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INTRODUCTION: size reduction, equipment is used in


many industries such as food,pharmaceutical,chemical
and milling.it also used in variety of applications suchas
grinding polymers In
the process of recycling ,reducing particles in to the
desired use depending on the need,extraction of
important components from ores,separating different
parts of agrain and improving medications.there are
different kinds of size reduction equipments and many
are used to process certain material which is needed
for a specific application.in order to the process to
successfully.fmilarizing the materials properties is
important.the most important attributies of material for
size reduction equipments is its hardness in order to
know what type of method to be used to attain the
needed surface area.there are other attributes that
should be noted in particle size distribution such as the
moisture content,sensitivity,bulk density,toxicity and
there are different types of size reduction
equipments.those are crushers,grinders,ultrafine
grinders and cutting machines and the most common
types of crushers are jaw crusher and gyratory crushers
and crushing rolls,and also the most common grinders
are hammer mills and impactors.messebo cement
factory has reached full capacity to produce four types
of cement which are much important for various types
of construction at present.the first type is known as
ordinary portand cement(OPC),the second Is pozolana
Portland cement(PPC),the third Portland lime stone
cement(PLC) and the fourth one is low heat Portland

cement(LHPC).all four types are available in the market


present.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF CRUSHING,GRAINDING AND


MILLING
IN MESSEBO CEMENT FACTOY WITH THIRE DETAILE ANALYSIS.

Manufacturing process flow


1. Quarrying and Crushing
The quarry (where the mining activity is performed) is located
0.7 km away from the plant and has the main raw materials
such as Limestone and shale that is estimated to last for 100
years , the other raw materials(Iron ore , silica sand ,gypsum
and pozzolana(pumice) ) are brought from near by places.
Limestone provides calcium oxide and some of the other
oxides, while shale and the other materials (silica sand, iron
ore) provide most of the silicon, aluminum and iron oxide
required for the manufacture of Portland cement. Gypsum and
Pozzolana are going to be used for final cement grinding with
clinker produced from kiln. A few meters away from the quarry
there is one FLS hammer crusher which can crush
550ton/hour.The crusher reduces 85% of the rock lumps from a
2meter size down to less than 25mm.
2. Raw Material Preparation
In messebo cement factory there is closed longitudinal material
storage hall with 342x35meter area used to store all the raw
materials mentioned above. There were originally about 7 piles
and now 9 piles (limestone additive and Pozzolana piles
added).One common stacker is used for stacking the 9 raw
materials which have been crushed in the crusher. limestone

and shale which need homogenizing effect are stacked after


Chevron method of stacking and the other piles which need no
homogenization effect are stacked after cone shell method. Two
separate Reclaimers one for limestone and the other for shale
are installed to homogenize the particulate materials and to
convey the homogenized material from the piles to the
outgoing conveyor. Silica sand and iron ore are loaded by
loader on the hopper which beneath it has a conveyor that
discharges them to the outgoing belt conveyor. Gypsum,
limestone additive and pumice are brought to the cement mill
by loader
3. Proportioning
In this department four intermediate bins for limestone, shale,
silica sand and iron ore storage are placed. Beneath each bin
there are dosimat feeders which adjust their speed according to
the signal given from the QCX software from the laboratory, in
this way the raw materials are proportioned in order to satisfy
the final chemistry requirement. That is the chemistry of each
raw materials analyzed by X-ray analysis is fed to the software,
based on this the software will calculate the proportioning in
percent of mass of the raw materials, this will be sent to
automated system and this system will give the proportioning
signal to each dosimats, each dosimats will then vary their
speed based on the load sensed by the load cell positioned
there. Every hour, samples (accumulated at sampler for
continuous one hour) from raw mill product will be analyzed
and fed to the software to correct any deviation (from the set
point inserted in the computer) that may occur due to different
reasons. Therefore the system does not allow big chemistry
fluctuation that may have a negative effect in burning the raw
meal at kiln.
4.Raw Material Grinding
The raw material grinding system is equipped with a ball mill
(diameter = 5m, drying chamber length=2.2 and grinding
chamber length=8.22m). The nominal capacity of the mill is
180t/h, the fineness of the product is 10% residual on 90m
sieve and moisture content in the raw meal is less than 1%. In

