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Publisher: Taylor & Francis

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Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:

http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/lpte20

the Partially Oriented Yarn Properties

a

Published online: 14 Feb 2007.

To cite this article: Glay zkan , Gray rkmez & Gksel zkan (2003) Application of BoxWilson Optimization Technique

to the Partially Oriented Yarn Properties, Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 42:3, 459-470, DOI: 10.1081/

PPT-120017964

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2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 459470, 2003

Technique to the Partially Oriented

Yarn Properties

zkan,1,* Guray U

zkan3

rkmez,2 and Goksel O

Gulay O

1

Ankara, Turkey

2

Nergis A. S., Organize Sanayi Bolgesi, Bursa, Turkey

3

Chemical Engineering Department, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

ABSTRACT

A static model for partially oriented yarn (POY) production was

examined in a commercial POY spinning plant. A two-level factorial,

industrial experimental design was used to identify a statistical model.

Three independent variables effecting the elongation at break (a POY

property of interest) were selected. Namely, yarn winding speed,

spinneret flow rate, and spinneret hole diameter. Elongation at break was

chosen as the dependent variable. A first-order statistical model was

considered to show the dependence of the elongation at break on the

operating parameters: 145%; for elongation at break, the optimum values

of yarn winding speed, spinneret flow rate, and spinneret hole diameter

*Correspondence: Gulay O

University, Tandogan 06100, Ankara, Turkey; E-mail: gozkan@eng.ankara.edu.tr.

459

DOI: 10.1081/PPT-120017964

Copyright q 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.

www.dekker.com

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

zkan, U

zkan

rkmez, and O

O

460

were found to be as 2938 m/min, 49.74 g/min, and 205 mm, respectively.

The statistical model and Box Wilson steepest ascent method were used.

Optimization; Elongation at break.

INTRODUCTION

A synthetic polymer needs to have fiber characteristics for its use as a textile

material, suchas high-softening and low-melting points thatallow ironing,enough

load at break, elongation at break, and reasonable boiling shrinkage. Polyethylene

terephthalate (PET) is an important synthetic fiber that is classified as a polyester.

The yarns produced from POY (partially oriented yarn), a semi-finished product of

the first production stage of polyester yarn, have a wide range of use. For the

polymer to gain these characteristics in the production stage, its degradation must

be under certain values and enough orientation has to be reached by the time it

comes to the spinning beam.

Fiber spinning is a complex manufacturing process in which the final

properties of the spun fiber depend on the polymer and the process operation. The

latter includes the details of the heat transfer, the aerodynamics, and the stress

development, all of which are ultimately related to a variety of factors that include

both the spinning speed and the polymer properties at the spinneret. The

uniformity and birefringence of the spun fiber are the process variables that are

probably of the greatest interest; both are directly related to product quality and

generally correlate with final product properties such as elongation.[1]

Small changes in polymer properties or in operating variables are

sometimes known to cause large changes in fiber properties, thus an

understanding of the interrelationships is essential. This understanding is

becoming increasingly important as fiber properties move to polymer

modifications and to new process conditions that may provide increased

productivity or improved properties at the expense of process sensitivity.[2]

By considering these effects on the POY productivity and quality, we aimed

to find the optimum values of important parameters for 100 denier and 96

filaments in a commercial POY spinning plant with a capacity of 70 ton/day.

To determine the optimal operating conditions, we used a statistical

model. The experimental data used in the preparation of this model were

obtained according to the use of a two-level, factorial experimental design.

This is called a statistical experimental design technique that has been used

over a wide range of industrial process, such as ternary composites based

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

461

copolymer and polyethylene terephtalate textile fibers have been processed

and their properties analyzed). The effect of matrix composition and fiber

content on the final properties of the composite were investigated by means of

an experimental design based on a Doehlert uniform net.[3]

Two-level, factorial experimental design is an active experimentation. It

has been used in mathematical modeling of the industrial process and

optimization. This experimental modeling technique allows the determination

of the regression equation in a very short time. The parameter (factor), such as

the winding speed, spinneret hole diameter, and spinneret throughput, are

changed according to predetermined levels. When S and K represent the level

of one parameter and number of parameters, respectively, then the number of

experiments for a linear model can be shown as N SK

The main difference between active and passive experimentation is the

change of parameters with time in the latter. In the traditional or passive,

method all the parameters are kept constant, changing only one parameter.

