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International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue.

7

Smart Grid Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control
Akash K Singh, PhD
IBM Corporation Sacramento, USA

Abstract
For century, there has been no change in
the fundamental structure of the electrical power
grid and vehicle networks. Current hierarchical,
centrally controlled grid of the electrical grid is
not best for growing demand. To address the
challenges of the existing power grid, the new
concept of smart grid and smarter planet are
under research. The smart grid can be considered
as a modern electric power grid infrastructure
for enhanced efficiency and reliability through
automated control, high-power converters,
modern communications infrastructure, sensing
and metering technologies, and modern energy
management
techniques
based
on
the
optimization of ondemand, energy and network
availability. While current power systems are
based on a solid information and communication
infrastructure, the new smart grid needs a
different and much more complex one, as its
dimension is much larger and needs utmost
performance. This paper addresses critical issues
on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of
information and communication technology
(ICT) issues and opportunities. The main
objective of this paper is to provide a
contemporary look at the current state of the art
in smart grid communications as well as to
discuss the still-open research issues in this field.
It is expected that this paper will provide a better
understanding of the technologies, potential
advantages and research challenges of the smart
grid and provoke interest among the research
community to further explore this promising
research area.
Keywords- Advanced metering infrastructure
(AMI), communication technologies, quality-ofservice (QoS), smart grid, standards
I. INTRODUCTION
Modern power grid is the most complex
human-made system, which is monitored by widearea monitoring system (WAMS). Providing timesynchronized data of power system operating
states,WAMS will play a crucial role in next
generation smart grid protection and control. WAMS
helps secure efficient energy transmission as well as
reliable and optimal grid management. As the key
enabler of a smart grid, numerous sensors such as
PMU and current sensors transmit real-time dynamic
data, which is usually protected by encryption
algorithm from malicious attacks, over wide-areaIssn 2250-3005(online)

network (WAN) to power system control centers so
that monitoring and control of the whole system is
possible. Security algorithms for power grid need to
consider both performance and energy efficiency
through code optimization techniques on encryption
and decryption. In this paper, we take power nodes
(sites) as platforms to experimentally study ways of
energy consumptions in different security
algorithms. First, we measure energy consumptions
of various security algorithms on CrossBow and
Ember sensor nodes. Second, we propose an array of
novel code optimization methods to increase energy
consumption efficiency of different security
algorithms. Finally, based on careful analysis of
measurement results, we propose a set of principles
on using security algorithms in WAMS nodes, such
as cryptography selections, parameter configuration,
and the like. Such principles can be used widely in
other computing systems with energy constraints.
A. Related Work
A large amount of works have been done
on energy consumption of security algorithms and
protocols in common network environment, such as
the energy consumption of the SSL protocol in PC
networks, the energy consumption of WEP inWi-Fi
networks, etc. However, there are few research on
the energy consumption of security algorithms in
WAMSs. Recently, most of the energy consumption
studies related to WAMSs are based on simulations.
The energy consumption is usually measured based
on the CPU computation time and the number of
data packets. However, this is a coarse grain
approximation. In simulation aspect, network
simulations, such as NS2, TOSSIMM [5], and
Atemu [6], can properly simulate the behaviors of
the network protocols, but they are not able to
simulate the single node well. Thus, the method
mentioned above is not suitable for our study on the
energy consumption of security algorithms in
WAMSs. There are some instruction-level energy
evaluation models for WAMSs, such as AEON [7],
and PowerTOSSIM [8]. These two models first
measure the currents of the sensor nodes, followed
by partitioning the measured currents to different
code segments and different components of sensor
nodes. Finally, the energy consumption of a certain
code segment or a certain component is calculated.
However, these models are not
suitable for
commercial WAMS sensors, due to the fact that
most of the manufacturers only provide software in
the form of ―black box.‖ Even obtaining the source
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International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue. 7

