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Runninghead:ANNOTATEDBIBLIOGRAPHY

AnnotatedBibliography:RecruitmentinHigherEducation
AlexaBenzinger
104212741
UniversityofWindsor

ANNOTATEDBIBLIOGRAPHY

Thisbibliographyisintendedtoprovideinsightintotheliteraturesurroundingthe
recruitmentofstudentsintohighereducationinstitutions.

References
Bejou,D.,&Bejou,A.(2012,October).Sharedgovernanceandpunctuatedequilibriumin
highereducation:Thecaseforstudentrecruitment,retention,andgraduation.Journalof
RelationshipMarketing,11(4),248258.doi:10.1080/15332667.2012.736072
Thisarticleopensbyaddressingtheneedforrecruitmentstrategiesandpromotesthe
seller,buyer,andsalesmodel.Theauthorsclaimthatinstitutionsfacecompetitive
pressuretorecruitthebeststudentsfortheirorganizationsandidentifychallenges
institutionsfaceonthewaytothisgoal.Thisislookedatthroughtheconceptsof
punctuatedequilibriumandsharedgovernance.Theauthorsstatethatitistheservicearea
ofuniversitiesthataretoblameforpoorrecruitment,andtosolvethis,institutionsshould
adoptacustomerrelationshipmodel,whichcontainsfourphasesadaptableto
universities.Thisisoutlinedinthearticlebothtextuallyandvisually,andsuccessful
examplesarenoted.
Firstly,thisarticleisvaluableinthatitgivesanactual,stepbystepapproachtosolving
issuesofrecruitmentandnotsimplyabstractprinciples.Thisclearstepbystepmodel
caneasilybeimplementedatanyinstitution,includingtheUniversityofWindsor.
Explanationsaregivenforeachsection,aswellasthereasoningbehindeachone,which

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allowsforaninformedapplication.Ithaspreviouslybeenimplementedwithsome
successintheareaofstudentrecruitment,butalsoenrolmentmanagement,retention,and
graduation.Indevelopingarecruitmentstrategyforaninstitutionofhighereducation,
thiswillbeanextremelyhelpfulstartingpoint.Somestrongpointsofthisarticlearethat
thestrategyitoutlinesisclearandconcise,anditisamenabletoalmostanyinstitution.It
alsogoesbeyondrecruitmentandtouchesonretention(phasestwothroughfour),akey
aspectthatcanoftenbeleftoutofrecruitmentstrategies,butisessentialtokeeping
enrolmentnumbershigh.Thearticlealsoactivelyidentifiesthefactorsthatcontributedto
thismodelssuccess(applicationofsharedgovernanceandworkingcollaborativelywith
multipledepartments).However,someweaknessesarethatitdoesnothavemuch
evidencetobackitup;itseemstomostlybeatheory,withonlyafewexamplesof
institutionsactuallyimplementingit,andtheseinstancesarenotdiscussedatanylength.
Thereareonlyfourreferencesusedinthisarticle;makingcleartothereaderexactlywhat
evidencethisapproachisbasedonanddiscussingthisinsomemoredepthcould
strengthenit.Inconclusion,thisarticleseemstobeadecentsource.Itcontainsa
concrete,implementablestrategy,butonemightwanttofindsomeadditional,well
documentedstudiesregardingplacesandtheirexperiencewiththisstrategy.
Fagerstrm,A.,&Ghinea,G.(2013).Cocreationofvalueinhighereducation:Usingsocial
networkmarketingintherecruitmentofstudents.JournalofHigherEducationPolicy
andManagement,35(1),4553.doi:10.1080/1360080x.2013.748524

