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CHRIST UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
BANGALORE



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SUBMITTED TO:
PROF. VENKATESHA BHAGAVATH

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SUBMITTED BY:
  KINSHOO SHAH

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CERTIFICATE OF THE GUIDE




 


"        #  $%  A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF THE
PRACTISE OF SELF-MEDICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS IN M.P. STATE, INDIA 

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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Is the practise of self-medication still prevalent in India?

Is this practice fair on the pharmacists/chemists/druggists part to dispense Antibiotics


without doctors prescription?

How far is it justified to take risk with the health of the patients?


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STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY

$          #  &%


 A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF THE
PRACTISE OF SELF-MEDICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS IN M.P. STATE, INDIA
)*    Christ University Institute Of Management  
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  Prof. Venkatesh Bhagavath, 4)  * 
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Research Person:

KINSHOO SHAH, 1st yr, MBA (IB), CUIM




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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................... 10


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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

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SELF- MEDICATION

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STUDIES EXPLORING ANTIBIOTIC MISUSE

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ACTION PLAN FOLLOWED




FLOWCHART: 1

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pppQuestionnaires Survey

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pppStatistics, Findings & Conclusion

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CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION & ANALYSIS OF DATA


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FIGURE: 2


MAIN HYPOTHESIS: ,
        *  
 
 

 


DATA CHARACTERISTICS

Findings & Interpretation:"  

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PIE CHART: 1

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PERCENTAGE OF ANTIBIOTICS USERS
p
Hypothesis 1: "  
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Findings & Interpretation:     



 
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C C 0D
p

PIE CHART: 2

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p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
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FREQUENCY OF USAGE OF ANTIBIOTICS
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Hypothesis 2: "   9)
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Findings & Interpretation:#     

 
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PIE CHART: 3

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PIE CHART: 4


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PIE CHART: 5

PATIENT AWARENESS Further Analysis

Hypothesis 3:     &
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+
 

Findings & Interpretation: [Table 3, 4, 5 & 6]


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TABLE: 3
Crosstabulation
Have you ever taken antibiotics? * Have you referred a doctor before taking antibiotics? 
   Y 
 p
   p p p

Y       p p  p p


p p

p Y p 2p
2p 2p
Y       p

p Y p 2p 2p 2p


Y 
 p

ppp 2p
2p 2p

2p p 2p 2p 


p  p p
p p

p Y p 2p
2p 2p
Y       p

p Y p 2p 2p 2p


Y 
 p

ppp 2p
2p 2p

BAR CHART: 1

p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

TABLE: 4
Crosstabulation
Have you referred a doctor before taking Antibiotics? * Do you know any side-effects of Antibiotics?
      p
   p p  !p" p p

Y 
 p p  p #p p p p

p Y p $%2%p 2p 2&p 2p


Y 
 p

p  p p %p p


p

p Y p '#2p &#2p 2p 2p


Y 
 p

p  p p %p p p

p Y p 2p %2p 2p 2p


Y 
 p


TABLE: 5
Descriptives
Have you referred a doctor before taking Antibiotics?
 *#p   p+  pp( p
 p ( p 2p    p 2p)p .p p /00p p ( ,,p (- ,,p

p p 2&p 2
$'#p 2&p 2&%$'p 2#*#p 2p '2p

p %p '2p 2p 2p '2p '2p '2p '2p

 !p p 2p 2p 2p 2p 2p 2p 2p


" p

p p 2
p 2#
p 2%%p 2%p 2&*
p 2p '2p


TABLE:6
ANOVA
Have you referred a doctor before taking Antibiotics?
  ,pp1p p ( p1p 3p  2p

 p40p 5, 6p 2


%%p 'p 2'&p 2&&p 2
*$p

./  Yp 2
$p p 2
$p 2
#%p 2'&p

7 Yp 2
'p p 2
'p 2#&p 2'#$p

p
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p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

   p 2&p p 2&p 2'#p 2$&*p



p



,p

7 Y p40p 2*&p &p 2'$p  


p '2
p *p   




Findings & Interpretation: [Table 7]

p   ,   ??1O    


&     
)*
+
 
, *  + *

 ?1O   *
5 %
&   , 

 
&   ?1O
5 %
&  
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)  +
p 0>O    
&
5   , * %
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5 
)    
)*
+
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5 %
&