code, inserting instruction for measuring is not
convenient. To obtain the energy characteristics of
security algorithms, there are some studies based on
physical measurement.Wander et al. [9] has
measured the energy consumption of the RSA and
ECC on MICA2DOT sensor nodes. However, this
method cannot be implemented with the whole
version of code into the WAMS nodes. Gupta et al.
[10] has pointed out that the size of memory
consumption of standard code is close to 4KB for
cryptography algorithms such as DES. This means
that the memory will not be enough to directly
implement standard algorithms on some WAMS
nodes. WAMS is an autonomic network consisting
of a large number of sensor nodes deployed in the
monitoring area. The sensor nodes are connected by
an ad hoc network and communicate with the sink
through multihop. In aWAMS, the sensor nodes are
the basic parts of the implementation of information
sensing and communication. Compared to other
wireless network, the WAMS is a specific
application
oriented
network,
which
has
characteristics of large size and dynamic topology. A
sensor node inWAMS is a system with
multifunction, such as data collection, computation,
and communication. Compared to other wireless
network, the WAMS is a specific application
oriented network, which has characteristics of large
size and dynamic topology. A sensor node inWAMS
is a system with multifunction, such as data
collection, computation, and communication.
Compared to common sensor systems, the WAMS
sensor nodes have their constraints as listed below.
• Poor computation power. The sensors usually
adopt MCU that has slow computation speed as their
processors.
• Limited memory space. The ATmega128L
processor has only 4 KB SRAM onchip. And the
high-end CrossBow
Imote2 has 256 KB onchip and 32 MB offchip.
• Tight power consumption constraint. Due to the
limitations of deployed area, cost, and physical size,
some WAMS
nodes are usually equipped with low capacity
batteries.
Thus, there are strict requirements for
consecutive execution time on nodes. Because of the
strict constraints of computation resource and
energy, the WAMS nodes can only execute simple
computation tasks and communication tasks.
Currently, the hardware/software codesign is a key
part of WAMS study. PMU-based WAMS is a
cyber-physical system where the Internet-based
communication network overlays the physical
equipment-based
power
grid
[11],
[12].
Cybersecurity is crucial for ensuring integrity and
resiliency of future smart grid. The encryption
design for secure WAMS data communication must
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consider energy and bandwidth constraints. PMU
was first invented in Virginia Tech in 1988 to
measure phasors of voltage and current, frequency
and real/reactive power in real-time with GPS time
tagging [1], [13]. PMUs have thus been continuously
enhanced and are now being deployed in substations.
The PMU data are collected in a phasor data
concentrator (PDC) to facilitate real-time power
system situation awareness, analysis, operation,
protection, and control [13]–[15]. With large scale
integration of variable renewable energy integration,
PMU-based smart grid will ensure power system
stability and reliability.
II. WAMS SECURITY ISSUES
A. Security Threats Encountered in WAMs
WAMSs use public communication
channels, in which every device inside or outside the
network may obtain the information. The attackers
can directly destroy the WAMS nodes due to the
open deployment of nodes.
B. Energy Constraint on Security Algorithms
In order to prevent the attacker from
deciphering directly on WAMS nodes, the data on
nodes should be encrypted before stored. Complete
verification information needs to be inserted into
original message, so that the data packets will not be
modified maliciously. Thus, it is necessary to
introduce proper ID verification mechanism into
WAMSs to defend ID-based attack such as Sybil and
node duplication attack. Although the security
threats encountered byWAMSs are diverse, data
encryption, integrity protection, and verification are
the most basic security service requirements in
WAMSs. In WAMSs, the stronger the security
algorithm is, the more energy consumption on the
CPU [21]. Thus, in order to satisfy the security
requirement on the WAMS, energy consumption is
the major factor that constrains security algorithms.
C. Security Level and Energy Consumptions
The limited energy and computation
resources determine that the security mechanism in
WAMS nodes should be implemented as simple as
possible. Integrating security service directly and
control systems.
D. Introduction
Power system faults cause changes in
power system frequency and/or voltages due to the
loss of generation or/and load. These changes
depend on the power system robustness and its
ability to respond to these changes in a short time.
Each power system has a unique dynamic behaviour
that depends on factors such as network transmission
topology, load location (closed or far from
generation location), generation capacity, type of
generation (wind, hydro, nuclear, thermal plants),
etc. The phenomena involved during a power system
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disturbance/blackout can be classified in 5 main
classes:

Voltage collapse,

Frequency collapse,

Loss of synchronism,

Large power swings

Cascade of overloads.
Electrical networks are also more and more
interconnected in order to improve the robustness of
the electrical power system, to increase the exchange
capacity between the electric power transmission
system over a wider area that crosses state borders
and to ensure mutual assistance among system
operators (specially in case of wide area
disturbance).
Two characteristics are essential for any electrical
power system to maintain its stability and integrity:

Avoid the cascading of an isolated power
system fault over a wider area,

time constants that are involved cover very
different time scales.
The perturbations of the wave resulting
from electrical short circuits propagate close to the
speed of light. However Intelligent Electronic
Devices (IEDs) as Protective Relays, Programmable
Logic Controller, etc. operate in areas ranging from
tens of milliseconds to seconds and SCADA or EMS
in areas ranging from minutes to hours. In contrast to
conventional protection devices, which provide local
protection of individual equipment (transformer,
generator, line, etc.), the wide area protection system
provides comprehensive protection covering the
whole power system. When compared to
SCADA/EMS systems, that are responsible for
network control and management, the wide area
protection system is focused on maintaining power
system integrity. The idea is that a wide area
protection
and
optimization
system
shall
complement rather than substitute any of the existing
control and protection systems.
E. Use of WAMPAC
Faults in transmission system leading to
more widespread load outages are very rare in most
power systems, but if they occur they can have
serious impacts on many activities in society. If a
whole city or part of a region suffers a black out, the
economic and societal impacts can be very
significant, and consequently the requirements on
security must be much higher in the transmission
system as compared with the distribution level.
Furthermore, the restoration after a major
transmission system fault is a very complicated and
laborious task. In stressed power system the risk of
cascading events is of particular concern. Through
cascading, the consequences of a single event can be
spread over large geographical distances in a system.
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Hence, there is a need to assess and evaluate
different means of improving transmission system
security. Wide Area Monitoring Protection And
Control (WAMPAC) systems have been recently
proposed as one such means:

Preventive actions are implemented to
avoid such phenomena to occur by using Wide Area
Measurement Systems (WAMS).

Curative actions are implemented to avoid
the spreading and so saving the rest of the power
system by using manual or automatic mechanisms
depending of the quickness of the phenomena such
as Wide Area Control and Protection Systems
(WACS, WAPS).
A defense plan is a list of actions taken
automatically or manually after a severe contingency
(contains decision to take in order to minimize the
consequences of severe disturbances) and is based
on several studies which include: safety, emergency
and restoration plans.

The safety plan is a post-contingency
manual corrective action made by the operator to
reestablish the normal conditions and is based on
preventive analysis of expected contingencies.

The emergency plan tries to reduce
contingencies effects based on automatic remote
generation shedding and/or load shedding acting by
frequency relays.

The restoration plan fixes a procedure to
recover the electricity after the system shut down.
The electric system is subject to uncertainties in
permanence which can be grouped into four
families:

The hazards of consumption: Because of
the character not storable electrical energy must be
ensured at all times, adapting production to demand.
So the electrical power system is controlled by the
demand. One of the major factors is climatic (winter
peak load, summer peak load).

