You are on page 1of 7

International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research

IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 3, Issue 12
December 2016

A Survey of Literature on Automated Transport Systems


(ATS).
[1]

Tiza Michael, [2]Anand Kumar, [3]Shubham Kumar


M. Tech Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Career Point University, Kota, Rajasthan, (India)
[2] [3]
B. Tech Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Career Point University, Kota, Rajasthan, (India)
[1]

ABSTRACT
This paper presents research conducted on topics relating to Automated Transport System(ATS), findings from
researchers on different topics relating to the use of Automated Vehicles (AVs) as proposed would be implemented in
various parts of the globe soon are discussed, the advantages and disadvantages, the implication on conventional
transport system, environmental factors, Procurement, maintenance and performance costs, legal implication in terms of
crashes or accidents and many more are discussed.
Key words - Automated Transport System(ATS), Automated Vehicles (AVs),shared automated Vehicle
(SAV),vehicular communication(VC).

INTRODUCTION
Vehicle automation refers to the ability of a vehicle to operate with reduced or without direct human
operation. Using a combination of advanced sensors and controls, sophisticated learning algorithms, and
Global Positioning System(GPS) and mapping technologies, demonstration vehicles have been able to operate
in a wide variety of operating circumstances and over long distances with a human driver present but not
operating the vehicle .and Automated-Connected vehicles are able to communicate with other vehicles and
infrastructure automatically to improve transportation system.
CALL GREEN VEHICLES
It includes the use of new types of non-conventional energies in road transport such as electricity Compressed
Natural Gas(CNG) andliquefied natural gas(LNG), renewable and tailored fuels.
Green vehicles are predicted to improve;
1.
Safety: Reduce accidents caused by human errors.
2.
Efficiency and environmental objectives: Increase transport system efficiency and reduce time in
congested traffic. Smoother traffic will help to decrease the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles.
3.
Comfort: Enable users freedom for other activities when automated systems are active.
4.
Social inclusion: Ensure mobility for all, including elderly and impaired users.
5.
Accessibility: Facilitate access to city centres.
AUTOMATED TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (ATS); A REVIEW.
Daniel & Kara (2015) examined the advantages and disadvantages of automated Transport Systems (ATS),
opportunities, some setbacks were thoroughly reviewed, total benefits were analysed to be about $2000 in a
year of AV, it was however forecasted that this would increase to about $4000 if or when there is a
comprehensive cost crash cost would be accounted for. The major barriers stated for this was proper
implementation strategies and feasibility of mass-market penetration, the initial cost of procuring and
maintenance was not left out, liability that would arise was a serious concern, interaction of these vehicles