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5  ,
%
&  
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&  3 
   
    ,)

TABLE: 7
Crosstabulation

Have you referred a doctor before taking antibiotics? * Do you have allergy from antibiotics?pp
   Y p
   p p  !p" p p
Y 
 p p  p
p p p p
p Y p 2&p 2&p 2&p 2p
Y 
 p
p  p p p 'p
p
p Y p '#2p '#2p #2p 2p
Y 
 p
p  p #p 'p %p p
p Y p #2p '2p %2p 2p
Y 
 p

p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

Hypothesis 4: "  &
 *
+  
 )            &  
    

 
   ,)  
+    
)* 


Findings & Interpretation: [Table 8]

p    
   )       & 
%  5     %  
  *   * 
& )  5  
?2O      %
+ 
 &   
=2O
5 [Bar Chart: 2]
p *  
+   )
*
+  & 
%   
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  =2O      
     %
&
+      &
+ % 
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) 
+ 

TABLE: 8
Crosstabulation
Is it correct to take antibiotics without prescription? * Have you referred a doctor before taking antibiotics?
   Y 
 p

   p p p

 ,Y, Y p  p %p 'p #p


0p
p Y p 2p
2p 2p
 ,Y, Y
0p

p Y p #2p #2p #2p


Y 
 p

ppp %2p '2p #2p

2p p 2p 2p 


p  p %p 'p #p

p Y p 2p
2p 2p
 ,Y, Y
0p

p Y p #2p #2p #2p


Y 
 p

ppp %2p '2p #2p

2p p 2p 2p 


p  p p
p p

p Y p 2p
2p 2p
 ,Y, Y
0p

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

p Y p 2p 2p 2p
Y 
 p

ppp 2p
2p 2p

BAR CHART: 2




Findings & Interpretation: [Table 9]

p  
 
   )      &     & 
  )  

 ??1O%
&  
   
  %   )  

 
5 * )  
 $ <<<O   *   )
  
   
5  

 

+ ) )    
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 &
+ 5
 ) 

p )    &
 
  
 ) =2O
5 %
&) 
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 $ ?2O   *   )
 
    
5  

 

+ ) 
p )    &* * *   
 ) >2O%
&) 
 
  
  
+   
  )
    $   >2O
5 
%
&)    3 

+   
&  
5  
  )  

 

p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

TABLE: 9

Crosstabulation
Do you finish your course of antibiotics? * Antibiotic resistant bacteria likely to occur if people dont finish their course of antibiotics?
      00  Yp

   p p  !p" p p

 Yp p  p 'p p p %p

p Y p 2&p %%2%p 2p 2p


 Yp

8 p  p p %p 'p #p

p Y p 2p 2p


2p 2p
 Yp

, ,p  p p p p 'p

p Y p #2p 2p #2p 2p


 Yp

p  p %p


p %p p

p Y p %2p
2p %2p 2p
 Yp

EDUCATION AS A FACTOR OF SELF-MEDICATION


Hypothesis 5:" 
&   ) 
  
)

+ , &*) 6 
*  
 
 

Findings & Interpretation: [Table 10]

p  
 
  *      )      & +   ,   ) 

& )
 +)  22O 
5          %
+ 
  "   
3 
   
    ,6
 
+  *)  
 
p )      &  +   ) 
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 ><=O 
5         
%
+
 
p )     +)     
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)*  
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) 
+ 
 
p )       & ,  
    @1>O 
5          %
+

 (     
*  )   &
%
& + ) * 


p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p


TABLE: 10
Crosstabulation
Highest level of education? * Have you referred a doctor before taking antibiotics?p
   Y 
 p
   p p p