Messebo cement factory the exhaust gas from pre-heater is


used to dry the raw materials from average moisture content of
4% to less than 1% in the raw meal. As mentioned above there
are four feeding bins in raw material proportioning station
(limestone bin, Shale bin, sand stone bin and iron ore bin). The
four kinds of raw materials are fed to a common belt conveyor
according to the pre-set proptioning ratios by corresponding
weighing feeder (dosimat feeder). Then the raw material on the
conveyor is fed to the ball mill. In the raw mill drying and
grinding take place and the very fine materials will go with the
air as separation air and the Coarse ones go to the air slide at
the outlet of the mill then to bucket elevator and then finally to
the separator through an air slide. The ground material is then
classified by a sepax separator. The coarse part is returned to
the mill for further grinding and the fine part as product is
carried out with the gas and collected (separated) by two
cyclone separators. The pre-dedusted gas is vented out and
sent to some recirculated as separation air and some to the
Electrostatic precipitator for further clean up and sent to the
environment then after. The raw meal collected by the two
cyclones is transported to the raw meal homogenization silo
(CF silo, or controlled flow silo) by and air slide and elevator.
5. Raw Meal Homogenizing and kiln feeding System
Kiln feeding system is mainly comprised of CF-silo and LOW
(loss of weight) unit .CF-silo is for raw meal storage and
homogenizing. Kiln feed measuring is mainly accomplished by
LOW system. There are 7 extraction holes(A,B,C,D,E,F,G)at the
bottom of CF-silo.3 main rotary blowers and one standby
blower(Local PLC, programmable logic control),will alternatively
aerate 3 segments placed at 3 different extraction holes, and
simultaneously material is extracted from these 3 outlet holes.
Different extraction rates have the effect that the layers are
offset during the sinking process in the silo, so that layers with
different chemical compositions leave the silo simultaneously.
Hence the chemical fluctuations in the discharge flow are
considerably reduced relative to the fluctuations in the feline
flow and the sintering in the kiln is thus kept stable. 7
extraction holes(A,B,C,D,E,F,G) at the bottom of the silo, except
for the central hole(A) which is directly connected with the
underlying blending tank , the rest of holes are joined with

blending tank through one air slide each. The extracted


material enters into the LOW hopper via blending tank through
those air slides. Under the LOW hopper, there are two
extraction outlets (A and B. B is for spare use). One pneumatic
shut off gate and one motorized gate are installed on each
outlet. One rotary blower on each gate aerates the extraction
area at the bottom of LOW hopper. Three load cells are
provided at the bottom of LOW hopper, which are used to
measure the material weight in the hopper. Kiln feed control is
fulfilled by measuring the reduced material quantity in the
hopper within a certain period of time(during emptying period)
and mathematical model during filling period. The adjustable
(motorized gate) is controlled by signal from the PLC, the load
cells in the tank, and set values for the feed rate from the
operator at CCR. Metered kiln feed is conveyed to the top of the
pre-heater by an air slide and then by two air- lift blowers.
6. The waste Gas Treatment System
Whenever the kiln is in normal operation and raw mill is
stopped, the exhaust gases induced by ID fan are cooled by
Gas conditioning tower(GCT) to around 150-160oC .If both kiln
and raw mill are in operation, hot gases are supplied to the raw
mill for drying purposes. Gases not used in the raw mill are
passing the GCT and joining the gases from the raw mill,
whereafter the entire gas flow is de-dedusted in the raw
mill/kiln ESP. The dust precipitated in the raw mill/kiln filter
installation is returned to either the CF-silo or pre-heater. The
cooler excess air is de-dusted in a separate Electro static
precipitator specially designed for clinker dust. The recuperated
dust is returned to the clinker transport system.
7. Clinker Burning and Clinker Transportation
The kiln burning system is composed of a 3.75x57m with
inline calciner (ILC precalciner) and a single five stage
preheater. The kiln system is designed for 2000t/day but is now
running b/n 2000- 2500t/day after some optimization works.
The average specific heat consumption of the system is 710750kcal/kg clinker. After the raw meal is preheated in preheater stage cyclone 1 to 5 and precalcined in precalciner, the
CaCo3 calcining rate in the kiln inlet can reach 95%. The