19

Tiza Michael, Anand Kumar, Shubham Kumar

International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research


IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 3, Issue 12
December 2016

with other transport systems had not been known. Authors suggested the Government of United states to
embark on the research with the bias of clearing these major concerns.
Dimitris et al (2015) studied the effect of automated driving and came up with a model that was called ripple
effect model, it is said that the model provides a holistic implication on system-wide conceptualization of
policyand the society on automated driving. The article was however just an overview as it is expected to be
expanded and the full copy made available for public.
Rita et al (2014) examined the travel time of automated vehicles, the article points out the advantages of
automated vehicles, especially relating to the travel time of automated vehicles, the study was conducted
through online process in Germany where respondents poured their views on the use, perception and
advantages of Automated transport systems with considerable attention on the present and future prospects of
ATS. According to the report, the areas of interest and benefits perceived by the respondents is gazing
through the window and relaxation, why the possibility or chances of working was of less priority. The study
showed that 57% showed interest in the new technology, 44% had no knowledge about it while 4% they were
well versed with the topic.
Steer et al (2016) researchedon Self-piloted cars. The study reported on state of the art key research projects
and large scale testing in the same area and discussed future pathways and potential impacts of increasing
vehicle automation. The main findings of the research were achieved through two major approaches , the
development of automated passenger vehicles over the next few decades is expected to be driven by two
different approaches: evolutionary and revolutionary .The evolutionary approach will probably lead to the
implementation of increasingly automated systems (level 2 to 4) in the short (next 5-10 years) and middle
term (10-20 years); the revolutionary approachis expected to be feasible on a large scale in a farther time
horizon (more than 20 years) as full automation (level 5) requires more advanced technological systems, as
well as greater modification to the current international and national regulatory frameworks.
Milakis (2015) studied the overall impact of automated transport system in Netherlands with the aim of
determining environmental, transport planning, and other issues that may arise if and when automated
vehicles flood the market this will ascertain if the Netherlands Government should imbibe this system in their
long term plan at all. The impact of this system was estimated in Netherlands for the years 2030 and 2050.
According to the study, between 2025 and 2045, automated vehicles will be in commercial market,
conditionally automated system will be in 2030 while fully automated system will be available in 2050.
Unexpected change such as bankruptcy, serious accidents and or strategic priority change may affect major
industry players. It was concluded that by 2025 and 2045 this system will fully be a reality.
Fagnant et al (2015) investigated the use and feasibility of shared automated Vehicle (SAV) with particular
reference to Austin Texas location as a case study, it was said that it would take a long while for automated
vehicles to be in commercial quantity. The investigation involved the examination of potential impact of
shared automated vehicles low level of market infiltration, the study included a fleet of shared automated
vehicles serving travellers in Texas. A simulation model was used and it was found that about nine
conventional vehicles will be replaced by each SAV within 24-mi by 12-mi area with a reasonable level of
service yet maintained.
Brownell, &Kornhauser (2014) in the study pointed out the alarm many activists had raised requesting an end
to cars, some important points were raised in this article enumerating the transit criteria the transportation
system must meet in order to achieve this, among those reasons mentioned are; economic feasibility, safety
comfort and convenience to rival the automobile, improvements over conventional manually operated cars, a
solution to the congestion problem, lesser impact on the environment.
Litman, Todd (2015) investigated the benefits and concerns on automated Vehicles with reference to its
implication on transport planning. In the study, it was concluded that as much as ATS prediction has raised
hopes, it is however good to take caution in predicting the future roles. Many of the benefits predictedor
enumerated by advocates of ATS remain uncertain, concerns about the ability of AVs to function only under
certain conditions were enumerated, economic and technical factors were enumerated and duly considered in
the study as challenges that must be overcome in order to see the efficacy of ATS,new costs and risks were

20

Tiza Michael, Anand Kumar, Shubham Kumar

International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research


IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 3, Issue 12
December 2016

concerns, travel cost and time were not left out. It was concluded that ATS will affect the general system and
thus needs proper and adequate planning.
Schoettle & Sivak, (2014) conducted a public opinion survey on ATS in United kingdom, United States of
America and Australia, the research showed that a good number of the people who responded had heard about
self-driving cars, they had a positive opinion and expectation about the technology, while others expressed
concerns relating to security, and the concern of the technology performing below the conventional vehicles
concern of self-driving cars moving without occupants, they were many who had no will of paying extra for
the technology, females according to the studyexpressed more concerns about the technology. Motorists in all
the three countries surveyed however showed the willingness and desire for self-driving cars.
Daniel & Kara (2015) studied the environmental implications relating to the proposed implementation of
Automatic Vehicle (AVs) in the United States precisely on car sharing, it was stated that many people in USA
already had preferred to rent vehicles for their journeys which are preferably shared, this has led to influx of
many of car hiring businesses. A model was developed to check the impact of this on transportation system,
result showed that shared automatic Vehicles (SAV) could replace up to eleven conventional vehicles, though
the travel time would increase by 10 percent, the overall impacts of emission would be beneficial.
Hevelke & Nida-Rmelin (2015) investigated responsibility forcrashes of automated vehicles, the article
raised serious questions about morality and legal implication in terms of any kind of accident, crash or
collision, it attempts to know who would be held responsible in a case where an accident occurs since the
vehicle will be driverless and occupants would be very less attentive to control and as well lack the ability to
control. Itdiscusses if the manufacturer or the owner of the car be held responsible for any crash. It was
concluded that in a case of the driver as a form of strictliability, the users should be held responsible.
However, if the vehicle crashed as a result of manufacturers mistake like in the case of FordPinto, the
manufacturers could be held responsible.
Noah (2014) worked on finding the several new problems with the automation of road vehicle, with the
introduction of vehicle automation, it is probable that computer-driven vehicles will assess this changing level
of risk while driving, and make decisions as to the allowable risk for itself and other road users. The
automation of road vehicle introduces several new problems, including the need for some type of moral
reasoning, either by engineers when developing crash avoidance strategies, or encoded directly in the
vehicles own path planning and the writer also wrote ethics literature which provides a language for
discussing these problems, and several possible solutions.
Howard & Dai(2014) examined the thoughts of the people of Berkeley on automated Vehicles was desired to
know what was found most attractive and least attractive of the new Technology. According to the cofounder of google, the new technology would be lunched in in the year 2017. While the interviewees thought
ofsafety, parking comforts and multitasking while en- route as major advantages, they thought of the liability,
financial cost of the technology and losing control of the vehicle as a major setback.Figures below gives a
summary of what was obtained from the study.
Lothar et al, (2008) worked on automated guided vehicle systems technology(AGVS), pointed out recent
technological advancements and developments, the results of research done by the department planning and
controlling of warehouse and transport systems (PSLT) was explained , statistical analyses, characteristic
curves and new approaches were discussed. Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS) was said to provide
several benefits to fulfil the task of automation of transportation. According to the research, chinais was in the
process of developing AGVS in their own market.
Varaia et al (2003) worked on the research programme for designing the transportation system that is fit for
21st century. In the research it was indicated how the various design can be adopted to different scenarios in
rural aspects and urban aspects, explanations on how land use model could show the impact of automated
highway system(AHS) on density of urban areas. Where the value of land matters a lot due to congestion, it
was recommended to design an architectural plan having triple capacity with the potency of reducing travel
time and collision operations.

