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INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINOLOGY

CRIMINOLOGY
-The entire body of knowledge regarding crimes, criminals and the effort of
society to prevent and repress them.
-The scientific study of the causes of crimes in relation to man and society
who set and define rules and regulations for himself and other to govern.
THE EVOLUTION OF CRIMINOLOGY
- The term criminology was derived from the Italian term criminologia
coined by Raffaelle Garafalo,an Italian law professor, in 1885.
- In 1887, Paul Topinard, a French anthropologist, used the term
criminologie.
- An American criminologist in the person of Edwin Sutherland introduced
his own definition of the term criminology. According to him, criminology
is the entire body of knowledge regarding crime as a social
phenomenon. It includes within its scope the process of making
laws, of breaking laws and of reacting towards the breaking of the
laws.

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NATURE OF CRIMINOLOGY
It is an applied science.
It is a social science. Crime is a social creation and it exists in a society
being a social phenomenon.
It is dynamic. Criminology changes as a social condition changes. It is
concomitant with the advancement of other science that have been
applied to it.
It is nationalistic. The study of crimes must be in relation with the existing
criminal law within a territory or country. The question as to whether an
act is a crime is dependent on the criminal law of a state.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY OF CRIMINOLOGY


1. Study of the origin and development of criminal law
2. Study of the causes of crimes and development of criminals.
3. Study of different factors that enhance the development of criminal
behavior, such as:
a. Criminal demography - the study of the relationship between
criminality and population.
b. Criminal epidemiology the study of the relationship between
environment and criminality.

c. Criminal ecology the study of criminality in relation to the spatial


distribution in a community.
d. Criminal physical anthropology the study of criminality in relation
to physical constitution of men.
e. Criminal psychology the study of human behavior in relation to
criminality
f. Criminal psychiatry the study of human mind in relation to
criminality.
g. Victimology the study of the role of the victim in the commission of
crime
A. Criminal etiology = the study of the Cause or origin of crime. It studies
the primary reason for crime commission.
B. Sociology of law = attempt at scientific analysis of the condition which
the penal/criminal laws has developed as a process of formal or social
control.
C. Sociology = it is the study of human society, its origin, structure,
functions and direction.
D. Criminological research = study of the crime correlated to with
antecedent variables, state of crime trend.
CRIME
- An act or omission in violation of public law forbidding or commanding it.
SUB-CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMES
a. FELONY
- An act or omission punishable by law which is committed by means or dolo
(deceit) or culpa (fault) and punishable under the Revised Penal Code.
b. OFFENSE
- An act or omission in violation of a special law.
c. 3) INFRACTION
- An act or omission in violation of a city or municipal ordinance.
Classes of Crimes
1. Crime Mala In Se = acts that are outlawed because they violate basic
moral values such as rape, murder, assault and robbery?
a. Intentional felony (IFI)
b. Non-intentional felony (IFN)
2. Crime Mala Prohibita = acts that are outlawed because they clash with
current norms and public opinion, such as tax, traffic and drug laws.

ELEMENT OF A FELONY
a) INTENTIONAL FELONIES:
- committed by means of dolo (deceit)
- The act or omission is performed with deliberate intent or malice
1) Freedom or voluntariness
2) Intelligence
3) Intent
b) CULPABLE FELONIES:
- committed by means of Culpa (fault)
- The act or omission of the offender is not malicious and the injury caused
by the offender is unintentional, it being the simply the incident of another
act performed without malice
1) Freedom or voluntariness
2) Intelligence
3) Negligence or imprudence (lack of
Foresight or lack of skill)
LEGAL CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMES
1) As to the manner crimes are committed:
a) by means of dolo or deceit
b) by means of culpa or fault
2) As to the stage in the commission of crimes:
a) Consummated crime - when all the element necessary for its
execution and accomplishment are present
b) Frustrated crime when the offender has performed all the acts of
execution which will produce the felony as a consequence but which
nevertheless do not produce it, by reason of causes independent of the will
of the perpetrator
c) Attempted crime when the offender commences the commission of
crime directly by overt acts and does not perform all the acts of execution
which should produce the felony by reason of some cause or accident other
than his own spontaneous desistance
3) According to plurality:
a) simple crime single act constituting only one offense
b) Complex crime single act constituting two or more grave felonies or an
is a necessary means for committing the other
4) According to gravity:
a) Grave felonies those the law attaches the capital punishment or
afflictive penalties

b) Less grave felonies those to which the law attaches correccional


penalties
c) Light felonies those to which the law attaches the penalty of
arresto menor or a fine not exceeding P200.00
CRIMINOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMES
1) According to the result of the crime:
a) Acquisitive crime the offer acquires something
b) Extinctive crime the consequence of the act is destructive
2) According to the time or period of the commission of the crime:
a) Seasonal crime committed only during a certain period of the year
b) Situational crime committed only when the situation is conductive
to its commission
3) According to the length of time of the commission of the crime:
a) Instant crime committed in the shortest possible time
b) Episoidal crime committed by series of acts in lengthy space of
time
4) According to the place or location:
a) Static crime - committed in only one place
b) Continuing crime committed in several place
5) According to the use of mental faculties:
a) Rational crime committed with intent and the offender is in full
possession of his sanity
b) Irrational crime committed by an offender who does not know the
nature and quality of his act an account of the disease of the mind
6) According to the type of offender:
a) White collar crime committed by a person belonging to the upper
socio- economic class in the course of his occupational activities
b) Blue collar crime committed by ordinary professional criminal to
maintain his livelihood
Other types of crimes
Bias crime = acts directed toward a particular person or members of
a group merely because the targets share a discernible racial, ethnic,
religious or gender characteristics. Also called hate crimes.
Cleared crimes = two ways by which crimes are closed: (1) when at
least one person arrested, charge, and turned over to the court for
prosecution, (2) by exception means, when some element beyond police
control precludes the physical arrest of an offender e.g. when he/she leaves
the country.

Corporative crimes = white collar crime involving a legal violation by


corporate entity such as price fixing, restraint of trade, or hazardous waste
dumping.
Crime of reduction = crimes that are committed when the offended
party experiences a loss of some quality relative to his her present standing
such as when they becomes victims of robbery or theft, but they may also be
victimized if their dignity is stripped from them when they are taunted by
racists.
Crime of repression = crimes that are committed when members of
a group are prevented from achieving their fullest potential because of
racism, sexism, or some status bias.
Cyber crime = the commission of criminal acts using the instruments
of modern technology such as computers or the internet.
Economical crime = an act in violation of the criminal that is
designed to bring financial gain to the offender.
Enterprise crime = the use of illegal tactics by a business to make
profits in the market place.
Expressive crime = a crime that has no purpose except to
accomplish the behavioral hand such as shooting someone.
Hate crime = act of violence or intimidation design to terrorize or
frighten people considered undesirable because of their race, religion, ethnic
origin, or sexual orientation.
Inchoate crime = incomplete or contemplated crimes such as
criminal solicitation or criminal attempts.
Mission hate crimes = violent crimes committed by disturbed
individuals who see it as their duty to rid the world of evil.
Organizational crimes = crimes that involves large corporations and
their efforts to control the market place and earn huge profits, through
unlawful bidding, unfair advertising, monopolistic practices, or other illegal
means.
Organized crimes = illegal activities of people and organization
whose acknowledge purpose is profit to illegitimate business enterprise.
Public order crimes = Acts that are considered illegal because they
threaten general well- being of society and challenge its accepted moral
principles. Prostitution, drug use, and the sale of pornography are considered
public order crimes.
Reactive hate crime = perpetrators believe they are taking a
defensive stand against outsiders who they believe threaten their community
or way of life.

Retaliatory hate crime = offense committed in response to a hate


crime, real or perceived.
Statutory crimes =crimes defined by legislative bodies in response
to changing social conditions, public opinion, and custom.
Trill-seeking hate crime = hatemonger who join forces to have fun
by bashing minorities or destroying property; inflicting pain on others gives a
sadistic thrill.
Victimless crimes = that violate the moral order but in which there in
no actual victim or target in these crimes which include drug abuse and sex
offenses. It is society as a whole and not an individual who is considered the
victim.
White collar crimes = illegal acts that capitalize on a persons
status in the market place. It may involve theft, embezzlement, fraud,
market manipulation restraint of trade, and false advertising.
Other term referring to crimes
I. Crime of Rape
a. acquaintance rape = forcible sex in which offender and the victim are
acquitted with one another
b. aggravated rape = rape involving multiple offenders, weapons and
victim injuries.
c. date rape = forcible sex during the courting relationship.
d. gang rape = forcible sex involving multiple attacker.
e. marital rape = forcible sex between people who are legally married to
each other.
f. serial rape =multiple rapes committed by one person over time.
g. statutory rape = sexual relations between an underage minor females
and an adult male.
II. Crime of killing
a. Homicide = the killing of human being by another.
b. Parricide = the act of killing ones own father, mother, spouse, or child.
c. Infanticide = killing of an infant less than 3 days old.
d. Sororicide = killing ones own sister.
e. Fracticide = killing of ones own brother.
f. Matricide = killing of a mother by her own child.
g. Patricide = killing of a father by his own child.
h. Uxoricide = act of one who murders his wife.
i. Eldercide = the murder of a senior citizen.
j. Abortion (aborticide) = an act of destroying (killing) a fetus in the
womb.

k. suicide = taking ones own life voluntarily and intentionally.


l. Regicide = the killing or murder of a king
m. Vaticide = the killing of a prophet.
n. euthanasia = mercy killing or the act or practice of painless putting to
death a persons suffering from incurable and distressing disease.
o. Involuntary manslaughter = a homicide that occurs as a result of acts
that are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause others,
such as driving while under the influence of liquor or drugs. (also known as
negligent manslaughter).
p. Voluntary manslaughter = a homicide committed in the heat of
passion or during a sudden quarrel; although intent may be present, malice
is not.
q. Mass murder = the killing of a large number of people in single incident
by an offender who is typically does not seek concealment or escape.
r. Murder = the unlawful killing of human being with malicious intent.
s. serial Murder = the killing of large number of people over time by
offender who seek to escape detection.
III. Crimes against Property
a.Acquaintance against robbery = robbery who focus their theft on
people they know.
b. Arson = the intentional or negligent burning of a home, structure, or
vehicle for criminal purpose such as profit, revenge, fraud or crime
concealment.
c. Arson for profit = people looking to collect insurance money, but who
afraid or unafraid to set the fire themselves, hire professional arsonist.
d. Arson fraud = a business owner burns his or her property, or hires
someone to do it, to escape financial problem.
e. Burglary = braking into and entering a home or structure for the purpose
of committing a felony.
f. Carjacking = theft of a car by force or threat of force.
g. Churning = a white collar crime in which a stockbroker makes repeated
trades to fraudulently increase his/her commission.
h. Commercial theft = business theft that is part of the criminal law;
without such laws the free enterprise system could not exists.
i. Grand larceny = theft of money or property of substantial values,
punished as a felony.
j. Larceny = taking for ones own use the property of another, by means
other than force or threats on the victim or forcibly breaking into a persons
home or workplace; theft.

k. Petit (petty) larceny = theft of a small amount of money or property,


punished as a misdemeanor.
l. Pilferage = theft by employees through stealth or deception.
m. Robbery = taking or attempting to take something of value by force or
threat of force and /or by putting the victim in fear.
n. Shoplifting = the taking of goods from retailed store.
CRIMINAL
-In the legal sense, a criminal is any person who has been found to have
committed a wrongful act in the course of the standard judicial process;
there must be a final verdict of his guilt.
-In the criminological sense, a person already considered a criminal the
moment he committed a crime.
GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINALS
1)
On the basis of etiology:
a) Acute criminals persons who violated criminal law because at the
impulse of the moment, fit of passion or anger.
b) Chronic criminals persons who acted in consonance with
deliberated thinking such as:
b.1) neurotic criminals persons whose acting arise from the intraphysic conflict between the social and anti-social components of his
personality.
b.2) normal criminals persons whose psychic organization
resembles that of a normal individual except that he identifies himself with
criminal prototype.
2)

On the basis of behavioral system:


a) Ordinary criminals the lowest form of criminal career; they
engaged only inconventional crimes which require limited skill.
b) Organized criminals these criminals have a high degree of
organization that enables them to commit crimes without being
detected and committed to specialized activities which can be
operated in large scale business.
c) Professional criminals these are highly skilled and able to obtain
considerable amount of money without being detected because of
organization and contact with other professional criminals.
3) On the basis of activities:
a) Professional criminals those who earn their living through criminal
activities.

b) Accidental criminals those who commit criminal acts as a result of


unanticipated circumstance.
c) Habitual criminals those who continue to commit criminal acts for
such diverse reason due to deficiency of intelligence and lack of
control.
d) Situational criminals those who are actually not criminals but get
in trouble with legal authorities because they commit crimes
intermixed with legitimate economic activities.
Other Criminal types
Career criminal = a person who repeatedly violates law and
organized his or her neighbors.
Professional criminals = offenders who make a significant portion of
their income for crime.
Professional fence = an individual who earns his or her living solely
by buying and retailing stolen merchandise.
Reasoning criminal = according to the rational choice approach, lawviolating behavior occurs when an offender decides to risk breaking the law
after considering both personal factors such as need for money, revenge,
thrills and entertainment and situational factors such as how well a target is
protected and the efficiency of the local police force.
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF CRIMINAL LAW
CRIMINAL LAW or PENAL LAW
- That branch of public law which defines crimes, treats of their nature and
provides for their punishment
REVISED PENAL CODE (RPC) Act. No. 3815
- The book that contains the Philippines criminal law.
- Effectively of the RPC is 1 January 1932
- Approved on December 8, 1930
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRIMINAL LAW
1)
It is general in application/ GENERALITY:
The provision of the criminal or penal law must be applied equally to all
persons within the territory regardless of sex, race, nationality and other
personal circumstances, with the following exception:
a) Heads of state or country
b) Foreign diplomats and ambassador
2) It is territorial in character/TERRITORIALITY:
As part of the right of a state to self-preservation, each independent
country has the right to promulgate laws enforceable within its territorial
jurisdiction, subject only to the limitations imposed by treaties of preferential

applications and by the operation of international law of nations. The Revised


penal Code and the other special laws are applicable only to the areas within
the Philippine territorial jurisdiction, such as:
a)
Philippine archipelago all the islands
that comprise the Philippines
b)
Atmosphere water all bodies of water
that connect all the islands such as
bays, river and stream
c)
Maritime zone the twelve (12)
Nautical Mile limit beyond our shore
measured at low tide
EXCEPTION TO THE TERRITORIAL CHARACTER OF THE REVISED
PENAL CODE:
The revised Penal Code shall be applicable to all cases
committed outside the Philippine territorial jurisdiction under the
following circumstances:
a) Should commit an offense while on Philippines ship or airship:
b) Should forge or counterfeit any coin or currency note of the Philippines
island or obligation and securities issued by the government of the
Philippines;
c) While being a public officer or employee should commit an offense in
the exercise of their function
d) Should commit any of the crimes against national security and law of
nations
3) It is prospective or retrospective /PROSPECTIVITY:
No person may be punished for his act when at the time he committed
the act, it is still not yet punishable by law. However, penal laws may be
given retroactive effect when it is favorable to the accused.
4)

It is specific and definite.


Criminal law must give a strict definition of a specific act which
constitutes an offense. Where there is doubt as to whether a definition
embodied in the Revised Penal Code applies to the accused or not, the judge
is obligated to decide the case in favor of the accused. Criminal law must
be constructed liberally in favor of the accused and strictly against
the state.
5)

It is uniform in application.

An act described as a crime is a crime no matter who committed it.


Wherever committed in the Philippines and whenever committed. No
exception must be made as to the criminal liability. The definition of crimes
together with the corresponding punishment must be uniformly constructed,
although there may be a difference in the enforcement of a given specific
provision of the penal law.
6)

There must be a penal sanction or punishment.


Penal sanction is the most essential part of the definition of the crimes.
If there is no penalty to a prohibited act, its enforcement will almost be
impossible. The penalty is acting as deterrence and as a measured of selfdefense of the state to protect society from the threat and wrong inflicted by
the criminal.
EVOLUTION OF CRIMINAL LAWS
A)
PREHISTORIC CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
Primitive tribes
- Punishment may be in the form of ostracism and expulsion
- Adultery may be punished by the aggrieved husband who may kill the
adulterer and his own attending wife
- Crime may be avenged by the victim himself or by the victims family
8)
THE EARLY CODES
1)
CODE OF HAMMURABI
- Hammurabi the king of Babylon during the eighteenth century BC is
recognized as the first codifier of laws.
- It provides the first comprehensive view of the laws in the early days.
- The Code was carved in stone
- The law of talion, on the principle of tit for tat, (an eye for an eye,
tooth for a tooth) appears throughout the Code
- Under the principle of the law of talion, the punishment should be
the same as the harm inflicted on the victim
Highlight of the Code of Hammurabi:
a) Compensation to the victim of a robbery by the authorities if the thief
was not caught
b) The killer is answerable not to the family of the victim but to the king
c) Death was the penalty for robbery, theft, false witness, building a
house that falls on its owner
(If the house should collapse and kill the owners son, the son of the
builder would be the one executed)

d) A son who struck his father would suffer the amputation of a hand
e) If in an assault a victims bone was broken, the same bone of the
assailant would be broken
2)
THE HITTITES
- The Hittites existed about two centuries after Hammurabi and eventually
conquered Babylon
Highlight of the laws of the Hittites:
- Capital punishment was used for many offenses, except for homicide or
robbery
- Rape, sexual intercourse with animals, defiance of the authority and sorcery
were all punishable by death
- The law of homicide provided for the restitution to the victims heirs
- Law enforcement and judicial functions were placed in the hands of
commanders of military garrisons
3)
CODE OF DRAKON
- knows as the ultimate in severity
- codified by Drakon, the Athenian lawgiver of the seventh century BC
Highlight of the Code of Drakon:
- Death was the punishment for almost every offense
- Murderers might avoid execution by going into exile; if they return to
Athens, it was not a crime to kill them
- Death penalty was administered with great brutality
4)
LAWS OF SOLON
- Solon was appointed archon and was given legitimate powers
- Solon repealed all the laws of the Code of Drakon, except the law on
homicide
- Solon was one of the first to see that a lawgiver had to make laws that
applied equally to all citizens and also saw that the law of punishment had to
maintain proportionality to the crimes committed
Highlights of the Laws of Solon:
- the thief was required to return stolen property and pay the victim a sum
equal to twice its value
- for the crime of temple robbery, the penalty was death
- for rape of a woman, the penalty was a fine of certain amount
5)

ROMES TWELVE TABLES

- Roman law began with the Twelve Tables which were written in the middle
of the sixth century BC
- the Twelve Tables were the foundation of all laws in Rome and written in
tablets of bronze
- the Twelve Tables were drafted by the Decemvirs, a body of men composed
of patricians
Highlight of the Twelve Tables:
- if a man break anothers limb and does not compensate the injury, he shall
be liable to retaliation
- a person who committed arson of a house or a stack of com shall be burned
alive
- judges who accepted bribes as well as those who bribed them were subject
to execution
- any act of treason was punishable by crucifixion
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN CRIMINOLOGY
CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY
The classical school at criminology grew out of a reaction against
barbaric system of law, punishment and justice that existed. There was no
real system of criminal justice in Europe at that time. Some crimes were
specified, some were not. judges had discretionary power to convict a person
for an act not even legally defined as criminal.
This school of thought is based on the assumption that individuals
choose to commit crimes after weighing the consequences of their actions.
According to classical criminologists, individuals havefree will. They
can choose legal or illegal means to get what they want, fear of punishment
can deter them from committing crime and society can control behavior by
making the pain of punishment greater than the pleasure of the criminal
gains.
This theory, however, does not give any distinction between an adult
and a minor or a mentally-handicapped in as far as free will is concerned.
FOUNDER OF THE CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY
1) CESARE BONESANA MARCHESE DI BECCARIA (1738-1794)
- published a book entitled On Crimes and Punishment in 1764;
this book presented a coherent and comprehensive design for an
enlightened criminal justice system that was to serve the people

his book contains almost all modern penal reforms but its greatest
contribution was the foundation it laid for subsequent changes in
criminal legislation
- his book was influential in the reforms of penal code in France, Russia,
Prussia and it influenced the first ten amendments to the US
Constitution
HIGHLIGHTS OF CESARE BECCARIAS IDEAS REGARDING CRIMES AND
THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
In forming a human society, men and women sacrifice a portion of
their liberty so as to enjoy peace and security
Punishment that go beyond the need of preserving the public safety
are in their nature unjust
Criminal laws must be clear and certain. Judges must make
uniform judgments in similar crimes.
The law must specify the degree of evidence that will justify the
detention of an accused offender prior to his trial.
Accusations must be public. False accusations should be severely
punished.
To torture accused offenders to obtain a confession is
inadmissible.
The promptitude of punishment is one of the most effective curbs
on crime.
The aim of punishment can only be to prevent the criminal from
committing new crimes against his countrymen, and to keep others from
doing likewise. Punishments, therefore, and the method of inflicting them,
should be chosen in due proportion to the crime, so as to make the most
lasting impression on the minds of men
Capital punishment is inefficacious and its place should be
substituted life imprisonment.
It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them. That is the
chief purpose of all good legislation.