9 Y   p / p  p p p p

p Y p 2p 2p 2p


9 Y   p

4p  p '&p %p #$p

p Y p
2p #%2
p 2p
9 Y   p

:p4p  p '


p
p '$p

p Y p $#2&p 
2%p 2p
9 Y   p

p  p p &p $p

p Y p '2#p $&2#p 2p


9 Y   p

p  p #'p


$p p

p Y p #'2p
$2p 2p
9 Y   p




Ailments Commonly Subjected To Self-Medication:

p 
+    - 
    *
  &   %  
  & ) 
 
+ *     <?=O!  01<O!&  , 

  6*
    9)  
 A!C C ?D
p 
+    - 
    *
  &   %  
  & ) 
 
+     #)   %
+  * 5- * 5 ,    ,  01<O!
 6*
   @0O!&   
  6
   
9)  
 A!C C 1D

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p


PIE CHART: 6

PIE CHART: 7

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

PHARMACIST/CHEMIST RESPONSIVENESS

Hypothesis 6: "   )  * - *  & *


  
 
 

Findings & Interpretation:

p )     
   ,  *   * -* @@O,  %

 

    @O,
5 & =O
5 %
&)  C" D
p =2AO*
+  &,  %

 
    ,      
%
+
 & >AO
5 
) 
C" 0D
p >@<O     & 
)*  
  ,  
 
5          %
+
 *& >AO   &
 % 
 
5   11@O   

)* 
* * 
5   C" <D

TABLE: 11
Have you ever taken antibiotics?
  , p
31 p : p ; p: p : p

; p p $$p $$2p $$2p $$2p

p $p $2p $2p *2p

 !p" p
p
2p
2p 2p

p p 2p 2p 



TABLE: 12
Crosstabulation
Have you ever taken antibiotics? * Have you referred a doctor before taking antibiotics?
   Y 
 p
   p p p
Y       p p  p %p #'p $$p
p Y p
2*p #*2p 2p
Y       p
p  p p &p $p
p Y p '2#p $&2#p 2p
Y       p
 !p" p  p p
p
p
p Y p 2p 2p 2p
Y       p
p  p %&p %p p
p Y p %&2p %2p 2p
Y       p

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

BAR CHART: 3

TABLE: 13
Crosstabulation

How often do you take antibiotics?* Have you referred a doctor before taking antibiotics?
   Y 
 p

   p p p

Y     p ;p8 p  p #p &p 'p

p Y p
2&p #$2%p 2p
Y     p

8 p  p '#p '&p #'p

p Y p
$2p #2*p 2p
Y     p

, ,p  p p 'p '&p

p Y p ''2'p &&2$p 2p


Y     p

 pp  p p $p *p

p Y p 2p $$2*p 2p


Y     p

p  p %&p %p p

p Y p %&2p %2p 2p


Y     p

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

BAR CHART: 4


Hypothesis 7:
  *  *
+ * -*  &

+ 
 
& )  5  


Findings & Interpretation:

p ??O  * -* + 6?O 


+ +      )     &
+
 

+
 ,   )
& )  %
+ 5  

& 0>O+ 6<O 
+ + &   C" =D
p ?0>O   * - * & 
% 5
  
 * 5  
 

 & )  5  
, 
   
  


& <1>O    
% 5 C" >D
TABLE: 14

3 p pp p

p p  
p   p 
 
p

p  
p
  , p
31 p : p ; p: p : p

; p  pp p 2p 2p 2p

p p 2p 2p &'2p

p '#p '#2p '#2p *&2p

 p p %p %2p %2p 2p

p p 2p 2p 

p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

TABLE: 15
Crosstabulation
Do you strictly provide antibiotics only on prescription? * Is it fair on chemists part to dispense
antibiotics without doctors prescription?
     Y, 0 Y0p
   p p  !p" p p

 0  0p p  p %p #p p $p

p Y p %&2#p '2#p 2p 2p


 0  0p

8 p  p $p p p $#p

p Y p *2
p &2$p $2$p 2p
 0  0p

, ,p  p p p p &p

p Y p 2p $#2&p 


2%p 2p
 0  0p

p  p p &'p &p p

p Y p 2p &'2p &2p 2p


 0  0p


BAR CHART: 5

p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

Ailments Commonly Subjected To Self-Medication:

p 
+    * -*    =<O!  0AO! ,  >O!
*
    1O! 
   >O! 6   
 
 O!      *

**
)#    *  
 
C" ?6 C @D
p 
+   * 5-*     <?O!    0?O! ,  AO!
*
   @O! 
   ?O!  
 