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ThisarticleoutlinesastudyconductedinNorwayregardingtheuseofFacebookgroups
asarecruitmentstrategy.Itviewsmarketingasarecruitmentstrategyasdynamic;
customers(students)areactiveandtheycocreateexperiencesincollaborationwiththe
organization.Itidentifiessocialmediaasakeywaytohelpfacilitatethisconversation.
Thegoalofthestudywastoincreaseconversionratesanditattemptedtodosoby
examiningthedifferenceinenrolmentratesbetweenpotentialundergraduateswhowere
apartofanonlineFacebookgroupwheretheyhaddirectinteractionswithacontact
person(fromtheuniversity)andthosewhowerenot.Theyfoundasignificantincreasein
theconversionrateforthosewhowereapartoftheFacebookgroups.
Thisarticleisextremelyvaluableinthatitaddressestheuseofsocialmediaasa
recruitmentstrategy,somethingthatisexceedinglyimportantinsocietytoday.Itgivesa
specificstrategythatistestedinacontrolledexperiment,whichisusefultoinstitutions
thatmaydecidetoemploythisintheirplans.Especiallyconsideringhowfrequently
socialmediaisused,andhoweffectiveitcanbeatreachingthetargetaudienceof
institutionsofhighereducation,havingaclearstrategywithevidencesupportingitgives
thosewhoaredevelopingrecruitmentstrategiesaspecific,effectivewaytousethis
platform,asopposedtoblindusage.Thetheoryofcocreationofvalueisvaluablein
thatitcanbeappliedtorecruitmentplansoutsideofthestrategyputforthinthearticle.
TheideaofcreatingFacebookpagescaneasilybeaddedtoexistingrecruitmentplans,or
canbedevelopedandexpandedonitsown.Oneadvantageofthisworkisthatitstartsoff
withatheoreticalbaseandthendescribesaspecificstudyandstrategytosupportthis.In
regardstothefindings,anotherstrengthisthattheeffectsizeisquitelarge,reducingthe

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probabilitythatthisresultwasduetochance.Thiseffectiveness,combinedwiththe
theoreticalbaseandspecificapplicationofthestrategymakesitclearhowandwhy
decisionsweremade.However,amajordisadvantageofthisstudyisthatitonly
examinedoneuniversitylocatedinNorway,andtheprogramsincludedinthestudywere
allcomputersciencebased.Overall,thiswasaninterestingstudyanditprovidedasound
theoryonmarketing/recruitment,butmoreresearchneedstobedoneonhowtoapply
thistodifferentpopulations.
Han,P.(2014,December).Aliteraturereviewoncollegechoiceandmarketingstrategiesfor
recruitment.FamilyandConsumerSciencesResearchJournal,43(2),120130.
doi:10.1111/fcsr.12091
Thisarticlestatesthatrecruitmentofficialsmustunderstandthequalitiesofpotential
students,howbesttoreachthem,andwhatthesestudentsarelookingforintheirfuture
school.Someimportantstudentcharacteristicsidentifiedinthearticleincludefamily
income,parentaleducationlevel,andacademicaspirations/expectations.Important
institutionalcharacteristicsincludelocation,tuition,financialaid,scholarships,distance
fromhome,collegerankings,andreputation.Theauthorsadvocateforrecruitmentthat
involvesmarketsegmentationandcommunicationmediums(websites,videos,social
media,etc.)andpractices(linkingsitestogether,frequentupdates,etc.)thatare
accessibletoMillennials.Initsessence,thearticlemakesthecasefortwogeneral
categoriesthatshouldinformrecruitmentpractices:characteristicsthatfactorintostudent
choicesandbestpracticesformarketing.

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Thisarticleisvaluableinthatitisacomprehensiveliteraturereviewthatsynthesizes
manydifferentviewpointsintoacompilationofknowledge.Itgivesanexcellent
overviewofimportantdecisionmakingcharacteristicsandmarketingcharacteristics
(bothequallyrelevant),andthewaythatitaddresseshowtotargetaspecificgeneration
isextremelyvaluabletothedevelopmentofcurrentrecruitmentstrategies.Anessential
partofdevelopingastrategyisbeingawareofyourtargetaudience.Developingeffective
strategiesforspecificmarketsisnotanareaofrecruitmentthatcanbeignored,and
havingresourcesthataddressthisisextremelyhelpfulincreatingaplanofonesown.
Somestrengthsofthisarticlearethatisitadaptabletoanyinstitution,duetothefactthat
manydifferentstudiesandarticlesareincluded,itisnotlimitedtoasmallsample,andit
containsacombinationofcurrentandpastresearch.Itidentifiesalargeamountof
importantfactorsthathavebeenshowntoplayaroleinstudentrecruitmentthroughout
theliterature.However,becauseitisaliteraturereview,asacollectiveitmaybe
valuable,butitdoesnotexploreeachindividualsourceindepth(butthiswouldbe
possiblethroughaccessingtheworksreferencedinthepaper),andsomepotentially
valuableinformationmayhavebeenexcludedfromthiswork.Thisreviewalsodoesnot
getveryspecificintermsofanimplementableapproach,butratherfocuseson
characteristics.Overall,thisisagreatoverviewtotheliteratureavailableonthistopic,
andtheprinciplesputforthcanbecalleduponwhendevelopingaspecificstrategy.
Hayes,T.J.,Ruschman,D.,&Walker,M.M.(2009,December).Socialnetworkingasan