JEREMY BENTHAM
- founded the concept of UTILITARIANISM - assumes that all our
actions are calculated in accordance with their likelihood of bringing
pleasure and pain

devised the pseudo-mathematical formula called felicific calculus


which states that individuals are human calculators who put all the
factors into an equation in order to decide whether a particular crime
is worth committing or not
he reasoned that in order to deter individuals from committing crimes,
the punishment, or pain, must be greater than the satisfaction, or
pleasure, he would gain from committing the crime

Rational Choice theory = law violating behavior occurs when the offender
decides to risk breaking the law after considering both personal factors and
situational factors.
Offense specific = means that criminals does not simply engage in
random acts of anti-social behavior.
Offender-specific =means that criminals does not simply engage in
random acts of anti-social behavior.
Three essential elements in decision making as to commit or not to
commit crime:
1) Type of crime
2) Time and place of crime
3) Target
NEOCLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY
This theory modified the doctrine of free will by stating that free will of
men may be affected by other factors and crime is committed due to some
compelling reasons that prevail. These causes are pathology, incompetence,
insanity or any condition that will make it impossible for the individual to
exercise free will entirely. In the study of legal provisions, this is termed as
their mitigating or exempting circumstances.
POSITIVIST CRIMINOLOGY
During the late eighteenth century, significant advances in knowledge
of both the physical and social world influenced thinkingabout crime.Forces
of positivism and evolutionism moved the field of criminology from
philosophical to a scientific perspective.
Positive theorist was the first to claim the importance of looking at
individual difference among criminals. These theorists focused on biological,
psychological and sociological causation of crime.
CESAR LOMBBROSO

Considered the FATHER OF MODERN CRIMINOLOGY due to his


application of modern scientific methods to trace criminal behavior,
however, most of his ideas are now discredited
- He claimed that criminals are distinguishable from non-criminals due to
the presence of atavistic stigmata (Atavistic anomalies) the
physical features of creatures at an earlier stage of development
- He asserted that crimes are committed by those who are born with
certain recognizable hereditary traits
- According to his theory, criminals are usually in possession of
huge jaws and strong canine teeth, the arm span of criminals
is often greater than their height, just like that of apes who use
their forearms to push themselves along the ground
- Other physical stigmata include deviation in head size and shape,
asymmetry of the face, excessive dimensions of the jaw and
cheekbones, eye defects and peculiarities, ears of unusual size, nose
twisted, upturn or flattened in thieves, or aquiline or beaklike in
murderers, fleshy lips, swollen and protruding, and pouches in the
cheek like those of animals toes
- Lombrosos work supported the idea that the criminal was a
biologically and physically inferior person
- According to him, there are three (3) classes of criminals:
1) Born criminals individuals with at least five (5) atavistic
stigmata
2) Insane criminals those who are not criminals by birth; they become
criminals as a result of some changes in their brains which interfere
with their ability to distinguish between right and wrong
3) Criminaloids those with makeup of an ambiguous group that
includes habitual criminals, criminals by passion and other diverse types.
DIFFERENT APPROACHES UNDER THE POSITIVIST CRIMINOLOGY
A)
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM
this explanation for the existence of criminal traits associates an
individuals evil disposition to physical disfigurement or impairment.
1) GIAMBATTISTA DELA PORTA (1535-1615)
- Italian physician who founded the school of human physiognomy,
the study of facial features and their relation to human behavior, the
study of judging a persons character from facial features to determine
whether the shape of the ears, nose and eyes and the distances
between them were associated with anti-social behavior
2) JOHANN KASPAR LAVATER (1741-1801)

Swiss theologian who believe that peoples true characters and


inclinations could be read from their facial features
3) FRANZ JOSEPH GALL (1758-1828)
- Born in Germany a renowned neuro-anatomist and physiologist and a
localization of mental function in the brain
- Developed cranloscopy a method of study the personality and
development of mental and moral faculties based on the external
shape of the skull
- Cranioscopy was later renamed as phrenology, the study that
deals with the relationship between the skull and human behavior
4) CHRLES GORING (1870-1919)
- Also studied phrenology or craniology which deals with the study of the
external formation of the skull indicating the conformation of the brain
and the development of its various parts which is directly related to the
behavior of the criminal
- He believed that criminal characteristics were inherited and
recommended that people with such characteristics should not be
allowed to reproduce.
- Relationship between crime and defective intelligence such as
feeblemindedness, epilepsy, insanity and detective social instinct.
5) JOHANN KASPAR SPURZHEIM (1776-1832)
- German phrenologist who was the assistant of Gall
- He was the man most responsible for popularizing and spreading
phrenology to a wide audience
PHYSIOLOGY OR SOMATOTYPE
-this refers to the study of the body build of a person in relation to his
temperament and personality and the type of offense he is most prone to
commit. It became popular in the 1st half of the 20th century
The following are the proponents of the somatotype school of
criminology:
1) ERNEST KRETSCHMER
- He correlated body build and constitution with characters or
temperamental reactions and mentality
- He distinguished three (3) principal types of physiques:
a) Asthenic lean, slightly built, narrow shoulders; their
crimes are petty thievery and fraud
b) Athletic medium to tail, strong, muscular, coarse bones;
they are usually connected with crimes of violence

c) Pyknic medium height, rounded figures, massive neck,


broad face; they tend to commit deception, fraud and
violence
2)
WILLIAM SHELDON
- formulated his own group of somatotype:
TYPE OF PHYSIQUE and TEMPERAMENT
a) endomorphic relatively large digestive viscera; round body; short
tapering limbs; bones; smooth, velvety skin.
Viscerotonic generally relax and comfortable small person, loves luxury
and essentially extrovert.
b) Mesomorphic with relative predominance of muscles, bones and motor
organs of the body with large wrist and hands
Romotonic active, dynamic; walks, talks and gestures assertively and
behaves aggressively
c) Ectomorphic relative pre- dominance of skin and its appendages which
includes the nervous system; it has fragile and delicate bones; with droopy
shoulders, small face and sharp nose, fine hair
cerebrotonic introvert prone to allergies, skin troubles, chronic fatigue,
insomnia, sensitive skin and sensitive to noise and with relatively small body
HEREDITY AS A FACTOR IN CRIMINALITY
1)
RICHARD DUGDALE
- He studied the lives of the members of theJUKES FAMILY and referred to
ADA MARGARETH JUKES as the MOTHER OF CRIMINALS.
- he discovered that from among the descendents of Ada Jukes, there were
280 pauper, 60 thieves, 7 murderers, 40 other criminals, 40 persons with
venereal diseases and 50 prostitutes
- he claimed that since families produce generations of criminals, they must
have been transmitting degenerate traits down the line
2)
HENRY GODDARD
- he studied the lives of the KALLIKAK FAMILY and found that among the
descendants from MARTIN KALLIKAKs relationship with a feeble-minded lady,
there were 143 feeble-minded and only 46 normal, 36 were illegitimate, 3
epileptic, 3 criminals, 8 kept brothels and 82 died of infancy; his marriage
with a woman from a good family produced almost all normal descendants,

only 2 were alcoholics, I was convicted of religious offense, 15 died at infancy


and no one became criminal or epileptic.
INTELLIGENCE AS A FACTOR IN CRIMINALITY
The classic studies of the Juke and Kallikak families were among the
first to show that feebleminded or low-intelligence can be inherited and
transferred from one generation to the next. Numerous test were also
conducted that lead to the development of the use of IQ test as a testing
procedure for offenders. The very first results seemed to confirm that
offenders had low mental abilities and they were found to be mentally
impaired.
PSYCHOLOGICAL DETRMINISM
This explains the psychological determinants which define behavior of
a person. This idea has long been hatched by thinkers who were consumed
by the belief that it is the psychological equivalents that prod the person to
act the way he does.
There are many ways to classify psychological theories emphasize
emotional problems, mental disorders, sociopathy and thinking patterns. But
the common assumption of these theories is that there is something wrong
with the mind of the offender which caused him to commit crimes.
From among the many theories regarding the relationship of
psychology and crime, the psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud is the
most notable:
1)

SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939)


He is recognized as the FATHER OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
- he believed that man carry with him residue of the most significant
emotional attachments of his childhood, which then guide future
interpersonal relationship.
- he founded the PSYCHOANALYTIC (Psychodynamic) THEORY OF
CRIMINALITY in which he attributed delinquent and criminal behavior to a
conscience that is overbearing which arouses feelings of guilt or a
conscience that is so weak that it cannot control the individuals impulses
and the need for immediate gratification.
- in his theory, PERSONALITY IS COMPOSED OF THREE COMPONENTS:
a) ID this stands for instinctual drives; the primitive part of the individuals
mental make-up present ay birth; it is governed by the pleasure
principal; represent the unconscious biological drives for pleasure; the

id impulses are not social and must be repressed or adapted so that they
may become socially acceptable
b) EGO this is considered to be the sensible and responsible part of an
individuals personality and is governed by the reality principle; it is
developed early in the demands of the id by helping the individuals
guide his actions to remain within the boundaries of accepted social
behavior; it is the objective, rational part if the personality.
c) SUPEREGO serves as the moral conscience of an individual; it is
structured by what values were taught by the parents, the school and the
community, as well as belief in God; it is largely responsible for making a
person follow the moral codes of society. It is divided into two parts:
conscience (tells what is right or wrong) and ego ideal (direct the
individual to morally acceptable and responsible behaviors, which may not
be pleasurable).
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
EROS = the most basic human drive present of birth (the instinct to
preserve and create life). An expressed sexually.
Oral stage = usually during the first year of life when the child attains
pleasure by sucking and biting.
Anal stage = focus on the elimination of bodily wastes during the
second and third years of life.
Phallic stage = during the third year when child focus their attention
on their genitals.
Oedipus complex = a stage of development when male begin
to have sexual feelings for their mother
Electra complex = a stage of development when girls begin to
have sexual feelings for their fathers.
Latency = begins at age 6. Feelings of sexuality are expressed
until the genital stage begins at puberty; this marks the beginning of
adult sexuality.
Fixated person = exhibit behavior traits characteristics of
those encountered during infantile sexual development e.g. an infant
who does not receive enough oral gratification during the first year of
life is likely as an adult engage in such oral behavior as smoking,
drinking, or drug abuse and others.
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME CAUSATION

1)

EMOTIONAL PROBLEM THEORIES


The emotional problem theories look at the offender as having the
same psychological make-up as that of non-offender. There is no disease or
psychological disorder present in the offender. But the offender does not
cope well with his environment and this creates frustration that result in
crime. The emotional problem theories assumes that the lawbreaker does
not have a great mental sickness that causes him to commit crimes but
rather, he commits crime because of everyday emotional problems that
made him unable to cope. As a result the offender acts out criminality.
2)
MENTAL DISORDE THEORIES
There are two types of mental disorders. First, the organic disorder,
where the physiological cause can be identified, such as, head injuries that
left the mind blank, senility, Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease,
Organic disorders refer to the brains disorder or sickness. Second is the
functional disorder, which is characterized by strange behavior that cannot
be traced to any known organic disease. Examples of functional disorders are
those people with no apparent brain sickness who hear voices that others do
not hear, or who see things that others do not see.
TYPE OF MENTAL DISORDERS
1)
NEUROSIS
- a common type of mental disorder used to explain criminal behavior
- also referred to as hysteria or neurasthenia
- some of the more common neuroses are:
a) ANXIETY also known as anxiety state or anxiety reaction;
characterized by the person feeling anxious, fearful anticipation or
apprehension; the person may, be irritable have poor concentration
and over reacts to things that are annoying
b) OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR people who suffer from this
have unwanted, intrusive and repetitive thoughts or behaviors
OBSESSION a repetitive and irresistible thoughts or urge
COMPULSION a repetitive behavior that is thought to produce or
prevent something that is thought to be magically connected to the
behavior
c) PHOBIA excessive and unexplainable fear of something; generally
exaggerated fear of things that normal people do not fear with the
same degree

d) DEPRESSION extreme feeling of low morale, sadness loneliness,


self-pity, despair, rejection, boredom and pessimism; a person is said
to be depressed if these feelings become pervasive and can already
affect all aspect of a persons life
e) IMPULSE DISORDER an excessive or unreasonable desire to do or
have something; an irrational or irresistible motive; examples of this
are kleptomania, pyromania, dipsomania and others
2)
PSYCHOSES
-a more serious type of mental disorder, which can be organic or functional
- psychotic people lose contact with reality and have difficulty distinguishing
reality from fantasy
- the most common type of psychosis are the following:
a) SCHIZOPRENIA also called dementia praecox; characterized by
distortion or withdrawal from reality, disturbances of thought and
language and withdrawal from contact.
b) PARANOIA gradual impairment of the intellect, characterized by
delusions or hallucination.
DELUSION false belief
HALLUCINATION false perception
DELUSION OF GRANDEUR a false belief that you are greater than
everybody else
DELUSION OF PERSECUTION a false belief that other people are
conspiring to kill harm or embarrass you
Albert Adler (1870-1937) = founder of individual psychology and
called the term inferiority complex --- people who have them feelings
of inferiority and compensate for them with a drive for superiority.
Erik Erikson (1902-1984) = described the so called identity crisis --- a
psychological state in which youth face inner turmoil and uncertainty about
life roles.
August Aichorn= he conclude that societal stress, though damaging, could
not alone result in a life of crimes unless a predisposition existed that

psychologically prepared youth for antisocial acts. He called this mental state
the latent delinquency, found on youth whose personality requires acting
in the following ways: (1) seek immediate gratification, (2) consider
satisfying their personal needs more important than relating to others, and
(3) satisfying instinctive urges without considering right and wrong (they
lack guilt)
Isaac Ray = an acknowledged American psychiatrist who popularized the
concept of moral insanity in his book, A Treatise on the Medical
Jurisprudence of Insanity.
c)
SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM
- sociological factor refers to things, places and people with whom we
come in contact with and which play a part in determining our action and
conduct. These causes may bring about the development of criminal
behavior
1)
a)
b)
c)

EMILE DURKHEIM
one of the founding scholars of sociology
published a book Division of Social Labor, which become a landmark
work on the organization of societies according to him:
crime is as normal a part of society as birth and death
crime is part of human nature because it has existed during
periods of both poverty and prosperity
as long as human differences exists which is one of the
fundamental conditions of society, it is but natural and
expected that it will result to criminality
One of his profound contributions to contemporary criminology is the
concept of anomie, the breakdown of social order as a result of loss
of standard and values

2)
GABRIEL TARDE (1843-1904) forerunner of modern day
learning theorists,
- introduced the Theory of Imitation, which governs the process by
which people become criminals
- The Theory of Imitation is explained by the following patterns:
a) Pattern 1 : individuals imitate others in proportion to the intensity
and frequency of their contact
b) Pattern 2 : inferiors imitate superiors
c) Pattern 3 : when two behavior patterns clash, one may take place of
the other

3)
-

ADOLPHE QUETELET
He repudiated the free will doctrine of the classicists
He founded what is known as the CARTHOGRAPHIC SCHOOL OF
CRIMINOLOGY, together with ANDRE MICHAEL GUERRY
This study used social statistical data and provided important
demographic information on the population, including density, gender,
religious affiliations and social economic status
He found a strong influence of age, sex, climate condition, population
composition and economic status in criminality

4)
ENRICO FERRI
- a member of the Italian parliament
- he believe that criminals could not be held morally responsible because
they did not chose to commit crimes but was driven to commit them by
conditions of their lives
SOCIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND CRIME CAUSATIONS
The study of sociology provides many ideas and opinions that help in
understanding why a person becomes a criminal.
SOCIAL NORMS
- Also called rules of conduct
- shared standard of behavior which in turn require certain expectations of
behavior in a given situation
- Socially accepted and expected behavior or conduct in society
- set of rules that govern an individuals behavior and action
SOCIALIZATION
- refers to the learning process by which a person learns and internalizes the
ways of society so that he can function and become an active part of society.
CULTURE
- refers to the system of values and meanings shared by a group of
individuals including the embodiment of those values and meanings in
material object
- refers to the way of life, modes of thinking, acting and feeling
- it is a design of living that is transmitted from one generation to the next
MODERN EXPLANATION OF CRIMES AND
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR

A)
SOCIAL STRUCTURE THEORY = views that disadvantage economic
class position is a primary cause of crime
1) SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY
- Focused on the conditions within the urban environment that affect
crime rates
- Links crime rate to neighborhood ecological characteristics
- Views crime ridden neighborhoods as those in which residents are
uninterested in community matters; therefore, the common sources of
control family, school, church, and barangay authorities are weak and
disorganized
- Also called differential social organization
Shaw and Mckay = works on social ecology (environmental forces
that have a direct influence on human behavior) as influence by urban
sociologist Robert Ezra Park and Ernest Burgess was focused on social how
their breakdown influences deviant and anti-social behavior. He popularized
social disorganization theory.
2)
STRAIN THEORY
- holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have
and the means they can use to legally obtain them
- argues that the ability to obtain these goals is class dependent: members of
the lower class are unable to achieve these goals which come easily to those
belonging to the upper class
- Consequently, they feel anger, frustration and resentment, referred to a
STRAIN
- The commission of crimes with the aim of achieving these goals results
from this conflict
3)
CULTURAL DEVIANCE THEORY
- combines the elements of both strain and disorganization theories
- theories that in order to cope with social isolation and economic
deprivation, members of the lower class create an independent subculture
with its own set of rules and values
Cultural transmission = the concept that conduct norms are passed down
from one generation to the next so that they become stable within the
boundaries of a culture.

B)
-

SOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES


Social process theory = views that criminality is a function of
peoples interaction with various organization, institutions, and process
in society.

1) SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY


- believes that crime is a product of learning the norms, values and
behavior associated with criminal activity.
a) DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY
- Formulated by Edwin Surherland
- Believes that criminality is a function of a learning process that could
affect and individual in any culture
- His theory is outlined as follows:
i. Criminal behavior is learned
ii.
Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a
process of communication;
iii.
The principle part of learning of criminal behavior occurs within
an intimate personal group;
iv.
When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes
techniques in committing the crimes which are sometimes very
simple, the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalization
and attitudes;
v. The process of learning criminal behavior by association with
criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanism
that are involved in any other learning
2)
-

SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY


Maintains that all people have the potential to violate the law and that
modern society presents may opportunities for illegal activities
Argues that people obey the law because behavior and passions are
being controlled by internal and external force
SOCIAL BOND THEORY (ALSO CALLED SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY)
Social bond = ties a person has to the institutions and process of
society: according to Hirchi, elements of the social bond include
commitment, attachment, involvement, and belief.

Containment theory = according to Walter Reckless, it is the


idea that strong self-image insulates a youth from the pressures and
pulls of crimogenic influences in the environment.
3)
-

SOCIAL REACTION THEORY


Also called LABELING THEORY
Holds that people enter into law-violating careers when they are
labeled for their acts and organize their personalities around the labels.
Negative labels have dramatic influence on self-image of offenders.

Criminology 2
PHILIPPINE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSYTEM
CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
- The sum total of instrumentation which a society uses in the
prevention and control of crime and delinquency.
- The machinery of the state or government which enforces the rules of
conduct necessary to protect life and property and to maintain peace
and order.
- Comprises all means used to enforce these standards of conduct,
which are deemed necessary to protect individuals and to maintain
general well-being of the community.
FIVE PILLARS OF THE PHILIPPINE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

LAW ENFORCEMENT
PROSECUTION
COURTS
CORRECTIONS
COMMUNITY

THREE PILLARS OF THE AMERICAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM


1) LAW ENFORCEMENT
2) COURTS
3) CORRECTIONS
KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY (VILLAGE JUSTICE)
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY

PD 1293 the law CREATING A KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY


COMMISSION TO STUDY THE FEASIBILITY OF RESOLVING DISPUTES
AT THE BARANGAY LEVEL
- Promulgated on 27 January 1978
PD 1508 the law ESTABLISHING A SYSTEM OF AMICABLY SETTLING
DISPUTES AT THE BARANGAY LEVEL
RA 7160 otherwise as the LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991
- Provides for the REVISED KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY LAW
- Enacted on 10 October 1991
LUPONG TAGAPAMAYAPA
It is a body of men created to settle disputes within the barangay level.
It is also referred to as the LUPON
Composition of the Lupon
The Lupon shall be composed of the Barangay Chairman as Chairman
of the Lupon and the Barangay Secretary as the Secretary of the Lupon,
plus other members who shall be not less than ten (10) but not more
than twenty (20). It shall be constituted every three (3) years.
Qualification to become member of the Lupon
Any resident of the barangay of reputable character may be appointed
as member of the Lupon. Member of the Lupon shall be appointed by
the Barangay Chairman with the term of three (3) years.
Basic function of the Lupon
Essentially, the Lupon must provide a forum for matter relevant to
the amicable settlement of disputes for the speedy resolution of
disputes.
Meditation = is the process by which the Lupon chairman meets with the
parties together with their witnesses to mediate with their conflicting
interest.
PANGKAT TAGAPAGKASUNDO
It shall acts as the conciliation panel. It is also referred to as the
PANGKAT

It shall be composed of three (3) members chosen from the


members of the Lupon. They shall choose from among the three of them the
Pangkat Chairman and Pangkat Secretary.
The pangkat shall be constituted whenever a dispute is
brought before the Lupon.
The members of the Pangkat shall be chosen by the parties of
the disputes from among the Lupon members. In case of
disagreement the Barangay Chairman shall draw lots.
Matters falls under the jurisdiction of the Lupon
a) those involving offenses that are punishable by the imprisonment
of one year and below of a fine in the amount of five thousand
pesos and below;
b) those involving parties, that actually reside or work in the same
barangay;
c) those involving marital and family disputes;
d) those involving minor disputes between neighbors;
e) those involving real properties located in the barangay;
Venue for amicable settlement
a) disputes between persons actually residing in the same barangay shall
be brought for amicable settlement before the Lupon of said barangay;
b) those involving actual resident of different barangays within the same
city or municipality shall be brought in the barangay where the
respondent actually resides;
c) all disputes involving real property or any interest shall be brought in
the barangay where the real property or the larger portion is situated;
d) those arising at the workplace where the contending parties are
employed or at the institution where such parties are enrolled for study
shall be brought in the barangay where such workplace or institutional
is located.
PROCEDURE FOR AMICABLE SETTLEMENT
1. Who may be initiate proceeding?
Any individual who has a cause of action against another individual
involving any matters within the authority of the Lupon may complain, orally
or in writing to the Lupon.
COMPLAINANT
respondent.

the person who filled the complaint against the

RESPONDENT the person who is being complained of.


