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ShibaRanjanPaitala, Sandipan Patrab,Anup K SinghC, AsitMohantl, Prakash K Ray"

alllT Bhubaneswar, bNIT Rourkela, cNIT Allahabad, dCET Bhubaneswar

Abstract-This

article

represents

the

reactive

power

transient stability analysis in a Wind-Diesel hybrid power system.

DFIG is widely used due to its simplicity and high efficiency in

wind energy generation system. Back to back converters are

employed in DFIG based Wind Energy Conversion System

(WECS) with proper active and reactive power control strategy.

Power Flow (UPFC) controller is developed to compensate the

reactive power in the proposed system. The mathematical model

of UPFC is employed for transient stability analysis of hybrid

analysis of the proposed system is performed with varying

performed between PI controlled UPFC and PSO controlled

UPFC.

Keywords-Hybrid System; Synchronous Generator; Induction

Generator;

UPFC;

Reactive

Power

Compensation;

Stability

analysis.

I.

INTRODUCTION

option due to utility restructuring, improving technology,

public environmental concerns, and an expanding electricity

demand as the availability of fuel is decreasing and its price is

increasing at an alarming rate. In the recent years a number of

changes have been observed in electrical power networks

which leads to the increasing share of distributed energy

sources in total energy production. But undesirable variation

of wind speed and solar radiation make them unreliable for

power supply. Therefore, these resources can be integrated

along with conventional generation and storage systems to

form hybrid system improved performances. The uncertainty

in wind speed and solar radiations make wind and PV power

generation unreliable and on the other hand, create PQ

problems. To overcome all the issues the renewable energy

sources may be integrated along with the conventional power

generating resources to formulate hybrid system (HS) for

increasing quality and reliability of power supply [I].

Generally wind energy is integrated with diesel generator to

form a HS for providing power in standalone cases. Diesel

generator uses synchronous generator and DFIG is used as a

wind turbine for better performance [2-4].

Studied have been done [5-6] using capacitor bank for voltage

stability improvement and reactive power compensation. Due

to intermittent nature of renewable energy sources and the

variable load lead the power system to an uncertain condition

and in that case reactive power requirement is not fulfilled by

the fixed capacitor bank. This reactive power mismatch

control can be solved by using the FACTS devices. The

also improves the system stability [7-13].

The FACTS controllers are comprising of a PID, which is

tuned conventionally in Zigeler and Nichols [14] and simplex

method [IS] methods. In these methods it is very difficult to

find out the optimal parameter values of PID in such a

complex system. So some intelligent and optimal PID tuning

approaches has been adopted like genetic algorithm (GA) [16]

and particle swarm optimization [17]. Recently GA is

implemented widely for PID tuning but it is unable to handle

lots of data in a complex system [18], so in this case it is not

efficient. Also the efficiency and accuracy again decreases in

case of highly correlated parameters [19].

The performance of PID controller is important for reactive

power control through UPFC. PID parameters should be tuned

robustly and in optimized manner. To achieve this goal

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted with

PID controller in UPFC.

The novelty of this work is to design a PSO based UPFC to

compensate the reactive power in this proposed WECS

system. The comparison of transient stability for each

measuring parameter with incorporation of FACTS device is

analyzed. The main objective of this paper is to study the

performance of UPFC under different uncertain parameters

and to design a PID-PSO Controller which meets the

requirement of robust design and the design specification is

satisfied over the entire parameter set.

IT. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND MATHEMATICAL

MODELLING OF HYBRID POWER SYSTEM

A standalone wind-diesel hybrid power system is proposed

for solving the reactive power compensation issue with

incorporation of UPFC controller. DFIG is used in wind

turbine where synchronous generator with IEEE type I

excitation system is used as diesel generator. The UPFC

controls the reactive power of the system as well as improve

the stability of the system.

Transfer function model of the proposed DFIG based Wind

turbine and synchronous generator with IEEE type I

excitation system based hybrid power system is shown in the

Fig. I. Due to the variation of loads and wind speed, reactive

power is mismatched and the system stability is affected. Step

change in load and random change in wind speed is

considered for various case studies. System frequency depends

upon the small change in real power while voltage variation

cause the incremental change in reactive power.

_

QSG -

(E Ycos8- y2 )

X'd

(Transient) (3)

_

QSG -

ycos8

X'dE'q

E'qcos8-2Y

X'dY

Where

K a

Ka

and

Ycos8

X'd

Kh

(4)

are

_

E'qcos8-2Y

and K b - --=------

X'd

B. EXCITER MODEL

Fig. I. Transfer function of DFTG based wind-diesel hybrid system with

FACTS controllers

balanced

controlled with incorporation of TEEE type 1 excitation system

to provide direct current. Fig. 2 represents the IEEE excitation

system of the proposed system. In transfer function

representation time constant (TR) is a delay to the voltage

transductor. Next the transductor output voltage is compared

with the reference voltage. Immediately after that the error

voltage is summed with the damping signal of the excitation

system through an amplifier.