 <O!

   0O!   
 *
 **
 )    
 
 )++  
  ,  *
 * 5-* C" 16 C AD

TABLE: 16
p
For which ailments patients take antibiotics on the own?
  , p
31 p : p ; p: p : p

; p 3 p #p #2p #2p #2p

9Yp
%p
%2p
%2p #$2p

Yp '*p '*2p '*2p $&2p

    p #p #2p #2p *'2p

 , p p &p &2p &2p **2p

)p+   p p 2p 2p 2p

p p 2p 2p 

PIE CHART: 8

p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p


TABLE: 17

For which ailments do you dispense antibiotics without doctors prescription?
  , p
31 p : p ; p: p : p

; p 3 p *p *2p *2p *2p

9Yp %p %2p %2p ##2p

Yp 'p '2p '2p $2p

    p p 2p 2p $&2p

 , p p $p $2p $2p *#2p

)p+   p %p %2p %2p *$2p

 p8Yp 'p '2p '2p 2p

p p 2p 2p 

PIE CHART: 9


p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

DOCTORS POINT OF VIEW
p

Hypothesis 8:" 
) &   ,    

  
)* 
 
& )  
+ 6 ) 
%  5 * 5)  +)   *

Findings & Interpretations:

p )        &  & ,     



   %  
  & ) 

) 
+ 12O 
%    5)  +,  
), $ 
?>O   &
,    
 
%  5) C" @D
p )        &  & ,     

   %  
  & ) 

) 
+ 12O 
%    * 5)  +,  

 


 5   
 $  ?>O     & 
 ,     
 
%   
 * 5) C" AD

TABLE: 18
Crosstabulation

Do you advise patients not to take antibiotics on their own? * Is it doctors duty to advise
patients not to take antibiotics without consulting doctor?
     0  p
   p p p

 0     p  p 'p *p %p


 Yp
p Y p &2p %2p 2p
 0    
 Yp

8 p  p $p #p %p

p Y p 2#p %$2#p 2p


 0    
 Yp

, ,p  p


p %p &p

p Y p #&2p
'2*p 2p
 0    
 Yp

p  p %%p &p #p

p Y p 2p %
2p 2p
 0    
 Yp

p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p


TABLE: 19

Crosstabulation
Do you advise patients not to take antibiotics on their own? * Is it chemists duty to give
antibiotics only on doctors prescription?
    Y, Y 0p
   p p p

 0     p  p 'p *p %p


 Yp
p Y p &2p %2p 2p
 0    
 Yp

8 p  p *p
p %p

p Y p *2'p %2$p 2p


 0    
 Yp

, ,p  p &p p &p

p Y p 2p 2p 2p


 0    
 Yp

p  p %&p %p #p

p Y p &
2p '2p 2p
 0    
 Yp

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p


CHAPTER: 5 DISCUSSION & INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS


p

Main Hypothesis: ,
        *  
 
 
  



From PIE-CHART: 1

Interpretation and Findings:


"  

 *#  
  01<O!(* *%  @0O! )
 @0!