CAUSE OF ACTION an act or omission of one party in violation of the legal
rights of another for which the latter suffers damage which affords a party to
a right to judicial intervention.
2. Upon receipt of the complaint the Chairman shall meet with the
respondent and complainant and mediate, if he falls in his
mediation within fifteen (15) days he shall set a date for the
constitution of the Pangkat.
MEDIATION OR CONCILIATION the process whereby disputant are
persuaded by the Punong Barangay or Pangkat to amicably settle their
disputes
3. The Pangkat shall meet not later than three (3) days after their
constitution, on the date set by the Chairman, to hear both parties.
4. The Pangkat shall arrive at a settlement of the dispute within
fifteen (15) days from its meeting. This period may be extended for
another fifteen (15) days, at the discretion of the Pangkat.
Purpose of amicable settlement
Because it is a pre-condition to filling of complaint in court
No complaint involving any matter within the authority of the Lupon
shall be filled directly in court unless there has been a confrontation between
the parties before the Chairman or the Pangkat, and that no conciliation or
settlement has been reached as certified by the Secretary, or unless the
settlement has been repudiated by the parties.
Effect of the amicable settlement
The amicable settlement shall have the force and effect of a final
judgment of a court upon the expiration of ten (10) days from the date of
settlement.
FIRST PILLAR: LAW ENFORCEMENT
As the first pillar in the criminal justice system, the police is
considered as the initiator of action. Its actions and decisions essentially
control or dominate the activities or functions of the other pillars.

Brief History of the Philippine policing System


The institution of police in the Philippines formally started during the
Spanish period. The establishment of the police force was not entirely
intended for crime prevention or peacekeeping. Rather, it was created as an
extension of the colonial military establishment.
Ancient Roots
The forerunner of the contemporary police system was the practice of
barangay chieftains to select able-bodied young men to protect their
barangay during the night and were not required to work in the fields during
daytime.
Spanish Period
Carabineros de SeguridadPublica organized in 1712 for the purpose of
carrying the regulations of the Department of State; this was armed and
considered as the mounted police; years discharged the duties of a port,
harbor and river police
Guardrilleros this was a body of rural police organized in each town and
established by the Royal Decree of 18 January 1836; this decree provided
that 5% of the able-bodied male inhabitants of each province were to be
enlisted in this police organization for three years.
Guardia Civil this was created by a Royal Decree issued by the Crown on
12 February 1852 to partially relieve the Spanish Peninsular troops of their
work in policing towns; it consisted of a body of Filipino policemen organized
originally in each of the provincial capitals of the central province of Luzon
under the Alcalde Mayor
American Period
The American established the United States Philippine Commission
headed by General Howard Taft as its first governor general on
January 9, 1901, the Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was
organized pursuant to Act No. 70 of the Taft Commission. This has
become the basis for the celebration of the anniversary of Manilas Finest
every January 9th.
Act No 175 entitled An Act providing for the Organization and
Government of an insular Constabulary, enacted on July 18, 1901
Act No 255 the act that renamed the insular constabulary into Philippine
Constabulary enacted on October 3, 1901

Executive Order 389 ordered that the Philippines Constabulary be one of


the four services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, enacted on
December 23, 1940.
Post-American Period
RA 4864 otherwise known as the Police Professionalization Act of
1966, enacted the Police Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory agency to
oversee the training and professionalization of the local police forces under
the Office of the President; later POLCOM was renamed into National
Police Commission (NAPOLCOM)
Martial Law Period
PD 765 otherwise known as the integration Act of 1975, enacted
on August 8, 1975; established the Integrated National Police (INP)
composed of the Philippines Constabulary (PC) as the nucleus and the
integrated local police forces as components, under the Ministry of national
Defense.
- Transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the
Ministry of National Defense
Post Martial Law Regime
Executive Order No 1012 transferred to the city and municipal
government the operational supervision and direction over all INP units
assigned within their locality.
Executive Order No 1040 transferred the administrative control and
supervision of the INP from the Ministry of National Defense to the National
police Commission.
RA 6975 otherwise known as the Department of the interior and local
Government Act of 1990, enacted on December 13, 1990; reorganized the
DILG and established the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire protection,
Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety
College.
RA 8551 otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform
and Reorganization Act of 1998, enacted on February 25, 1998; this law
amended certain provision of RA 6975
R.A. 9708 =

PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE


- Organized pursuant to RA 6975, as amended by RA 8551
- A law enforcement agency under the operational control of the
Department of the Interior and Local Government and administrative
supervision of the National Police Commission
- It is an organization that is national in scope and civilian in
character
- Headed by the Chief, PNP, with the rank of Director General
OBJECTIVE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT/POLICE
1) Crime prevention the prevention and suppression of crimes have
traditionally been accepted as the primary goal of the local police
forces
2) Criminal apprehension it is a police responsibility to identity,
locate, and apprehend offenders.
3) Law enforcement it is the basic responsibility of the police to
enforce the law.
4) Order maintenance one of the most troublesome responsibilities of
the police.
5) Public service because the police is the most visible symbol of
authority, they are called upon to assist in situation like location of lost
persons or properties, to provide VIP, bank and funeral escorts and
other similar duties.
6) Traffic regulation and motor accident investigation
The police are excepted to ensure road safety for both pedestrians and
motorists and assist in cases of road accident and emergencies.
SECOND PILLAR: PROSECUTION
PROSECUTON
- The course of action or process whereby accusation are brought before
a court of justice to determine the innocence or guilt of the accused
- In a criminal action, it is a proceeding instituted and carried on by due
course of law before a competent tribunal, for the purpose of
determining the guilt or innocence of a person charged with a crime
PROSECUTOR/PUBLIC PROSECUTOR/FISCAL
- One who prosecute another for a crime in the name of the
government; one who investigates the prosecution upon which an
accused is arrested; one who prepares an accusation against the party
whom he suspect to be guilty

An officer of the government whose function is the prosecution of


criminal actions or suits partaking of the nature of criminal actions

DUTIES OF A PROSECUTOR
1) To conduct preliminary investigation:
2) To make proper recommendation during the inquest of the case
referred to them by the police after investigation of the suspect;
3) To represent the government or state during the prosecution of the
case against the accused
NATIONAL PROSECUTION SERVICE (NPS)
- The principal prosecutory arm of the government
- Its primary task is to investigate and prosecute all criminal offenses
defined and penalized under the Revised Penal Code and other special
laws
- Composed of the Office of the Chief State Prosecutor, the Regional
State Prosecution Offices and the Provincial and City Prosecution Office
- Under the general supervision and control of the Secretary of the
Department of Justice
- The Chief State Prosecutor is the head of the Prosecutorial Staff
PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
- An inquiry or proceeding to determine whether there is sufficient
ground to engender a well-founded belief that a crime has been
committed and the respondent is probably guilty thereof
- It is requires to be conducted before the filling of the information for an
offense where the penalty prescribed by law is at least four years,
two months and one day
PROBABLE CAUSE
- The existence of such facts and circumstances as would excited a
belief in a reasonable mind, acting on the facts within the knowledge of
the prosecutor, that the person is guilty of the crime for which he is
prosecuted
- Such facts and circumstances which would lead a reasonably discreet
and prudent man to believe that an offense has been committed by
the person sought to be arrested
Pleading = refers to written allegation of the parties to the case
= are the written statement of the respective claims and defenses of the
parties submitted to the court for appropriate judgment (Rule 6, sec 1, RC)

COMPLAINT
- A sworn, written statement charging a person with as offense,
subscribed by the offended party, any peace officer or other public
officers, charged with the enforcement of the law
- It may be filled either before the prosecutors office or the court
INFORMATION
- An accusation in writing charging a person with an offense subscribed
by the fiscal and filed with the court
OFFENDED PARTY
- The person against whom or against whose property the crime was
committed
PEACE OFFICERS
- Officers directly charged with the preservation of peace, law and order
- Includes members of the Philippines National Police
PERSONS AUTHORIZED TO CONDUCT PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
(PNO[s)
1) Provincial or city prosecutor and their assistants (PCP)
2) Judges of the municipal trial courts and municipal circuit trial courts
(No longer allowed)
3) National and regional state prosecutors (NRSP)
4) Other officers as may be authorized by law:
a) Tanodbayans special persecutors as authorized by the
Ombudsman
b) COMELECs authorized legal officers in connection with election
offenses
c) Special prosecutors appointed by the Secretary of Justice
PROCEDURE OF PRILIMINARY INVESTIGATION
1) There must be a complaint accompanied by the affidavit of the
complaint and his witnesses as well as other supporting documents to
establish probable cause.
2) The investigating prosecutor shall either dismiss the case or issue a
subpoena to the respondent within ten (10) days after filling of the
complaint.

3) The respondent shall submit his counter-affidavit and that of his


witnesses within ten (10) days from receipt of the subpoena. If the
respondent cannot be subpoena or if he failed to submit his counteraffidavit within the prescribe period, the investigating prosecutor shall
resolve the complaint based on the evidence presented by the
complainant.
4) The investigating prosecutor may set a hearing if there are facts or
issues to be clarified. The hearing shall be held within ten (10) days
from the submission of the counter-affidavit, or from the expiration of
the period of submission. Such hearing shall be terminated within five
(5) days.
5) Within ten (10) days after the investigation, the investigating
prosecutor shall determine whether or not there is sufficient ground to
hold the respondent for trial. The fermentation of the hearing shall be
the end of the investigation.
6) If the investigating prosecutor finds cause to hold the respondent for
trial he shall prepare the resolution and information. He shall forward
the record of the case to the provincial or city prosecutor or chief state
prosecutor within five (5) days his resolution.
If the investigating prosecutor recommends dismissal of the case, the
same procedure shall apply.
The provincial, city or chief state prosecutor shall act on the resolution
within ten (10) days from receipt and shall immediately inform the
parties of such action.
No complaint or information may be filed or dismissed by the
investigating prosecutor without prior written authority or approval of
the provincial or city or chief state prosecutor.
7) If the investigating prosecutor recommends the filing of the case but
the provincial, city or chief state prosecutor disapproves and wants the
case dismissed, the provincial, city or chief state prosecutor may
dismiss the case without need for another preliminary investigation.
If the investigating prosecutor recommends dismissal of the case but
the provincial, city or chief state prosecutor finds probable cause, the
provincial, city or chief state prosecutor may file the information with
the court without the need for preliminary investigation.
8) In case either party is not satisfied with findings of the provincial, city
or chief state prosecutor, he may submit his petition with the Secretary
of Justice.

The Secretary of Justice has the power to modify the resolution of the
provincial, city of chief state prosecutor. The Secretary may affirm or
reverse the resolution of the provincial, city or chief state prosecutor
without conducting another preliminary investigation.
THIRD PLLAR: COURTS
COURT
- An organ of the government belonging to the judicial department
whose function is the application of the laws to controversies brought
before it and the public for the administration of justice.
JUDICIARY
- That branch of the government which is vested with judicial power.
- That branch of the government which is empowered to interpret,
construe and apply the laws
JUDICIAL POWER
- The power to apply the laws to contest or disputes concerning legally
recognized right or duties of and between the state and the private
persons or between individual litigants in case properly brought before
the judicial tribunals.
- Vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts.
POWER OF JUDICIAL REVIEW
- The power of the Supreme Court to determine whether laws passed by
Congress and acts to the President are in accord with the Constitution
when the matter is raised.
JUDGE
- A public officer so named in his commission and appointed to preside
over and to administer the law in a court of justice
JURISDICTION
- The power and authority of court to hear , try and decide cases
KINDS OF JURISDICTION
1) General when the court is empowered to decide all disputes which
may come before it except those assigned to other courts.
2) Limited when the court has authority to hear and determine only a
few specified cases.
3) Original when the court can try and hear a case presented for the
first time
4) Appellate when the court can try a case already heard and decided
by a lower court, removed from the latter by appeal.

5) Exclusive when the court can try and decide a case which cannot be
presented before any other court.
6) Concurrent when any of two or more courts may take cognizance of
a case.
BP 129 = otherwise known as the Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980
ORGANIZATION AND JURISDICTION OF THE
COURTS
SUPREME COURT
- Composed of a Chef Justice and 14 Associate Justices
- Shall have administrative supervision over all courts
- Shall have the power to discipline judges of the lower courts
- Shall have appellate jurisdiction over cases decided by the Court of
Appeals
- Shall have the power of judicial review

COURT OF APPEALS
Headed by a Presiding Justice
Has appellate jurisdiction over cases decided by the RTC
REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS
Presided by a Regional Judge
Has general jurisdiction over criminal case
Has jurisdiction over offense punishable with imprisonment of six years
one day and over
Has appellate jurisdiction over cases decided by the MTC and MCTC

METROPOLITAN, MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURT, AND MUNICIPAL CIRCUIT


TRIAL COURT
- Has jurisdiction over violation of city or municipal ordinances, and
offenses punishable by imprisonment not exceeding six years.
SPECIAL COURTS
1) COURT OF TAX APPEALS
- Created under RA 1125
- Composed of three (3) judges
- Has exclusive appellate jurisdiction to review on appeal decisions of
the Commissioner of the Bureau of Internal Revenue involving internal
revenue taxes and decisions of the Commissioner of the Bureau of
Customs involving customs duties
2) SANDIGANBAYAN
- Created pursuant to PD 1606

Composed of fifteen (15) Justice


Tasked to handle criminal cases involving graft and corruption and
other offenses committed by high-ranking public officers and
employees in connection with the performance of their functions
3) SHARIA COURTS
- Crated pursuant to PD 1083, otherwise known as the Code of
Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines
- Created as part of the judicial system
- Courts of limited jurisdiction known as the Sharia District Court are
presided by District Judges
- Sharia circuit trial courts, are presided by circuit judges
DECISION
- The judgment rendered by a court of justice or other competent
tribunals
JUDGEMENT
- The adjudication by the court that the accused is guilty or not guilty of
the offense charged and the imposition of the proper penalty and civil
liability
- It must be written in the official language, personally and directly
prepared by the judges and subscribed by him
- Shall contain clearly and distinctly a statement of the facts and the law
upon which it is based
CONTENTS OF JUDGEMENT
1) JUDGMENT OF CONVICTION
- When the judges finds the accused guilty of the charges against him
- The legal qualification of the offense constituted by the acts committed
by the accused and the aggravating or mitigating circumstances which
attended its commission
- The participation of the accused in the offense, whether as principal,
accomplice or accessory after the fact
- The penalty imposed upon the accused
- The civil liability or damages caused by his wrongful act or omission to
be recovered from the accused by the offended party unless the
enforcement of the civil liability by a separate civil action has been
reserved or waived.
2) JUDGEMENT OF ACQUITAL
- When the judge finds the accused not guilty of the charges against
him.

Shall state whether the evidence of the prosecution absolutely


failed to prove the guilt of the accused or merely failed to prove his
guilt beyond reasonable doubt

Rendition of Judgment = the writing of the judgment by the judge


PROMULGATION OF JUDGEMENT
- By reading in the presence of the accused and any judge of the court
which it was rendered
- If the judge is absent, the judgment may be promulgated by the clerk
of court
FOURTH: CORRECTION
Correction = is that branch of administration of criminal justice charged
with the responsibility for the custody, supervision and rehabilitation of
convicted offenders.
Penology = a branch of criminology which deals with the treatments;
management and administration of inmates.
Penalty = the suffering that is inflicted by the state for the transgression of
the law.
Theories Justifying penalty
Prevention = the state punish the criminal to prevent or suppress the
danger to the state and to the public arising from the criminal acts of the
offender.
Self-Defense the State punishes the criminal as a measure of self-defense
to protect the society from the threat and wrong inflicted by the criminal
Reformation the State punishes the criminal to help reform or be
rehabilitated
Exemplarity the State punishes the criminal to serve as an example to
other and discourage other from committing crimes
Justice = the State punish the criminal as a act of retributive justice a
vindication of absolute right and moral law violated by the criminal.
Judicial Condition of Penalty
Judicial and legal - penalty must be imposed by the proper authority and
by virtue of a judgment as prescribed by law.
Definite - penalty must be specific and exact
Commensurate penalty must be proportional to the gravity or seriousness
of the crime committed.

Personal penalty must be imposed only to the person who actually


committed the crime with substitutes.
Equal penalty must be applied to all who committed the offense.
Prison law basic law in the Philippines Prison System found in the Revised
Administrative Code.
Philippines Prison System patterned after the US federation Prison
System
P.D. 29 the law that classified prisoners
Classification of prisoner
1) According to Sentence/place of confinement.
a. National or Insular Prisoner one who is sentenced to serve a prison
term of three years and one day to death.
b. Provincial Prisoners one who is sentenced to serve a prison term of
six months and one day to three years.
c. City Prisoners one who is sentenced to serve a prison term of one
day to there years.
d. Municipal Prisoner one who is sentence to serve a prison term of
one day to six months.
2) According to fine:
a. National or Insular one who is sentenced to serve a prison term
of three years and one day to death or whose fine is more than
6,000.00 or both
b. City/Provincial prisoner one who is sentenced to serve a prison
term of six months and one day to three years or whose fine is less
than P6,000.00 but more than P200.00 , or both.
c. Municipal prisoner one who is sentenced to serve a prison term
of one day to six months or whose fine is not more than P200.00 or
both.
3) According to Status
a. Detention prisoners those held for security reasons,
investigating; those awaiting or undergoing trial and awaiting
judgment.
b. Sentence prisoner those convicted by final judgment and
serving their sentence.
Prison institutions for confinement of convicted offenders sentenced to
more than three (3) years of imprisonment.
- derived from the Greco-Roman word presidio

- administered by the National Government under the Bureau of Corrections.


-also called national prisons and also includes the penal colonies and penal
farms.
Jails institutions for confinement of convicted offenders sentenced to
imprisonment of three (3) years or less.
Institution for the confinement of those still undergoing trial or awaiting
judgment.
Derived from the Spanish word jaula and caula
Provincial jails are administered and supervised by their respective
provincial governor.
City and municipal jails are administered and supervised by the
Bureau of jail Management and Penology.
Executive Clemency = collective term for absolute pardon, conditional
pardon, and commutation of sentence.
= granted by the chief Executive Officer (President of the Philippines).
KINDS OF EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY
1. Pardon an act of grace proceeding from the power entrusted with the
execution of the laws which exempts the individual on whom it is bestowed
from the punishment the law inflicts for crime he has committed.
- granted by the President after conviction by final judgment.
- extinguishes only criminal liability but not the civil liability
Kinds of Pardon:
a. Absolute pardon the extinction of the criminal liability of the
individual to when it is granted without any condition and restores to the
individual his civil rights.
b. Conditional Pardon the extinction of the criminal liability of an
individual from the punishment which the law inflicts for the offense he has
committed within certain limits or conditions.
2. Commutation of Sentence reduction of the sentence from a heavier
sentence to a less serious one, or from longer prison term to a shorter one.
- convicted offenders may only be granted commutation of sentence as
provided by law.
3. Amnesty an act of sovereign power granting oblivion or general pardon
for the past offense, usually granted in favor of certain classes of persons

who have committed crimes of political character, such as treason or


rebellion.
4. Commutation of sentence reducing the period of imprisonment into
shorter period.
5. Reprieve temporary suspension of the execution of sentence.
Parole a method by which a prisoner who has served a portion of his
sentence is conditionally released but remains in legal custody, the condition
being that in case of misbehavior, he shall put back to prison.
- granted to convicted offender who have served a portion of their
sentence as provided by law granted by the Board of Pardons and Parole.
Criminology 3
Ethics and values
I.

II.

Definition
The word ethics was derived from the Late Latin ethnicus, from
Greek Ethnikos
Which means national, which means nations, people; akin to Greek
ethos custom (Websters New Explorer Encyclopedic Dictionary,
2006).
Ethics based on its etymological meaning is taken to mean as a
philosophical science that deals with the morality of human conduct or
human acts (Babor, Ethics, 2008).
Ethics is the practical science of the morality of human conduct
(Glenn, Ethics).

Nature/Concept of Ethics
a. It is a division of Philosophy under the Normative Philosophy
Generally, Philosophy can be divided into four disciplines: (1)
descriptive or speculative, (2) normative, (3) practical, and (4) critical. Ethics
is more concerned of Normative Philosophy since it is more concerned on
what is good or bad? Or what is right action and wrong action?
b. It is a Practical Science
Ethics is also a science for it is the result of series of studies, a
systematized body of data reflected upon truth in relation to action. Towards
this discovery of truth, sets of implied rules or directions for thought or
action are established this makes the ethics more of a practical science.
c. It focus on Human Acts

Human acts are the material object of the study of ethics. It shall
mean only those acts which are determined by the free will. It is
characterized as acts done deliberately, freely or voluntarily. Acts which are
done by man but without the use of the power of free choice are act of
human. Therefore, acts of man are not human acts.
d. it is the science of the morality of human
acts
Ethics does not end with the study of human acts, if human act is the
material object of the study of ethics its formal object is the rectitude (right
morality) of human acts. Human acts may either be in agreement or
disagreement with the dictates of reason. Hence Ethics deals with the
morality of human conduct it is what makes us humans as differentiated
from other living creatures in their ways of living.
III.