Climatic hazards. The electrical system
(overhead line, cable, transformer, hydro power
plant, cooling of the thermal and nuclear power
plants) must cope with external environmental
assaults as such as lightning, flood, storm, drought,
cold, etc. which can conduct to short circuit faults,
tripping of generation groups, etc.

Equipment failures (isolation failure, bus
bar fault, etc.) and external attacks as such as
mechanical excavator server a power cable, aircraft
crash, etc.

Dysfunction related to human factors
(design
failure,
poor
commissioning,
no
maintenance, etc.) initiatives related to WAMPAC
encompass the following essential elements.

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the following assumptions can be made based on preliminary estimations of data traffic specified for WASAS and CRAS implementation. It may not have direct impact on WAMPAC as WAMPAC has more demanding performance requirements. 7 F. earthquake. However.25Mb/s and the downlink traffic is around 4Mb/s. I. which Issn 2250-3005(online) consists of fully redundant identical A & B systems. Development (DEV) and Operator Training Simulator (OTS). WASAS is primarily based on the synchronized phasor measurement technology. November| 2012 Page 556 . their similarities will favor an integrated WAMPAC system architecture design with the expected benefits: 1. Production Testing (PT=OP). The Phase 1 of the project is to build the central controller facilities and migrate two selected existing RASs. Wide Area Situation Awareness System (WASAS) The WASAS is a project involving deployment of PMU devices in 500 kV and 230 kV substations and grid control center situation awareness applications for supporting system operators in real-time decision making [9]. Irvine SG Demonstration This project is a demonstration of an integrated. Centralized Remedial Action Scheme (CRAS) The CRAS project will replace existing individual RASs and accommodate any additional RASs in the future [10]. However. 2. Phase 2 will migrate the remaining RASs. The Unified Communication Architecture is in the planning and designing stage. CRAS are special protection schemes (SPS) that enable an automatic protection system designed to maintain system reliability by detecting abnormal or predetermined system conditions and taking corrective actions other than (or in addition to) the isolation of faulted components. It will implement a number of monitoring and alarm functions. The conceptual system design was approved by WECC in 2008. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and nonelectrical system data (weather. INTEGRATED WAMPAC ARCHITECTURE Despite differences among various WAM/WAC/WAP systems and capabilities.com) Vol. Following the success of Phase 1. the project will improve the annual RAS updates and maintenance efficiency and enhance grid reliability by reducing RAS logic overlapping and cascading outage risks. it is not recommended until future generation with WASAS closed loop control. Unified Communication Architecture The Unified Communication Architecture. K. Part of the SCEnet2 will be developed through several on-going SCE capital projects. and it may eventually share one of the CRAS redundant pair uplinks. WASAS stream packets may be delayed by milliseconds during CRAS GOOSE burst. III.) to provide additional information for system operators. it will install four sub-systems at Grid Control Center (GCC) and AGCC locations: Operational Production (OP). and it introduces the risk of opening CRAS critical dual redundant control VLANs to other connections and traffic. SCEnet2 Deployment The SCEnet2 is an on-going effort to establish a future communication backbone as part of SCE‘s Unified Communication Architecture. The primary focus of this project is for distribution applications and interoperability demonstrations. will provide a unified communication infrastructure to support all present and future communication and networking needs for control and operation systems. and triple redundant central controller for each system. G. fire. For future sharing of downlinks. Data Traffic Estimation It is very difficult to estimate how much data traffic will be generated when all these applications are sharing the communication infrastructure. For CRAS data. such as voltage phase angle different monitoring. traffic. WASAS streaming rates are modest compared to CRAS binary burst traffic rates. the uplink traffic is around 1. As illustrated in Fig. Field experience is not yet available. Its architecture design and component specifications were completed in 2009 and it will be procured and deployed in near future. 2 Issue. etc. it will serve as a technology reference for WAMPAC integration. One of the main objectives of SCEnet2 is to move from dedicated routers and fixed bandwidth for each system to virtual connections sharing routers and bandwidth. and business needs. J. the uplink streaming traffic is around 100kb/s. It will utilize other wide-area information input.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. scalable Smart Grid system. Assuming WASAS synchrophasor values are streamed as Ethernet UDP/IP packets with 60 packets per second and 16 synchrophasor measurements per packets. H. assuming four substations trigger for state change and six substations mitigate. Wide-range of data sharing: having access to all measurement data and the system/application generated output data will increase the data redundancy level for all functions and applications and reduce the overall system cost to achieve the same level of redundancy for each system. SCE plans on procurement and deployment of the system in the near future. from sources such as Energy Management Systems (EMS). Concurrent with Phase 2 is accommodation of newer generation RASs. By centralizing the distributed RAS logic.

