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MEC-430 Ch-3,4 Failure Theories

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CHAPTER04THEORIES OF FAILURE

CollegeofEngineering&ComputerScience CECS

M.S. Gadala 2015

Ch05FailureTheories

ChapterHighlightsRoadmap

Introduction

WhatisFailure

SimpleTensionvs.Multiaxial Failure

BrittleFailureTheories

MaximumNormalStressTheory

MohrCoulombTheory

DuctilefailureTheories

MaximumShearStressTheory

DistortionEnergyTheory

ExperimentalverificationsandComparisons

ExperimentalStudies

Comparisons&Conclusions

Failureunderfatigueloading

Variousfailuretheories

Example

reasonably well with test data, some do not

Warm-up Quiz

Acriticalsectioninashaftwithcircularsolidcrosssectionissubjectedto

torque,T,bendingmoment,MandnormalforceN.

Sketchthestressdistributiononthesection(useappropriatesymbolstomatch

withgivenaxes)andidentifycriticalpoint(s)fordesign.

xx

xx

Fails(Yields)when:

xx Sy

Fails(Yields)when:

F(xx ,yy ,zz ,xy ,xy,xy)f(Sy,Su,)

Mohr-Coulomb Theory (Internal Friction Theory)

Brittlematerialstypicallyhavesignificantlydifferentcompressiveandtensilestrengths.

TheInternalFriction(MohrCoulomb)Theorymaybeusedtoestimatethefailure

state.

ForsomematerialstheMohrCoulombTheorymayprovideaslightlymoreaccurate

estimate.

PLANESTRESSCASE

Wheneverthestressstateiswithinthe

polygon,thematerialwillnotfail.

NotethattheInternalFrictiontheory(IFT)isageneralizationofthe

MaximumShearStressTheory(MSST).TheMaximumMSSTislimitedto

materialsinwhichthetensileandcompressiveyieldstrengthsare

approximatelyequal.

Gadala et. al (1980) postulated that the

yield function for slightly porous

materials depends only on the porosity

of the material and the material yield

strength in tension.

The theory is tested and validated for

specific range of material porosity, :

0.95

0.60

Schematic presentation of

the yield surface

Postulated by:

Gadala et. al (1980) for slightly porous material that were initially ductile and for

materials made from powder compacts

, and dimensionless constants dependent on the material porosity, . The

above equation requires testing for only one material property, the yield strength

while the other parameters , and are only function of

in tension

porosity. Based on finite element simulation of the problem, Gadala et al.

suggested the following values for these parameters , and as function of

the material porosity, , for 0.95

0.60:

25

22 , 10

0.51

0.417

10

1.46

1.65

Relation Between Yield in Tension and Shear

Shear Equations & Graphical Presentation

Special Cases

Biaxial Tension

Special Cases

Example

Consider a thin-walled steel cylinder vessel shown in Figure (a). The ends of the cylinder

are closed with spherical caps, and it is subjected to an internal pressure p. Determine

the pressure under which vessel begins to yield. The material is made of SAE-1018 annealed

steel with yield strength Sy 225 MPa. (Note: consider only the vessel wall stresses).

t=6.35 mm

D=508 mm

Solution:

For an element at the thin walled pressure vessel, the state of stress

is biaxial with circumferential and axial stresses,

c

pD

,

2t

pD

4t

Using Tresca Criterion: The order of the principal stresses is important for the

Tresca criterion. Therefore,

11 c ,

22 a ,

11 33 Y S y

3 0

py

2 t y

D

5.625MPa

12 22 1 2 S yt2

c2 a2 c a S yt2

Which gives,

6.495

Comparing the two criteria, the Tresca is more conservative by approximately 14%.

Discussion Problem

(a) FindthebendingandtransverseshearstressatpointsAandBinthe

figure.

(b)Findthemaximumnormalstressandmaximumshearstressatboth

points.