This requires more experiments. This means that considerably less

experiments are needed with the two-level, factorial experimentation design

compared to the passive method. For this reason, it is quite economical.

The parameters of the statistical model were found and then BoxWilsons

steepest ascent method was used to find optimal operating conditions.[4 6]

To calculate optimal operating conditions on the system during POY

production, the yarn samples taken from the winding system were sent to the

laboratory and analyzed for the properties of dtex (10,000 m weight of fiber per

g), oil pick up, uster (POY change of weight in the unit of POY fiber), load at

break, elongation at break and boiling shrinkage, to decide about its quality. For

yarn, the polymer melt as a thread should be fed to distributors called spinnerets

with a flow rate. The spinnerets, which process the polymer melt as a thread,

consist of holes with small diameter. The melt solidifies as it passes through the

spinneret channel and is stretched as a thread in the fiber elongation channel under

it. Figure 1 depicts the route of the polymer melt from its outlet at the spinneret

and yarned as a thread. The melt not only solidifies on this route but it is also

subjected to a certain amount of orientation

The investigations were carried out by observing different plant conditions

for the production and the product quality. In the production of (100 denier 96

filaments) POY, the optimal values of winding speed, spinneret flow rate, and

spinneret hole diameter that effects the characteristics of the yarn, and of the yarn

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

462

zkan, U

zkan

rkmez, and O

O

Figure 1. The yarn production system, which is similar in the direct spinning system

and the yarn production system with extruder.

experimental design and the BoxWilson optimization method.

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

Operating parameters relating to the fiber properties were investigated

and the effect of these parameters on POY productivity was examined by

static model identification. It was clearly observed that these three

independent variables, namely spinneret hole diameter, spinneret flow rate,

and spinning speed, had an effect on the elongation at break.

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

463

variables were evaluated by utilizing the Box Wilson optimization method.

In this method, the form of the relationship between the independent variables

is unknown. Therefore, a suitable function, a relationship between the

dependent and independent variables, can be obtained by using a statistical

model. Its form, which is studied in this work, is shown below:

Y bo b1 X1 b2 X2 b3 X3 b4 X1 X2 b5 X1 X3 b6 X2 X3

b7 X 1 X 2 X 3

interaction terms was considered. In this equation, Xi i 1. . .n are the coded

values of the spinneret hole diameter, spinneret flow rate, and spinning speed,

respectively, and bi i 07 is the model coefficient. Y is the measured of

values elongation at break. In two-level, factorial experimental design there

are n variables (factors). These factors are controlled at two different levels,

namely minimum and maximum levels. In these types of designs, one works in

a dimensionless coordinate system using following definitions.

In a dimensionless coordinate system, the maximum level is +1, minimum

level is 21, and the central point is zero. In such a design, the number of

experiments to be carried out is 2n (in the preparation of the design matrix the

coded values of the parameters are used; the reason for this is to render the

parameters dimensionless, thus, making the calculations dimensionless).

In this work, the possible maximum and minimum values of the selected

operating variables (parameters) for fiber properties were studied in a commercial

POY spinning plant. The levels of these parameters are given in Table 1. For this

reasons, 23 8 experiments were done to identify the regression model.

The design matrix included coded values of the independent and un coded

dependent variables. Table 2 shows the interrelation between the coded

independent variables. The column (see Table 2) under X0 contains the

dummy variable, which is equal to 1, so that the model includes an intercept.

All the weights will be unity. The interaction terms, including second- and

Table 1.