)
*
 @0O!
  ) +
 
6 9)  
   * &   
 
    A!(
  *         *#     

   ), 

) &   
 

PERCENTAGE OF ANTIBIOTICS USERS


p
Hypothesis 1: "  
+ 
 &)+  
 & & )   


From PIE-CHART: 2
Findings & Interpretation:         

  
 *   &    
, 
)* 
 
     22OB !"     
  )+ 
 
  +
    *
& & )   
*
+   
 
 
   


FREQUENCY OF USAGE OF ANTIBIOTICS


p

Hypothesis 2: "   9)
   )+    
  &   & )    
  


  
Findings:  #       

  
 *  6   )  
  

$  
  
,   &  
+ + 
*
+  
  
   
 )  
  &     *3*)* >=>O! &    
,  
 6 * *  &   9)  @0O ! )   
  
,  )  &  
 
  , [Pie Chart 3]
*
+Y  

 
  
) 
 &    *3*)* >0O!&    
* *  01O!
, 
 0O!&   )
)  
  
,    AO!&  
     , *
+* [Pie Chart 4]

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

*
+ 
 
  
) 
 &    *3*)* >2O!&    , 

 <2O!6* *  02O!&   )
)  
  
, ) &  
   , 
*
+  [Pie Chart 5]

Interpretation:
  
   
       9)
   
  )+   
 
   *
+    
  
    
 )
+ * -* 6 

PATIENT AWARENESS Further Analysis

Hypothesis 3:     &
 *
+  
 )      6  +    
 

   ,)  
+    %
+
 

Findings: [Table 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7]


p From Table 3 
 
   )      &, ) 
 

   ?2O,       %
+
 $ =2O   *
%

 & ) 
) 
+ [Bar Chart: 1]
p From Table 4 
  @<<O  
&
)  %
&   
 ) 
 6   3 
&       
)*
+

 $ ?1O   *
5 %
&  
 )    ) 
     
)*
+
 
p ) 0>O    
&
5 
)  %
&  
 )  
     
5     
)*
+
 
p $ 1>O   *
5 %
&
    
 
  
 
3 
   
&  
5      %
+
 
p From Table 5 
 
   *      
5 
)    
%
+
 
  +  * 
, )  0222!
p From Table 6 
     
+
 
 
  * 
 %
& + 
     
 
   
+     %
+
  T22>!
p From Table 7, i  ,   ??1O    
&     

)*
+
 , *  + *

 ?1O   *
5 
%
&   , 

 &   ?1O
5 %
&  
 
 ,

)  +
p 0>O    
&
5   , * %
  + *
 7
    
5 
)    
)*
+
 0>O   *
5 %
&

 + ) 
 &   >2O
5  ,
%
&  
 ) 
 +&  3 
   
    ,)

Interpretation:
ip  
  
  *     *      
)*
+
 )   *
& )  
+ 
p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

ip 
     %
&
+         
   
 
5  
)    & 
  *#  )  
 
5 %
&  
 )    
ip  
 
   &   
 &        
 
)  + 
 ,
 
 %
&
+    
5      
)       
)*
+

 

Hypothesis 4: "  &


 *
+  
 )            &  
    

 
   ,)  
+    
)* 


Findings: [Table 8]

p    
   )       & 
%  5     %  
  *   * 
& )  5  
?2O      %
+ 
 &   
=2O
5 [Bar Chart: 2]
p *  
+   )
*
+  & 
%   
   ")& 

  =2O      
     %
&
+      &
+ % 
  & ) 

) 
+ 

Findings: [Table 9]

p  
 
   )      &     & 
  )  

 ??1O%
&  
   
  %   )  

 
5 * )  
 $ <<<O   *   )
  
   
5  

 

+ ) )    
   ) * 
 &
+ 5
 ) 

p )    &
 
  
 ) =2O
5 %
&) 
 )
  
   
 $ ?2O   *   )
 
    
5  

 

+ ) 
p )    &* * *   
 ) >2O%
&) 
 
  
  
+   
  )
    $   >2O
5 
%
&)    3 

+   
&  
5  
  )  

 

Interpretation:
ip          
%        %  
  *   * -* 
& )  
) 
+    &   *  
     %
&
+   
     % 

 & )  
+ 
ip  *#  )  
   )
& ) 
   
  6    
    )  
 
5 * )  
 
ip 
     %
&
+      *  )    
5  *    )   