remaining 5% of the calcinations and clinkerization process will


be taken place inside kiln. The ratio of firing fuel burned in the
kiln for clinkerization and the precalciner is 4:6. A grate cooler
is applied to clinker cooling by cooler fans. The clinker getting
out of the cooler is comminuted by the built in hammer crusher
and then carried to clinker storage by means of bucket (pan)
conveyor. The exit gas from the cooler partly goes to kiln as
secondary air and partly to calciner as tertiary air. The surplus
part is emitted to the atmosphere after cleaned by a cooler EP.
8. Clinker Storage
A clinker storage silo with capacity of 15000tons and an open
yard with capacity of 20000tons are built up in the plant. Under
the clinker silo, the rod gate and the motorized discharging
gate are installed. The clinker discharged by these equipment is
fed to different belt conveyors correspondingly, then carried to
the clinker feed bin in cement grinding plant b means of belt
conveyor.
9. Cement Grinding
A closed circuit grinding system is applied. The main equipment
consists of a 4.6x12m double compartment tube mill and a
sepax separator. This mill at this time produces two types of
cement namely Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Pozzolana
Portland Cement (PPC). OPC comprises 90%clinker, 5%additive
(limestone) and 5 %( gypsum). PPC comprises 70% of clinker,
25-29%% pozzolana and 5%gypsum. The design capacity of the
mill is 120t/h for OPC cement. But currently it is working upto
120-135t/h for OPC and 135- 150 t/h on PPC. Specific surface of
the product is 2800cm2/g to 3000cm2/g. The clinker, additive
(limestone, pozzolana) and gypsum are fed by the
corresponding belt weighing feeders (dosimat feeders), to a
common belt conveyor then the belt conveyor feed them to the
tube mill. The ground material is carried to the sepax rotor via
air slides and a bucket elevator. The separator will classify the
ground material into two parts the course and the fine
(product).The coarse material is fed back to the tube mill via
the air slides. The product from the separator is carried to a
cyclone by means of gas stream and is collected by it. Most of
the air leaving the cyclones is recycled to the sepaxseparator,

the remaining air is cleaned in a bag filter before being


released to the atmosphere via the chimney. Product as cement
is conveyed to cement silos via air slides, belt conveyor, screw
conveyor and a bucket elevator.
10. Cement Storage
Two 16m concrete silos are setup as cement storage facilities;
each of them has a storage capacity of 10,000ton Air ducts are
erected on the bottom of the silo for aeration of the cement for
fluidization. The air is supplied to these ducts by root blowers.
On a bottom of each cement silo a discharging unit consists of
a manual gate and a pneumatic flow control gate. The
discharge from these gates is transported to the cement
packing system via air slides and bucket elevator. Connecting
with the discharging units, there is bulk loader for both silos
installed for loading the bulk cement to the Lorries. The cement
flow rate to the loader can be controlled by a flow control gate,
which is mounted beside the discharging unit.
11. Cement Packing
The packing line of products in powder form is equipped with
different elements/machines. The principal elements of the
packing line are
1) Vibrating screen
2) Feed hopper
3) Rotary feeder
4) Packing machine
5) Discharge belt
The vibrating screen is designed to act as a filter in order to
avoid the introduction of lumps in the productive cycle. It is
connected, by means of bellow elastic chute, to the feed
hopper. The feeder hopper consents to dose the product and to
guarantee its constant presence, when it is requested. The
actual dosing is performed by a butter fly valve and by an
appropriate vane feeder whose capacity is checked. The heart
of the packing line is the bag packer and is equipped with a
storage hopper connected to different cones depending on the
number of spouts the packer is equipped with(8 spouts in our
case). The task of the packer is to fill, following some
programmable cycles, the bags with the available product.

Each spout is independent from the other and they are all
controlled by appropriate electronic units (VENTODIGIT) The
electronic units control the performance at the filling, weighing
and the bag discharging. Messebo has two such packers each
having a capacity of 2500bags per hour, which together could
on average dispatch 30,000 quintal cement per day. Flow of
material in the packing plant The flow of material rises from the
bucket elevator to reach the vibrating screen, where is
screened, to be settled in the storage hopper. The former is
equipped with control systems (called sensors) placed inside
the hopper. These sensors control the extraction system and
keep the level as steady as possible. Then the flow of material
passes through the rotary vane feeder equipped with alternate
gear to adjust the level of material in the packer hopper. The
sensor, by which the bag packer is equipped, serves the
purpose of checking the rotary vane feeder in order to keep the
level as steady as possible. The flow of material is in then
directed to the spouts: most part of it is packed in the bag,
whereas a very small of scraps, in the form of dust, overflows.
The dust is sucked up and collected, by means of a sucking
chute, in the lower hopper. The reject is then separated: the
dust is gathered by a screw conveyor and led back into the
conveying cycle. The packed bag cement is sent out and
guided to the bag cleaner and bag cutter (for those less than
50kg) by means of belt conveyor. The cleaned bags are carried
by a roller conveyor and a belt conveyor to truck loaders
conveyor, and then loader or trucks. The weight tolerance of
bagged cement is guaranteed by the automatic control system.
Process flow and Quality Check
The quality check of the process is continues throughout the
whale process line .In which the time interval and each work-inprocess products are checked for the achievement of the
quality standard sated
Quality Policy of Messebo Cement