(c)Forayieldpointof50,000psi,findthefactorofsafetybasedonthe

maximumnormalstresstheoryandthemaximumshearstresstheory.

von-Mises Criterion: Hydrostatic Stress

Thedistortionalstresscomponentsareoftencalledthedeviatoricstress

components.

von-Mises Criterion: Hydrostatic Effect

Thehydrostaticstresscausesachangeinthevolume.

evolumetricstrain

KBulkModulus

h = K*e

h = (1 +2 +3 )/3

Thecubegetsbiggerintension,

smallerincompression.

Theseunequalstressesacttodeformordistortthe

materialelement.

Thereisnochangeinvolume,butthereisachangein

shape.

Thesestressestrytoelongateorcompressthematerial

moreinonedirectionthaninanother.

von-Mises Criterion

von-Mises Criterion: Simple Tension Test

von-Mises Criterion: Equations

von-Mises Criterion: Equations

TheeffectivestressiscommonlyreferredtoasthevonMises

stresswhocontributedtothetheoryafterDr.R.vonMises

von-Mises Criterion: Graphical Presentation

Aslongasthestressstatefallswithintheshadedarea,thematerialwillnotyield.

Thesurface,blueline,atwhichthematerialjustbeginstoyieldiscalledtheyield

surface.

Experimental Results

more experimental results

BoththeDistortionEnergyTheoryandtheMaximum

ShearStressTheoryprovidereasonableestimatesfor

theonsetofyieldinginthecaseofstaticloadingof

ductile,homogeneous,isotropicmaterialswhose

compressiveandtensilestrengthsareapproximately

thesame.

BoththeDistortionEnergyTheoryandtheMaximum

ShearStressTheory predictthattheonsetofyieldis

independentofthehydrostaticstress.Thisagrees

reasonablywellwithexperimentaldataformoderate

hydrostaticpressures.

BoththeDistortionEnergyTheoryandtheMaximum

ShearStressTheoryunderpredictthestrengthof

brittlematerialsloadedincompression.Brittle

materialsoftenhavemuchhighercompressive

strengthsthantensilestrengths.

TheDistortionEnergyTheoryisslightlymoreaccurate

thantheMaximumShearStressTheory.The

DistortionEnergyTheoryistheyieldcriteriamost

oftenusedinthestudyofclassicalplasticity.Its

continuousnaturemakesitmoremathematically

amenable.

The high stresses around stress concentration factors

are often very localized, and the local yielding will

cause a redistribution of stresses to adjacent material.

In many cases the local yielding will not cause a

machine component to fail under steady load

conditions.

It is common to differentiate between local yielding

and gross yielding through the thickness of a member.

Local yielding may lead to early fatigue failure, and

stress concentration effects must always be

considered in fatigue calculations.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers base the

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code on the Maximum

Shear Stress Theory.

The American Institute of Steel Construction does not use

either in the Manual of Steel Construction. Buildings,

bridges, etc. are dominated by normal stresses and

buckling type failures.

The American Society of Civil Engineers use the Distortion

Energy Theory in Design of Steel Transmission Pole

Structures.

There is no single standard that applies to the design of

machine components. Standard industry practice is to use

either the Distortion Energy Theory or Maximum Shear

Stress Theory with an appropriate safety factor.

Definitions

NotethatR=1fora

completelyreversed

stressstatewithzero

meanstress.

MaterialFailureMechanisms

deformation prior to fracture

plastic deformation prior to fracture.

changing stress states.

changing stress and corrosive environments.

leads to the initiation and propagation of fracture in a relatively mild

chemical environment.

Wearfailure: broadrangeofrelativelycomplex,surfacerelateddamage

phenomena.

MaterialFailureMechanisms(cont.)

Liquiderosionfailure: typeofwearfailureinwhichliquidisresponsible

forremovalofmaterial.

Liquidmetalembrittlement: involvesthemateriallosingsomedegreeof

ductilitybelowitsyieldstrengthduetoitssurfacebeingwettedbya

lowermeltingpointliquidmetal.

Hydrogenembrittlement: notoriouscauseofcatastrophicfailureinhigh

strengthsteelsexposedtohydrogenenvironmentwhichleadstoloseof

ductility(fewpartspermillionofhydrogenisenough).