Samra/ion

QL =Reactive power of the load;

QDFlG = Reactive power of DFIG.

power balance equation can be written as

parameters also experience change in reactive power.

(2)

= surplus

Fig. 2.

Excitation System I

An

between rotor and grid side. Conventional vector control is

applied for power flow control.

WTCT

m. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF

DIESEL GENERATOR

(SG), DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR (DFIG),

UPFC CONTROLLER:

system, diesel generator generally use synchronous generator,

which is alternative to the grid power. Due to the nature of

synchronous generator, it provides reactive power to the

system. The mathematical modeling of the SG can be

represented as

Fig. 3.

voltage is constant by the supply side converter inspite of any

direction of rotor power flow. Induction machine operate in

synchronous rotating frame based on the vector position of

stator flux. Rotor side converter controls Idr and Iqr and achieve

the control over active power and reactive power. In case of

high load demand synchronous generator working as a DG set

provides the necessary active and reactive power. The reactive

power generated by the DFIG can be computerized by the

following equation-

DFIG = L m

ss

Vl

I dr

ss

UPFC both shunt and series impedances are reactance in

nature where Psh and QSh represents the shunt type voltage

sources and Pi, Qi, Pj and Qj are series type voltage sources.

The injected power which is not constant in nature are taken

with modification, also dependent on injected voltage and bus

voltage. The injected reactive power by UPFC can be derived

as

dQj

dQj d8

dt

d8 dt

----

dVm2p

Xs

and

dt

(11)

upon Vm2p and angle 8 which is proportional to the terminal

voltage of UPFC.

(6)

dQj dVm2p

----

K =

L

e

dr

ss

KkYeS)

(12)

Is

2V

1

wL

s ss

voltage loop is

=(Kp +

-f ) [V ref (S)-YeS) ]

(8)

system with same settling time. The inner loop equation can

be represented by-

dr =

=[M

1

t

(9)

r f

(1+s)I e

dr

4

T

ref

"M ,V,E"'d 'V ,V ,E ]

q (10)

"

a

dr

dr

f

I

[ ]

W= [ QL J

g= Vr f

e

x=Ax+Bu+Cw

variable and disturbance vectors of the hybrid system.

D. UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER (UPFC)

where two voltage source converters are connected through a

common DC link capacitor. The converters can control active

and reactive power by generating or absorb in both direction

of the AC terminals. The main function of UPFC is provided

through VSCI by injecting an ac voltage, which can be

considered as a synchronous voltage source at the power

frequency. In the ac terminal the real power exchanged is done

by the VSC2 into dc power which appears at the dc link as

Fig. 4.

in 1995 and also modified in 1997, depends upon the bird

flocking practice. This evolutionary algorithm is almost

similar to the how birds collect food from a particular place.

By abstracting every bird as a particle, this evolutionary

algorithm is named by particle swarm optimization. PSO

canhandle lots of data with simplicity and find the optimized

solution quickly.

Due to high efficiency and effectiveness PSO is popular

for optimize the values of PI controller in recent years. In

order to find the optimized values each particle in PSO

changes its present position to a new position with respect to

the new velocity, distance to pbest, previous positions and the

distance to gbest in that particular problem. After that particle's

velocity with its new position are updated as per the following

d

d

V; (t+ 1) = W(t)V; (t)+ OX fiX (pbest - x (t))

(13)

+C2X r2 X (gbest - x (t))

gbest f = x f (t+I)+Vd

(14)

; (t + 1)

Wet) = rand X

t max

(Wmax-Wmin)+Wmin

(15)

iterationt, x f (t) is the current position of particle, CI and C2

are acceleration coefficients, rl and r2 represents random

numbers within [0, I]. Inertia weight function determined by

(IS), in which Wmax and Wmin are the maximum and minimum

range of it.

[20]:

Step 1: Define the number of particles, and initialize their

initial speeds and positions.

Step 2: Evaluate the fitness of each particle.

Step 3: For each particle, compare the above calculated

fitness with its present best fitness. If the former is better, then

update its present best fitness by the former, and update its

best position by present position.

Step 4: For each particle, compare its fitness with the

swarm's global best fitness. If the former is better, then update

global best fitness by the former, and update global best

position by the being compared particle's best position.

Step 5: Update each particle's position and speed

according to the equations (13), (14) and (IS).

Step 6: Repeat from step 2 until termination conditions are

fulfilled.

In this paper, the PSO is used to determine the optimum PI

controller parameters.

IV. SIMULAnON AND RESULTS

The proposed hybrid power system is analyzed for reactive

power control with incorporation of UPFC controller

considering the random variation of wind speed and 2% step

increase of load. All the system parameter are provided in

Table IT in the appendix section.