  

5     
  
 ) 

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

EDUCATION AS A FACTOR OF SELF-MEDICATION

Hypothesis 5:" 
&   ) 
  
)

+ , &*) 6 
*  
 
 
Findings: [Table 10]

p  
 
  *      )      & +   ,   ) 

&)
 +) 22O
5      %
+
 
p )      &  +   ) 
  +) 
 ><=O 
5         
%
+
 
p )     +)     
 =<O 
)*  
  & )  
) 
+ 
 
p )       & ,  
    @1>O 
5          %
+

 (     
*  )   &
%
& + ) * 


Interpretation:
ip 

     & ,   ) 
 
  

  
     

+ 
 
+ 
  *  

ip "    3 
    
      , 6 
 
+     *)   

 
ip )   5 )
+  %
&   *    &  )       
5      
  
)*
+
 "  
  **
)    )
  ) 

  & )   5 
)  
      *   * 
+   ) 
 ) *+  * 
+  


PHARMACIST/CHEMIST RESPONSIVENESS

Hypothesis 6: "   )  * - *  & *


  
 
 

Findings:

p )     
   ,  *   * -* @@O,  %

 

    @O,
5 & =O
5 %
&)  [Table 11]
p =2AO*
+  &,  %

 
    ,      
%
+
 & >AO
5 
) 
[Table 12]
p >@<O     & 
)*  
  ,  
 
5          %
+
 *& >AO   &
 % 
 
5   11@O   

)* 
* * 
5   [Table 13]

p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

Interpretation:
ip   
   
    *
+    * -*  *     * ,  %


 
*  
 *
+   *
5 
)  
)*
+  *
ip *
+   *    & %  
  ,  
 6 
 
5  
) 
   
)*
+  *
ip 
     

   
      
+& * 
6, 
 %
& +  )   * %
&   )+  )  
       
   5
  

    , *
   6*)  + 

Hypothesis 7:
  *  *
+ * -*  &

+ 
 
& )  5  


Findings:

p ??O  * -* + 6?O 


+ +      )     &
+
 

+
 ,   )
& )  %
+ 5  

& 0>O+ 6<O 
+ + &   [Table 14]
p ?0>O   * - * & 
% 5
  
 * 5  
 

 & )  5  
, 
   
  


& <1>O    
% 5 [Table 15]

Interpretation:
ip   
    ,    *       * -*  +  O   ,      
)     &+
 

+ 
 & )  5  

ip     *&  ,   5
  
 * 5  
 
 & ) 
  
, 
   


  



DOCTORS POINT OF VIEW


p

Hypothesis 8:" 
) &   ,    

  
)* 
 
& )  
+ 6 ) 
%  5 * 5)  +)   *

Findings:

p )        & always ,     



   %  
  & ) 

) 
+ 12O 
%    5)  +,  
), $ 
?>O   &often,    
 
%  5) [Table 18]
p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

p )        & always ,     

   %  
  & ) 

) 
+ 12O 
%    * 5)  +,  

 


 5   
 $  ?>O     & often ,     
 
%   
 * 5) C" AD

Interpretations:

ip   
   
    *        & ,     
 )  *)   

  6     )    
)*  
   
) 
+    
%   
 5 )   &    * 5 )   ,   
 "   * 5 ) 
 * , 
 
 
 & )  5  
"  * ) 
 , ) 
*
+   *    )+   



+,   *  )+


p- p p Y p  p p p  p   p Yp Y p  


p p
  p p 
p p
& p %pp
p
p  p'p p  p

p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p


CHAPTER: 6 CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATION


p

BENEFITS OF THIS RESEARCH



    
+  &  * -* -)++    +) 

) .
p (       
p *)  
68))+
p  +  ,   * 
p (  
  ,  
p ) &



   )
, ,    *   
    
  
  .
p U
  
   ,
        *  
 
   
p   )
  
   
5 ,) &
)* 
 
 
p         8  &      * -*    *   # 
  

 &  ) 6+) 

 
p  
   +, )      8   
 
  *  

p    5)
  
