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Reactive Power Compensation using PSO controlled

UPFC in a Microgrid with a DFIG based WECS


ShibaRanjanPaitala, Sandipan Patrab,Anup K SinghC, AsitMohantl, Prakash K Ray"
alllT Bhubaneswar, bNIT Rourkela, cNIT Allahabad, dCET Bhubaneswar

Abstract-This

article

represents

the

reactive

power

compensation issue with the help of FACTS controller and


transient stability analysis in a Wind-Diesel hybrid power system.
DFIG is widely used due to its simplicity and high efficiency in
wind energy generation system. Back to back converters are
employed in DFIG based Wind Energy Conversion System
(WECS) with proper active and reactive power control strategy.

Mathematical model of the proposed hybrid system with Unified


Power Flow (UPFC) controller is developed to compensate the
reactive power in the proposed system. The mathematical model
of UPFC is employed for transient stability analysis of hybrid

system with incorporation IEEE type I excitation system. The


analysis of the proposed system is performed with varying

loading conditions. A comparison based on simulation is then


performed between PI controlled UPFC and PSO controlled
UPFC.
Keywords-Hybrid System; Synchronous Generator; Induction
Generator;

UPFC;

Reactive

Power

Compensation;

Stability

analysis.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Distributed generation (DG) has become an important energy


option due to utility restructuring, improving technology,
public environmental concerns, and an expanding electricity
demand as the availability of fuel is decreasing and its price is
increasing at an alarming rate. In the recent years a number of
changes have been observed in electrical power networks
which leads to the increasing share of distributed energy
sources in total energy production. But undesirable variation
of wind speed and solar radiation make them unreliable for
power supply. Therefore, these resources can be integrated
along with conventional generation and storage systems to
form hybrid system improved performances. The uncertainty
in wind speed and solar radiations make wind and PV power
generation unreliable and on the other hand, create PQ
problems. To overcome all the issues the renewable energy
sources may be integrated along with the conventional power
generating resources to formulate hybrid system (HS) for
increasing quality and reliability of power supply [I].
Generally wind energy is integrated with diesel generator to
form a HS for providing power in standalone cases. Diesel
generator uses synchronous generator and DFIG is used as a
wind turbine for better performance [2-4].
Studied have been done [5-6] using capacitor bank for voltage
stability improvement and reactive power compensation. Due
to intermittent nature of renewable energy sources and the
variable load lead the power system to an uncertain condition
and in that case reactive power requirement is not fulfilled by
the fixed capacitor bank. This reactive power mismatch
control can be solved by using the FACTS devices. The

978-1-4673-6540-6/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE

FACTS devices not only compensate the reactive power but it


also improves the system stability [7-13].
The FACTS controllers are comprising of a PID, which is
tuned conventionally in Zigeler and Nichols [14] and simplex
method [IS] methods. In these methods it is very difficult to
find out the optimal parameter values of PID in such a
complex system. So some intelligent and optimal PID tuning
approaches has been adopted like genetic algorithm (GA) [16]
and particle swarm optimization [17]. Recently GA is
implemented widely for PID tuning but it is unable to handle
lots of data in a complex system [18], so in this case it is not
efficient. Also the efficiency and accuracy again decreases in
case of highly correlated parameters [19].
The performance of PID controller is important for reactive
power control through UPFC. PID parameters should be tuned
robustly and in optimized manner. To achieve this goal
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted with
PID controller in UPFC.
The novelty of this work is to design a PSO based UPFC to
compensate the reactive power in this proposed WECS
system. The comparison of transient stability for each
measuring parameter with incorporation of FACTS device is
analyzed. The main objective of this paper is to study the
performance of UPFC under different uncertain parameters
and to design a PID-PSO Controller which meets the
requirement of robust design and the design specification is
satisfied over the entire parameter set.
IT. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND MATHEMATICAL
MODELLING OF HYBRID POWER SYSTEM
A standalone wind-diesel hybrid power system is proposed
for solving the reactive power compensation issue with
incorporation of UPFC controller. DFIG is used in wind
turbine where synchronous generator with IEEE type I
excitation system is used as diesel generator. The UPFC
controls the reactive power of the system as well as improve
the stability of the system.
Transfer function model of the proposed DFIG based Wind
turbine and synchronous generator with IEEE type I
excitation system based hybrid power system is shown in the
Fig. I. Due to the variation of loads and wind speed, reactive
power is mismatched and the system stability is affected. Step
change in load and random change in wind speed is
considered for various case studies. System frequency depends
upon the small change in real power while voltage variation
cause the incremental change in reactive power.

