL PASADO Y


EL PRESENTE.

They have seen that film six times

It has happened several times already.

She has visited them frequently.

We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

ACCIONES CONCLUIDAS EN UN PASADO MUY RECIENTE (+JUST)

Have you just finished work?

I have just eaten.

We have just seen her.

Has he just left?

CUANDO LA DIMENSIN TEMPORAL NO ES RELEVANTE O CONOCIDA

Someone has eaten my soup!

Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'?

She's studied Japanese, Russian, and English.

PRESENT PERFECT + EVER, NEVER, ALREADY, YET


EVER
Los adverbios "ever" y "never" se refieren a un tiempo no
identificado, anterior al presente (Have you ever visited
Berlin?). "Ever" y "never" siempre se colocan antes del verbo principal
(en "past participle"). "Ever" se utiliza:
EN PREGUNTAS
EJEMPLOS
Have you ever been to England?
Has she ever met the Prime Minister?
EN PREGUNTAS NEGATIVAS
EJEMPLOS
Haven't they ever been to Europe?
Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food?
EN ORACIONES NEGATIVAS CON "NOTHING+EVER" O "NOBODY+EVER"
EJEMPLOS
Nobody has ever said that to me before.
Nothing like this has ever happened to us.
CON "THE FIRST TIME"
EJEMPLOS
It's the first time that I've ever eaten snails.
This is the first time I've ever been to England.
NEVER
"Never" significa nunca antes de ahora y equivale a "not (...) ever": (I
have never visited Berlin)

CUIDADO!: "Never" y "not" no deben usarse juntos.


I haven't never been to Italy.
I have never been to Italy.
ALREADY
"Already" se refiere a una accin que ha ocurrido en un tiempo anterior al
presente pero no especificado. Sugiere que no es necesario repetir la
accin.
EJEMPLOS
I've already drunk three coffees this morning. (= y me ests ofreciendo
otro!)
Don't write to John, I've already done it.

Tambin se utiliza para preguntar:


Have you already written to John?
Has she finished her homework already?

"Already" puede colocarse antes del verbo principal (en "past participle") o
al final de la frase:
I have already been to Tokyo.
I have been to Tokyo already.

YET
"Yet" se utiliza en oraciones negativas e interrogativas, con el significado
de (no) en el periodo temporal entre el pasado y el ahora, (no) hasta el
momento presente, incluido ste. Suele colocarse al final de la frase.
EJEMPLOS
Have you met Judy yet?
I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yet
Has he arrived yet?
They haven't eaten yet

PRESENT PERFECT: FOR, SINCE


Empleando el "present perfect" podemos definir un periodo de tiempo
anterior al momento presente, considerando bien su duracin, caso en el

que utilizamos "for" + periodo temporal,, o bien su inicio o punto de


partida, caso en el que utilizamos "since" + momento concreto. "For" y
"since" pueden asimismo emplearse con el "past perfect". "Since" admite
nicamente tiempos verbales perfectos. "For" puede tambin emplearse con
el "simple past".
"FOR" + PERIODO DE TIEMPO
for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours
I have worked here for five years.
"SINCE" + MOMENTO CONCRETO
since this morning, since last week, since yesterday
since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock
I have worked here since 1990.
"PRESENT PERFECT" CON "FOR"
She has lived here for twenty years.
We have taught at this school for a long time.
Alice has been married forthree months.
They have been at the hotel for a week.
"PRESENT PERFECT" CON "SINCE"
She has lived here since 1980.
We have taught at this school since 1965.
Alice has been married since March 2nd.
They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.