Division of Ethics
Ethics has two major divisions: the general Ethics and Special Ethics.
General ethics presents the general principles of morality of human acts
while Special ethics provides for the application of the principles of
general ethics to particular department of human activity, individual or
social.

IV.
Human Acts
A. Definition:
Human act is an act which proceeds from the deliberate any sort of
activity, internal or external, physical or spiritual, performed by human
being. However, as used in this text, it shall be limited to those human acts
which are proper to man as man.
B. Classification of Human Acts
Human acts may be classified either in relation to the will or in relation
to reason:
1. Human Acts in relation to the will:
a) Elicited acts are those human acts that are complete or adequate
cause, they begin and perfected in the human will itself such as wish,
intention, consent, election, and other. Just like when a student decided
to go to work with his assignment before going to plays with his friends
his intention is a simple will-act (elicited act).
b) Commanded acts are those are done in relation to the dictates of
reason. They begin in the will but are perfected by other faculties
under the control of the will. Thus, when a student decided to work first

with his assignment before playing with his friends gets his books and
notebooks and works with his assignment is an example of a
commanded act.
2. Human acts in relation to reason:
MORALITY
= the quality which makes an act good or evil, right or wrong.

HUMAN ACTS
Actions that are done knowingly, deliberately and freely.
BASES OF MORALITY
1) SOCIAL NORMS unwritten standard of acceptable behavior in
society
a) Customs
b) Tradition the handling down from generation to generation of
opinions and practices.
c) Culture2) LAWS OF SOCIETY written rules of behavior
a) Laws created by men to maintain harmony and order
3) RELIGION a system of beliefs and practices based on faith and
truths revealed to man by God
4) CONSCIECE the practical judgment of reason telling us what should
be done and what should be avoided; reflection is ones character
CHARACTER
- refers to the traits of a person shown through his thoughts, action,
values and virtues
Character is what you do when nobodys looking.
- Anonymous
VALUE/S
- refer to anything that a person considers important, such as idea or
experiences
-These are ones belief, principles, that are important, cherished, upheld
and defended
- they affect and influence how one thinks and feel, what one perceives,
shape ones goals, objectives and aspirations
-These dictate ones lifestyle and lifes choices and decisions
VIRTUE/S
- The habit of doing what is good or right
- The opposite of which is vice
FOUR (4) MORAL/CARDINAL VIRTUES

1) PRUDENCE
- The ability to make decision by means of reason and sound judgment
- the virtue that attracts the intellect to choose the most effective means
for accomplishing what is good and avoiding what is evil.
2) FORTITUDE
- Firmness of mind; the courage to endure without yielding the virtue that
gives a person strength of the will; the virtue that incites courage
Examples of Fortitude:
a) PATIENCE
- The ability to be calm in enduring situations
b) PERSERVERANCE
- The ability to go on despite obstacles
c) ENDURANCE
- The ability to last
3) TEMPERANCE
- The ability to moderate ones instincts and emotions; the virtue that
regulates a persons wants; also means self-control
4) JUSTICE
- The virtue that inclines the will to give to each what is due to him; the
virtue that inclines the will to respect the rights of others
MAENING OF JUSTICE
1) To render to each his due
2) Treat equals equally and unequal unequally in proportion to their
inequality
THREE (3) DIVISION OF JUSTICE
1) COMMUTATIVE JUSTICE
-regulates those actions that involve the rights that exist between
individuals
-calls for fundamental fairness in all agreement and exchanges
between individuals or private social groups
-demands respect for the equal human dignity of all persons in
economic transaction contract or promises
Examples:
Workers owe their employers diligent work in exchange for their
wages.
Likewise, employers owe their workers payment for work done.
2) DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
-regulates those actions that involve the rights that an individual may
claim from society

-concerned with the fair allocation of resources among diverse


members of a community
-implies that society has a duty to the individuals in serious need and
all individuals have duties to others in need
-basis for the saying:
Those who have less in life should have more in law.
From those to whom much is given, much is expected.
3)
LEGAL JUSTICE
-regulates those actions which society may justly require of the individual for
the common good
-according to legal justice, the State may institute just laws and perform such
acts to further the welfare of the community
-thus, laws are created to protect the citizens
RIGHT
-anything that is owed or due
-something to which a person has a just and lawful claim
-anything that a person can lawfully demand
HUMAN RIGHTS
-rights pertaining to the rights of man; rights inherent to human by virtue of
being a human being
-are the supreme, inherent and inalienable rights to life, dignity and to selfdevelopment
Supreme rights
= highest form of rights
Inherent rights
= rights attached to men as human
Inalienable rights
= rights that cannot be transferred, cannot be borrowed and cannot be taken
away.
BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS
1)
RIGHT TO LIFE
Exceptions:
-self-defense
-death under exceptional circumstances
-death penalty
2)
RIGHT TO LIBERTY
Exceptions: circumstances of warrantless search by virtue of court
order

BILL OF RIGHTS
-a list of individual liberties, freedom and rights which are guaranteed and
protected under Article lll of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
-protection of individuals against abuses of the state
-protection of the rights of an accused
SPECIAL ETHICS
the study of the application of the general principles of morality
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
-a sub-branch of special ethics
-a set of moral code to which every profession must subscribe
-aims to guide the actuations of the professional in the practice of his
profession
Examples of professional ethics
1) Medical ethics
2) Business ethics
3) Legal ethics
4) Code of ethics of teachers
5) Code of ethics of public officials
6) POLICE ETHICS
POLICE ETHICS
-a practical science that treats the principles of human morality and duty as
applied to law enforcement
PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT
AND ETHICAL STANDEARDS
BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ON THE PNP CODE OF
PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND ETHICAL STANDARDS
According to Section 37 of RA 6975. There shall be established a
performance evaluation system which shall be administered in accordance
with the rules, regulations and standards, and a CODE OF CONDUCT
promulgated by the Commission for members of the PNP
NAPOLCOM RESOLUTION NO 92-4
-the resolution issued by the NAPOLCOM approving the draft of the PNP Code
of Professional Conduct and Ethical standards by the PNP
-approved on 12 March 1992
PURPOSE OF THE CODE

1)To foster individual efficiency, behavioraldiscipline and organizational


effectiveness, as well as respect for constitutional and human rights of
citizens, democratic principles and ideals and the supremacy of civilian
authority over the military;
2) To set the moral tone and norms of professional conduct in the police
service;
3) To provide moral and ethical guidance to all PNP members; and
4) To enlighten members of the police service of what behavior is really
acceptable to defineswhat is permitted and what is prohibited.
LAWS RELATED TO THE PNP CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND
ETHICAL STANDARDS
1) RA 3019 the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act
2) RA 6713 Code of Conduct and Ethical Standard for Public Officials
and Employees
3) RA 7080 Anti Plunder Act
4) Peoples Law Enforcement Board (PLEB) Rules and Regulation
Definition of terms
NEGLECTS OF DUTY OR NON-FEASANCE
-the omission or refusal, without sufficient excuse, to perform an act or
duty, which it was the peace officers legal obligation to perform; it
implies a duty as well as its breach and the fact can never be found in the
absence of duty.
IRREGULARITIES IN THE PERFORMANCE OF DUTY OR MISFEASNCE
-the doing, either through ignorance, inattention or malice, of that which
the officer had no legal right to do at all, as where he acts without any
authority whatsoever, or exceeds, ignores, or abuses his powers
-generally means wrongful, improper or unlawful conduct, motivated by
premeditated, obstinate or intentional purpose
-usually refers to transgressions of some established and definite rules of
actions.
INCOMPETENCY
-the manifest lack of adequate ability and fitness for the satisfactory
performance of police duties
-has references to any physical, moral or intellectual quality the lack of
which substantially incapacitated one perform his duties
OPPRESSION
-an act of cruelty, severity, unlawful exaction, domination, or excessive
use of authority

DIALOYALTY TO THE GOVERNMENT


-consists of abandonment or renunciation of ones loyalty to the
Government of the Philippines, or advocating the overthrow of the
government
VIOLATION OF LAW
-presupposes conviction in court of any crime or offense penalized under
the Revised Penal Code or any special law or ordinance
GOVERNMENT
-includes the national government, the local governments, the
government-owned and controlled corporations, and all other
instrumentalities or agencies of the Republic of the Philippines
PUBLIC OFFICER
-includes elective and appointive officials and employees, permanent or
temporary, whether in the classified or unclassified or exempt service
receiving compensation, from the government.
GRAFT
-the acquisition of gain or advantage by dishonest, unfair or sordid means,
especially through the abuse of ones position or influence in politics or
government
CORRUPTION
-an act done with an intent to give some advantage inconsistent with
official duty and the rights of others.
-the state of making something or someone other than what is ideal.
BRIBERY
-the act of receiving gifts or presents or accepting offers and or promises
in exchange for committing a crime that relates to the exercise of the
office which the public officer discharges.
DISHONESTY
-concealment or distortion of truth in matter of fact relevant to ones
office or connected with the performance of his duties
COMMAND
-the authority a person lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of
rank or assignment or position
RESPONSIBILITY
-the obligation to perform ones duties and functions and his
accountability for his actions
COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY

-the doctrine that imposes commensurate accountability to one who is


vested with authority to exercise management and/or leadership
functions
LAW ENFORCEMENT CODE OF ETHICS
-as a law enforcement officer, my fundamental duty is to serve mankind;
to safeguard life and property; to protect the innocent against deception;
weak against oppression or intimidation; and the peaceful against
violence or disorder; and to respect the constitutional rights of all men, to
liberty, equality and justice
I will keep my private life unsullied as an example to all; maintain
courageous calm in the face of danger; scorn or ridicule; develop selfrestraint and be constantly mindful of the welfare of others. Honest in
thought and deed in both my personal and official life, will be exemplary
in obeying the laws of the land and regulations of my organization.
Whatever I see or hear of a confidential nature or that is confided to me in
my official capacity will be kept ever secret unless revelation is necessary
in the performance of my duty.
I will never act officially or permit personal feelings, prejudices,
animosities or friendship to influence my decision, with no compromise for
crime and with relentless prosecution of criminals. I will enforce the law
courteously and appropriately without fear of favor, malice or ill-will,
never employing unnecessary force gratuities in return.
I recognize the badge of my office as a symbol of public faith and I
accept it as a public trust to be held so long as I am true to the ethics of
police service. I will never engage in acts of corruption or bribery, nor
will I condone such acts by other police officers. I will cooperate with all
legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of
justice.
I know that I alone am responsible for my own standard of professional
performance and will take every reasonable opportunity to enhance and
improve my level of knowledge and competence. I will constantly strive to
achieve these objectives and ideals, dedicating myself before God to my
chosen profession law enforcement
CANONS OF POLICE ETHICS
1) Primordial Police Responsibility
2) Limitation of Police Authority
3) Knowledge of the Law and other Responsibilities
4) Use of Proper Means to Obtain Proper Ends

5) Cooperation with Public Officials


6) Proper Conduct and Behavior
7) Conduct Towards the Community
8) Conduct in Arresting Law Violators
9) Firmness in Refusing Gifts
10)
Impartial Presentation of Evidence
11)
Attitude Towards Police Profession
Primordial Police Responsibility
-the primary responsibility of the police is CRIME PREVENTION
Limitation of Police Authority
-laws set limits to the authority of the police in the performance of their
functions
-police officers are not exempted from obeying the law they are enforcing
Knowledge of the law and other Responsibilities
-police officers must know and understand the laws they are enforcing
-police officers must know the relationship of the PNP with other law
enforcement agencies
Use of Proper Means to obtain Ends
Means = ways; manner
Ends = goals; objectives
-police officers must use lawful methods in performing their official duties
and functions
Proper Conduct and Behavior
-police officer must be careful with what they say and what do at all
times, whether in their personal lives or official capacity
Conducting in Arresting Law Violators
-police officer must always abide by the rules and prescribed procedures
in making lawful arrests
Firmness is Refusing Gifts or Favors
-police officers must NEVER ASK for and NEVER ACCEPT, gifts or favors in
exchange for their help or assistance to avoid misinterpretation
Impartial Presentation of Evidence
Impartial = fair
-police officers must present all evidence whether the evidence proves
the innocence or guilt of the suspect
Attitude Toward Police Profession
-police officers must have a high regards and respect for the police
profession
-police officers must strive to improve their knowledge and skill in order to
serve the community the best possible way they can

PROFESSIONAL POLICE PRINCIPLES


1) Prevention of Crime and Disorder
2) Cooperation of the Community
3) Unreasonable Force reduce Community Cooperation
4) Use of reasonable Force when Persuasion is not Sufficient
5) Impartial Enforcement of Laws
6) The community are Police
7) Police should not Judicial Power
8) Rules of Engagement Impartially Observed
9) Reduction of crime and Disorder
10) Police Discretion

Prevention of Crime and Disorder


-it is the primordial responsibility of the police
-it is the primary objective of the police organization
Cooperation of the Community
-the ability of the police to perform their duty is dependent upon community
support
-the police must secure the respect and trust of the community in order to
gain their support
Unreasonable Force Reduce Community Cooperation
-police officers must not abuse their authority because it affects the attitude
and opinions of the community towards them, which in turn affects their
desire to cooperate
Use of Reasonable Forces when Persuasion is not Sufficient
-police officers are not allowed to use force when dialogue is no longer
effective, but the kind or degree of force must be REASONABLE
Impartial Enforcement of Laws
-police officers must enforce the law equally to all persons, without regard to
social status
-the law should apply to all
Police should not Usurp Judicial Power
Usurp = take on, assumes
Judicial power = the authority to judge and impose penalty
-police officers have no authority to decide if the suspect is guilty or not, and
cannot impose the penalty that they want
Reduction of crime and Disorder

-the test of police efficiency is the reduction of crime and disorder until
totally eradicated, not by evidence of police presence and action in dealing
with the community
Rules of Engagement Impartially Observed
-police officers must always abide by the prescribed procedures in
conducting police operations
ABUSE OF DISCRETION
-the use of discretion in such a way as to deprived a person of his right
-police officers must NEVER ABUSE POLICE DISCRETION granted to them
POLICE DISCRETION
-the act or the liberty to decide according to the principles of justice and the
police officers ideas of what is right and proper under the circumstances
PNP core values
1) Love of God
2) Respect for Authority
3) Selfless Love and Service to people
4) Sanctity of marriage and Respect for Women
5) Responsible Dominion and Stewardship over Material Things
6) Truthfulness
POLICE OFFICERS CREED
I believe in God, the Supreme Being, a Great Provider, and the Creator
of all men and everything dear to me. In return, I cannot less than love him
above all, seek His guidance in the performance of my sworn duties and
honor Him at all times.
I believe that respect for authority is a duty. I respect and uphold the
constitution, the laws of the land and the applicable rules and regulations. I
recognize the legitimacy and authority of the leadership, and follow and obey
legal order of my superior officers.
I believe in selfless love and service to people. Towards this end, I
commit myself to the service of my fellowmen over and above mu personal
convenience.
I believe in the sanctity of marriage and respect for women. I shall set
example of decency and morality and shall have high regard for family life
and chastity.
I believe in responsible dominion and stewardship over material things.
I shall inhibit myself from ostentatious display of my property. I shall protect
the environment and conserve nature to maintain ecological balance. I shall
respect private and public properties and prevent others from destroying
them.

I believe in the wisdom of truthfulness. I must be trustworthy and I


shall speak the truth at all times as required by the profession.
PNP STAND ON BASIC ISSUES
1) PNP Image PNP members shall possess the following virtues:
a) HONOR
b) INTEGRITY
c) VALOR
d) JUSTICE
e) HONESTY
f) HUMILITY
g) CHARITY
h) LOYALTY TO SERVICE
2) Career Management: the Key in professionalism
3) Police Management Leadership
4) Delicadeza
5) Equality in the Service
6) Police Lifestyle
7) Political Patronage
8) Human Rights
Career management, the Key to Professionalism
-the PNP recognizes the need to have proper and strict policies regarding
recruitment, training, assignment5, promotion, awards, discipline and
retirement to ensure sound administration and to took after the welfare of its
members
Police Management Leadership
-the effectiveness of law enforcement is reflective of the management
capabilities and women who run the PNP organization
Equality in the Service
All police officers shall have equal opportunities for improvement and
career advancement based on merit
Delicadeza
-sense of pride and self-worth
-police officers must be able to sacrifice self interest in the name of duty
-police officers must not do anything that would bring dishonor to himself
and to the PNP organization itself.
Police Patronage

-police officers must NEVER ASK for recommendation from public officials in
matters pertaining to promotion, assignment, awards and others
POLICE PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT
1) Commitment to Democracy
2) Commitment to Public Interest
3) Non-partisanship
4) Physical Fitness and Health
5) Secrecy Discipline
6) Social Awareness
7) Proper Care and use of Public Property
8) Non-Solicitation of Patronage
9) Respect for Human Rights
10)
Devotion to Duty
11)
Conservation of Natural Resources
12)
Discipline
13)
Loyalty
14)
Obedience to Superior
15)
Command Responsibility
Commitment to democracy
-police officers must never forget that they are public servants and they
must at all times uphold the Constitution and be loyal to the country the
people and the PNP organization
Commitment to Public Interest
Public interest = for the good of the people or community
-police officers must always uphold public interest over and above personal
interests
-police officers must respect the facts that their resources are funded by
taxpayers money and should therefore be used wisely and economically to
avoid wastage of public funds
Non-Partisanship
-police officers must not be identified with any particular political party or
figure
-they must extend their assistance to all regardless of party affiliation
Secrecy Discipline
-police officers must guard the confidentiality of all official to the official
function of the police organization
-disclosure must always be authorized
Devotion to Duty
-police officers must perform their duties with dedication, thoroughness,
efficiency, enthusiasm, determination and manifest concern for public
welfare

Discipline
-police officers must act and behave according to the rules and regulations of
the organization at all times
Loyalty
-police officers must be loyal to the Constitution and to the police service, as
manifested by their loyalty to their superior peer and subordinates
Obedience to Superior
-police officers must obey lawful order of their superiors
-police officers must always be courteous to superior and other appropriate
authorities within the cahin of command
POLICE ETHICAL SATNDARD
ETHICAL STANDARDS
-refers to established and generally accepted moral values and ethical acts
1) Morality
2) Judicious Use of Authority
3) Justice
4) Humility
5) Orderliness
6) Perseverance
7) Integrity
Morality
-police officers must adhere to high standard of morality and decency and
shall set good examples for other to follow
-they must not be involved with illegal activities
-they shall be loyal to their spouses
Judicious Use of Authority
Judicious = wise; proper
-police officers must exercise proper and legitimate use of authority in the
performance of duty
Integrity
-police officers must not allow themselves to be victims of corruption and
dishonest practices in accordance with applicable laws
Humility
-police officers must never forget that they are public servants and not
master of the people
-they should perform their duties without arrogance
Orderliness
-police officers must follow logical procedures in accomplishing tasks to
minimize waste of time, money, effort, and other resources
Perseverance

-police officers must exert all effort to achieve their goal or mission even in
the face of difficulties and obstacles
POLICE CUSTOMSA AND TRADITIONS
CUSTOMS
-rules conduct formed by repetition of acts uniformly practiced as social rules
-establishing usage or social practices carried on by tradition that have
obtained the force of law
POLICE CUSTOM ON COURTESY
COURTESY
-a manifestation or expressions of consideration and respect
SALUTE
-the usual greeting rendered by uniformed members in recognizing persons
entitled to a salute
SALUTE TO NATIONAL COLOR AND STANDARD
-refers to the Philippines Flag
ADRESS OR TITLE
-PNP members who are junior in rank must address senior members wit SIR
OR MAAM
COURTESY CALL
-when a police officers appears before a superior officer as a sign of respect
and in acknowledgment of the latters authority or position
COURTESY CALL
1) Courtesy call of newly-assigned or newly-appointed members
2) Christmas Call
3) New Years Call
4) Promotion Call
5) Exit Call
6) Courtesy of the Post
Police customs on ceremonies
CEREMONY
-a format act or set of formal acts established by customs or authority as
proper for special occasions
1) Flag Raising Ceremony
2) Flag Retreat Ceremony
3) Half-Mast
4) Funeral service and Honors
5) Ceremony Tendered to Retiree
6) Honor ceremony
7) Turn-Over Ceremony