traffic conditions. etc. it can be sent to many other devices through an Ethernet switch and/or bridgerouter. These data are provided at much faster sampling rates than traditionally offered by C. It is envisioned that the WAMPAC will interface with DMS. GIS and other corporate applications/users. storm. and other information. Ease on system expansion: it will be much easier to add new measurement devices and new applications to an integrated system than to separate systems. solar flare. to clearly define and explain the various renewable generation technologies and how they should be modeled for system studies. wind. One desirable new feature of the IEC GOOSE is the ability to directly send analog data values. The IEC GOOSE [18] is a multi-cast message originally designed to carry binary state information among multiple relays connected to the same Ethernet network inside a substation. Reviewing the various SCE activities. elaborate sensor November| 2012 Page 557 . In some recent industrial RAS applications [16-17]. Details may be adjusted throughout the migration process. The WAMPAC will exchange synchrophasor data with other utilities and WECC through the NASPInet. Fig.. When a failure symptom is detected. IEC 61850 Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) has been applied as the message carrier. The System & Data Management module provides system management. inspections or a primitive sensor system. it is necessary to have enhanced system monitoring to gain better understanding of the behavior of the various renewable generations under a variety of system conditions. As a multi-cast message. cabling. External non-electrical data from other sources.). since many assets are aging. The Data module focuses on the components in data processing and storage for the WAMPAC system. 2 Issue. in engineering units. such as weather reports (temperature. storage. lightning. etc. if it becomes available during the system deployment. In this respect. In the proposed architecture and process. etc. Facilitate Dynamic Model Development and Renewable Impact Study Much work has been done to resolve the issues of lacking proper generic models. the IEC GOOSE carries a ―userdefined‖ dataset. asset states are initially collected and diagnosed by ordinary rounds. The WAMPAC system will interface with SCE‘s existing EMS/SCADA system and historian to exchange phasor data and network model data/configuration. a side benefit from deployment of RAS is to assist model development and validation and help system planners and operators better understand the impacts of integrating renewable generation on the grid by continuously collecting data from the system with advanced Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). such as device management. and database setting. The Application module includes current and future synchrophasor-supported applications to service the needs of system operators and planners. IEDs in RAS particularly refer to the microprocessor based protection relays. 3. This is particularly important for WAMPAC system as the technology and the applications that utilize the technology are rapidly developing and advancing. retrieval. Vars. Watts. Ad-hoc and Plug-and-play Sensor Network for Maintenance Asset management will be far more important in the age of the smarter grid. 7 2. data. C. which is the global standard for information model and information exchange for substation automation. can be easily transferred among all locations as needed. The data items in the database carry the same ―type‖ as the original data item. Some recent ones are designed to support the IEC 61850 standard [15]. particularly in recent years [12-14]. Network/communication resources sharing: an integrated architecture will allow communication network sharing and increase redundancy. will be connected and visualized to provide additional situation awareness information to system operators at control center. The Visualization module provides an effective visual presentation interface for WAMPAC system users to comprehend the wide-area situation awareness information. It also provides system administration functions that allow WAMPAC to provide system configuration and security services. validation.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. and the data management. fire. 4 outlines the logical components of WAMPAC and their functions and relationships with other systems and entities. And Issn 2250-3005(online) to continue the effort of developing and validating proper models for system planning and operational studies. breaker status. and delivery services within WAMPAC. an integrated WAMPAC system architecture roadmap was developed and proposed to enable SCE to realize its Smart Grid strategy. we should minimize the number of important assets rendered out-of-service due to the attachment and detachment of sensors as well as the maintenance work for the sensor systems themselves.com) Vol. Our concept is the use of an ad-hoc and plug-and-play sensor network for maintenance to avoid or reduce maintenance works required to maintain ICT infrastructure such as battery replacement. and utilizing WASAS system and CRAS system architectures as main components. application management. which can be configured with any ―visible‖ data object in the relay such as Volts. As intelligent sensors and a communications network for collecting health check signals will be technically available in the near future. In the application of transmitting power flows. In contrast to the limited binary status information.

e. The reason for this assumption is that it is still unclear from anycast if propagation delays are independent of the populations. 0]. that is Moreover no assumption is made about this symmetry unless otherwise stated. We assume for technical reasons V the p  dimensional vector (V1 ..1) is the normalized sigmoid function: S ( x)  [ S ( 1 ( x1  h1 )). j ( r ... 0] i i  (1) the slopes of the sigmoids at the origin. The p  p other network areas. Finally the p real positive values li . represent the initial  the p  dimensional vector (1 . R p ) which is a Hilbert space endowed with the usual inner product: p V .  p ). and subsequently been maintained or replaced. In order to compute the righthand side of (1). r ) whose element population j at r and population i at r. If parts are found to have failed or deteriorated. ( simplicity although our analysis applies to more general intrinsic dynamics. see hi ...com) Vol. the value of the nodes potential corresponding to 50% of the maximal activity. below. r )   ( t . represent external factors from I ext the p  ext ext dimensional vector ( I1 . Mathematical Framework A convenient functional setting for the non-delayed packet field equations is to use the space F  L2 (.. for example. For the sake... We note I iext ..   V ( t . The p function is symmetric 1 S ( z)  1  e z p by described by a matrix We give an interpretation of the various parameters and functions that appear in (1).. which helps reduce the maintenance of the sensor systems in the long run. j 1... We note i . 7 systems will be attached without stopping the assets... Using the November| 2012 Page 558 . we need to know the node potential factor V on interval [T . r )   ij (r. The value of T is obtained by considering the maximal delay: m  max  i ....1  i  p.... 0]. p. r ). The vector r and r represent points in function S : R  (0. We also introduce the function S : R  R . packet data indicate that  is not a function i. l p ).0]  (t ) F .. Key technologies include the construction method of field sensor networks (ad-hoc and multi-hop wired/wireless communications and sensors) for collecting field information and the plug-and-play scheme for automated data processing when a sensor is attached or detached as We consider the following anycast field equations defined over an open bounded piece of network and /or feature space   R .. thus is continuous. t ).. r )   i i  dt  J ij (r. V p ).. whereupon their states will be carefully monitored and diagnosed. The Issn 2250-3005(online) propagation delay between 2   C 0 ( . d p  d (  l ) V ( t . S ( p  h p ))]..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.. We note that  j . of generality. that is. F ) m . the propagation delays are not assumed to be identical for all populations. r ) i . The  .. i  1. I p ). Is the intrinsic dynamics of the population given by the linear response of data d d  li ) is replaced by (  li ) 2 to use dt dt d the alpha function response. The p function conditions. Rp p ). r )S[(V j (t   ij (r.. hence they are  ij (r . i  1.U matrix of functions J  {J ij }i .  ij (r. r ) (3) Hence we choose T   m A. r ). Vi  vi  S [ i (Vi  hi )].. i  1. j (r .... r )  h | j )]d r j 1    I iext (r .. p.. p. the sensor systems are fully detached... p represents the connectivity between populations i and the  (r .. with which is the Banach phase space associated with equation (3).. t  0.. i  1. see below.. and the diagonal matrix p p L0  diag (l1 . determine the speed at which each anycast node potential decreases exponentially toward its real value. i  1. The p real values determine the threshold of activity for each population. defined p R d . r ) (2) It describes the relation between the input rate vi of population i as a function of the packets potential. r ) t  [ T .. we defined the history space   supt[  C  C 0 ([ m .  is finite piece of nodes and/or feature space and is represented as an open bounded set of p real positive values  i ... p. p. We use (  li ) for dt transfer. determine F    Vi (r )U i (r )dr i 1  (1) To give a meaning to (1)... They describe the dynamics of the mean anycast of each of p node populations. 2 Issue.