Creepandstressrupturefailures: failureduetocontinuedstraingrowth

understeadyload.

Allofthesemechanismsareassociatedwiththefailureofthematerial.

Theydonotincludeoneofthemostimportantstructuralfailure

mechanismsthatmustbeconsideredincompressivestress

environments,Buckling.

MaterialFailureMechanisms(cont.)

Loadingproducesstressesthatarevariable,repeated,

alternating,orfluctuating

Maximumstresseswellbelowyieldstrength

Failureoccursaftermanystresscycles

Failureisbysuddenultimatefracture

Novisiblewarninginadvanceoffailure

deformation

Stage II Progresses to

macro-crack that repeatedly

opens and closes, creating

bands called beach marks

Stage III Crack has

propagated far enough that

remaining material is

insufficient to carry the load,

and fails by simple ultimate

failure

shaft

B crack initiation at

stress concentration

in keyway

C Final brittle

failure

Fatigue failure

initiating at

mismatched grease

holes

Sharp corners (at

arrows) provided

stress concentrations

Fatigue Failure:

Practical Examples

(Cont.)

Fatigue Failure:

Shaft Failures: You could be rich?? (Cont.)

theses, even highly engineered shafts fail all too

frequently. Even NASA cant always get it right.

Often the connections are to blame: keys, splines,

couplings, and so on. Often fatigue wear failure is

the culprit.

FatigueLifeMethods

Threemajorfatiguelifemodels

Methodspredictlifeinnumberofcyclestofailure,N,fora

specificlevelofloading

Stresslifemethod

Leastaccurate,particularlyforlowcycleapplications

Mosttraditional,easiesttoimplement

Strainlifemethod

Detailedanalysisofplasticdeformationatlocalizedregions

Severalidealizationsarecompounded,leadingtouncertaintiesinresults

Linearelasticfracturemechanicsmethod

Assumescrackexists

Predictscrackgrowthwithrespecttostressintensity

Strain-Life Method

regions

Compounding of several idealizations leads to significant

uncertainties in numerical results

Useful for explaining nature of fatigue

Strain-Life Method

always begins at a local

discontinuity

When stress at

discontinuity exceeds

elastic limit, plastic

strain occurs

Cyclic plastic strain can

change elastic limit,

leading to fatigue

Fig. 612 shows true

stress-true strain

hysteresis loops of the

first five stress reversals

Fig. 612

StrainLifeMethod:Relation

amplitude

Fatigue ductility coefficient 'F is true strain corresponding to

fracture in one reversal (point A in Fig. 612)

Fatigue strength coefficient 'F is true stress corresponding to

fracture in one reversal (point A in Fig. 612)

Fig. 613

StrainLifeMethod:RelationofFatigueLifetoStrain

the power to which the life 2N must be raised to be proportional to the

true plastic-strain amplitude. Note that 2N stress reversals corresponds

to N cycles.

Fatigue strength exponent b is the slope of the elastic-strain line, and

is the power to which the life 2N must be raised to be proportional to

the true-stress amplitude.

Fig. 613

StrainLifeMethod:RelationofFatigueLifetoStrain

Total strain amplitude is half the total strain range

StrainLifeMethod:RelationofFatigueLifetoStrain

total strain

Some values of coefficients and exponents given in Table A23

Equation has limited use for design since values for total strain at

discontinuities are not readily available

The equation may be easily used with numerical simulation of

design problems where all strains are calculated numerically.

StrainLifeMethod:TypicalvaluesforMansonCoffinrelationship

TypicalvaluesforMansonCoffinrelationship(Cont.)