The synchronous generator equation is given by


_

QSG -

(E Ycos8- y2 )
X'd

(Transient) (3)

For small change the same equation is written as


_

QSG -

ycos8
X'dE'q

E'qcos8-2Y
X'dY

Taking the Laplace Equation

Where

K a

Ka

and

Ycos8
X'd

Kh

(4)

we get the relation

are
_

E'qcos8-2Y

and K b - --=------

X'd

B. EXCITER MODEL
Fig. I. Transfer function of DFTG based wind-diesel hybrid system with
FACTS controllers

In the proposed hybrid system reactive power can be


balanced

QSG =Reactive power of synchronous generator;

Field voltage and current of synchronous machine is


controlled with incorporation of TEEE type 1 excitation system
to provide direct current. Fig. 2 represents the IEEE excitation
system of the proposed system. In transfer function
representation time constant (TR) is a delay to the voltage
transductor. Next the transductor output voltage is compared
with the reference voltage. Immediately after that the error
voltage is summed with the damping signal of the excitation
system through an amplifier.
Samra/ion

QCOM = Reactive power of FACTS devices;


QL =Reactive power of the load;
QDFlG = Reactive power of DFIG.

With a very small change in load in the system, the reactive


power balance equation can be written as

When the system experiences a change of load /l,.Qr. the other


parameters also experience change in reactive power.
(2)

QSG +QCOM -(QL +QDFIG)


= surplus

reactive power of the system

Fig. 2.

Excitation System I

C. DO UBLY FED IND UCTION GENERATOR (DFlG)

An

AC/DC/AC converter is used in DFIG for power flow


between rotor and grid side. Conventional vector control is
applied for power flow control.
WTCT

m. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF

DIESEL GENERATOR
(SG), DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR (DFIG),
UPFC CONTROLLER:

A. DIESEL GENERATOR (SG) :

In the proposed wind-diesel standalone hybrid power


system, diesel generator generally use synchronous generator,
which is alternative to the grid power. Due to the nature of
synchronous generator, it provides reactive power to the
system. The mathematical modeling of the SG can be
represented as

Fig. 3.

Simplified DFTG single line diagram

Fig. 3 shows the single line diagram of a DFIG. DC link


voltage is constant by the supply side converter inspite of any
direction of rotor power flow. Induction machine operate in
synchronous rotating frame based on the vector position of
stator flux. Rotor side converter controls Idr and Iqr and achieve
the control over active power and reactive power. In case of
high load demand synchronous generator working as a DG set
provides the necessary active and reactive power. The reactive
power generated by the DFIG can be computerized by the
following equation-

DFIG = L m

ss

Vl
I dr

ss

positive or negative real power. As per the characteristics of


UPFC both shunt and series impedances are reactance in
nature where Psh and QSh represents the shunt type voltage
sources and Pi, Qi, Pj and Qj are series type voltage sources.
The injected power which is not constant in nature are taken
with modification, also dependent on injected voltage and bus
voltage. The injected reactive power by UPFC can be derived
as

dQj

dQj d8

dt

d8 dt

----

dVm2p

The reactive power equation by the DFIG can be written as

QUPFC =Kj 8(S)


Xs

and

dt

(11)

It is observed that the injected reactive power depends


upon Vm2p and angle 8 which is proportional to the terminal
voltage of UPFC.

(6)

dQj dVm2p

----

K =
L
e

dr

ss

KkYeS)

(12)

Is

2V
1
wL
s ss

The reference current by the PI controller in the output


voltage loop is

=(Kp +

-f ) [V ref (S)-YeS) ]

(8)

The proposed system can be designed as a second order


system with same settling time. The inner loop equation can
be represented by-

dr =

=[M

1
t

(9)

r f
(1+s)I e
dr
4

T
ref
"M ,V,E"'d 'V ,V ,E ]
q (10)
"
a
dr
dr
f
I

[ ]
W= [ QL J

g= Vr f
e

The transfer function equation of the proposed system is

x=Ax+Bu+Cw

In the above equation x, u, w are state variables, control


variable and disturbance vectors of the hybrid system.
D. UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER (UPFC)

Figure 4 shows a simplified structure of a UPFC controller


where two voltage source converters are connected through a
common DC link capacitor. The converters can control active
and reactive power by generating or absorb in both direction
of the AC terminals. The main function of UPFC is provided
through VSCI by injecting an ac voltage, which can be
considered as a synchronous voltage source at the power
frequency. In the ac terminal the real power exchanged is done
by the VSC2 into dc power which appears at the dc link as

Fig. 4.

Block diagram ofUPFC controller

E. DESIGN OF PSO-BASED UPFC CONTROLLER:

The key idea of PSO was proposed by Kennedy and Eberhaut


in 1995 and also modified in 1997, depends upon the bird
flocking practice. This evolutionary algorithm is almost
similar to the how birds collect food from a particular place.
By abstracting every bird as a particle, this evolutionary
algorithm is named by particle swarm optimization. PSO
canhandle lots of data with simplicity and find the optimized
solution quickly.
Due to high efficiency and effectiveness PSO is popular
for optimize the values of PI controller in recent years. In
order to find the optimized values each particle in PSO
changes its present position to a new position with respect to
the new velocity, distance to pbest, previous positions and the
distance to gbest in that particular problem. After that particle's
velocity with its new position are updated as per the following
d
d
V; (t+ 1) = W(t)V; (t)+ OX fiX (pbest - x (t))
(13)
+C2X r2 X (gbest - x (t))
gbest f = x f (t+I)+Vd
(14)
; (t + 1)
Wet) = rand X

t max

(Wmax-Wmin)+Wmin

(15)

Where V;d (t) is the ith particle in the dth dimension at


iterationt, x f (t) is the current position of particle, CI and C2
are acceleration coefficients, rl and r2 represents random
numbers within [0, I]. Inertia weight function determined by
(IS), in which Wmax and Wmin are the maximum and minimum
range of it.