VT )    0 dt V (T )  BR . V0 If set BR .V (t )  BR . the countable additivity of  shows that November| 2012 Page 559 . Proposition 1. is stable under the dynamics of Where L1 : C  F . a particular solution could grow indefinitely. the closure of BR . then V (T ) is defined and belongs to E f (t . dt that then thus V (t ) is F monotonically decreasing and reaches the value of R in finite time when V (t ) reaches BR . 2 Notice that this result gives existence on R . We know that V (t ) is defined for all satisfying . because BR is closed. are disjoint members of M whose union is E . we write (1) as V (t ) F  2 .sup    m . B. Because f<0 on BR . the boundary of BR . define  (E)   s d  (1)  is a measure on M . Boundedness of Solutions A valid model of neural networks should only feature bounded packet node potentials. V (0)  BR implies that t  0.Vt )  l V (t ) F  ( p  J C F  I ) V (t )  X F X X (2) Proof : If s and if E1 . d 2 t  0. p li Thus. Suppose t  0... that T  R. in BR . E2 ...   (2) Let us show that the open route of F of center 0 and radius R. we now prove that this cannot happen. The external current I ext  C 0 ( R. F ) to (3) 3. Theorem 1. Notice that most of the papers on this subject assume  infinite.0 satisfied.      J (. 2.V (t )  F 2 dt def p  ..   [  m . V (t )  BR . t ].Vt )      0 l 2 ext 2 t  0s and that f  0 on BR . Nevertheless. We consider three cases for the initial condition V0 . R p p ). Then for any   C . hence requiring  m  . effect to we also have d 2 because V F |t T  f (T . r ) (r . J F  I def lR2 def  R. functions on for E M . 2 Issue. 7 notation Vt ( )  V (t   ).Vt )   L0Vt (0)  L1S (Vt )  I (t ). Finally we consider the the definition of T. Thus we deduce that for   0 and small enough. r ))d r Is the linear L1  J continuous L2 ( 2 . Proposition 1. R p p ) operator equation. 0]. V F  2 . Thus T  0 | V (T )  BR . there exists a unique solution V  C 1 ([0..  (. F ). This contradicts our assumption. (s  t )d    s d    td  Then 2 Issn 2250-3005(online) and F We note l  min i 1. defined f : R  C  R  as 1d V f (t .. finitetime explosion is impossible for this delayed differential equation. ).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol.V (s)  BR }. J  L2 (2 .  V0    C .1 : Let s and t be measured simple X .  V (t )   L0V (t )  L1S (Vt )  I ext (t ). F )  C 0 ([ m . If the following assumptions are 1.. BR . Rp p ).0 All the trajectories are ultimately bounded by the same constant R if I  max tR I ext (t ) Proof :Let us F  . if R Suppose T  sup{t | s [0.   C 0 (2 . . Thus case V (0)  CBR . f (t . V (T   )  BR which contradicts T  R and BR is stable.