8) Wedding Ceremony
9) Anniversary
POLICE CUSTOMSA ON SOCIAL DECORUM
SOCIAL DECORUM
-a set of norms and standard practiced by police officers during social and
other factions
1)
Proper Attire
-wearing of prescribed uniform
-wearing, as part of uniform, awards and decorations earned in accordance
with the prescribed rules and regulations
-adherence to haircut prescribed by rules and regulations
-manner of walking: police officers are expected to walk with pride and
dignity
Other police customs
1) Visiting the Sick
2) Survivor Assistance to Heirs of Deceased Members
3) Visiting Religious Leaders
4) Athletics
5) Happy Hour
Informal get-together at the PNP Club
-usually on Friday, or any other day suitable
for the occasion
RANK-HAS-ITS-OWN-PRIVILAGE
-the practice where different ranks carry with them corresponding privileges
POLICE TRADITIONS
1) Spiritual beliefs PNP member are traditionally religious and
God-loving person
2) Valor = courage or bravery
3) Patriotism = love of ones country
4) Discipline = instinctive obedience to lawful orders and spontaneous
actions guided by ethical and legal norms
5) Gentlemanliness = being upright in character, gentle in manners,
dignified in appearance and sincere in their concern for others
6) Word of Honor = commitment to ones pledge or promise
7) Duty = PNP members have exemplified themselves as dedicated
public servants
8) Loyalty = commitment to PNP organization, to the country and to the
people
9) Camaraderie = the binding spirit that enhances teamworks; sense of
brotherhood
POLICE OFFICER PLEDGE
1) I will love and serve God, my country and people;

2) I will uphold the Constitution and obey legal orders of the dutyconstituted authorities
3) I will oblige myself to maintain a high standard of morality and
professionalism
4) I will respect the customs and traditions of the police service; and
5) I will live decent and virtuous life and to serve as an example to others.
PNP ETHICS DAY
-celebrate yearly on 7 January
-stared on 7 January 1995 and celebrated every year thereafter
POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS
I. Definition of Terms:
1. Police Community Relations it is the sum total of dealing of the
police with the people it serves and whose goodwill and cooperation it craves
for the greatest possible efficiency in public service.
2. Police Public Relations it is the continuing process by which
endeavors are made to obtain the goodwill and cooperation of the public for
effective enforcement of the law and accomplishment of the police purpose
3. Public Relations it is the act of bringing about better
understanding, confidence and acceptance for an individual or an
organization,
4. Human Relations consists of those fundamental precepts, both
moral and legal, which govern the relationship of man in all aspect of life.
5. Public Information Program it is designed to bridge any
communication gap between the police and the public. It is the basic
ingredient in effective police community relations.
6. Civic Action Program - a program which makes the policemen a
friend and partner of the people for progress as well as their defender.
7. MASSCOM Program it is designed to influence the opinions,
emotions, attitudes, and behavior of the public so that they will behave in
manner beneficial to the police service.
8. Propaganda it is the planned use for the public or a mass
communication for a public purpose.
9. Integrated Police Advisory Council a council that involves local
officials and the citizenry in the preservation of peace and order ant the
promotion of public safety.
II. Introduction

The basic purpose of preserving the peace and protecting life and
property is accomplished by controlling the behavior of people. A persons
conduct is determined either by what he wants to do, or by what he is afraid
to do. Compliance with law and regulation is obtained either by developing or
by compelling people to conform by threat of punishment. Hence, the two
processes, enforcement and the development of attitudes favorable to law
observance, cannot be completely separated, with the police free to choose
and reject the other; their use is a matter of judgment varying degree or
emphasis.
The primary concern of the PNP is to earn and maintain the greatest
possible public confidence. Police effectiveness depends largely upon public
support based on faith of the people in their police. To ensure maximum
efficiency, the PNP shall endeavor to gain public support by conducting
massive and sustained activities in the field of good community relations.
Consequently, the active interest and participation of the citizens is a
source so vital to an effective, efficient, economic and harmonious law
enforcement and public safety that deliberate efforts should be made to
arouse, promote and maintain public concern in the objective and affairs of
the PNP.
III. Span or Components or Coverage of Police
Community Relations:
1. Public Information Program
2. Public Relations Program
3. Civic Action Program (CAP)
4. Mass Communication Program (Masscom)

Public Information Program


This is basic ingredient in effective police community relations. The
public must kept well-informed so that it will understand and
appreciate the complexities of police work and the good service the
police renders to the community. This is possible through the use of
media.
Medium use in Public Information Program:
1. Personal Media it consist of face-to-face communication which
includes meetings, rallies, speeches and house-to-house visits. This is
the most practical medium to use in the provinces. Public rallies maybe

conducted by qualified PNP members where they can speak on matters


pertaining to the police that the public should know.
2. Mass Media it includes printed matter and audio-visual
communication.
a) Printed matters it includes all information disseminated and
printed in graphic forms using words of pictures which may take
the form of leaflets, letters, posters, banners, signs, pamphlets,
magazines, newspapers, books and objects.
b) Audio-Visual Communication it implies the use of radio
television, motion pictures, slide, transparencies, and computers
in transmitting information to the public.
Public Relation Program
Every PNP unit from station level up, shall have Public Relations officer
to look after the public relation aspects of police work. It shall be the duty of
the Public Relation officer to issue press release from time to time regarding
the police activities which are also of public concern.
The Public Relations Officer shall evolve and conduct a Public Relations
Program at promoting better and closer relations between the police and the
public. The essence of public relations is simply good service and making the
public well-informed on the good work done by the police. It is building a
good image through actual commendable performance, without inefficiency
and corruption.
The mission of the Public Relations Officer is to agin public support or
policies and to win friendly citizen cooperation in the program and
procedures of the police station in order to facilitate the accomplishment of
police tasks
Duties of Public relations Officer:
The duties of the public relations officer maybe divided into four
broad categories namely:
1. To evaluate public opinion and attitudes with respect to the policies,
methods, and personnel of the police station.
2. To advise the police station commander with regard to the public
relations aspects of new or revised department programs, policies,
procedures and activities.
3. To plan and to carry out programs aimed at keeping the public
informed on police activities.
4. To furnish a staff supervision of all police activities that may influence
public support.
Civic Action Program:

Consistent with the facilities at its disposal, all PNP units shall conduct
civic action program.
The Civic Action Program is one which makes policemen a friend, and
partner of the people for progress as well as their defender. It can range
upward from basic individuals acts of courtesy to disaster relief, to local
assistance programs in the concept of self-help, up to major engineering
projects.
It shall encourage and actively participate in athletic competition to
promote youth development, by wisely coordinating with the social elements
of the populace.
It may initiate if necessary, fund-raising campaign for juvenile
delinquents who are being reformed. Is a state of calamity, every member of
the PNP shall be alert to safeguard the community against loss and damages
of properties and possible deaths.
He shall encourage resident in hid jurisdiction to help in activities
designed to enhance economic self-sufficiency by actively participating in
Green Revolution and Food Production campaign of the government.
He shall discourage residents from loitering in the streets or engaging
in uneconomic activities such as illegal, gambling, alcoholism, drugs and
others.
He shall promote and actively participate in the establishment on small
cottage industries with special attention to the out-of-school youth.
In summation, the principle involve in the PNP Civic Action Program is
that the police is part of and not apart from society. They are considered as
servants of the community who depend for the effectiveness of their
functions upon the express wishes of the people.
Suggested Activities for Students: Role playing
Mass communication program (MassCom):
MASSCOM Program shall design to influence the opinion, emotions,
attitude, and behavior of the public so that they will behave in a matter
beneficial to the unit in particular and the PNP in general.
Policemen should be equipped with a basis knowledge of Mass Com
and must devote time for a heart-to-heart talk or dialogue with the people,
particularly the youth whom he shall strive to mold into useful and lawabiding citizens.
The PNP unit conducting the program shall condition the citizenry to
adhere to the laws of the land and dissuade them from committing crimes,
thereby minimizing their changes to engage in criminal activities and

preventing them from being influences by the misguided elements in our


society.
PNP personnel are in good position to conduct MassCom because of
their direct contact with the people in their respective direct contact with the
people in their respective areas. The PNP units in the provinces know the
ideological temper and peculiarities, including susceptibilities of the people
in their localities.
MASSCOM should be an integral part of police operations because use
of the force alone can never single handedly solve the problems f dissidence
and lawlessness.
Objectives of MassCom:
1. Develop a full media information dissemination style in order to
strengthen the bonds of friendship with the citizenry and
broaden public understanding of the PNP.
2. Keep the public well-informed that the government and the
PNP/AFP and keep them aware of the need for the PNP/AFP and
the vital role it played in the security and development of the
country.
3. Generate public support for the activities and programs of the
PNP/AFP and keep then aware for the need for the PNP/AFP and
the vital role it plated in the security and development of the
country.
4. Established rapport and good working relationship with the
media
5. Development a psychological environment whereby the people
will readily respond and support government program which
aimed to establish a democratically independent, unified, selfreliant and progressive society.
III. Objectives of the Police Community Relations: From the viewpoint of Law
Enforcement
1. To maintain and develop the goodwill and confidence of the community
for the police.
2. To obtain public cooperation and assistance.
3. To develop public understanding and support and appreciation for the
service of the police.
4. To create broader understanding and sympathy with the problems and
needs of the police.
5. To facilitate law enforcement and law compliance.
6. To build public police opinion in favor of the police.

7. To achieve the police purpose of preserving the peace, protecting life


and property and the prevention of crime.
IV. Principles of the Police Community Relations.
Every member of the PNP shall adhere to the principles of police
community relations.
1. Public Support Must be Maintained
Every policemen shall be worthy of the publics high trust by
doing this job well and leaving nothing undone through carelessness.
He shall appear able and willing to serve all.
2. Public resentment Must be Avoided
T
he policemen shall always have in mind the interest of the public
and shall develop friendly relations by his good conduct he shall avoid
any occasion to humiliate embarrass, annoy, or inconvenience.
3. Public Goodwill must be developed
The policemen must be courteous fair and quick to assist
individuals in the solution of their problems.
4. Public must be Kept Informed.
The police must inform the public on the regulations and policies
of the police force and the reason for their adoption.
The police is a social problems. They are the agency around which the
community often rallies in time of tension and emergency. They must
have other means of developing and sustaining civic peace. Greater
emphasis should be placed upon preventive policing that is programs
aimed at anticipating and hearing of social conflicts, the cause of
which are so intimately related to the causes of crime and delinquency.
Crime prevention is generally recognized as an important police
function. But the police can do little without community cooperation
assistance. The police must take the initiative and show the way in
effect, to assists the community to meet his responsibility, at the same
time hopefully, to improve police community relations.
V.

Five (5) categories of Peace Officers


Individuals Public Relations:
1. Domestic Relations Consist of persons dealing with his family, parent
and immediate relatives with who he has to have good relationship to
deserve a respectable family prestige and community relations.
2. Neighborhood Relations Consist of a persons dealing with neighbors
who constitute a vital link to good reputation in the community.

3. Community relations Consist of a persons dealings with the citizens


of the community, city or town where a person lives, and his
membership or contribution to the civic organization or community
association in the locality.
4. Church Relations Consist of persons dealing in the religious
congregation or faith where he belongs. Religious affiliation is
necessary for the stability of moral principles.
5. Government Relations Consist of the dealing which a persons makes
with the government and its various instrumentalities. Recognition of
government authority, its laws and ordinance, as well as other public
responsibilities, are significant phases of an individuals public
relations.
VI.

Eight (8) Categories of Peace Officers


Professional Public Relations
1. Intra-Departmental Relations Consist of peace officers relations with
the officers and men of his own department, his superior the station
command as well as the city/municipal mayor where he is assigned.
2. Inter-Departmental Relations Relations with other police agencies
consist to the enforcement of the law and maintenance of peace and
order, together with the giving of information to the public on criminal
and non-criminal activities.
3. Citizens Relations includes all dealing or contacts with the citizens in
relation to the enforcement of the law and maintenance of peace and
order together with the giving information to the public on criminal and
non-criminal activities.
4. Complaints Relations includes a police officers dealing with
complaints, the techniques of interview, manner of approach, and
treatment of witness as well as informer or assets.
5. Relations with Accused Persons Consist in the proper treatment of
suspect the recognition of their constitutional rights during custodial
investigation and the handling of accused persons during confinement.
6. Relations with state Prosecutors or Fiscals include a peace officers
duty to cooperate during preliminary investigations and gathering got
further evidence when so received by the fiscals.
7. Judicial Relations Consist of the Peace officers duties toward the
courts when appearing as a witness and the honesty in testimony.
8. Government Relations include all his dealings with other non-police
agencies or officers of the government, both national and local, in

connection with official duties such as request for verifications,


coordination and whatever help are needed.
VII.

Basic Foundation of Good Community


Relations
The basis foundation of good community relations is efficient
service. No amount of publicity can cover tip inefficiency or poor public
service of the police.
Requirement for Good Community Relations:
1. Sincerity in serving the public
2. Full knowledge of the job
3. Deep conviction in the nobility of the work
4. Sound police ethics
5. High standard of operations

VIII.

Integrated Police Advisory Council


In order to involve civil officials and the citizenry in the preservation of
peace and order and the promotion of public safety, there shall be
created an advisory council in every level of the command of the PNP.
Composition of Integrated Police Advisory Council:
1. Local civil officials
2. Representative of the judiciary
3. Representative of the Industrial sector
4. Representative of the Commercial sector
5. Representative of the Agricultural sector
6. Representative of the religious sector
7. Representative of the youth sector
8. Representative of the educational sector.

Functions of the Integrated Police Advisory Council


1. To advise the Commander on matters pertaining to peace and
order and public safety.
2. To recommend necessary measures to improve the law
enforcement system and public safety condition.
3. To assist the PNP in community relations, and public information
and in enhancing or promoting citizens involvement in the
preservation of peace and order and public safety

Criminology 4

(Juvenile Delinquency)
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
It refers to an anti-social act or behavior which deviates from the
normal pattern of rules and regulations, customs and culture which society
does not accept and which there justifies some kind of punishment or
corrective measures. A delinquent is one whose behavior has brought a
minor or child in repeated conflict with the law.
Juvenile
- Refers to a persons of tender year
- A minor, a youth or those who are not emancipated by law.
- Those who are below the age of majority
- Refers to a persons below 18 years of age or those but are unable to
fully take care of themselves from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation
or discrimination because of physical or mental disability or conditions.
- R.A. 6809 an act lowering the age of majority from 21 to 18 and
amending for such purpose E.O. 209.
Status Offense
Refers to an act or omission which if committed by an adult may not be
considered punishable but which are generally considered wrong once
committed by minor such as: Truancy, curfew violation, loitering, running
away from home without justifiable cause and others.
Types of Delinquent Youth
1. Social (Socialized) = those who become delinquent due to their
association with people in the society to whom they learned deviant
values and later become an aggressive type who recent the authority
of anyone who make an effort to control his behavior.
2. Neurotic = those who become delinquent as a result of distortion in
their personality and their ideas and perception of the world around
them. Internalize his conflicts and pre-occupied with his own feelings.
3. Psychotic = those with severe personality disorder have a
significantly distorted perception of the society and people around
them. They are likely to commit acts of violence including murder.
4. Sociopathic = characterized by egocentric personality they have
limited or no compassion for others. Many violent gangsters are
sociopathic.
5. Accidental = he is less identifiable in character, essentially socialize
law abiding but to be at the wrong place of the wrong time and

becomes involve in some delinquent act not typical of his general


behavior.
Different approach toward delinquency
- Biological Approach = faulty biology
- Psychogenic Approach = personality problem
- Sociogenic Approach = influence of social structure and learning
process.
CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY:
Family
The family is the first and most basic (autonomous) institution in our society,
which develops the childs potentials in all its many aspect like emotional,
intellectual, moral and spiritual, and physical and social. Causes of
delinquency in the Family.
1. The faulty development of the child;
2. Lack of parental guidance;
3. Lack of love and the instinct of hate or envy due to unfair
treatment;
4. Parental rejection; and
5. Broken home or family.
The family becomes a cause of juvenile delinquency when parents find
hard to balance their jobs with their parental and domestic responsibilities
and leaving little or no time at all for their children, other cited causes are;
a. Family disruption due to migration
b. Marital discord or family problems
c. Nuclear family versus extended family
d. Single parenthood
e. Most importantly, lack of guidance leads the youth to join bad
company or gangs.
The familys migration to urban areas causes the child to experience a
sense of deprivation, culture shock, and being prone to be victimized by
organized and syndicated crimes, drug addiction, pornography and
even prostitution.
>>ENVIRONMENT
This is where the child gets most of his influence, especially in his first
formative years. Youth in the society turns to become delinquent due to
companions in given environment. Our youth today accused those ahead of
them of failure to define how to live with the right values, with honor and

success in a world that is charging too fast for them to understand. Some of
the results of a crime inducing environment are the following;
1. Association with criminal groups;
2. Alcoholism and drug addiction;
3. Impulse of fear;
4. Crime-inducing situations that causes criminalistic tendencies;
and
5. Imitated instinct like selfishness, violence and anti-social
wishes.
The environment of a child plays a big role in his development as an
individual since it reflects on the personality structure of the child. The
environment also covers the place where the child grows up, the people
around him, and the conditions both physical, emotional, spiritual plus the
mental sep-up of those close to him.
>>POVERTY
Jobless people are poor, thus become susceptible to crime commission
since low-income families usually take refuge among city relatives who lives
in congested and depressed areas. The implication of this problem on
poverty reflects on the children of poor families whose physical and health
welfare are being set aside, giving more priority to foods.
>> MASS MEDIA
People nowadays are becoming increasingly aware of the influence of
mass media in the lives of their children. Television, radio and the press are
sources of education, as great as or even greater than more tradition
institutions of the community. It is important to examine the collective efforts
of this industry on the development of young people, the values that are
being taught by the media; the images of the adult social roles that the
youth sees, and above all, the works done by the media advertising on youth
who became conspicuous co summers at very early age.
Violent comic cartoons are easily imitated by younger a generation that
produces violent behavior later. Twisted values inculcated into the minds of
our youth, manifest violent behavior later and distorted principles that most
often irritating relationship is the usual outcome among people close to him.

>>POLICE

The police as the first line of defense against crime must deal with the
serious problem of youth crime. And the importance of this juvenile-police
relation should ignore by our law enforcers because they are the juveniles
first contact with the justice system.
The police must become a close working partner of other components of
criminal justice system just as it should also be of the juvenile justice system,
if real progress is to be made in this problem. It must be noted that broad
field of police-juvenile work is becoming increasingly important in order
prevent delinquency.
The proper discharge of police responsibilities should be carried
through the following:
1. Close observation of places and conditions which may be regarded as
breeding places for youth crime and delinquency;
2. Police should always be in a better position than others to discover the
existence of harmful influence to children;
3. The police should know who are potential or actual delinquents and
recognize who are victims of abuse and neglect;
4. They should also give emphasis to the public that home is the most
vital force in the prevention of the juvenile delinquency.
>> Peers, Companions, and Juvenile Gangs
These groups of people interact with the youth in a positive and negative
ways. In a negative outcome of a relationship. The results are problems
which are practically derived from different values, personality structures,
and emotional composition of people around the youth. Most importantly
group behavior continues to be the source of delinquent acts.
Juvenile Gang = self-formed association of peers bound together by
mutual interest, with identifiable leadership, well-developed lines of
authority, and other organizational features, who act in concert to achieve a
specific purpose which generally to include the conduct of illegal activity and
control over a particular territory, facility or type of enterprise.
>>RELIGION
A childs development usually involves the inculcation of a set of moral
belief that lead in the direction of socially approved behavior. Religion
becomes a causative factor in juvenile delinquency when its traditional role
in the area of delinquency prevention fails much more when its religious
leaders or spokesperson remain un forceful in delinquency problem. When
members of the religious community take an active part in the problem of

delinquency behavior among the youth, with its full blast of support and
mobilization, the juvenile problem will be minimized if not totally eradicated.
>>SCHOOL
The school, unlike the family, is a public instrument for training young
people. Hence, the school is more directly accessible to change through the
development of new resources and policies. And, since it is the principal
institutions for the development of a basic commitment to the goals and
values of our society. It is expected that our educational institutions be
provided with the resources to compete with illegitimate attraction for the
youths mind. These factors that create a gap between institution-child
relationships are the following:
1. Failure of the school in the character development of the youth;
2. Use of methods that create the condition of failure on the part of the
students;
3. Truancy
4. Lack of facilities for curricular and extra-curricular activities
5. Absence of proper motivation on the part of the schools mentors

1.
2.
3.
4.