Maximum (+1)

Minimum (-1)

Spinneret hole

diameter U1 (mm)

Spinneret flow

rate U3(g/min)

Winding speed

U2 (m/min)

250

170

52

47

3100

2850

X0

X1

X2

X3

X1X2

X1X3

X2X3

X1X2X3

Y

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

21

21

21

21

1

1

21

21

1

1

21

21

1

21

1

21

1

21

1

21

1

1

21

21

21

21

1

1

1

21

1

21

21

1

21

1

1

21

21

1

1

21

21

1

1

21

21

1

21

1

1

21

136.6

146.2

133.8

144.3

137.8

153.8

135.1

149.1

Experiment

number

zkan, U

zkan

rkmez, and O

O

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

464

Table 2.

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

465

relationship between coded and real values is shown below:

Xi

U i 2 U iav

DU i

i 1; 2; . . .. . .. . .; n

U iav

U max:

U min:

i

i

2

i 1; 2; . . .. . .. . .; n

DU i

U max:

2 U min:

i

i

2

i 1; 2; . . .. . .. . .; n

by the following equations by applying the least-squares estimation technique:

3

2

2 3

2 3

y1

X 01 X 11 X 21 * * X n1

b0

7

6

6 7

6 7

6 X 02 X 12 X 22 * * X n2 7

6 b1 7

6 y2 7

7

6

6 7

6 7

7

6

6 7

6 7

7 *6 * 7 6 * 7

6*

5

7

6

6 7

6 7

7

6

6 7

6 7

*

*

*

7

6

6 7

6 7

5

4

4 5

4 5

yn

bn

X 0n X 1n X 2n * * X nn

n* n

n* 1

n* 1

X* B Y

B X T * X21 X T * Y

The design matrix has orthogonal properties, the coefficient matrix (X*X)

becomes diagonal, and its diagonal elements are equal to the number of

experiments, N. For this reason, X* X21 N1 and the values of the constants

in the regression equation were calculated by the following equation:

N

X

bi

N

X

Xij Y i

j1

N

X

X2ij

Xij Y i

j1

; i 0; 1; . . .N

j1

In this work, the model coefficients, b0 b7, by using experimental data, were

calculated using MATLAB code. And then, Students t and Fishers F tests

were applied using the following equations. The error mean square was

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

zkan, U

zkan

rkmez, and O

O

466

n0

X

S2e

y0i 2 y 0

i1

n0 2 1

j bi j

i 0; 1; . . . 7

Sbi

Se

Sbi p i 0; 1; . . . 7

N

ti

10

11

Fishers F test was applied to see the fitness of the new estimated regression

equation, which was obtained by the removal of the insignificant coefficient

from the experimental data. According to this, the F value was determined by

using the following equation:

F

Sr 2

Se 2

12

In this equation, Sr2 is the residual mean square, and it was determined as

N

X

S2r

yi 2 y^ i 2

i1

13

N2l

optimization technique, as follows. Starting from the central points of the

parameters [this central point is the origin (O)]. The purpose is to move from

this point, where the coordinates are (0, 0,. . ..0), to the maximum point (P),

where the coordinates are (X1,X2,X3. . .XN). The point where the response was

the maximum was reached using the estimated derivatives of the modeling

parameters. This was achieved by applying a 2 0.50 unit of change to the hole

diameter and the new levels of the other independent variables were

determined the use of the program given in Table 3.

RESULTS

By applying the design matrix given in Table 2, the productivity values

were used to evaluate the values of the constants in a linear regression model

as illustrated previously. The identified statistical model is given by Eq. (14)

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Table 3.

MATLAB m files.

467

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zkan, U

zkan

rkmez, and O

O

468

below:

Y 141:7125 2 1:4875X1 1:1375X2 2 5:8875X3

0:0375X1 X2 0:8625X1 X3 0:2375X2 X3

14

2 0:0125X1 X2 X3

three parameters. The error mean square was found from Eq. (9) as 1.2025.