21

Tiza Michael, Anand Kumar, Shubham Kumar

International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research


IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 3, Issue 12
December 2016

Susan et al (2013) worked on the investigation of automated transportation systems (integrated systems) in the
united states with time predicted time frame from 2030 to 2050. the objective of authors research was to
assess risk and to plan for possible futures in which its technologies could be employed to create a more
integrated, advanced, and adaptive transportation system. In this research, an interdisciplinary panel of experts
analysed the impacts of a range of societal and environmental forces that might impact its deployment in the
timeframes of 2030 and 2050.The authors gave a roadmap to guide transportation-related decision making in
the future.
Noah (2014) studied the ethical decision making during automated vehicle crashes. It was concluded that AVs
would certainly almost crash, effectively encoding complex human morals in softwares is not obvious and
there are moral components of an AVs decision that precedes crashes.

Fig. 1. Most Attractive features of ATS

Fig.2 Least Attractive features of ATS

Alessandrini et al (2014) examined thoroughly the requirements in which automated vehicles could operate on
and found that transportation systemshave the best performance with vehicles that are medium sized, the
article defines requirements that are infrastructural related and needed to work safely in automatic vehicles
and transport systems in urban areas. It gives a clarifying definition of the technical vehicular requirements to
perform at its peak.
Bo Wahlberg(2000) worked on research projects regarding optimization of the overall transport efficiency
performance with focus on connected collaborative self-driving vehicles by taking advantage of new
possibilities for efficient communications and computing, accurate position estimation and smart decision
systems.some Challenges such as Scalability(The complexity of automated transport systems of many
heterogeneous vehicles and humans in urban environments is huge),Resilience(When we start to optimize
transport flows, how do we guarantee resilience with be respect to disturbances and failures?), Reliability and
Latency(accurate position information and reliable communication is required),Adaptation and Autonomy and
some industrial challenges .
U.S. Department of Transportation(DOT) (2015) did a research on automated road-vehicle systems and
related technologies that transfers some amount of vehicle control from the driver to the vehicle and enable
smooth and safe introduction of automated features. Work was also done on other connected vehicle
technologies and communications that are enabled by dedicated short range communications(DSRC) and
other networks, such as cellular, Wi-Fi, or satellite and how various technologies and communication media
will interact and operate. A proposal was issued on V2V safety messaging and V2V communications based
on dedicated short range communications(DSRC) technology for adoption and eventual deployment of
connected vehicle systems.