FatigueLifeMethods:StressLifeMethod

Testspecimensaresubjectedtorepeatedstresswhilecounting

cyclestofailure

MostcommontestmachineisR.R.Moorehighspeedrotating

beammachine

Subjectsspecimentopurebendingwithnotransverseshear

Asspecimenrotates,stressfluctuatesbetweenequal

magnitudesoftensionandcompression,knownascompletely

reversedstresscycling

Specimeniscarefullymachinedandpolished

FatigueLifeMethods:StressLifeMethod,SNDiagram

Numberofcyclestofailureatvaryingstresslevelsisplottedonlog

logscale

Forsteels,akneeoccursnear106 cycles

Strengthcorrespondingtothekneeiscalledendurancelimit Se

StressLifeMethod: SNDiagramforSteel

StresslevelsbelowSe predictinfinitelife

Between103 and106 cycles,finitelifeispredicted

Below103 cyclesisknownaslowcycle,andisoftenconsidered

quasistatic.Yieldingusuallyoccursbeforefatigueinthiszone.

the cycles to failure

for a completely

reversed (R=-1)

uniaxial stress state.

What do you do if

the stress state is not

completely

reversed?

StressLifeMethod: SNDiagramforNonferrousMetals

Nonferrousmetalsoftendonothaveanendurancelimit.

FatiguestrengthSf isreportedataspecificnumberofcycles

FigureshowstypicalSN diagramforaluminums

Simplified estimate of endurance limit for steels for the rotating-beam specimen, S'e

Fig. 617

StressLifeMethod: FiniteLifeCalculation

desirable.

To estimate the fatigue strength at 103 cycles, start with Eq. (6-2)

cycles as

StressLifeMethod: FiniteLifeCalculation

At 103 cycles,

f is the fraction of Sut represented by ( S f ) 3

10

Solving for f,

cycles into Eq. (69) and solve for b

Eqs. (611) and (612) can be substituted into Eqs. (69) and

(610) to obtain expressions for S'f and f

Plot Eq. (610) for the fatigue strength fraction f of Sut at 103

cycles

Use f from plot for S'f = f Sut at 103 cycles on S-N diagram

Assumes Se = S'e= 0.5Sut at 106 cycles

Fig. 618

StressLifeMethod: FiniteLifeCalculation

from 103 to 106 cycles

At N =103 cycles,

Sf = f Sut

At N =106 cycles,

Sf = Se

from figure 6-18 previous

slide):

Fig. 610

StressLifeMethod: FiniteLifeCalculation

Eq. (613) and solving for N gives,

completely reversed stresses

For other stress situations, a completely reversed stress with the

same life expectancy must be used on the S-N diagram

1 N 103

On the idealized S-N diagram on a log-log scale, failure is

predicted by a straight line between two points (103, f Sut) and

(1, Sut)

If warranted, Se is obtained from testing of actual parts

When testing of actual parts is not practical, a set of Marin

factors are used to adjust the endurance limit

Surface finish has an impact on initiation of cracks at localized

stress concentrations

Surface factor is a function of ultimate strength. Higher strengths

are more sensitive to rough surfaces.

Likelihood of crack initiation is higher

Size factor is obtained from experimental data with wide scatter

For bending and torsion loads, the trend of the size factor data is

given by

For axial load, there is no size effect, so kb = 1

For parts that are not round and rotating, an equivalent round

rotating diameter is obtained.

Equate the volume of material stressed at and above 95% of the

maximum stress to the same volume in the rotating-beam

specimen.

Lengths cancel, so equate the areas.

For a rotating round section, the 95% stress area is the area of a

ring,

Equate 95% stress area for other conditions to Eq. (622) and

solve for d as the equivalent round rotating diameter

to Eq. (622),

Table 63

A95 for common

non-rotating

structural shapes

loading.

Only to be used for single load types. Use Combination Loading

method (Sec. 614) when more than one load type is present.

strength for elevated temperatures as at room temperature

This relation is summarized in Table 64

use that strength. Let kd = 1 and proceed as usual.

If ultimate strength is known only at room temperature, then use

Table 64 to estimate ultimate strength at operating temperature.

With that strength, let kd = 1 and proceed as usual.

Alternatively, use ultimate strength at room temperature and

apply temperature factor from Table 64 to the endurance limit.

Table 64 can be used in place of the table, if desired.

From Fig. 617, S'e = 0.5 Sut is typical of the data and represents

50% reliability.