(5) Where X is the set of all points in the support of  whose distance from the complement of K does not  . then there exists a P polynomial such that f ( z)  P( z)   for all z K . 7 n  n  ( E )    i  ( Ai  E )    i   ( Ai  Er ) i 1 i 1  r 1 ()( z )   n    i  ( Ai  Er )    ( Er ) r 1 i 1 And r 1 Also. Since f is uniformly continous. (10) R3 The constants are so adjusted in (6) that (8) holds.  Eij the ( s  t )d   ( i   j ) ( Eij ) and  Eij sd    td    i  ( Eij )   j  ( Eij ) ( z )   2 ( ) (3) . Note that K need to be connected. Next. f can be extended to a continuous function in the plane. with compact support. The difference quotients of A converge boundedly to the corresponding partial derivatives.1  j  m). Our first objective is the construction of a function  C ( R ). (Thus X contains no point which is ―far within‖ K .  (4) 1 ()( ) d d    z X (    i ). For any   0.  m be the distinct values of t. It is clear that A Cc ( R ) .  a ' . this proves the theorem. and note that A A  r  0. let 1 . (3) follows from (8). ( z )  f ( z )   [ f ( z   )  f ( z )] A( )d d (12) R2 And A( )  0 if  . (9) holds simply because A has compact support. put Eij Thus (2) holds with Eij in place of X . Put a(r )  0 if r   . (8)  A  0. then part of the hypothesis is vacuously satisfied. so does Since . (9) Rs R2 24 f ( z)  P( z)  10. let s be as before. We shall prove that there is a polynomial P such that that for all z claim that f ( z2 )  f ( z1 ) Where subject 2 (11) R2 Since f and A have compact support. If the interior of K is empty.. we have  lim  ( )  0  0  A  1. To compute (10). (Compute the integral in polar coordinates). We ' Theorem 1. will be fixed.. and if   0. 3  2 (1  r2  2 (0  r   ).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. the first half of our a(r )  union proposition implies that (2) holds.) We construct  as the convolution of f with a smoothing function A.com) Vol. Now define ( z )   f ( z   ) Ad d   A( z   ) f ( )d d R2 (1) From now on. disjoint of the sets Eij (1  i  n. since Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 560 . )2 (6) And define A( z)  a( z ) (7) For all complex z .and let B j  {x : t ( x )   j } If Eij  Ai  B j .000 ( ) ( z K ) (2) By (1). such ' c 2 2  A  15   . Since X is the f ( z )  ( z )   ( ). so that  is not identically  .. 2 Issue. if f is a continuous complex function on K which is holomorphic in the interior of . Proof: By Tietze‘s theorem.  ( )  0. express A in polar coordinates. and the conclusion holds for every f  C ( K ) ..1: If K is a compact set in the plane whose complement is connected. We fix one such extension and denote it again by f . let  ( ) be the supremum of the numbers z1 and z2 are to the condition z2  z1   .

. . There are functions inequalities. since f is holomorphic there. where G is the set of all z K whose distance from the complement of K exceeds  .. F ( z)  ( z)  6.. of diameter at least 2 . if Issn 2250-3005(online) (21) Since (16) 1 4.. Now (10) and (13) give (4). z ) X ( z  ) (22) Observe that the inequalities (16) and (17) are valid with R in place of Q j if   X and z  . i Hence (22) yields . Now if z G. If we write (13) with  x and  y in place  has continuous partial derivatives. R2   [ f ( z   )  f ( z )](A)( )d  d (15) R2  G .  ... 000 2  2 z  z  ()( )Q j ( . Hence the last expression in (11) may Qj ( . K  . and (5) we have F ( z )  ( z )   1 | d  d z  2 ( )   | R( . by the first equation in (11). The integral in (22) is then seen to be less Now fix z than the sum of 4  50 1 2     d   808 0   (23) And  4. We shall do of . It follows that each D j contains a 2 compact connected set E j . then z   is in the interior of K for all  with    . Runge‘s theorem shows that F can be uniformly approximated on K by polynomials. 000 2 4 2  d   2. (4). 2 Issue. Put X 1  X  D1 and X j  ( X  D j )  ( X 1  .  2 0 0 ( z )   a(r )rdr  f ( z  rei )d   2 f ( z ) a(r )rdr  f ( z ) A  f ( z ) 0  is an open set which contains K . z )  (18) November| 2012 Page 561 (25) . and estimate the integrand in (22) by (16) if   4 . (14) Note that f  0 in G . with r  2 . put   z   ei . z)  g j ( z)  (  bj ) g 2j ( z) be differentiated under the integral sign. and (5) The definition of X shows that X is compact and that X can be covered by finitely many open discs D1 .com) Vol. 000 .000( ) (24) ( z  ) F  H (). (20) Since. By (20). of radius 2 ..  X j 1 ). Dn . (17) Hence (3) and (25) show that (2) can be satisfied. Since S  K is connected. The mean value property for harmonic functions therefore gives. whose centers are For all z not in K . This completes the proof. the center of each D j can be joined to  by a polygonal path in 2 S  K .. z ) d  d K  E j   . 7 A Cc' ( R 2 ) . Hence F H (). Then ()( z )   (A)( z   ) f ( )d d R2   f ( z   )(A)( )d d (13) R2 The last equality depends on (9). if we can show that   0 in G . z )d d .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. ( X j . and S 2  K is connected. we see that this by showing that ( z )  f ( z ) ( z G). for 2  j  n. and we obtain Let  be the complement of E1  . z )  Q j ( . z  ) And 2  Q j ( . g j H (S 2  E j ) and constants b j so that the 50 (19) ()( ) R( .   D j . (4). by (17) if 4  . z )   Hold for z  E j and (18) shows that F is a finite linear combination of the functions g j and g 2j . so that S 2  E j is connected and so that Define R ( . we have now proved (3). z ) 1   X ( z  ) F ( z)  F ( z)   j 1 1   X Q j ( .  En .