>> Other Factors


Unemployment
Emotional immaturity when a youth refuse to accept the truth and
becomes too emotional in many aspect of his life;
Too much ego whether right or wrong; safe or dangerous, permitted
or prohibited;
Psychopath personality characterize by lack of response lack of
conscience, deficient feeling of affection towards other, and aggression
towards his environment and other people.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 603 THE CHILD AND YOUTH WELFARE


CODE
Approved by late Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos on Dec. 10, 1974
Effectively date June 10, 1975
The Child and Youth Welfare Code is one of the many special laws
enacted by the government in order to guarantee the following constitutional
mandates:
Art. 11 Declaration of Principles and State Policies
Section 12
a. Recognizing the sanctity of the family life and protecting and
strengthening the family as a basic autonomous social institution;

b. Equally protecting the life of the mother and the unborn from
conception and
c. Recognizing the rights and duty of the parents in rearing the youth.
Art. 5 Commencement of Civil Personality
The civil personality of the child shall commence from the time of his
conception, for all purposes favorable to him, subject to the requirements
of Art. 41 of Civil Code.
Section 13
A recognizing the vital role of the youth in nation-building
Art. 15
A recognizing the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation.
Application of the Code
The Child and Youth Welfare Code shall apply to all persons 18 years of
age as amended by RA 6809, (an Act lowering the age of majority from 21 to
18) except those emancipated in accordance with the law, child or mind
or youth as used in this Code shall refer to such person.
RIGHT OF THE CHILD
- All children shall be entitled to the rights herein set forth without
distinction as to legitimacy or illegitimacy, sex, social status, religious
affiliation, political antecedents, and other factors.
- The right to be born well, within the dignity and worth of a human
being from the moment of his conception.
- The right of wholesome family life that will provide him with love, care,
and understanding, guidance and counseling, and moral and material
security.
- The right to well-rounded development oh his personality, to the end
that he may become a happy, useful and active member of the society.
DUTIES OF PARENTS:
1. To give him affection, companionship and understanding
2. To extend to himself benefits of moral guidance, self-disciplined and
religious instruction
3. To inculcate in him the value of industriousness, thrift and self-reliance
4. To supervise his activities including his recreation
5. To provide him with adequate support including:
a. Food or sustenance
b. Dwelling or shelter
c. Clothing

d. Medical assistance
e. Educational and transportation
f.
Parents shall take special acre to prevent the child from becoming
addicted to intoxicating drinks, narcotics, smoking, gambling, and other vices
or harmful practices.
Liabilities of Parents
Parents and guardians are responsible for the damage or torts (an
injury or wrong done to another) caused by the child under their parental
authority in accordance with the Civil Code.
Child and Youth Welfare and Community
Community shall mean, the local government, together with the
society of individuals or institutions, both public and private, in which the
child lives. To insure the full enjoyment of the rights of every child to live in
society that offers or guarantee him safety, health, good moral environment
and facilities for his wholesome growth and development, it shall be the duty
of the community to;
1. To bring about a healthy environment necessary to the formal
growth of the children;
2. To help the institutions of learning achieve the fundamental
objectives of education;
3. To organize or encourage movements and activities, for the
interest of the children and youth;
4. And, to assist the State in combating and curtailing juvenile
delinquency and rehabilitating wayward children.
Barangay Councils
Barangay Council shall have the authority to enact ordinance and
resolutions not inconsistent with the law or municipal ordinance, as may be
necessary to provide for the proper development and welfare of the children
in the community, in consultation with representatives of national agencies
concerned with child and youth welfare.
Examples of ordinance or resolutions the barangay can enact;
1. Step to prevent juvenile delinquency and assist parents of
children with behavioral problems;
2. Adopt measures for the health of the children;
3. Curfew hours, especially for children
4. Recreational or sport facilities to keep them busy

Child and youth Welfare and the SAMAHAN


Samahan as used in this Code, refers to the aggregate or persons or
those responsible persons from various sectors of the community or those
working in commercial, industrial, and agricultural establishment or
enterprises whether belonging to labor or management.
Some of the most important duties of the Samahan are the following:
1. To prevent the exploitation of children in any employment or
calling;
2. To help out-of-school youth to learn and at the same time to
help them look for opportunities to engage in economic selfsufficient projects.
Art. 17 Joint Parental Authority
The father and the mother shall exercise jointly just and reasonable
parental authority and responsibility over their legitimate or adopted
children. In case of disagreement, the fathers decision shall prevail unless
there is a judicial order to the contrary.
Parental authority or the so called partiapotestasis the sum total of
the rights which the law grants to the parents over the person and property
of their children while they are minors and unemancipated to facilitate
compliance with their duties of support and education, which are incumbent
upon them.
Parental responsibility is the sum total of the duties and
obligations of parents over their minor and unemacipated children.
Art. 107 Employment of Children below Sixteen Years
Children below sixteen years of age may be employed to perform light
work which is not harmful to their safety, health or normal development and
which is not prejudicial to their studies.
Child and Youth Welfare services
Child caring institution (24 hours resident group care service for
P.M.S. and S well-being of nine or more mentally gifted, dependent,
abandoned, neglected, handicapped or disturbed children or youthful
offender.
Detention Home = twenty-four short term resident care for youthful
offenders waiting for court disposition.
Shelter care = provides temporary protection and care to children requiring
emergency reception.

Receiving home = family type homes proving shelter for ten to twenty
days who shall be under observation and study for eventual placement by
the DSWD. In no case shall children exceed nine. And not more than two
of them shall be under three years of age.
Maternity home (for pregnant woman and her infant before, during and
after delivery custody)
Rehabilitation center (rehabilitates youthful offender and other disturbed
children)
Reception and Study center
Child placing agency
Filiation = is the civil status of the child in relation to his parents.
Paternity = is the civil status of the child in relation to his father.
Maternity = civil status of the child in relation to his mother.
Founding = refers to a baby left by the parents
Legal Classification of child
Legitimate = born inside the marriage.
Illegitimate = born outside the marriage
Legitimated = illegitimate child raise to the status of a legitimate child
by subsequent marriage of his parents.
Adopted = a person who is raise to the status of legitimacy through
adoption (juridical act).
Special Categories of Children:
Dependent child is one who is without a parents guardian or
custodian or one whos parents or guardian or other custodian for good
cause desires to be relieved of his care and custody; and is dependent upon
the public for support.
Abandoned child is one who has no proper parental care or
guardianship or whose parents or guardians have deserted him for a period
of at least six continues moths.
Neglected child one whose basic needs have been deliberately
unattended or inadequately attended. Neglect may occur in two ways.
a) There is physical neglect when the child is malnourished, ill clad
and without proper shelter. A child is unattended when left by himself
without provisions for his needs and/or without proper supervision.
b) Emotional neglect exist when children are maltreated, raped,
seduced; when children are exploited, overworked or made to work
under conditions not conductive to good health; or are made to beg in

the streets or public places, or when children are in moral danger, or


exposed to gambling, prostitution and other vices.
Special Classification of child
A. Mentally retarded
1. Custodial (I.Q. 25)
2. Trainable (25 to 50 ) or of average child
3. Educable (50 to 75) to (up to 5-6th G)
4. Borderline or Low Normal (75 to about 89) requires some extra
help.
B. Mentally ill (behavioral disorder)(F or O)
C. Emotionally disturbed
D. Physically handicapped (crippled, deaf-mute, blind etc.)
Republic Act 7610 SPECIAL PROTECTION OF CHILREN AGAINST CHILD
ABUSE,
EXPLOITATION AND DISCRIMINATION ACT
Approved by: former pres. Corazon C. Aquino on: June 17, 1992
Sec. 2 Declaration of State policy and principles
It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to provide special
protection to children from all forms of abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation
and discrimination, and other conditions prejudicial to their development;
provide sanctions for their commission and carry out a program for
prevention and deterrence of and crisis intervention in situations of child
abuse, exploitation and discrimination, the state shall intervene on behalf of
the child when the parent, guardian, teacher or person having are or custody
of the child fails or is unable to protect the child against abuse, exploitation
and discrimination or when such acts against the child are committed by the
said parent, guardian, teacher or person has care and custody of the same.
It shall be the policy of the State to protect and rehabilitate children
gravely threatened or endangered by circumstances which will affect or will
affect their survival and normal development and over which they have no
control.
Sec. 3 Definition of Terms
1.Children refers to persons below the age of 18 years or those over but
are unable to fully take care of themselves or protect themselves from
abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation or discrimination because of a physical
or mental condition;

2. Child abuse refers to the maltreatment, whether habitual or not, of


the child which includes any of the following:
a) Psychological and physical abuse neglects, cruelty, sexual abuse and
emotional maltreatment;
b) Any act by deeds or words which debases degrades or demeans the
intrinsic worth and dignity of the child as a human being;
c) Unreasonable deprivation of his basic needs for survival, such as food
and shelter; or
d) Failure to immediately give medical treatment to an injured child
resulting in serious impairment of his growth and development or in his
permanent incapacity or death.
3. circumstances which gravely threaten or endanger the survival
and normal development of children include, but not limited to the
following:
a) Being in a community where there is armed conflict or being affected
by armed conflict-related activities.
b) Hardworking under conditions hazardous to life, safety and morals
which unduly interfere with their normal development;
c) Living in or finding for themselves in the streets or rural areas without
the care of parents, or guardian or any adult supervision needed for
their welfare;
d) Being a member of an indigenous culture community and/ or living
under conditions of extreme poverty or an area which is
underdeveloped and/or lacks or has inadequate access basis services
needed for their welfare;
e) Being a victim of man-made or natural disaster or calamity
3. comprehensive program against child abuse, exploitation and
discrimination refers to coordinated program of services and
facilities to protect children against:
a) Child prostitution and other sexual abuse;
b) Child trafficking;
c) Obscene publication and indecent shows;
d) Other acts of abuse; and
e) Circumstances which threaten or endanger the survival
and normal development of children.
Section 7 Child Trafficking
Any persons who shall engage in trading and dealing with children
engage in trading, and dealing with children including, but not limited to
the act of buying and selling of a child for money, or for any other
consideration, or barter, shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal to

reclusion perpetua. The penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period


when the victim is under twelve years of age.
Sec. 8 Attempt to Commit trafficking
a) When a child travels alone to a foreign country without valid reason
and without clearance issued by the DSWD or written permit or
justification from the childs parents or guardian;
b) When a pregnant mother executes an affidavit of consent for
adoption for a consideration;
c) When a person, agency, establishment or child-caring institution
recruits women or couples to bear children for purpose of child
trafficking;
d) When a doctor, hospital or clinic official or employee, nurse, midwife,
local civil registrar or any other person simulates birth for the
purpose of child trafficking; or
e) When a person engages in the act of finding children among lowincome families, hospitals, clinics, nurseries, day-care centers, or
other child-caring institutions who can be offered for the purpose of
child trafficking.
WORKING CHILDREN
Section 12 Employment of Children
Children below fifteen (150 years of age may be employed,
provided, that the following minimum requirements are present:
1. The employer shall secure for the child a work permit from the
Department of Labor and Employment;
2. The employer shall ensure the protection, health, safety and morals of
the child;
3. The employer shall institute measures to prevent exploitation or
discrimination taking into account the system and level of
renumeration, and the duration and arrangement of working time; and
4. The employer shall formulate and implement a continues program for
training and skill acquisition of the child.
Sec. 13 Non-formal Education for Working Children
The department of Education; Culture and Sports shall promulgate a
course design under its non-formal education program aimed of promoting
the intellectual, moral and vocational efficiency of working children who have
not undergone or finished elementary or secondary education. Such course
design shall integrate the learning process deemed most effective under
given circumstances.

Section 22 Children as Zones of Peace


Children are hereby decided as Zones of Peace. It shall be the
responsibility of the State and all other sectors concerned to resolve armed
conflicts in order to promote the goal of children as zones of peace. To attain
these objectives, the following policies shall be observed:
a) Children shall not be the object of attack and shall be entitled to
special respect. They shall be protected from any form of threat,
assault, torture or other cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment;
b) Children shall not be recruited to become members of the Armed
Forces, nor be allowed to take part in the fighting, or used as guides,
couriers, or spies;
c) Delivery of basic social services such as education, primary health and
emergency relief service shall be kept unhampered;
d) The safety and protection of those who provide services including
those involved in fact-finding missions from both government and nongovernment institutions shall be insured. They shall not be subjected to
undue harassment in the performance of their work;
e) The public infrastructure such as schools, hospitals and rural health
units shall not be utilized for military purposes such as command post,
barracks, detachments, and supply depots; and
f) All appropriate steps shall be taken to facilitate the reunion of families
temporarily separated due to armed conflict.
Sec. 27 Who May File a Complaint
Complaints on cases of unlawful acts committed against
children as enumerated herein may be filed by the following:
a) Offended party;
b) Parents or guardian
c) Ascendant or collateral relative within the third degree of
consanguinity;
d) Officer or social worker or representative of a licensed child-caring
institution;
e) Officer or social worker of the Department of Social Welfare and
Development;
f) Barangay Chairman; or
g) At least three (3) concerned,
AN ACT ESTABLISHING A COMPREHENSIVE JUVENILE JUSTICE AND
WELFARE SYSTEM (REPUBLIC ACT 9344)
By: Pres. Gloria M. Arroyo

Approved on : May 4,2006


Sponsored by: Sen. Francis Pangilinan
Statements:
Upon the effectivity of RA 9344, cases against children 18 years old
and below at the time the crime was committed shall be dismissed. These
children shall then be referred to the appropriate local social welfare and
development officer, who will determine whether to release them to the
custody of their parents or have them go through rehabilitation programs.
The law said that those with suspended sentences and undergoing
rehabilitation shall also be released, unless it is contrary to the best interest
of the child. RA 9344 also states that a family court shall also determine
whether or not continued detention is necessary and if not, determine
appropriate alternatives for detention.
If detention is necessary and the offender is detained with adults, the
court shall immediately order the transfer of the child to a youth detention
home.
Children who have been convicted and are serving out their sentence
shall also benefit from the retroactive application of the law and be entitled
to appropriate treatment provided for under this law.
RA 9344 exempts children 15 years old and below from criminal
liability. They will only be subjected to an intervention program a series of
activities designed to address issues that caused the child to commit offense.
Intervention takes the form of an individual treatment program that
could include counseling, skill training, education and other activities that
will enhance the childs welfare being.
However, children above 15 or below 18 may have to face appropriate
proceedings if the prosecution proves they acted with discernment in
committing an offense.
The exemption granted to children however, does not cover liability.
RA 9344 also created a Juvenile Justice and Welfare Council composed
of representatives from various government agencies, which will convene 15
days after this law goes into effect.
The Council, which will be chaired by the Department of Social Welfare
and Development, will ensure the effective implementation of RA 9344.
The juvenile justice law also mandates the establishment and
strengthening of local councils for the protection of children, which will be
composed of responsible members of the community, representatives from
the youth sector, and the government and private agencies concerned with
the welfare of children.

The local council will serve as the primary agency to coordinate with
and assist local government units on the adoption of a comprehensive plan
to prevent delinquency and to oversee its proper implementation.
One percent of the internal revenue allotment of barangays,
municipalities and cities shall be allocated for the strengthening and
implementation of the programs of the local council each local government
units is in charge of disbursing this allocation.
Under RA 9344. Media practitioners are ordered to maintain the
highest professional standards in reporting and covering cases of children in
conflict with the law. In this part of the law, it states that; any undue,
inappropriate and sensationalized publicity of any case involving a child in
conflict with the law is hereby declare a violation of the childs rights.
Law enforcers shall refrain from using vulgar or profane words and
from sexually harassing or abusing, or making sexual advances on the child
in conflict with the law.
The law added that law enforcers shall not display any firearm, weapon
or handcuffs, unless necessary in apprehending child offenders.
Another provision of RA 9344 states that law enforcers shall turn over
custody of the child immediately but not later than eight hours after
apprehension to the Social Welfare and Development Office or other
accredited non-government organizations and notify the childs parents or
guardians and the public attorneys office, of the childs apprehension.
The Social Welfare and Development Office shall then explain to the
child and the childs parents or guardians, the consequences of the childs
act with a view towards counseling and rehabilitation, diversion from the
criminal justice system and reparation, if appropriate.
DEFINES TERMS UNDER RA 9344
Diversion refers to an alternative child appropriate process of determining
the responsibility and treatment of a juvenile in conflict with the law on the
basis of his social, culture, economics, psychological or educational
background without resorting to formal court adjudication.
Diversion programs refers to programs that the juvenile in conflict with
the law is required to undergo instead to remain in his home after conviction
and sentence.
Probation is a disposition alternative under which a juvenile in conflict
with the law is released and permitted to remain in his home after conviction
and sentence.

Discernment means the mental capacity to understand the difference


between right and wrong and its consequences.
Restorative justice is a principle which requires a process of resolving
conflicts with the maximum involvement of the victim, the offender, and the
community, it seeks to obtain reparation for the victim, reconciliation of the
offender, the offended and the community and reassurance to the offender
that he can be reintegrated in society.
Initial contact is the apprehension or taking into custody of a juvenile in
conflict with the law by law enforcement officers or private citizens.
Exemption from criminal liability does not include exemption from civil
liability which shall be enforces in accordance with the provisions Art. 221 of
the Family Code.
CRIMINOLOGY 5
Human Behavior
Definition
Anything an organism does that involves self-initiated action and/or
reaction to given stimulus. It is composed of adoptive adjustment people
make as they cope with one another, with problems, with opportunities, and
with working together-aspects, ina given situation.
It is the sum total of mans reaction to his environment
A. Two Basic Types of Behavior
a. Inherited behavior
These are inborn behavior, any behavior reactions or reflexes exhibited
by people because of their inherited capabilities or the process of
natural section e.g. the survival of species that are dependent on
behavior like breathing, digesting food, mating and depending oneself.
b. Learned behavior
These are operant behavior which involves knowing or taking into
account, adaptations that enhance a human beings ability to cope
with changes in the environment in ways which improve the chances of
survival e.g. good command of English, logical problem solving
technique, job skills, and other learned expertise that give people more
control over their lives. It is this behavior that sets human being apart
from other animals.

B. Classification of Human Behavior (HICS)


a. Habitual = refers to motorized behavior usually manifested in
language and emotion.
b. Instinctive = they are generally unlearned and simply comes out, out
of mans instinct, which can be seen among instinct-instinct survival
behavior.
c. Symbolic = are behavior that are usually carried out by means of
unsaid words, and shown through symbols or body signs.
d. Complex = are those behaviors that combines two or more of the
classified ones.
C. Causes of Human Behavior (SPA)
a. Sensation = is the feeling or impression created by given stimulus or
cause, that leads to a particular reaction or behavior, in short, the
effects e.g. Visual (sight), Olfactory (hearing), gustatory (taste).
b. Perception = refers to the persons knowledge of a given stimulus
which largely help to determine the actual behavioral response in a
given situation.
c. Awareness = refers to the psychological activity based in
interpretation or past experience with a given stimulus or object.
D. Characteristics of Behavior
a. Primarily negative or primarily learned
b. Evoked by External stimuli or internal need
c. Automatic, voluntary, conscious or motorized
E. Attributes of behavior
a. Duration how long in terms of function of time
b. Extensity size, distance and location
c. Intensity magnitude, whether mild, strong and disintegrated
d. Quantity whether normal, abnormal, misleading or unacceptable
Abnormal Behavior
= A.B. is Latin initials which means away from, Abnormal
behavior then can be defines as a behavior which is away from or deviating
from the normal behavior. Normal Behavior on the other hand, is one that is
within the concept of a persons as his own behavior which he or she sees
normal, and that people who behave as they do, are likewise normal and
those that do not behave similarly are abnormal. Abnormal behavior most of
the time referred to as sick behavior. It is associated to mental illness.
Behavior which are ineffective, self-defeating, self-destructive and which
separates the individuals from those who are important to him, are regarded
as abnormal.

Guidelines for judging abnormal behavior


1. Appropriateness (includes assessment of not only the behavior itself
but also the situation in which it is happening).
2. Flexibility (Normal behavior tends to be flexible as a sign of healthy
behavior).
3. Impulsitivity (normal behavior is more likely to be a result of a
consideration of its consequences, with being given careful thought
before implementation) Abnormal behavior, being uncontrolled or
partially controlled needs and drives, tend to be impulsive.
Causes of Human Behavior:
1. Sensation feeing or impression of stimulus (Visual, olfactory,
cutaneous, auditory, gustatory)
2. Perception knowledge of the stimulus
3. Awareness refers to psychological activity based on the
interpretation and experience of the object or stimulus
How people interact:
People interact by three psychological position or behavioral patterns
called ego states:
Parent-ego states protective, idealistic, evaluation, righteous,
refers to law, rules and standard.
Adult-ego states more upon reason, factual, flexible, views other as
co-equal, and reasonable.
Child-ego-states dependent, rebellious, selfish, demanding,
impatient and emotional.
How people transact:
Complimentary if stimulus and response pattern from one ego state
to another are parallel.
Non-complimentary if stimulus and response pattern from one ego
state to another are hot parallel.
1. The Biological background of Behavior
The HEE is the product of hereby environment, and education
(training). At birth, man is consider black except for reflexes which are
necessary for his survival. Some of these reflexes are the following, sucking,
swallowing, crying and others.
Mans eight (8) stages of growth:
1. Pre-natal stage which is composed of:
a. Ovum period first two weeks

b.
c.
2.
3.
4.

Embryo period second week to second month


Fetus period second moth to birth
Infancy stage first two weeks after birth
Babyhood second week to two years old
Childhood which is divided into: (early childhood, 2-6 yrs old
and late childhood, 7 to eleven yrs)
5. Puberty end of childhood and beginning of adolescence
6. Adolescence which is divided into: (early adolescence,
puberty to 17 yrs. And late adolescence, 17 to 21 yrs)
a. Adulthood 21 to forty yrs old.
b. Middle age forty to sixty yrs. Old
c. Old age sixty and above
Developmental Tasks
Every stage of life has its accompanying development tasks. They are
task imposed on the individual by maturation and culture that prepare him
for the next stage of life.
THEORIES OF LEARNING
Connectionism Theory by Thorndike states that practice
strengthens the association between stimuli an response can be strengthens
further by means or reward or satisfaction but can be weakened by
punishment or dissatisfaction, through the use of the 3 law of effect. This
theory in learning assumed that if a thing is to be learned, there should be
frequent repetitions of stimulus and response.
Classical or Respondent Conditioning by Pavlov which states that
the association between a conditioned stimulus and response is
strengthened by repeated presentation with the unconditional stimulus.
Instrumental or Operant Conditioning wherein the learning or
stimulus response relationship is strengthened by immediately making a
follow-up of the thing learned.
FACTOR AFFECTING LEARNING:
1. Motivation arouse interest, provides an objective and direct towards
a goal, thus if facilitates learning.
2. Reinforcement can be made through the use of audio-visual aid,
reviews, drills, and other means.
3. Extinction means to let something die out or be forgotten by disuse
if it will not facilitate learning.
4. Association meaning the more connection are made with a subject,
the better it will be learned and retained.

