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MFE 3102

Design of Mechatronic Systems

Mechatronic System Design


Dr Conrad Pace

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


C. Pace

Page 2.1

The Design Process for Mechatronic


Systems The Integration Aspect within the Design Process
System Definition
Integrated engineering

Requirements Engineering Specification


System General Design

Domain specific
engineering

Mechanical and
electrical engineering

Electronic
engineering

Information and
control engineering

Operating
engineering

Process Design (Part


that performs work)

Electronic
hardware design

Information processing
and software design

Human machine
interface (HMI) design

Integration of components
(hardware)
Integrated engineering

Integration of information
processing (software)

System Integration (hardware and software)


System testing

Integrated Mechanical
and electronic system

Manufacturing
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems Mechatronic System
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Page 2.2

The Design Process for Mechatronic


Systems
Requirements Engineering Specification
Definition of the general functions
Definition of general constraints
Reliability and safety requirements
Development and manufacturing requirements

Partitioning into manageable modules


Specification of the Modules
Functions
Performance
Constraints and limitations

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Page 2.3

The Design Process for Mechatronic


Systems Defining System Requirements
System
Requirements
OPERATIONAL

FUNCTIONAL

Define major system


purpose why is the
system required.

NON-FUNCTIONAL

Specify what the system


has to do

Bounding

Define constraints and


influences on system
functions

Defining

Define System interaction Define System


internal actions
with environment at
system boundary

Performance
How a particular function
must be performed
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems
C. Pace

System
Constraints on whole
system

Implementation
How should the
system be built

Page 2.4

The Design Process for Mechatronic


Systems
System Design
Detailed Analysis and Design of partitioned system

Mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, etc..


Sensors and actuators
Automatic control and information processing
Interfacing with human operator=

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


C. Pace

Page 2.5

The Design Process for Mechatronic


Systems
System Design
Task distribution between mechanical and electrical/
electronic/ software design
Simplification of mechanical/ electrical design
Replacement of simple linearised mechanical/ electrical systems
with non-linear software based control

Realisation of Functions

Power Conveyance (Energy Transfer Component of System)


Information Processing (Information Component of System)
Domain Interfaces (Sensors and Actuators)
Realisation of Synergies (possible integration effects)

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


C. Pace

Page 2.6

The Design Process for Mechatronic


Systems
Component Design
Modelling and Simulation - Analysis of individual
component behaviour
Dynamic Requirements for components
Performance measures for software based control

Development of components

Mechanical Design
Electronic Design
Control Design
Software Design

Component Testing
Testing performance of components
Component interface testing
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems
C. Pace

Page 2.7

The Design Process for Mechatronic


Systems
System Integration
Hardware Integration
Spatial integration of components
Signal interfacing
Creation of Synergetic Effects
Interface influences amongst components

Software Integration
Integration of software functions with hardware
components

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


C. Pace

Page 2.8

The Design Process for Mechatronic


Systems
System Testing
Testing of all functions of components
Testing of integrated system
Verification testing that the product meets its
specifications
Validation field testing (testing if the final product
is appropriate for its purpose with regard to the
requirements)

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


C. Pace

Page 2.9

A V Development Scheme for


Mechatronic Systems
Degree of maturity
Production

Validation

Requirements

Field Testing

Verification

Specifications

System Testing

System Design
System
Design

System Integration
(software)

Modelling and Simulation

Component design (domain specific)


Prototypes

System
Integration

System Integration
(hardware)
Component testing

Mechatronics
Components
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic
Systems
C. Pace

Page 2.10

A Common System Specification


A Communication Problem between areas of
Specialisation the need for a common specification
the design of the mechanical elements
of the system is primarily concerned with
spatial relationships and interactions
the design of the electronic component
of the system is primarily concerned with
signal processing and the interconnection
of discrete components and devices
the design and engineering of the
associated software is primarily
concerned with the development of data
and information processing algorithms.
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems
C. Pace

?
Page 2.11

A Common System Specification


System Representational Models
Models that are not technology specific and that allow the specification
of general system characteristics
The representation allows a proper System breakdown which allows
focused analysis on the individual system components.
Typical Examples
Information and Dataflow Diagrams
Power and Energy Flow Diagrams
State and Transition Diagrams
Sequence Diagrams
Morphological Charts
Function Means Tree
Hierarchical Diagram Constructs
Timing Diagrams
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems
C. Pace

Page 2.12

A Common System Specification


Information and Dataflow Models
Model flow of information and data through the system
Originated from Software systems engineering. However can be
extended to multi-domain systems
Allow appropriate division of systems into subsystems, aiding analysis
management
Process
B
Process
A

Process
D

Dataflow 2

Dataflow 1

Process
C

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Page 2.13

A Common System Specification


Power and Energy Flow Models
Bond graph models model the flow of energy and power
Energy and power are parameters that are domain
independent
Not used for modelling information flow
Sf:i

R:r1

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Gy:x
x= 1/k

R:d

I:M

Page 2.14

A Common System Specification


State Transition Diagrams
Model individual system states and conditions pertaining to the
specified states
Model the transition conditions between states

State B

Transition
Condition AB

State A

Transition
Condition BC

Transition
Condition CB

State C

Transition
Condition AC

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Page 2.15

A Common System Specification


Sequence Diagrams
Model the order of a sequence of operations and associated action
transition logic
Action A
Transition 1
Action B
Transition 2