22

Tiza Michael, Anand Kumar, Shubham Kumar

International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research


IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 3, Issue 12
December 2016

Panos et al, (2009) worked on the automation networking system and they did a surveys on the state-of-the-art
approaches, solutions, and technologies across a broad range of projects for vehicular communication systems
capturing qualitatively and quantitatively the technical approaches under development. They also did an
illustration of networking protocols for different systems like vehicular communication(VC), vehicle-tovehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication systems. According to the study, Numerous
technologies had been deployed to assist and manage transportation by describing future outlook on
Intelligent Transportation.
CONCLUSION
The study was intended to develop the gaps that have not yet been bridged in studies relating to Automated
Transportation System and the use of Automated Vehicles. From the result, it was found that there is generally
very minimal literature on this topic. It could be opined that as a result of its complexities and high level
technology and as well precision, researchers may not have found the necessary apparatus to be involved in a
more thorough study. It is particularly seen that Asia, Europe and American (North and South) are the
continents that have topped the list of continents involved automated vehicle while other continents are seen
to be behind the list. Some of the gaps as seen by the authors that needs to be bridged are;
1.
Interaction of automatic vehicle with other vehicles needs to be studied.
2.
Long term liability of these vehicles should be thoroughly studied
3.
Security issues relating to automated vehicles need to investigated.
4.
Minimal research on more environmentally friendly fuel.
5.
Environmental issues and effect on the performance of the vehicles needs thorough studies.
RECOMMENDATIONS.
From the study, it is concluded that the invention, acceptance and use of Automated Vehicles will serve the
people very effectively, however, the obtained. There is no doubt that there are still some grey areas such as
legal implications of who will be held responsible in crashes/accidents. More research should be conducted to
obtain precision on interaction of AVs with other vehicles and the environment,liability of these vehicles,
security issues, more environmentally friendly fuel.
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

Alessandrini, A., Cattivera, A., Holguin, C., &Stam, D. (2014). Citymobil2: Challenges and Opportunities of Fully
Automated Mobility. Road Vehicle Automation, 169-184. Doi:10.1007/978-3-319-05990-7_15
Alessandrini, A., Campagna, A., Site, P. D., Filippi, F., & Persia, L. (2015). Automated Vehicles and the Rethinking
of Mobility and Cities. Transportation Research Procedia, 5, 145-160. Doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2015.01.002
Booz Allen Hamilton.( 2015). History of intelligent transportation systemsu.s.Department of Transportation
Intelligent
Transportation
Systems
Joint
Program
Office,(
16329),
56.Retrived
from
http://www.its.dot.gov/index.htm
Bo Wahlberg. (2000). Automated Transport Systems (ATS). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, 5, 3.
Brownell, C., &Kornhauser, A. (2014). A Driverless Alternative. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the
Transportation Research Board, 2416, 73-81. Doi:10.3141/2416-09
Daniel J. Fagnanta, & Kara Kockelman. (2015). Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers
and policy recommendations. ELSEVIER , Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77, 167181.
Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965856415000804.
Daniel J. Fagnanta, & Kara Kockelman. (2014). The travel and environmental implications of shared autonomous
vehicles, using agent-based model scenarios. . ELSEVIER Transportation Research Part C 40. 113 .
Dimitris Milakis, Bart van Arem, & Bert van Wee. (2015). The ripple effect of automated driving. BIVEC-GIBET
Transport Research Day.
Fagnant, D. J., Kockelman, K. M., & Bansal, P. (2015). Operations of Shared Autonomous Vehicle Fleet for Austin,
Texas, Market. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2536, 98-106.
Doi:10.3141/2536-12