. then  are the corners of A ) Moreover.. and the zero ideal (corresponding to the empty set A ). 7 Lemma 1.. X n  .2.X n  ... We LT (a) Issn 2250-3005(online) 1. r  0. X n  is to one correspondence with the subsets A of  satisfying () . generated by the monomials X . )d r 2 0 As   0.  is periodic in  . the chain rule gives (f )( )  real 1 i   i   e   (r ... Clearly A satisfies  ....2 Let a be a nonzero ideal in X X X  a . with compact support. )  f ( z  rei ). the space of all ' 2 continuously differentiable functions in the plane. Let A   n satisfy  . ) 2  r r     A    n |      n . s  1  2   i     d dr 2  0  r r   (4) For each r  0. the monomial ideals in precisely... Put 1       i  2  x y   A (subspace generated by the X . (5)  1 2 dr   ( .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.. a in more a  ( g1 . is an     ideal. For a nonzero ideal a in X i ..0.. some g1 .  | S PROOF. LT ( g n )) for (  c X  )(  d X  )   c d X   ( finite sums). some   S Thus. then the subspace the ideal generated by the leading monomials (rather  than the leading terms) of elements of a . g n  a . g s ) where g1 .0 : Suppose f  Cc ( R ).. and    a .  i If   z  re .  A  ... if   A . and (4) becomes of k  X 1 ... we let ( LT (a)) be the ideal generated by LT ( f ) | f  a  LEMMA 1. Since ( LT (a)) can also be described as and so if A satisfies () .. Let Then the following ―Cauchy formula‖ holds: f ( z)   (f )( ) d d   R2   z ideal corresponding to 1 (    i ) df Proof: This may be deduced from Green‘s theorem. The the  ideal a generated by X . Every finitely ideal generated. For example. some i  S 2 .1. of     n   for X X X some  S . X n  . From the geometry of A ...... However. Conversely. Conversely. ideal. as   0. with period   1 2  2 0 d     X  a and If such that  (The i ' s This X  k  X1. and (2) Put X  |   A for the ideal corresponding to write a  X  |   A .   n PROOF. X n  : they are in one n THEOREM k  X 1 . g s are any elements of a whose leading terms generate November| 2012 Page 562 . it is clear that there is a finite set of elements S  1 . then (3) The right side of (2) is therefore equal to the limit... a monomial is in a if and only if it is  divisible by one of the X . The proposition gives a classification of the monomial ideals in k  X1 . here is a simple direct proof:  (r .com) Vol.  ( . (1) S be a subset of  n . df a X  |   A is generated by the monomials DEFINITION 1. 2 Issue.. The last statement follows   n from the fact that X | X       . and so A satisfies the k  X 1 .. and it equals ( LT ( g1 ).   a ....   a )...   S is the monomial LEMMA 1. gives (2) A A     n |   i   2 . n  1 .. n k  X  are exactly the ideals ( X ).. )  f ( z ) uniformly. The integral of  /  is therefore 0.  i  S . then ( LT (a)) is a monomial condition () .

e. X n 1 ) X nr  . By continuing in this way. This means that a model D of the  calculus must have the property that given a term t whose interpretation is d  D.| .g r 1. We shall prove the theorem by induction on n . Let a be an ideal in A[ X ] ....... On applying this remark we find that f t  ( g r 1. a0  0..mr 1 ...1 .. g m be elements of f  a1g1  .. PROOF.. Let g1 .. Let g d ... it is again an ideal in A . which means that every ideal is generated by single element. has degree  deg( f ) . X n ] is THEOREM 1... S is a standard basis if the leading term of every element of a is divisible by at least one of the leading terms of the a whose leading coefficients generate a ' ....g d . For a polynomial f ( X )  a0 X r  a1 X r 1  .. k [ X ] is a principal ideal domain... implies that every monomial occurring in r is LT ( g i ) ... we find that f  ft mod( g1 ...  ar ( X 1 . We call 0 the leading coefficient of the polynomial 0. any term may appear in the function position of an application.. But is divisible by any r  f   ai g i  a .com) Vol... Let  :  D  D  D be the function that picks out elements of D to represent elements of  D  D and  : D   D  D be the function that maps elements of D to functions of D. g 0.. and let r be the maximum degree of g i . Since  ( f ) is intended to represent the November| 2012 Page 563 . X n 1 ][ X n ]  k[ X 1 . and a 0 is its leading coefficient.. g 0.. argument as above shows that any polynomial f d in The ring k[ X 1 . and so we can write a   bi ai . ai  A.. 7 PROOF..g m ) ft With a polynomial of degree t  r . Then the same gi .. the interpretation of a functional abstraction like  x . g 0. 2 Issue... Thus r  0 . For n  1. Now let f  a.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline...1 . X n )  a0 ( X 1 .. say....mr 1 ... X n ] is an isomorphism – this simply says that every polynomial f in n variables X 1 . g d . a bases for if (Gr obner ) ( LT ( g1 ). The leading coefficients of the polynomials in a form an ideal ' ' a in A .  as gs  r..m0 ) and so the polynomials g1 . bi  A. let a d be the subset of A consisting of 0 and the leading coefficients of all polynomials in a of degree d . then so also is A[ X ] PROOF.. A finite subset S  g1 .. a will Issn 2250-3005(online) a of degree can be written d f d  f d 1 mod( g d . and therefore LT (r )  LT (a)  ( LT ( g1 )... LT ( g s ))  LT (a) .... Also.g 0.g m g r 1.g r 1.... m0 generate a One of the great successes of category theory in computer science has been the development of a ―unified theory‖ of the constructions underlying denotational semantics... ai .3. and suppose f has degree s  r . Let f  a . ai  leading coefficient of gi Now f   bi gi X s ri .md ) With f d 1 of degree repeatedly  d 1 ....... g s ) ....3 Noetherian i. In the untyped  -calculus. X n  ...  ar .m be polynomials of degree d whose d leading coefficients generate a d .... every ideal is finitely generated.. In other words. and divisible by one in g  ( g1 . where either r  0 or no monomial occurring in it LT ( g i ) .. x is most conveniently defined as a function from Dto D . gs  of an ideal a is a standard ( . X n can be expressed uniquely as a polynomial in X n with coefficients in k[ X 1 ..... Then a  a ' ......g 0..1 .m0 ) Hence ft  ( g1 .. f  aX s  ..1 . X n ] : f ( X 1 ... On applying the division we find be finitely generated. If A is Noetherian. Note that the obvious map k[ X 1 ... For each d  r . X n 1 ) Thus the next lemma will complete the proof LEMMA 1..1 . algorithm. r  k  X1 . LT ( g s )) . r is called the degree of f . which must then be regarded as an element of D. ri  deg( gi )....1 . and since A is Noetherian.. DEFINITION 1.1.