A.

studied for the proposed system. Transient response of DFIG

based UPFC controlled by PI and PS-PI are shown in Figure

Sea-d). In case of PSO base UPFC system the overshoot and

settling time of oscillation of terminal bus voltage (DeIV)

decreases. Change in reactive power of Eq, DFIG, SG, UPFC

and Firing angle follow the trend of DeIV. The system

parameters response are clearly reflects the superiority of PSO

controlled UPFC controller in terms of Peak overshoot and

settling tome over other system.

0.01 ,------,

(5;

1'1

1---UPFCwith

-- UPFC

O 1\W

;I\MI'r

' -----t 0 0.5

a 1

"i3

o -0.01

I ,

I'

,---------1

- UPFC \";th PI

-- UPFC \";th pso

0.2

OA

Time(sec)

1--

0.05 "1--------,

(a)

>

Quantitative Analysis:

is quite capable to control the reactive power with

incorporation of UPFC controller. With random speed

variation and 2% step increase of load, PSO determined the PI

controller optimal value of UPFC as shown in Table 1. The

transient responses of the proposed system shows the better

performances with incorporation of PSO controller.

TABLE L

0.2

Time(sec)

-0.1

1--

- UPFC with PI

-0.1 5 "-----"-__"----'----'----'-'-1

0.2

o

OA

Time(sec)

(c)

0.1

TABLE IT.

System Parameter

Wind Capacity

2MVA

2MVA

2MVA

2MVA

Base Power

,

Xd

0.29 pu

T

e

055

Kf

05

Ka

40

Induction

Generator(DFIG)

Lss

3.07pu

0.125pu

QDFlG

LOAD

H,

0.62 sec

pfSG

OJ

(d)

5 442

7890

Synchronous Generator

PI

increase of load with constant slip)

31

45

Diesel Capacity

OA

0.2

5637

7800

ApPENDIX

Time(sec)

Ki

32

48

Wind-Diesel hybrid system has been discussed with the

incorporation of UPFC Controller. The proposed Wind- Diesel

hybrid system is also analysed with PSO based UPFC

Controller. With the addition of PSO to the proposed systems

robustness and reliability have been improved. The Reactive

Power mismatch and Voltage stability Issues have been rightly

addressed by the incorporation of F ACTS devices particularly

the UPFC. From the simulation, the superiority and robustness

of UPFC Controller has been proved .. During Simulation it is

observed that the settling time and peak overshoots of PSO

based UPFC are better than the other method.

- - - UPFC with PI

Kp

V. CONCLUSION

-0.1

SLIP

Ki

DFIG +UPFC(PI)

0.05 r:------,

VARIABLE

Kp

DFIG +UPFC(PSO)

_0.051

8

CONSTANT SLIP

SYSTEM

with PSO

Ii P'

DIFFERENT CONTROLLERS

WIND DlESEL

iIIN

! --

-0.50

(b)

B.

0.95

Xd

8 (degree)

T

T

do

PTM

N VA

Lm

Id,

QL(PU)

Ts

Vref

1.56 pu

27.8

0.05

4.49

sec

1.67

2.9pu

0.4pu

0.2 pu

0.08

sec

1 pu

REFERENCES

[ I]

connected WindlPVIBESS hybrid distributed generation system,"

[2]

[ 4]

of

Flexible

AC

and

Transmission

AE Hammad and M EI Sadek"Application of Thyristor Controlled

T K Saha, D Kasta"Design optimisation & Dynamic performance

,

analysis

of

Electrical

Power

Generation

System .

IEEE

Transaction on Energy Conversion Device, 201 0.

Power System"IEEE

1997, PP.

1 72-1 78.

[II ] B.Koudri

and

Y.Tahir,"Power

flow

and

720- 726,2006.

[1 6] T.H. Kim,

Based

Society,2000.

"inProc.

[IS] J.S. Yang, "PID Control for a Binary Distillation Column Using a

Genetic Searching Algorithm", WSEAS Trans. Syst., Vol. 5, pp.

NGHingorani,LGyugyi,"UnderstandingFACTS, Concepts

[9]

Miyamoto

view",lEEE

[ 8]

Technology

[ 7]

and

Ronbunsi, vo1.l26 , no 2,2006 , pp. 1126-1133

ANN".

Proceeding of the IEEE Power Engineering Conference(2007).

[ 6]

Kanamaru

[ 5]

K.Nakagawa,Y

[3]

[12] T.Fukami,

on

the

Constrained

Particle

Swarm

Optimization",

[1 7] D.B.

Fogel,

"Evolutionary

Philosophy of

Machine

Computation:

Intelligence", IEEE

Toward

Press

New

Series on

2006.

[1 8] Z. - L.

Gaing,

"A

particle

swarm

optimization

approach

for

Energy Conversion, vol. 19, pp. 384-391 , June 2004.

[19] J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, "Particle swarm optimization," in

Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Neural networks, vol. IV, Perth, Australia,

1995, pp. 1942-1948.

transient

stability

of Cybermatics and

Searching

Converter

PID

Controller's Optimized

Using

Particle

Swarm

Optimization".

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