23

Tiza Michael, Anand Kumar, Shubham Kumar

International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research


IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 3, Issue 12
December 2016
10. Hevelke, A., & Nida-Rmelin, J. (2014). Responsibility for Crashes of Autonomous Vehicles: An Ethical
Analysis. Science and Engineering Ethics, 21(3), 619-630. Doi:10.1007/s11948-014-9565-5
11. Howard Daniel, & Dai Danielle. (2014). Public Perceptions of Self-driving Cars: 2 The Case of Berkeley,
California. University of California, Berkeley Department of City and Regional Planning 6 Master of City
Planning, MS Transportation Engineering.
12. Litman, Todd (2015). Autonomous vehicle implementation predictions: Implications for transport planning.
Retrieved
from
http://slidepapers.in/wpcontent/uploads/2016/03/Autonomous-Predictions-VehicleImplementations.pdf
13. Lothar Schulze, Sebastian Behling, and Stefan Buhrs. (2008). Automated Guided Vehicle Systems: a Driver for
Increased Business Performance. Proceedings of the International multiconferenceof Engineers and Computer
Scientists ,2, 6.
14. Milakis, D., Snelder, M., van Arem, B., van Wee, B., Correia, G., 2015. Development of automated vehicles in the
Netherlands: scenarios for 2030 and 2050. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.
15. Noah Goodall (2014) Ethical Decision Making During Automated Vehicle Crashes. Transportation Research
Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board , 2424 .DOI: 10.3141/2424-07
16. Noah J. Goodall. (2014). Vehicle Automation and the Duty to Act. Presented at the 21st World Congress on
Intelligent Transport Systems. Detroit, MI, September, 2014. Preprint copy, formatted for Web , 1(563), 8. Retrieved
from http://people.virginia.edu/~njg2q/dutytoact.pdf
17. PanosPapadimitratos, EPFL Arnaud de La Fortelle, Mines paristechKnut Evenssen, Q-Free ASA Roberto Brignolo
and Stefano Cosenza, Centro Ricerche FIAT. (2009). Vehicular Communication Systems: Enabling Technologies,
Applications, and Future Outlook on Intelligent Transportation. AUTOMOTIVE NETWORKING, 4, 10.
6. Rita Cyganski,, Eva Fraedrich, & Barbara Lenz. (2014). Travel-time valuation for automated driving: a use-case- 2
driven
study (15-4259).
Retrieved
from
TRB
94th
27
Annual
Meeting
website:
http://elib.dlr.de/95260/1/TRB2015_CYGANSKI_FRAEDRICH_LENZ_15-4259.pdf
18. Schoettle, B., &Sivak, M. (2014). A survey of public opinion about connected vehicles in the U.S., the U.K., and
Australia. 2014
International
Conference
on
Connected
Vehicles
and
Expo
(ICCVE).
Doi:10.1109/iccve.2014.7297637
19. Steer Davies Gleave: Roberta Frisoni, Andrea DallOglio, Craig Nelson, James Long, Christoph Vollath,
DavideRanghetti, Sarah mcminimy. (2016). Research for TRAN Committee Self-piloted cars: The future of road
transport? Directorate-General For Internal Policies Policy Department B: Structural And Cohesion
Policies, 5(9789282390559), 9. Retrieved from poldep-cohesion@europarl.europa.eu
20. Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D.; Madonna L. Camel; and Kunik Lee, Ph.D. (2013). Exploring the Future of Integrated
Transportation Systems in the United States from 2030 To 2050: Application Of A Scenario Planning Tool. TRB
Annual Meeting, 56(567), 8. Retrieved from http://innovativemobility.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Exploringthe-Future-of-Intelligent-Transportation-Systems-in-the-United-States-from-2030-to-2050_Application-of-aScenario-Planning-Tool_1.pdf

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

TIZA MICHAEL
(B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE, S.M. NSE).
He obtained B.Engr. (Civil Engineering) from Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi Nigeria, MBA
(Construction Management) in India and Bachelor of Biblical Studies (BBS) from Canada; He is currently
pursuing M. Tech (Transportation Engineering) from Career Point University Kota India. He has published
many articles in accredited and recognised journals of national and international repute. He has presented his
research in multiple International conferences. He is a member of different professional bodies across the
globe.
Please click the link below to follow his research works https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tiza_Toryila

24

Tiza Michael, Anand Kumar, Shubham Kumar

International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research


IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 3, Issue 12
December 2016

ANAND KUMAR is a B. Tech student from Career Point University Kota, India. He has published in Journal
of International repute and has presented in an International conference
Please click the link below to follow his research works
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anand_Kumar204

SHUBHAM KUMAR is a B. Tech student from Career Point University Kota, India.
Please click the link below to follow his research works https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Avinash_Patel10

25

Tiza Michael, Anand Kumar, Shubham Kumar