Messebo Cement Factory is committed to


continuously produce cement in accordance with national and
international standards. Messebo is also committed to develop,
establish and maintain quality management system as per
requirements of ISO.
We will respond quickly and effectively to fulfill customers
requirements to be the best of our ability.
We will review critically but constructively the usual way of
doing things for potential improvement in our quality
Management system.
We shall adhere to the following values in our day-to-day
operations. Guarding against errors and learning from
experience will be our important principle .
The principle of integrity, transparency, impartiality ,diligence
and dependability will be adhered to in all spheres of activity
Keeping the work environment human friendly by adopting
rules of safety

DETAILE ANALYSIS OF CRUSHING, MILLING AND


GRAINDING WITH THIRE APPLICATION.

HAMMER CRUSHER:hammer crusher designed by SBM


fits for producing 0-3 mm coarse powder products this machine
adopts theories of traditional crushing machine and grinding
mills.it makes up the shortage of common mills,and it is the
best choice to produce coarse powder at big capacity.
afew meter away from the quarry there is one FLS hammer
crusher which can crush in messebo cement factory there is
closed packing machine 5

working principles of hammer mill:this crusher gets


rid of the primary crushing process of jaws crusher so that it
has big out put ,high efficiency ,and uses low energy saves man
power and material resources and reducing the crushing cost of
materious.this series of produces suitable for crushing various
kinds of hard materials andcrisp material such alimstine and
coal in cement ,mines,coal dressing,powder plane,chemisol and
bulding material industry.

APPLICATION:hammer crusher is mainly suitable for crushing


various soft and medium-hard ore,whose compression strength
is not higher than 320 MPa,such as
coal,salt,chalk,gypsum,blocks,limestone,glasses and phosphate
etc

FEATURES:-high production and high crushing ratio


- low power consumption homogeneous particle size
- simple,compact and light mechanical structure
-low investment cost ,easy managment
PC JAW CRUSHER:is usually used as primary crusher
inqquarry production lines ,mineral ore crushing plants and
powder making plants.it can be described asobbliigato machine
in mining,building construction,construction waste
crushing,hydro power and water resource,rail way and high way
construction and some other industries.

APPLICATION: jaw crusher is widely used in various


materials processing of mining and construction industries,
such as it is suit for crushing granite,marble, basalt,lime
stone,quartz,cobble iron,copperore and some other mineral and
rocks

FEATURES: simple structure, easy maintenance, stable


performance,high capacity,even final particles and high
crushing ratio

BALL MILL CRITICAL SPEED AND WORKNG


PRINCIPLEES.
BALL MILL:ball mill is the key equipment for recrushing the
materials after they are primary crushed.ball Millis widely used
for the dry type or wet type. Grinding of all kinds of ores and
other grindable materials in cement,silicate products,new
building material,refractory,fertilizer,black and non ferrous
metals and glass ceramic industries. Widely used in the powder
production lines and have been designed in standard size of the
final products between 0.074mm and 0.4mm in
diameter.generally it used to grind the crushed material.

BALL MILL CRITICAL SPEED:is a speed at which the


centrifugal forces equal gravitational forces at the mill shells in
side surface and no balls will fall from its position to the shell.

WORKING PRINCIPLES OF BALL MILL


This machin is askeleten pattern ball mill with horizontal
cylindrical turning gear driven by outr gear and two
hoppers.the material goes to the first hopper after spiraling by
the quill shaft from the feeding equipment.the hopper has
lodder sheatning or corrugated sheatning with steel balls
inside,which will fall under the effect of centrifugal force by
barrel and grind material.after the kibbling in the first hopper.by
mono layer partition panel,the material will enter the second
hopper,which has plane scale board with steel ball inside to

grind material.the powder material will be discharged from the


grid plate to finish the grinding.

ROD MILL:has dry and wet types to choose,and users could


choose depend on the fact.tha company uses the advanced out
put controllable technology to change the traditional surface in
to line contact.it is also an equipment to grind the crushed
material,which is used in the manufacture industries.

WORKING PRINCIPLES OF ROD MILL:its inside filled


grinding media, in this case steel rods, these rods run the
length of the machine, which is most commonly between eight
and sixteen feet in length. the diameter of these rods will range
from, when new between two and four inches. The rods are free
inside the mill. When the mill is turned, the rods tumble against
one another grinding all the ore thats between them to aid in
the grinding; water is added with the ore as it enters the mill.
Rod mills are very similar to ball mills; except they use long
rods for grinding media. the rods grind the ore by tumbling with
in the mill, similar to the grinding balls in a ball mill

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