A typical PSO algorithm can be summarized as follows


[20]:
Step 1: Define the number of particles, and initialize their
initial speeds and positions.
Step 2: Evaluate the fitness of each particle.
Step 3: For each particle, compare the above calculated
fitness with its present best fitness. If the former is better, then
update its present best fitness by the former, and update its
best position by present position.
Step 4: For each particle, compare its fitness with the
swarm's global best fitness. If the former is better, then update
global best fitness by the former, and update global best
position by the being compared particle's best position.
Step 5: Update each particle's position and speed
according to the equations (13), (14) and (IS).
Step 6: Repeat from step 2 until termination conditions are
fulfilled.
In this paper, the PSO is used to determine the optimum PI
controller parameters.
IV. SIMULAnON AND RESULTS
The proposed hybrid power system is analyzed for reactive
power control with incorporation of UPFC controller
considering the random variation of wind speed and 2% step
increase of load. All the system parameter are provided in
Table IT in the appendix section.
A.

Time Domain Analysis:

Comparative analysis of the transient response has been


studied for the proposed system. Transient response of DFIG
based UPFC controlled by PI and PS-PI are shown in Figure
Sea-d). In case of PSO base UPFC system the overshoot and
settling time of oscillation of terminal bus voltage (DeIV)
decreases. Change in reactive power of Eq, DFIG, SG, UPFC
and Firing angle follow the trend of DeIV. The system
parameters response are clearly reflects the superiority of PSO
controlled UPFC controller in terms of Peak overshoot and
settling tome over other system.
0.01 ,------,

(5;

1'1

1---UPFCwith
-- UPFC

O 1\W
;I\MI'r
' -----t 0 0.5
a 1

"i3
o -0.01

I ,

I'

,---------1
- UPFC \";th PI
-- UPFC \";th pso
0.2
OA
Time(sec)

1--

0.05 "1--------,

(a)

>

Quantitative Analysis:

DFIG based standalone wind diesel hybrid power system


is quite capable to control the reactive power with
incorporation of UPFC controller. With random speed
variation and 2% step increase of load, PSO determined the PI
controller optimal value of UPFC as shown in Table 1. The
transient responses of the proposed system shows the better
performances with incorporation of PSO controller.
TABLE L

0.2

Time(sec)

-0.1

1--

- UPFC with PI

--UPFC with PSO


-0.1 5 "-----"-__"----'----'----'-'-1
0.2
o
OA
Time(sec)

(c)

0.1

TABLE IT.

PARAMETERS OF WIND DIESEL SYSTEM

System Parameter

Wind Diesel System

Wind Capacity

2MVA
2MVA
2MVA
2MVA

Base Power
,

Xd

0.29 pu

T
e

055

Kf

05

Ka

40

Induction
Generator(DFIG)
Lss
3.07pu
0.125pu
QDFlG
LOAD
H,
0.62 sec

pfSG

OJ

(d)

5 442
7890

Synchronous Generator

PI

Fig. 5. (a-d) Transient Responses of Wind Diesel System with 2% step


increase of load with constant slip)

31
45

Diesel Capacity

OA

0.2

5637
7800

ApPENDIX

UPFC with PSO

Time(sec)

Ki

32
48

Reactive Power Compensation of standalone DFIG based


Wind-Diesel hybrid system has been discussed with the
incorporation of UPFC Controller. The proposed Wind- Diesel
hybrid system is also analysed with PSO based UPFC
Controller. With the addition of PSO to the proposed systems
robustness and reliability have been improved. The Reactive
Power mismatch and Voltage stability Issues have been rightly
addressed by the incorporation of F ACTS devices particularly
the UPFC. From the simulation, the superiority and robustness
of UPFC Controller has been proved .. During Simulation it is
observed that the settling time and peak overshoots of PSO
based UPFC are better than the other method.

- - - UPFC with PI

Kp

V. CONCLUSION

-0.1

SLIP
Ki

DFIG +UPFC(PI)

0.05 r:------,

VARIABLE

Kp
DFIG +UPFC(PSO)

_0.051
8

CONSTANT SLIP

SYSTEM

with PSO

Ii P'

OPTIMUM GAIN SETIING OF HYBRID POWER SYS TEM FOR


DIFFERENT CONTROLLERS

WIND DlESEL

iIIN
! --

-0.50

(b)

B.

0.95

Xd

8 (degree)
T
T

do
PTM
N VA
Lm
Id,

QL(PU)
Ts

Vref

1.56 pu

27.8
0.05
4.49

sec
1.67
2.9pu
0.4pu
0.2 pu
0.08
sec
1 pu

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