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


C. Pace

Page 2.16

A Common System Specification


Morphological Charts
Spatial Modelling of potential solutions of system elements
Provides a qualitative means of evaluating element spatial
integration

Function-Means Trees
Breaks down complex operations into basic functions that
constitute operation
Can illustrate individual functional requirements and
related solutions

Hierarchical Diagram Constructs


Techniques that provide a means of modelling individual
operations at various operational levels with appropriate
links and relations being defined
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems
C. Pace

Page 2.17

A Common System Specification


Timing Diagrams
Modelling of timing constraints of sequential/ transition
operations
Used to investigate relationships amongst time dependent
operations.
P2

P1

P3
t1

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


C. Pace

t2

Page 2.18

A Common System Specification An


Example
Suppose we want to design an intelligent washing machine. Such a
washing machine should satisfy the following requirements;
A standard size
Can take a standard wash load
Should determine the load make-up
Should identify the fabric type
Should determine the best wash cycle given the load make-up and fabric
Should detect mixed loads
Inform the user of any decisions taken on the wash cycle selected
Cost within 15% of the existing machine prices
Should have a distinctive style
Should use domestic water and currently available detergents
Should work with a standard electric supply
Should operate at appropriate temperatures and wash cycles
The user can check the wash cycle and override the machine decision
Should rinse and spin-dry the clothing as appropriate to the load and type.
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems
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Page 2.19

Analysing System Functionality


A Structured Analysis Approach
Objectives
Sufficiently abstract to capture both physical and
information characteristics
Include human and non-technical forms of interaction
Presenting information in a clear and simply fashion

Use of Representational Diagrams


Information Hiding
Abstraction

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Page 2.20

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Analysing System Functionality


Structured Analysis
Dataflow Diagram (DFD)
Depicts system activities/ processes and interactions
Dataflow
Process
Terminator
Datafile
Terminator

Datafile

Dataflow
Process

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Page 2.21

Analysing System Functionality


Structured Analysis
Data
DataDictionary
Dictionary(DD)
(DD)

Defines
Definesdataflows
dataflowsininDFDs
DFDs
IS
EQUIVALENT
IS EQUIVALENTTO
TO
AND
AND
EITHER-OR
EITHER-OR
ITERATIONS
ITERATIONSOF
OF
OPTIONAL
OPTIONAL

Process
ProcessSpecification
Specification(PS)
(PS)

Specifies
Specifiesprimitive
primitiveprocesses
processesininthe
thelowest
lowestlevel
level
DFDs
DFDs

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Page 2.22

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Structured Analysis
Term. A

Top Level Context Diagram


Definition of system operation

Term. B
System
Operation

Level 0 Diagram
Breakdown of Context
Diagram single Process

Proc.
1

Level 1 Diagram
Breakdown of Level 0
processes (ex. Proc. 1)

Proc.
1.1

Proc.
2

Proc.
3

Proc.
1.2

Proc.
1.3

Proc.
1.4

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Page 2.23

Structured Analysis
DATAFLOW
DIAGRAM
PROCESS
SPECIFICATION
P

Dataflow

Datafile

P
.

DATA
DICTIONARY
Datafile .

Dataflow
MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems
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Page 2.24

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Washing Machine Example


CONTEXT DIAGRAM
Installers

Domestic
Services

INSTALLATION_SERVICE
SERVICES

WASTE

MACHINE_OUTPUTS

Wash
Clothes
Intelligently
MAINTENANCE_SERVICE

User

USER_INPUTS

Service
Providers

FAULT_CODES

SERVICE_REQUEST

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Page 2.25

Washing Machine Example


LEVEL 0 DIAGRAM
DIAGRAM 0 Wash Clothes Intelligently
SERVICES
INSTALLATION_SERVICE

MAINTENANCE_SERVICE

Install
Washing
Machine
1

Maintain
Washing
Machine
3

Use
Washing
Machine
2
MACHINE_OUTPUTS

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic


Systems
USER_INPUTS
C. Pace

FAULT_CODES

WASTE

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Washing Machine Example


LEVEL 1 DIAGRAM

DETERGENT_CONDITIONER

DIAGRAM 2 Use Washing Machine


LOADED_CLOTHES

MAINS_POWER

Load
Dirty Clothes
2.1

WATER_SUPPLIES

Determine
Load
2.2

Wash
Clothes
2.4

MAINS_POWER
DIRTY_CLOTHES

WASTE_WATER

W_C_FAULT
LOAD_MAKE_UP

WASHED_CLOTHES
D_L_FAULT

Determine
Best Wash
Cycle
2.3

SELECTED_WASH_CYCLE

Unload
Clean
Clothes
2.6

BEST_WASH_CYCLE

D_B_W_C_FAULT

USER_INFORMATION
USER_COMMANDS

MFE3102 Design of Mechatronic Systems


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Communicate
with User
2.5

MAINS_POWER

CLEAN_CLOTHES

FAULT_CODES

Page 2.27

References
Mechatronics Handbook , Robert H. Bishop (Ed.) , CRC
Press, 2002
Mechatronics Systems Design with Applications, Course
book, Kevin C. Craig, Fred P. Stolfi, the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers, USA (IEEE), 1993
Mechatronics, Dan Necsulescu, Prentice Hall, 2002

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