5. Interest in a lesson will facilitate learning and serve as its own


motivation aside from having the one teaching making the topic
interesting.
6. Rewards or punishments should be immediate for it to be
effective and make learning easy.
7. Regency means that learning should be made recent in the minds of
learners for them not forget what they have learned.
MOTIVATION
Motivation is defined as behavior instigated by needs within the
individual and directed towards a goal can satisfy the needs. Motivation may
also be regarded as explanation for action which influences behavior in many
ways. All definitions of motivation have certain things in common such as; it
comes from within; it is directed towards a goal; and it arouses interest in the
activity.
Motivation is important because it controls and directs
behavior. Behavior must be controlled for the good of the individual
and society for human happiness, it is necessary to control behavior.
Motivation is also important in all aspects of mans life.
Classification of Motives:
1. Biological drives includes physiological, basic and primarily
unlearned motives e.g. water, food and other survival motives.
2. Psychological or social drives they are secondary, acquired,
learned, and derived e.g. motives to be rich popular, balanced and
other acquisition of achievements.
3. Unconscious motives includes mostly general drives such as
curiosity, maternal instinct and just being nice as a natural drive.
PERSONALITY
Personality is defined as a pattern of habits, attitudes and trials that
defines as individuals characteristics, behavior and qualities.
= A stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine the
similarities and differences in the psychological behavior such as thoughts,
feeling, and actions, of people. It can be introvert, extrovert or ambivert, an
introvert is one characterized by direction of interest toward oneself and
ones inner world of experience; the extrovert characterized by interest
directed towards the external environment of people and things rather than
toward inner experiences and oneself; the ambivert is a mixture of between
an extrovert and introvert

Personality is defined as a pattern of habits, attitudes and traits that


defines an individuals characteristics, behaviors and qualities. Personality
is more than charm, poise, or physical appearance, this includes the
following;
a) Habits reactions so often repeated that becomes a persons fixed
characteristic or tendency.
b) Attitudes may either be positive or negative, favorable or
unfavorable, learned or acquired.
c) Physical traits this includes facial appearance, height, weight,
physical, defects, complexion, strength and health.
d) Mental traits includes our ability to control the mind
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
e)
f)
g)

Mental abilities:
Problem solving ability
Memory and learning ability
Perceptual ability
Constructive imagination
Special; imagination
Soundness of judgment
General adaptability
Emotional traits gives an individual the capacity to face different
situations in life and still maintain composure
Social traits the individuals ability to get along fine with others.
Moral and religious traits the standards of a persons action and
behaviors.

Social Learning theories


This theory advocate that personality traits are the result of learning as
one interacts with people. Personality is mainly composed of habits and
learned responses to stimuli in the environment.
Masiovs self-actualization theory
Maslov maintains that man is naturally good and that self-actualization
is his goal. And blocking this goal makes man frustrated and neurotic.
Aggressions and destruction are not natural, but they are the result of an
environment that prevents the attainment of goals. This theory makes
human needs comes first, followed by safety needs, then belongingness.
Self-esteem and self-actualization comes last.
Human needs arises out of persons biological and psychological makeup.
They are the following:

1. Biogenic needs refers to the needs of the body existing primarily


for the maintenance of health and protection of the body against
physical injuries. E.g. need for food, air, rest, sex and avoidance of
pain.
2. Psychogenic or sociogenic needs includes the need for love,
affection, security growth and achievement, and recognition from
others.
According to A.H. Maslow, who introduced the hierarchy of needs which
ascends from the basic biological needs present at birth to the more complex
psychological needs which becomes important only after the more basic
needs have been satisfied.
Frustration occurs when a person is blocked in the satisfaction of
need. Man becomes anxious and restless and tries to seek means of relieving
these anxieties. So he tries to engage in various forms of activities intended
to satisfy hi needs and reduces his tensions.

Reaction to Frustration
People differ in the way they react to frustration. An individuals way of
reacting to frustration is known as coping mechanism. Generally reacting to
one or two ways; by fighting the problem in a constructive way and direct
way by means of breaking down the obstacles that stop a persons from
reaching his goal; or by getting angry and becoming aggressive; or by
running away from the problem or fight by sulking, retreating, becoming
indifferent, and giving up without a fight. These reactions to frustration are
called fight-flight reactions.
Frustration tolerance
Individuals also differ in their capacity to tolerate unadjusted states or
tolerance to frustration. Some people are able to withstand prolonged
periods of tension without showing signs of abnormality. Other become
neurotic or psychotic, or convert their frustration into anti-social acts or
become alcoholics or drug addicts. Most people react to frustration in
the following ways;
1. Direct approach
2. Detour or change direction
3. Substitution
4. Withdrawal or retreat
5. developing feelings of inferiority
6. aggressions, and

7. use of defense mechanism


Defense mechanism
They are unconscious psychological processes that serve as safety
valves to provide relief from emotional conflict and anxiety. Defense
mechanisms are forms of self deception which a person may not be aware of
they are resorted to whenever psychological equilibrium is threatened by
severe emotional injury arising from frustration. Among the most common
defense mechanism used are the following:
1. Identification a process whereby an individuals without awareness,
satisfies, frustrated desires by psychologically assuming the role of
another person.
2. Substitution is resorted to, when an unattainable or unacceptable
goal, emotion, or object is replaced by one that is attainable or
acceptable.
3. Compensation a process whereby one makes up for some real o
imaginary inadequacy by doing well in another activity.
4. Rationalization it is a fallacious thinking intended to justify ideas
and behavior in a way that seems reasonable to oneself, although,
they are intellectually justified and often socially disapproved as well.
5. Displacement this is where one transfer his emotion connected with
one person or thing.
6. Fantasy or daydreaming this is where an imagined sequence of
events or mental images that serves to express unconscious conflicts
to gravity unconscious wishes or to prepare for an anticipated future
event.
7. Projection manifest feelings and ideas which are unacceptable to
oneself, but projected onto others so that they may seem to have
these feelings or ideas, that free the individuals from the guilt and
anxiety associated with them.
8. Reaction formation is defined as the development of a trait or
traits which are the opposite of tendencies that we do not want to
recognize. It is shown, when an individual is motivated to act in a
certain way, but behaves in the opposite way, and be able to keep his
urges and impulses under control.
9. Denial when a person uses this mechanism, he refuses to recognize
and deal with reality because of strong inner needs.
10.
Repression is an unconscious process where unacceptable
urges or painful, traumatic experiences are completely prevented from
entering consciousness.

11.
Suppression is a conscious activity by which an individual
attempts to forget emotionally disturbing thoughts and experiences by
pushing them out of ones mind such as, when a person attempts to
forget emotional pain by losing himself in his work.
12.
Regression when a person employs this defense mechanism,
he goes back to a pattern of feeling, thinking or behavior which was
appropriate to an earlier stage of development, such as when a person
demands for something from others and when denied, uses tantrums
to get it., as what he or she has done in early childhood when parents
give to demands of children by the use of tantrums.
13.
Sublimation is the changing of unacceptable id impulses or
needs into socially and culturally acceptable channels or means. It is
also a positive and constructive mechanism for defending against
otherwise unacceptable impulses and needs. Such as when a
homosexual works as a physical therapist and find sexual satisfaction
in performing his job, in meeting his needs and impulses.
When a person is frustrated in his attempts to adjust himself
to difficult situation over a long period of time, he may try to
escape from conflicts by suffering from any of the following
mental disorders;
1. Neurosis a condition where a person compromises with reality by
developing imaginary ailment, phobia, obsession or compulsion:
2. Psychosis a mental condition where the person may withdraw from
the real world into the world of fantasy and make-believe; where a
persons hidden or unexpressed desires can be fulfilled;
3. Psychopath or sociopath with an antisocial personality a
mental disorder where one, instead of compromising with reality,
withdraw into his shell. The person may become very aggressive and
cruel in his antisocial behavior comes in conflict with the law, he
becomes a criminal.
4. Psychoneurotic person are those in the twilight zone between
normality and abnormality. They are not insane, but neither are they
normal. The neurotic is always tense, restless, and anxious. Frequently,
they have obsession, compulsion, phobia, and in some cases, amnesia.
Anxiety is the dominant characteristic.
Unhealthy Reactions to Frustration
Some individuals are incapable of making effective adjustment to their
frustration. They have not learned healthy and effective adjustment habits;
hence, they are not emotionally ready to cope with difficult problems
confronting them. As a result, they may react to frustration in random,

impulsive and inadequate manner that, does not relieve them of tension, but
in fact increases the maladjustment. Among these behavior pattern
considered as unhealthy reactions to frustration are the following;
1. Anxiety manifest through apprehension, tension, and uneasiness
fromanticipation of danger the source of which is largely unknown or
unrecognized.
2. Phobia an irrational fear which is fixed, intense, uncontrollable, and
most of the times has no reasonable foundation.
3. Obsession is an idea that persistently recurs in a persons mind
sometimes against his wish, though it may have no basis at all.
4. Compulsion is an irresistible impulse to perform certain acts that
are repetitive and ritualistic.
e.g. pyromania the irresistible urge to set fire,
dipsomania compulsive desire to take alcoholic drinks,
kleptomania the urge to steal
5. Regression a behavior pattern wherein a person returns to state of
former adjustment and attempts to experience them again in memory.
6. Memory disorder or amnesia caused by painful memories
associated with some shocking experiences which are repressed and
cannot be recalled.
7. Delusion a false belief firmly held despite incontrovertible proof of
evidence to the contrary.
8. Hallucination a sensory perception in the absence of an actual
external stimulus.
9. Schizophrenia or dementia praecox is characterized by disturb
thinking.
Sexual Deviancy a sexual behavior that seeks stimulation and sexual
gratification by means other than heterosexual relation.
Sexuality or heterosexuality the only normal sexual relation between
members of the opposite sex that could lead to reproduction.
Different deviant sexual behaviors:
1. Masochism sexual gratification is attained through the pain
inflicted upon oneself.
2. Sadism sexual gratification is attained through the pain inflicted
upon the sexual partner.
3. Exhibitionism sexual gratification is attained by exposing some
private parts of the body.

4. Voyeurism sexual gratification is attained by witnessing a nude


manand women in the actual sexual act. The sexually deviant
person is also known as Peeping Tom.
5. Transvertism gratification is taken from wearing clothes of the
opposite sex and acting their opposite roles.
6. Fetishism sexual gratification is attained by substituting an
inanimate object of love.
7. Lesbianism sexual relation between a woman to a woman.
8. Homosexuality sexual gratification is attained by having a sexual
relationship with members of the same sex.
9. Incest sexual relation between persons with blood relationship.
10. Pedophilia a child molester that victimizes young boys that
could lead to sodomy.
11. Bestiality sexual relation with a living animal.
12. Necrophilia sexual relation with a newly dead body.
Class A (distrust, suspicious to social detachment)
1. Paranoid P.D. = recurrent suspicions without justification, preoccupied
by unjustified doubts, hostility, oversensitivity, tends to see oneself as
blameless.
2. Schizoid P.D. = pervasive detachment from social relationship, restricts
expression of emotion, neither enjoy nor desire close relationship,
inability to form social relationship and lack of interest to do so.
3. Schizotypal P.D. = reduced capacity for close relationship, have old
beliefs and magical thinking such as superstitions, telepathy etc.
Cass B (dramatic, emotional erratic)
1. Antisocial P.D. = fail to conform to social norms with respect to lawful
behavior as indicated be repeated acts that are grounds from arrest.
Unable to control their impulse, perform violent and harmful acts
without experiencing a bit of guilty.
2. Borderlines P.D. = instability of interpersonal relationship, instability of
mood, self-image and affects and marked impulsivity, may have
recurrent suicidal behavior. Their mood may shift rapidly and
inexplicably from depression to anxiety to anger over a pattern of
several hours.
3. Histrionic P.D. = pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and
attention seeking. Overly concerned with their appearance and
exaggerated impression of emotion.
4. Narcissistic P.D. = exaggerated sense of self-importance, a
preoccupation with being admired and lack of empathy for the feeling
of others.

5. Hypchondriasis = chronic about health


Class C (anxiety and fearfulness)
1. Avoidant P.D. = feeling of inadequacy, hypersensitive to negative
evaluation timid and shy but do wish to have friends uncomfortable
and afraid of rejection or criticism. Unlike schizoid they dont enjoy
being alone.
2. Dependent P.D. = difficulty in making everyday decision without an
excessive amount af advise and reassurance from others, lack self
confidence in judgment uncomfortable and helpless when alone.
3. Obsessive Compulsive P.D. = pervasive pattern of preoccupation with
orderliness perfectionism and mental and interpersonal control,
preoccupied with trivial details and rules and do not appreciate
changes and routine.
CRISIS MANAGEMENT
Crisis management is simply good management under pressure.
Ten (10) steps to take during crisis;
1. Asses the situation by knowing the following what is happening
and why; what is likely to happen and how quick the response should
be avoid further damage in all aspect; who are involve and who else;
and resources at hand.
2. Draw primarily plan of action step by step and have
contingency plan for a eventualities.
3. Line up a crisis management team deal with the situation
4. Set up a crisis management center
5. Set up a communication system to have an immediate acces
to all members of the team
6. Prioritize matters
7. Face problems one-at-a time
8. Prepare detailed plans
9. Continuously monitor what exactly is happening
10.
Evaluate actions and reaction.
HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION
In hostage situation the general tendency of the hostage taker is to
hostage a prominent personality in order to gain needed leverage in the
negotiation. What is important in this situation is improved communication
and the efficiency of the police in responding to the call of emergency.

Priorities in hostage situation;


1. Preservation of life hostage, hostage taker, public etc.
2. Arrest of the hostage-taker, recover and protect property
3. Successfully negotiate to do this, there must be; a need on the part
of the hostage-taker to live and release the hostage.
Principles to be followed;
The hostage has no value to the hostage taker. His only value is as a
tool to get what the hostage-taker wants, not from the hostage, but from the
authorities. Violence should be avoided for the sake of the hostage, if it
cannot be avoided, the authorities should be the victor.
To successfully negotiate, there must be a need to live, on the part of
the hostage-taker, because a hostage-taker who is bent in killing himself and
has no intention of releasing the hostage, is a case of non-negotiable, which
the police should ascertain.
Characteristics of hostage takers:
1. Mentally deranged suffer form delusion and hallucination, and
they;
a) Sets the rule;
b) Reacts on overwhelming stress, forcing them to take action to
relieve stress; may even
c) Take members of their family as hostage.
2. Severe depression suffers also some mental aberration which is an
answer to life stress that could lead to self-destruction as in suicide.
3. Personality disorder with anti-social and maladaptive patterns of
behavior that brings him repeatedly in conflict with society. If he
demands for member of his family, do not grant, family could be the
cause of being what he is.
4. Paranoid he feels threatened and persecute, highly suspicious of
people and impulsive.
5. Sociopathic personality highly impulsive and unable to delay
gratification so that if hostage is a women raping her is a probability.
6. Terrorist with political purpose or agenda. They use threats and
harassment to create an atmosphere of fear, disregarding women and
children as victims, they are only loyal to themselves and other allied
groups and willing to give life as part of martyrdom.
Upon arrival at the scene of the incident. Negotiator should act
immediately on the following:

1. Containment control of area and people;


2. Establish contact if several hostage-takers are involved, talk with
leader only. If recognize as an officer of the law, never tell rank, since
hostage-taker may ask for demands that he thinks can be at once
granted. If deceit has to be used do not get caught and bluff.
3. Time lengthening this will give more time to the police to organize
and coordinate plan of action. It could also lead to the hostage takers
loss of objectivity;
4. Telephone negotiation technique be the caller, plan and prepare
and be ready with what has to be negotiated. Discipline oneself to
listen. For whatever demand granted hold on to a concessions, and try
to get something in return e.g. release of children and women hostage.
5. On a face-to-face negotiation observe the rules; do not be over
anxious, prepare for a psychological, physical and emotional
confrontation. Wear body armor, have a weapon, but if ask to come
without one, ensure that they too, should lay down firearms before you
enter the place of negotiation. Coming on face-to-face situation,
observe prescribed distance as in personal distance, it should be one
to three feet, and while in intimae about 6 inches. In getting out face
hostage-taker; slowly walk out of the door with good cover or tactical
backup.
On surrender approach start with a position approach an act as if the
hostage-taker will surrender. Do not talk too much, talk detail of surrender
process, and explain why now is better than later.
Positive Effects of Time
a) Hostage-taker will wear down emotionally and psychologically.
b) Hostage-takerhave more demand for food, water and drinks.
c) Anxiety reduce, hostage-taker given chance to organize his
true self.
d) Hostage takers rationality increases.
e) Hostage-taker negotiate relationship gets improve.
f) Hostage-takers demands may be reduced
g) Stockholm Syndrome may developed which refers to the unusual
development of a mutual positive feelings between the hostage and
hostage-taker for each other that eventually results to negative
feelings against the authorities.
What is negotiable?
- Money, food, drinks, transportation or even swapping of prisoners.
What is non-negotiable?

-weapons and ammunitions


Cardinal rule in negotiation
Commander should not negotiate, negotiator should not
command.
Reasons:
a) Hostage-taker will have sense of importance
b) May make impossible demands knowing that he is dealing with
commander;
c) Conflict with n being a negotiator and commander of the same time
and will have no more fall back;
Note: in case hostage-taker refuse to talk motivate him by touching on
possible topics related to his act, if he opens up stop talking and listen and
continue the negotiation.
Advantages of telephone negotiations:
a) Easier to say NO to some demands:
b) Easier to end and conclude the negotiation:
c) Conversations is quicker:
d) Important items can easily be committed:
e) Negotiator has the advantage and less risk:
Disadvantage:
- Impersonal hostages reaction cannot be observed.
Hostage taker negotiator relationship
Trust and rapport should be established, but while is there, be aware of
it;
If deceit is to be used, tell lies but dont get caught.
Walkie talkies set in single frequency are still considered to be one of the
best in telephone
Negotiation and in giving orders.
If attack has been decided upon, it should be carried within seven (7)
seconds upon decision.
Designation and duties of personnel in a negotiating team:
1. Field negotiator (all members of the team should know him) his
duties re;
a) Takes charge of all members;
b) Establish contact with hostage-taker;
c) Over-see containment processes such as evacuation of civilians and
scaling off the place;
d) Regular consultation with commanding officer (highest quality)
e) Operational aide;
a. Report to the field negotiator;
b. Set up temporary headquarters

c. Coordinate assignment of off-duty personnel arriving at the


scene;
d. Assessed unit as necessary; and
e. Relay orders or information to personnel involved.
f) Administrative aide:
a. Report to field negotiator
b. Supervise temporary headquarters
c. Maintain records of operation of all units at the scene
g) Patrol personnel (with one leader)
a. Sharpshooters (snipers)
b. Chemical agent
What is important in a hostage taking situation?
1. Dry run or constant practice to ensure the units capabilities of control
over the situation.
2. Considerable screening of all members.
Team members should given free hand in handing and evaluating the
situations they are in.
3. Patrol units, assault units, and all units concerned should know exactly
whose command they are under.
4. A rescue effort has to run strictly from top, down to the last member.
5. If chemicals are to be used in the assaults, it should be enough only to
main the perpetrators in order to incapacitate to disable them.
6. Assault when decided upon should be carried out within 7 seconds.
7. Presence of a linguist is necessary, if negotiator is not.
Implementation of Method to Deal with Hostage Situation
Behavior guidelines during negotiation:
a) Be the caller
b) Use civilian clothes
c) Use protective armor
d) Do not ask for demands hostage-takers may not have demand
e) Give room to negotiate do not be excited, nervous, and irritated
f) Be clam and relax
g) Talk to hostage taker leader only
h) Elicit a promise
i) Make sure you have a good cover hidden or otherwise
j) Conserve concession hold giving in to demand. Delay works in
favor of authorities.
On life and death negotiation;
a) Keep in mind that one hostage-taker, show of force is unnecessary
b) Speak firmly but not in threatening manner

c) Do not be over friendly it may be interpreted as a weakness


d) Hostage-taker should not driven to desperation (give hope, security,
etc.)