   
5

6   ,)


BENEFITS FOR THE STUDENTS

p ")
  
  

* )  % 

p ")
  
      
)
  *  

  

p ")
  
  
)
   ) 
6&
*
+ 

 *  

p "+ + *     
   

p ")
  
   
 

  
 *% 


p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p


LIMITATIONS:
p

"  
 
 
5   
 &
  )  *
 ) 
,)  
0    * 
           ,      &   )  
       *   8 
  * * 
<
 
Vp 
 
  

Vp U

)*
  


Vp /       


Vp 9) 
 

Vp 3  * 


Vp 
, & 

Vp c 

*
  ,   
    +,
+
* 


RECOMMENDATIONS:
p


    
 )+ & )      
 * )   +  "    
,)) 6
* &
  4/&
      & 
4  
&)  **
.

p C * -* -)++ 
 )
  
   
   6  8   
* 
 
   p

p "   
  *   , 
*%
+)    

5 )   

   +
 * %
        * ,  
  
 
p

p " ) +
  
+ 
 & )   

  * ,+ 
p

p ")+   , 
) ) *%
+*  + "C/)+  )
 
+,  % 

 
  ) 
   *   *  p

p     +
+  
 )  *

 p

p   
)   %
+
 ) * p
p
p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p


p * * )   ) )  
6*%   *&  +
+ *  


  %
  +, p
p

Some Recommendations/ Precautions For Patients/People:

ip "  

 )
  
   *  
   
    
 

 8) )    6 +  ")  **
  ) 

 
 
) 
+ 
ip "  
)   8   

+
 ,   )
& ) %
+ 
 5   
   +  

   *     +,  ) ,
    
  
*  *   *
+) ,   ) 
*
 
)  
ip "   ) 
   &)    * , 
)  +)   
 +
+ 
p

p
CONCLUSION:
p

"     #      *    ) )     ,


          *  
 

  
*    8   
 
+
   , 6 * )    %

  +, 
   *)  )+ )
     
5   
 &

 6   ,) &  *
  


"   #  
  *  +   ) )    *     &    
 * -*         *   )
  
 *        
)

+  
    *  
 
 
  *) 

   8    * 5  ,)6   


 &

+
 ,   
)
& )  %
+   5  


")
 )
 
        
)+
  % *      
      *  
   *   8) 
  *
+       
  






p
 p
p
c  c  
   
 
 
  
p

REFERENCES
p

WEBSITES & SOURCES


p

p  .--
&% +-&%-(  
0p  .--
&% +-&%-,   )
U)+
<p  .--&&&* %*-** - 20-2@-2@ * 
=p  .--
&% +-&%-* 
>p  .--
&% +-&%-
 
?p  .--
&% +-&%- +
1p  .--&&&)  *- 
-

- G ' RMB"V,AcA
@p  .--&&&
  *-  -022>-2-2>2?0@>? *
Ap  .--&&&
  *-  -0221-2?-212?@>0=2 *
2p .--&&&

*
+,-*-  -C0?01?@- -22@??@ 
p .--&&&
  *-  -022A-2-2A2>?<>>1 *
0p .--#3 #)
 +-+-

-  ->A-->0
<p .--&&&

*
+,-)* -@0@?A2
=p .--#*#)
 *-+-

-  -@-1-=>?
>p .--&&&

#* +-  G
?p .--&&&
   *-
 GUR  Uc6U)R?Q4=?4"=
1p .--&&&
   *-
 GUR  Uc6U)R?Q4=??'L=>
@p&&&
   *
Ap&&&*

BIBLIOGRAPHY
p

p "c"('/-
    * +:>  
L 
)  
 &/ 
p '"(cCc AA2!-c    +* 
 
9) : &/ 
 &+ 

 
  ! 
p $'  A=1!N$ 

 

  ) 
 G
p /Q LU-
 c  
 .&
+(  "  
4)* 
  c  
)  

p
p
p