The tabulated value of the Students t distribution was taken as t0:6 1 0:325

for a significance level of P :6 and f 1 degrees of freedom. Since the t4, t7,

values (Eq. 10) were less then the tabulated t value, constants of b4, b7 were

omitted from the regression equations. The next step was the application of

Fishers F test to see the fitness of the new estimated regression equation. The

residual mean square calculated from Eq. (13) was 0.00625. For a significance

level P 0:6 and v1 1 and v2 2 degrees of freedom, an F value of 2.5714

was found from the related table. Since the calculated F value (0.069) was less

than the tabulated F value, it was decided that the estimated regression

equation fits the experimental data.

Consequently, the estimated regression equations are

Coded : Y 141:7125 2 1:4875X1 1:1375X2 2 5:8875X3

15

0:8625X1 X3 0:2375X2 X3

Uncoded : E 487:65 2 0:5487* U1 2 1:82* U2 2 0:121* U3

16

0:00017* U1 U3 0:000768* U2 U3

This equation was validated against new data, which is given in Table 4, and it

was seen that the model was suitable for this process.

After the identification of the statistical model for the process, Box

Wilsons steepest ascent optimization method was applied theoretically on the

Table 4.

Elongation at

break E (%)

(theoretical)

141.8

New data.

Elongation at

break E (%)

(experimental)

Spinneret hole

diameter: U1

(mm)

Winding

speed U3

(m/min)

Spinneret

flow rate U2

(g/min)

142.3

170

3000

49

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469

basis of the statistical model using the model constant by applying 2 0.50

change to the growth medium spinneret hole diameter and 145% for

elongation at break, the optimum values of yarn winding speed, spinneret flow

rate, and spinneret hole diameter were then found as 2938 m/min, 49.74 g/min,

and 205 mm, respectively.

CONCLUSION

In the present study, an orthogonal, two-level, factorial experimental

design technique was found suitable for the first-order regression equation.

Model constants were calculated using MATLAB coded and Students t and

Fishers F test were applied to see whether the identified statistical equation fit

the experimental data. Then, with the help of the identified model coefficient

for 145% elongation at break, the optimal operating parameters of the process

were determined by the Box Wilson steepest ascent optimization technique

as follows: spinneret flow rate 49.74 g/min, spinneret hole diameter 205 mm,

yarn winding speed 2938 m/min.

NOMENCLATURE

bi

D

E

l

Q

S

Sbi

Sr 2

Se 2

Ui

Uiav

Ui*

DUi

Xi

Xi*

X1

X2

X3

Yi

Spinneret hole diameter

Elongation at break

Number of the coefficients in the regression equation

Spinneret throughput

Winding speed

Standard error of the coefficient

Residual mean square

Error mean square

Real value of the parameters

Average values of the parameters

Average value of the independent variables at center points

Incremental value of the parameters

Independent variables matrix

Average value of the independent variables at center points

Coded value of the spinneret hole diameter

Coded value of the spinneret flow rate

Coded value of the winding speed

ith experimental value of the elongation at break

2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

zkan, U

zkan

rkmez, and O

O

470

v 1, v 2

Y

Degrees of freedom

Estimated value of the elongation at break

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

.B.A.P. 2002 07 45

Ankara University Research fund through project A.U

009 is gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Denn, M.M. Spinning: where are we and where are we going? Fiber Prod.

1983, August, 20 26.

Davis, G.W.; Everage, A.E.; Talbot, J.R. Polyester fibers: high speed melt

spinning. Fiber Prod. 1984, 22 28, 22 27.

Lopez-Manchado, M.A.; Arroyo, M. Effect of the incorporation of pet

fibers on the properties of thermoplastic elastomer based on PP/elastomer

blends. Polymer 2001, 42 (15), 6557 6563.

Box, G.P.E.; Wilson, K.B. J.R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B. 1951, 13, 1 45.

Montgomery, D.C. Design and Analysis of Experiments, 3rd Ed.; John

Wiley and Sons: New York, 1991.

Alpbaz, M.; Burasli, N.; Ertunc, S.; Akay, B. Application of a statistical

technique to the production of,saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast).

Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 1997, 26, 91 96.

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