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admissiontool:Acasestudyinsuccess.JournalofMarketingforHigherEducation,
19(2),109124.doi:10.1080/08841240903423042
Thisarticletargetssocialnetworkingwherepeoplehavetheabilitytointeractwithone
anotherandemphasizestheimportanceofsettingupcontacts.Itexplorestheimportance
andrelevanceofsocialmediaandpresentsfouroptionsofhowtoproceedwithsocial
mediatouniversities.Theoptionitexploresinmostdepthiscreatingcustomizedsocial
networkingsystemsthatinstitutionscanusetoengagewithstudentsondifferentlevels
(suchassurveys,sendinginformation,emailalerts,mentoring,etc.).Itgivestheexample
ofoneuniversitywhodidsowithapparentsuccess;itsavedmoney,wonawards,and
showedacorrelationbetweenthosewhologgedontothesiteandthosewhoenrolled.The
studyalsoaddressessomeissueswithplatformslikethis,suchasprivacy,authenticity,
compromisedstrategy,andreachingthetargetaudience.
Thevalueofthisarticlelaysinthefactthatisgivescontextforthestrategiesitproposes,
andthenbackstheseupwithsupportingexamples.Itisespeciallyapplicabletothe
UniversityofWindsor,astheyhavealreadydevelopedamobileapplicationthatcouldbe
expandedupontocreateamoreinteractiveexperience.Theinformationcontainedinthe
articlewouldbeveryhelpfultorefertointhecreationofarecruitmentplancentredonor
includinguniversityspecificsocialmedianetworks.Thearticleprovidesanexcellent
startingpointforinstitutionssuchastheUniversityofWindsorwhodesiretoimplement
asimilarorthesamestrategyasexploredinthearticle.Afewstrongpointsofthiswork
arethatitdoesaddresspossibleissueswiththestrategy.Doingthishelpsthosewhoare

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consideringfollowingthisplanknowwhattoworktoavoidinordertomitigatepotential
risksorharms.Thearticlealsogivesbothprincipleandapplication,allowingfor
educateddecisionsgroundedintheorytobemade.However,someweaknessesinclude
thatitonlyincludedoneuniversitysplatform;itwouldhavebeenbeneficialtoinclude
multiple.Overall,thisarticlewasagoodresourceandgavethereaderdifferentprosand
constoconsiderwhilegivinguniversitiesfourdifferentwaystomoveforwardwiththeir
socialmediarecruitmentstrategy.
Hossler,D.(1999,December).Effectiveadmissionsrecruitment.NewDirectionsforHigher
Education,1999(108),1530.doi:10.1002/he.10802
Thisauthortakesanappliedsocialscienceapproachtorecruitment,basedonresearch
andstrongmarketing.Theyadvocatedforsegmentingaudiencesandtargetingbasedon
thatsegmentation.Theyoutlinedthestagesofrecruitment(firstisdevelopingan
applicantpool,secondisconvertingthepool)andidentifiedthefactorsthatshouldguide
recruitment,suchasfinancialconsiderations,personalization,andtiming.Finally,itwas
emphasizedthatrecruitmentstrategiesneedtobedatadriven.Newdevelopmentsinthe
fieldarediscussed,liketechnology,telemarketing,offcampusrecruitment,and
integratedefforts.Aspecificexampleofaninstitutionpromotingfinancialaidto
potentialstudentsisgiven,withtheworkinghypothesisofthishavingapositiveeffecton
enrolment.Finallythearticleconcludesbystatingthatthesethingscanbehardto
measure,butthrougheffortsomeinformationcanbegained.