Mock board on Sociology


of Crimes, Ethics and
Human Relations
INSTRUCTIONS:

Select
the
correct answer for each of the
following
questions.
Write
your answer on the answer
sheet provided. STRICTLY NO
ALTERATIONS
ALLOWED.
Use
pencil no. 2 only.
1. The police seek to prevent
crimes by being present in
places where crimes might be
committed
and
by
alerting
citizens
to
refrain
from
practices that make them or
their property vulnerable:
A. Law enforcement
B. Public services
C. Opportunity denial
D. Order maintenance
2.
The
instrument

societys
for making

prime
known

what acts crimes and what


sanctions may be applied to
those who commit acts defined
as crimes:
A. Ethics
C. Conduct
B. Law
D. Justice
3. Which of the following is
procedurally correct?
A. All persons under custody
have the right to bail
B. Venue and jurisdiction are
the same
C. When person acted in self
defense and
killed
another, the former must not
be charged of any crime
D. Venue and jurisdiction are
different concepts
4.
The
reduction
or
elimination
of
desire
and
opportunity to commit crime:
A. Law Enforcement
B. Crime Prevention
C. Protection of rights
D. Order Maintenance

5. Criminals who acted under


the
impulse
of
an
uncontrollable
emotions
on
occasions
during
otherwise
moral lives:
A. Seasonal Criminals
B. Criminals of Passion
C. Occasional Criminals
D. Born Criminals
6. The purpose of penalty in
positivist
school
of
criminology is:
A. Retribution
C.
Rejection
B. Reformation
D.
Restitution
7. The major function of the
prosecution component of the
Criminal Justice System:
A. To enforce the laws of the
land
B. To rehabilitate prisoners
C. To represent
criminal cases
D. All of these

government

in

8. What do you call measures


other
than
judicial
proceedings used to deal with
a young person
alleged to
have committed an offense:
A. Rehabilitation
B. Alternative Measures
C. Individual response against
bad behavior
D. Extrajudicial proceedings
9. What do you call the
psychological, emotional and
behavioral
reactions
and
deficits of women
victims

and their inability to respond


effectively
to
repeated
physical
and
psychological
violence?
A. Schizophrenia
B. Abused Woman
C. Battered Woman Syndrome
D. Rape Trauma Syndrome
10.
The
legal
doctrine
establishing
court
as
determiner of best environment
for raising child which is an
alternative
to
the
Parens
Patriae doctrine:
A. Rights of Society
B. Miranda Doctrine
C. Best Interest of the Child
Rule
D. Parental Obligations
11.
What
stage
is
the
performance
of
the
crisis
management plan when a crisis
situation occurs?
A. Pro-active Phase
C. Prediction
B. Reactive Phase
D. None of this
12. A phenomenon where the
hostage begins to identify his
captor and give his sympathy
to his own
hostage
taker:
A. Holmshock syndrome
B. Traumatic neuroses
C. Withdrawal syndrome
D. Stockholm syndrome
13. John engaged in multiple
means
of
torture,
using
psychological torment combined
with
physical
methods
to

lighten his sexual arousal is


suffering from.
A. Sexual pyromania
B. Sadism
C. Sexual torture
D. Masochism
14. Which of the following
appropriately
describes
mesomorphic?
A.
Weak
and
fragile
with
withdrawn behavior
B. Muscular and hard physique.
C.
The
muscular
and
beautifully shaped.
D. The fat and soft body type.
15. According to differential
association theory, criminal
behavior is:
A. A result of psychological
disturbance
B.
An
innate
quality
of
badness
C. Learned and not inherited
D. Inherited and not learned
16. Classical criminology of
thoughts in criminology is
based on the principle of
freewill.
The
positivist
thought is based on:
A. Darwinism
B. Natural selection
C. Cesare Lombroso
D. Determinism
17. Which of the following
statements does not pertain to
Classical Criminology?
A. The classical criminology
was spearheaded by Bentham and
Becarria.
B. The classical school of
criminology is an advocate of
punishment as a deterrent to
crime.

C. The classical school of


criminology
argues
hat
criminals
were
primitive
creatures, incapable of living
normally in society.
D. The classical school of
criminology also argued that
nature
has
placed
mankind
under the governance of two
sovereign masters, pain and
pleasure.
18. What is the doctrine
requires
a
process
resolving conflicts with
maximum involvement of
victim, the offender and
community:
A. Proactive justice
B. Restorative justice
C. Reactive justice
D. None of these

that
of
the
the
the

19. The offense where there is


no private offended party:
A. Status offense
B. Victimless crime
C. Minor crime
D. Light felony
20. Which of the following is
not procedurally correct?
A. As long as the offense
committed is not punishable by
Reclusion
Perpetua,
life
imprisonment, or death, bail
is a matter of right.
B. Before and after conviction
with
the
Municipal
Trial
Court, bail is a matter of
right.
C. Arraignment of the accused
is mandatory.
D. Miranda right was derived
from the case of Miranda
versus Arizona

21. A summary and informal


investigation conducted by a
public prosecutor in criminal
cases
involving
persons
arrested or detained without
the benefit of a warrant of
arrest by the court for the
purpose of determining whether
or not said persons should
remain under the custody and
correspondingly
by
charged
before the court:
A. Preliminary investigation
B. Summary hearing
C. Inquest proceeding
D. Trial or hearing
22. Which of the following is
not a private crime?
A. Concubinage
C.
Seduction
B. Adultery
D. Rape
23. The age when a child,
fifteen years old and above
but below eighteen years of
age, commits an offense with
discernment:
A. Criminal responsibility
B. Exemption from criminal
responsibility
C. Discernment
D. Age of criminal
responsibility
24. Refers to the apprehension
or taking into custody of a
child in conflict with the law
enforcement
officers
or
private citizens:
A. Arrest
B. Search and seizure
C. Initial contact
D. Taking into custody

25. The best evidence to prove


the age of the child is:
A.
Original
copy
of
certificate of live birth.
B. Statement of the parents
C. Certified true copy of live
birth
D. A and C are correct.
26. Which of the following
does
not
belong
to
the
procedure
for
handling
children
exempted
from
criminal responsibility?
A.
The
authority
shall
immediately notify the
local
social welfare and development
officer of the taking of
the child into custody.
B. The local social welfare
and development
officer
shall with the consent of the
child
and
the persons having custody
over the child, determine the
appropriate
intervention
program for the child.
C.
The
authority
shall
immediately bring the
child
to the nearest police station.
D.
The
authority
shall
immediately release
the
child to the custody of the
mother or
father or the
appropriate
guardian
or
custodian,
or
in
their
absence, the nearest relative.
27. Any criminal or civil
action involving a child in
conflict with the law shall be
instituted
and
tried
in
the appropriate court nearest
the place where the offense
was committed or any of its
essential
elements

occurred.
The
court refers to:
A. Family court

appropriate

B. Metropolitan trial court


C. Regional trial court
D. RTC designated as Family
court
28. Which of the following in
not true about social process
theories?
A. Criminality is the function
of individual socialization
B. All people, regardless of
race, class, or gender, has
the
potential
to
become
delinquents or criminals
C.
Criminal
behavior
is
learned.
D. Crime is the outcome of
class struggle.
29. Refers to the ability of
persons
and
groups
to
determine
and
control
the
behavior of others and to
shape public opinion to meet
their personal interests.
A. Desire
C.
Influence
B. Wealth

D. Power

30. The process by which an


organization deals has a major
unpredictable
event
that
threatens
to
harm
the
organization,
its
stockholders, or the general
public.
A. Disaster preparedness
B. Crisis management
C. Organizational planning
D. Anti-terrorism

31. Refers to what management


does and says after the crisis
hits.
A. Planning
B.

Intelligence

information

C. Rescue operation
D. Deception
32. False information about an
organization or its products
creates crisis hurting the
organizations
reputation.
A. Information
B. Intelligence information
C. Rumors
D. Deception
33. Refers to policy enacted
by governments to ensure the
survival and safety of the
nation-state,
including
but
not
limited
to
the
exercise
of
diplomatic,
economic, and military power
in both peace and war.
A. Security
B. Survival training
C. National security
D. Sate of calamity
34. The word rape is derived
from the latin term rapere,
which means:
A. Forced sexual act
B. Acts of lasciviousness
C. Coitus
D. To take by force
35. The Anti-Fencing law.
A. PD 1216
C. PD 1621
B. PD 1612
D. PD 1261

36. Which of the following


does not belong to the group?
A. Cultural deviance theory
B.
Social
disorganization
theory
C. Strain theory
D. Differential reinforcement
37. The elements of social
bond are:
1. Attachment 6. Esteem
2. Love
7. Commitment
3.
Containment
8.
Neutralization
4. Belief
9. Involvement
5. Control
10. Family
A. 1,2,3,4,5
B. 4,7,9,10

C. 1,4,7,9
D. 4,6,7,9

38. Social bond theory was


articulated by:
A. Walter Reckless C.
David
Matza
B. Travis Hirschi
D.Howard
Kaplan
39.
The
premeditated,
politically motivated violence
perpetrated
against
non
combatant
targets
by
sub
national
or
clandestine
agents, usually intended to
influence and audience:
A. Terror
C.
Guerilla
warfare
B. Terrorism
D. Little war
40.
Violent
acts
directed
toward a particular person or
members
of
groups
merely
because
the
targets
share
discernable racial, ethnics,
religious,
gender
characteristics:
A. Hate
C. Terrorism
B. Crime D. Hate crimes

41. An act committed by a man


habitually indulged in sexual
intercourse
or
lascivious
conduct for money or profit is
prostitution:
A. False
C. Partly false
B. True
D. Partly true
42. What law punished illegal
gambling?
A. PD 1602
C. PD 6102
B. PD 1620
D. PD 6120
43. Who gave the traditional
definition of white collar
crime?
A. Edwin Sutherland
B. Cesare Lombroso
C. Travis Hirschi
D. Konrad Lorenz
44. A principle which states
that man by nature always
tries to maximize pleasure and
avoid pain:
A. Atavism
B. Ecological theory
C. Social disorganization
D. Hedonism
45. The purpose of penalty in
the
positivist
school
of
criminology is:
A. Punishment C.
Death
penalty
B. Rejection
D. Reformation
46.
Garofalo
classifies
criminals
into
four
categories;
1. strange or bizarre criminal
2. dangerous criminals
3. cruel and dishonest
criminals
4. loafers

Which
of
the
following
statement
is
true
about
loafers?
A. Persons who are away from
homes and take vagabondage.
They engage in street brawls
and usually make their both
ends meet by extorting money
from shopkeepers.
B. They belong to families
which
are
professionally
criminal.
C. Such people are indifferent
to moral principles or even
contemptuous of moral values.
D. Those who are motivate to
crime by a feeling of revenge,
enmity or a desire to settle
the score.
47.
Who
are
the
primary
advocate of social reaction
theory in criminology?
A. Edwin Lemert and Frank
Tannenbaum
B. Edwin Sutherland and Cesare
Lombroso
C. Travis Hirshi and Davis
Matza
D. Gresham Sykes and Davis
Matza
48. Which of the following
statement is not true about
social bond theory?
A.
All
individuals
are
potential law violators, but
they are kept under control
because they fear that illegal
behavior will damage their
relationship with the members
of society whom have has
strong bonds or ties.
B. People commit crime when
the forces that bind them to
society
are
weakened
or
broken.

C.
A
strong
self
image
insulates a youth from the
pressures
and
pulls
of
criminogenic influences in the
environment.
D. Crime is the by-product of
learning the norm, values, and
behaviors
associated
with
criminal
activity.
49. He stated that criminality
may
be
the
result
of
inadequate development of a
sense of identity or
the
result
of
a
sense
of
inferiority or inadequacy:
A. Erich Fromm
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Erik Erikson
D. Seymour Halleck
50. Which of the following is
not a victimless crime?
A. Robbery
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Gambling
D. Seymour Halleck
51. In victimless crime, the
direct victim is:
A. Government
B. Family of the offended
party
C. The person whose property
was taken
D.
Illegal
possession
of
firearm
52. The purpose of Classical
theory of criminology is:
A.
The
application
of
scientific methods to
the
study of the criminal as an
individual
B. Reform of the judicial
system

C.
Reformation
and
rehabilitation
of
the
offender.
D.
Scientific
treatment,
alteration or elimination.
53. One of the basic elements
of classical theory is that,
most crimes, other than those
due to mental problems would
be eliminated in a socialist
system in which the goods and
wealth of a society
would
be equally distributed. This
statement is not true:
A. True
C. Partly
true
B. Partly false
D. False
54.
The
number
of
crime
incidents in a given period of
time
for
every
100,000
inhabitants of an area or
place:
A. Crime rate
B. Crime solution efficiency
C. Solved cases
D. Non-index crimes
55.
The
total
number
of
reported crime incidents in
the given period of time
regardless
of
the
number
of perpetrators:
A. Crime rate
C. Non-index
crime
B. Crime volume D. Index crime
56. Occurs when someone tries
to get into the website to
take
information
without
authorization or to damage the
computer or its network:
A. Computer bug
B. Virus

C. Computer hacking
D. Computer spamming
57. Offenders who commit acts
of violence on rare occasions,
often under provocation:
A.
Culturally
violent
offenders
B.
Situational
violent
offenders
C.
Criminally
violent
offenders
D. Pathologically violent
offenders
58.
Known
as
profession:
A. Prostitution

the

oldest

B. Chief Executive Officer


C. Adultery
D. Concubinage
59. What law punishes illegal
possession of firearm?
A. PD 1686
C. PD 6618
B. PD 1866
D. PD 8616
60.
Who
are
the
primary
advocate
of
social
disorganization theory?
A. Henry Mckay and Clifford R.
Shaw
B. Emile Durkheim and Robert
Merton
C. Henry Shaw and Clifford R.
Shaw
D. Rafaeli Garofalo and Enrico
Feri
61.
The
Holy
three
of
Criminology are:
A.
Enrico
Ferri,
Rafaelle
Garofalo,
and
Charles
Goring
B. Robert Dugdale, Henry H.
Goddard, and
William Sheldon

C. Cesare Lombroso, Enrico


Ferri and Rafaelle Garofalo
D. Cesare Lombroso, Cesare
Becarria,
Rafaelle
Garofalo.
62.
Who
is
the
primary
advocate
of
positivism
in
criminology?
A. August Comte
B. Cesare Lombroso
C. Cesare Becarria
D. Charles Goring
63.
Ongoing
criminal
enterprise
groups
whose
ultimate purpose is personal
economic
gain
through
illegitimate means:
A. Organized crime
B. Client fraud
C. Internet crimes
D. Computer crimes
64. It is a game or scheme the
result of which depends wholly
or chiefly upon chance or
hazard:
A. Gambling
B. Chance
C. Match making
D. Game
65. The holding in abeyance of
the service of the sentence
imposed by the court upon a
finding of
guilt of the
child in conflict with the law
whereby
the
child
undergo
rehabilitation within a fixed
period under such terms and
conditions as may be ordered
by the court:
A. Reprieve
B. Pardon
C. Suspended sentence
D. Probation

66.
The
first
stage
psychosexual development:
A. Oral stage
B. Anal stage
C. Genital

of

67. A personality disorder


characterize
by
extreme
dependence on other people.
These persons
usually
build their lives around other
persons involved with them:
A. Anti social
C.
Compulsive
B. Paranoid
D.
Dependent
68. A person suffering from
this
type
of
personality
disorder is characterized by
hypersensitivity,
envy,
suspiciousness,
rigidity,
excessive self importance and
argumentativeness:
A. Anti social
C.
Compulsive
B. Paranoid
D.
Dependent
69.
The
raw,
unorganized,
inherited part of personality
whose purpose is to reduce
tension created by primitive
drives related to hunger, sex,
aggression,
and
irrational
impulses:
A. Id
C. Superego
B. Ego
D. Psychoanalytical
70.
A
disrupting,
fearmediated avoidance that is out
of proportion to the danger
posed by a particular object
or situation and is recognized
by the sufferer as groundless:
A. Compulsion C. Phobia

B. Impulsion

D. Amnesia

71. The purpose of arraignment


is:
A. To inform the accused of
the nature of the offense
committed by him:
B. To identify the accused.
C. For the judge to identify
the accused
D. For the witness to identify
the accused
72.
A
warrant
of
arrest
expires within 10 days from
issuance
if
not
executed
within the same period:
A. True
C.
Partially
true
B. False
D.
Partially
false
73. In this theory propose by
Walter Reckless, strong self
image insulates a youth from
the pressures
and pulls
of criminogenic influences in
the environment:
A. Containment theory
B. Social bond theory
C. Social control theory
D. Neutralization theory
74. Which of the following
does not belong to the group?
A. There must be a statute
promulgated by
the state
B. Penal laws must be of
general application
C. The law or statute must
have penal
sanction
D. The law or statute must be
of general
application.
75. That branch of public law
which defines crimes treats of

their nature and provides for


their punishment:
A. Law
C. Criminal law
B. Criminal
D. Criminality
76. Preserved on basalt rock
columns, the code set out
crimes and their corresponding
punishment.
Punishment
was
based
on
physical
retaliation:
A. The secret code
B. Code of Hammurabi
C. Mosaic code
D. The code twelve tables
77. Those so serious in their
effects on society as to call
for unanimous condemnation of
its members:
A. Crime Mala inse
B. Crime Mala prohibita
C. Crime Maia inse
D. Crimes
78.
A
modification
of
classical
theory
which
basically
admitted
environment,
psychological,
and other
mitigating
circumstances
as
modifying
conditions
to
classic
doctrine:
A. Classical theory
B. Positivism
C. Neoclassical theory
D. Theory of atavism
79. Who is the author of the
essay
On
Crimes
and
Punishment?
A. Cesare Becarria
B. Jeremy Bentham
C. Willem Bonger
D. Karl Marx

A. Ecological theory
80. A combination of the
elements of strain and social
disorganization. According to
this theory,
because
strain and social isolation, a
unique
lower-class
culture
develops
in
disorganized
neighborhoods:
A. Cultural deviance theory
B. Strain theory
C.
Social
disorganization
theory
D. Containment theory
81. It viewed disadvantage
economic class position as a
primary cause of crime. It
suggests that
social and
economic forces operating in
deteriorated class areas push
many of their residents into
criminal behavior patterns:
A. Strain theory
B. Cultural deviance theory
C. Social Structure
D. Differential reinforcement
82.
It
focuses
on
the
conditions within the urban
environment that affect crime
rates:
A. Social disorganization
B. Strain theory
C. Cultural deviance theory
D. Social structure theory
83. Adolphe Quetelet in his
famous ________, he claimed
that crime against persons
increase in equatorial climate
while crimes against property
are
prevalent
in
colder
climates:

B. Thermic law of crime


C. Temperature of crime
D. Hot case
84. The foremost early Marxist
criminologist whose noted work
was Criminality and Economic
Conditions. He viewed the
criminal
law
as
primarily
protecting the interest of the
propertied class:
A. Karl Marx
B. Willem Bonger
C. Ander-Michel Guerry
D. William Sheldon
85. Through the systematic
application of the scientific
method, the positivists seek
to uncover the
basic
cause
of
crime
and
once
discovered,
to
prescribe
appropriate
treatments
in
order to cure the individual
criminal. This statement is
false:
A. True
C. Maybe false
B. False
D. Maybe True
86. Acts considered illegal
because they conflict with
social policy, accepted moral
rules, and public opinion:
A. Public order crime
B. Criminality
C. Victimless crime
D. A and C are correct
87. Which of the following is
not
true
about
organized
crime?
A. Organized crime includes
terrorist
dedicated
to
political change.

B. Organized crime employs


predatory tactics, such as
intimidation, violence, and
corruption.
C.
Organized
crime
has
economic gain as its primary
goal,
although
power
and
status
may
also be motivating factors.
D.
Organized
crime
is
conspiratorial activity
88. Refer to the morally tinge
influences that have become
entrenched in the culture but
are publicly
condemned.
They exist side by side with
conventional values and while
condemned in public may be
admired
or
practice
in
private:
A. Guilty pleasure
B. Subculture of violence
C. Subterranean values
D. Moral Values
89.
Public
official
and
employee shall at all times be
loyal to the Republic of the
Philippines
and
to
the
Filipino people, promote the
use of Filipino or locally
produced
goods.
This
exemplified:
A. Commitment to Filipino
B. Nationalism
C. Patriotism
D. B and C
E.
Commitment
to
public
interest
90. The Strength or firmness
of the mind that enables a
person to face danger, pain or
despondency:
A. Justice

B. Temperance
C. Prudence
D. Fortitude
91. A person who is under
custodial
investigation
is
basically
protected
by
a
number
of
rights
mandated
under the constitution and
this was even expounded in the
legislative statute known as?
A. Miranda Doctrine
B. Bill of Rights
C. R.A. 7438
D. R.A. 6975
92. This is the law that
reorganized
the
Judiciary.
Otherwise known as Judiciary
Reorganizational Act:
A. R.A. 229
C. E.O. 129
B. BP 129
D. P.D. 29
93. It is the study of the
laws and its effect or impact
to the society:
A. Criminology
B. Victimology
C. Criminal Justice
D. Sociology of law
94. It refers to the study of
the various agency of our
government
in
charge
of
processing law violators to
ensure the protection of the
society and maintenance of
peace and order:
A. Criminology
B. Victimology
C. Criminal Justice
D. Sociology
95. It is that principle of
criminal law which states that
--- Ignorance of the law

excuses no one from compliance


therewith:
A. Actus me invitus factus non
est meus actus
B. Dura lex sed lex
C. Nullum crimen nula poena
sine lege
D. Ignorantia legis neminem
excusat

to three (3) years or whose


fine is less than 6,000 but
more than 200 or both?
A.
National
or
insular
prisoner
B. City prisoner
C. Provincial prisoner

96. The Philippine Criminal


Justice system is composed of
five pillars. Which of the
following
is
not
included
among the pillars of the
Philippine Criminal Justice
System?
A. Law enforcement
B. Prosecution
C. Legislative Branch
D. Court

99. Prisons are institution


for confinement of convicted
offenders sentenced to more
than
three
(3)
years
of
imprisonment. It is derived
from the Greco-Roman word?
A. Presinto
C. Precindio
B. Presidio
D. Precinto

97. Suspect is a person who is


being
implicated
to
the
commission of a crime and
subject of an investigation.
Who is that person who is
subject
of
preliminary
investigation?
A. Convict
C. Respondent
B. Accused
D. Suspect
98. Prison is a place for
confinement
of
convicted
prisoners. What classification
of prisoners is sentenced to
serve a prison term of one day

D. Municipal prisoner

100. The Lupon Tagapamayapa is


consists of about 10 to 20
members from which the Pangkat
Tagapagkasundo
is
derived
which consists of how many
members?
A. 3 members
B. 10 to 20 members
C. 5 to 10 members
D. 5 members

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