Reliability factor adjusts to other reliabilities.

Only adjusts Fig. 617 assumption. Does not imply overall

reliability.

Fig. 617

Table 65

Residual stresses

Directional characteristics from cold working

Case hardening

Corrosion

Surface conditioning, e.g. electrolytic plating and metal

spraying

Cyclic Frequency

Frettage Corrosion

Limited data is available.

May require research or testing.

Obtain Kt as usual (e.g. Appendix A15)

For fatigue, some materials are not fully sensitive to Kt so a

reduced value can be used.

Define Kf as the fatigue stress-concentration factor.

Define q as notch sensitivity, ranging from 0 (not sensitive) to 1

(fully sensitive).

For q = 0, Kf = 1

For q = 1, Kf = Kt

Then get Kf from Eq. (632): Kf = 1 + q( Kt 1)

Fig. 620

Then get Kfs from Eq. (632): Kfs = 1 + qs( Kts 1)

Note that Fig. 621 is updated in 9th edition.

Fig. 621

Alternatively, can use curve fit equations for Figs. 620 and 621

to get notch sensitivity, or go directly to Kf .

Bending or axial:

Torsion:

in the strengths.

Additional notches do not add much additional harm.

Recommended to use q = 0.2 for cast irons.

Some designers (and previous editions of textbook) sometimes

applied 1/ Kf as a Marin factor to reduce Se .

For infinite life, either method is equivalent, since

1/ K f Se

Se

nf

K f

Se applies more to high cycle than low cycle.

Fig. 622

Fig. 622

Fatigue Failure Curves

Whenthemeanstressis

zero,thealternating

componentisequaltothe

endurancelimit.

Theinteractioncurvesare

forinfinitelifeoralarge

numberofcycles.

Goodman Diagram

Anycombinationofmeanand

alternatingstressthatlieson

or

belowGoodmanlinewillhave

infinitelife.

FactorofSafetyFormat

Notethatthefatiguestress

concentrationfactorisapplied

onlytothealternating

component.

Nf: factorofsafety

kf: fatiguestressconcentration

factor

Gerber Diagram

Notethat:

Thefatiguestressconcentration

factorisappliedonlytothe

alternatingcomponent.

Anycombinationofmeanand

alternatingstressthatliesonor

belowtheGerberlinewillhave

infinitelife.

Nf : factorofsafety

kf :

fatiguestressconcentration

factor

Soderberg & ASME Elliptic

Summary of Equations

Fivecommonlyusedfailurecriteriaareshown

Gerberpassesthroughthedata

ASMEellipticpassesthroughdataandincorporatesroughyieldingcheck

ModifiedGoodmanislinear,sosimpletouse.ItismoreconservativethanGerber.

Soderbergprovidesaveryconservativesingle

Langerlinerepresentsstandardyieldcheck.

Itisequivalenttocomparingmaximumstresstoyieldstrength

Fig. 627

Summary of Equations (Cont.)

Intersectingaconstantslopeloadlinewitheachfailurecriteriaproduces

designequations

nisthedesignfactororfactorofsafetyforinfinitefatiguelife

Summary of Equations (Cont.)

Tables66to68summarizethepertinentequationsfor

ModifiedGoodman,Gerber,ASMEelliptic,andLangerfailure

criteria

Thefirstrowgivesfatiguecriterion

Thesecondrowgivesyieldcriterion

Thethirdrowgivestheintersectionofstaticandfatiguecriteria

Thefourthrowgivestheequationforfatiguefactorofsafety

Thefirstcolumngivestheintersectingequations

Thesecondcolumngivesthecoordinatesoftheintersection

Summary of Equations: ModifiedGoodman (Cont.)

Summary of Equations: Gerber (Cont.)

Summary of Equations: ASMEElliptic (Cont.)

Example610

Example610

Example610

Fig. 628

Example610

Fig. 628

Example610

Example610

Fig. 629

Example610

Example

1.0

1.0

1.0

Alternating Stress

(Cont.)

1.0

1.0

1.0

to fail

(Cont.)

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