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Thisarticleisvaluablebecauseitgivesaspecifictimelinebasedondatathatstateswhen
itisbesttoreachouttopotentialrecruits;thiswillbeparticularlyhelpfulwhencreatinga
customizedrecruitmentstrategy.Havingatimelineisvital.Acomprehensivestrategy
needstonotonlyincludewhatcourseofactionisbeingtaken,howitisbeing
implemented,butalsowhenthesestepsshouldbetaken.Timingcanmakethedifference
betweenaneffectivestrategyandanineffectiveone.Thisarticlealsogivesaspecificlist
offactorscorrelatedwithincreasedlikelihoodtoenrol,whichcanbeextremelyvaluable
whenstrategydevelopersaredecidingwhattomarketaboutaspecificinstitution.With
thisinformation,institutionscandeterminewhataspectsoftheirorganizationaremost
marketable.Onestrongpointofthisarticleisthatitisheavilydatabasedandpromotes
theadoptionofstrategiesthataregroundedinresearch.Italsogivesspecificsaboutwhat
itisdiscussing(aspecifictimeline,specificrelevantfactors,andmore).However,itis
notthemostcurrentarticle(roughlysevenyearsold),andsomeoftheitemsdiscussed
areundoubtedlyverydated,suchasthepassageonCDROMS.Overall,thisisavery
usefulresourceifcorroboratedwithnewermaterial,particularlynewermaterial
surroundingtechnology,andoffersvaluableinsightsintospecificrecruitmentdecision
makingfactors.
Rutter,R.,Roper,S.,&Lettice,F.(2016,August).Socialmediainteraction,theuniversitybrand
andrecruitmentperformance.JournalofBusinessResearch,69(8),30963104.
doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.025

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Thisarticlealsocharacterizesstudentsascustomersandtheriseofuniversitiesas
commercialbrands,andemphasizestheimportanceofthisbranding.Thestudyproposed
anumberofhypothesesregardingtheeffectivenessofTwitterandFacebookonstudent
recruitment,especiallyinregardstodirectuserinteractionandtypeofcontent.The
authorsanalyzeddatafromthesocialmediafeedsofuniversitiesandranstatisticaltests
toarriveattheirconclusions,thatqualityofsocialmediainteractionscanhaveapositive
effectonstudentrecruitment.Specifically,itwasfoundthatincreasingnumbersof
followersanduserinteractionswasmorepredictivethanlinkinguserstoexternal
websites,andthatqualityismorevaluablethanquantity.Finally,theauthorsarguethat
proactivesocialmediatechniquesareneeded,asissynergybetweenplatforms.
Asmentionedpreviously,welldesignedstudiesonsocialmediastrategiesarehugely
valuabletothedevelopmentofrecruitmentstrategiestoday,asthosewhocanutilize
thesemediaproperlyareatahugeadvantageoverotherinstitutionswhoeitherdonotuse
thistypeofmedium,orwhoareusingitincorrectly.Thefocusoncreatingandmarketing
abrandisnotpresentinmanyotherarticlesincludedinthisbibliography,butitis
valuableinthatitacrucialpartofeveryuniversity.Thisisparticularlyrelevantto
developingarecruitmentstrategyfortheUniversityofWindsor,asthisattitudeof
brandingisalreadypresenthere(thiscanbeseenwiththenewPromisesloganand
Universitylogo).Furthertothis,duetothisrecentrebrandingoftheUniversity,the
socialmediaaspectofthisisespeciallyrelevant.Thisarticleisveryrecent,makingit
extremelyapplicabletothecurrentrecruitmentenvironmentanditisrelevantand
applicableforthemostrecenttechnology.Itisalsobasedindataandisexperimental;it

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goesstepbystepthroughtheresearch.Unfortunately,itdoeshaveasmallerscope,andis
onlybasedintheUnitedKingdom,whichcouldposeaproblemduetothepotential
culturaldifference.Finally,italsodoesnotgomuchintothespecificcontentuniversities
shouldpostontheirsocialmedia,whichwouldbehelpfultoknow,ascontentis
undoubtedlyrelevant.Inconclusion,thisisahelpfulresourcethatisspecifictosocial
mediaandapplicabletocurrenttechnology,however,thescopeisnarrowandpotential
culturalissuesmayarise.