. F ( f )  F ( F ( f )) o 1 2 ..  o  id DD Furthermore. Instead of a least fixed point of the function. there is an embedding of X to Y --.. we often want to Definition 1. Let K be a category with initial object  and let F : K  K be a functor. i  fi o i 1 .   is i | i  1 .. D is isomorphic to the space of functions from D to D that can be the interpretations of functional abstractions: suppose we are D   D  D . It is also convenient to there exists a unique mediating arrow  write   D1 f1 f2 D2 ... F ( f )  F ( f ). and  A for the unique arrow from  to each K-object A... Definition 1. to denote all of  Do and f 0 .4.that is.3: Let K be a category and F : K  K as a functor.a). finding domains X such that X  A   X  X  . where A is a K-object and a is any arrow from F(A) to A Issn 2250-3005(online) the property that if  :   X is also a cocone then there exists a unique mediating arrow ' k : X  X ' such that for all i  0... it makes sense to  ( ( f ))  f . We write  k (or just  ) for the distinguish initial object of K.. For the images of  and  under F we write except F ( fo ) F ( f1 ) F ( f2 ) F (  )  F ( Do ) F ( D1 )F ( D2 ) . With these definitions we can state that every monitonic function on a complete lattice has a least fixed point: Lemma 1. a colimit  :   X is a cocone with all or  o   id D The latter condition is called extensionality.Let us working with the untyped the equation   calculus .. when it has one.. By analogy. Each element of D corresponds to either an element of A or an element of  D  D .etc. vi  k o i .a). A fixed point of F is a pair (A. An  op -limit of  op  chain  is a cone  : X   with ' the property that if  : X   is also a cone. A prefixed point of F is a pair (A. F ( f )  f . 7 f as an element of D. i o k   i .. where A is a K-object and a : F ( A)  A is an isomorphism. This equation can be solved by finding least fixed points of the function F ( X )  A   X  X  from domains to domains --. and F ( )  F (i ) | i  0 We write – F i for the i-fold iterated composition of F that is. Define the   chain  by November| 2012 Page 564 .com) Vol.4 : An   chain in a category K is a diagram of the following form: view every element of D as representing some function from D to D and require that elements representing the same function be equal – that is Recall that a cocone object X and a function  ( (d ))  d f1 f2  of an   chain  is a Kcollection of K –arrows i : Di  X | i  0 such that i  i 1o fi for i  0 . an   chain in K is a diagram of the following form: fo f1 f2   Do D1 D2 . with a tag. These conditions together imply that  and  are inverses--.. F. The key shift of perspective from the domain-theoretic to the more general categorytheoretic approach lies in considering F not as a function on domains. 2 Issue. Dually. then an k : X'  X such that for all i  0. require that that is. where A is some predetermined domain containing interpretations for elements of C.. and A cone  op  chain  is a K-object X a collection of K-arrows i : Di | i  0 such :X  that for all of an i  0.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.  Y fR Such that f R o f  id X f o f  idY Where f  g means that f approximates g in R some ordering representing their information content.. we need a solution ot D  A   D  D . but as a functor on a category of domains.that is. We sometimes write  :   X as a reminder of the arrangement of  ' s components Similarly. Colimits of   chains are sometimes referred to op as   co lim its .a pair of maps f X fo   Do D1 D2 . and such that for any domain Y also satisfying this equation.

. Proof. we need only show P( xk | nd k )  P( xk | pak ) . Clearly. X n be the resultant ordering.4 Let a DAG G given in which each node is a random variable... then LEMMA 1. order the nodes so that all and only nondescendents of Q  x / (m ( x))  m ( x) If m divides n . it follows Q( m )  Q( mk ) for all k relatively prime to m . Let NDk   X 1 . 1  k  m. x2 . for example. the identification being  m  x. X n  follows  dk mth cyclotomic field to be the field Q  x / (m ( x)) Where  m ( x) is the mth We define the cyclotomic polynomial. is equal to one. We now investigate some basic properties of cyclotomic fields. Note that that mth root of  mk  Q( m ) for every k . Order the nodes according to an ancestral ordering. The roots of  m ( x) are just the primitive has degree mth roots of unity.P( x2 | pa2 ) P( x1 | pa1 ). we have  m  Q( n ). X k  2 .. One advantage of this is that one can easily talk about cyclotomic fields being extensions of one another. 2 Issue... we need show for 1  k  n that whenever P( pak )  0. so the result is clear LEMMA 1. To do this. The first issue is whether or not they are all distinct. then will show that this is the only way in which one can th obtain any non. In particular.... whereas the ordering in the first part of the proof does not...... (k .6 If m and n are relatively prime. and (G.d) is an intial F-algebra. x2 . all of these things take place considering them as subfield of C. m)  1.... Since PAk  NDk .or intersections or compositums. Clearly then where  k ( x)   mk . we need to know which roots of unity lie in Q( m ) . Therefore.com) Vol.xn ) 1 for all values of the variables. Where NDk is the set of nondescendents of X k of in G. to show we have a joint distribution. so Q  x / (m ( x)) is Galois over Q . Then the product of these conditional distributions yields a joint probability distribution P of the variables. To that end. If both  :   D and F (  ) : F ()  F ( D) are colimits.xn )  P( xn | pa n ) P( xn1 | Pan1 ).. Where PAi is the set of parents of X i of in G and P ( xi | pai ) is the specified conditional probability distribution. Next define. the images of the  i coincide. then Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 565 . First we show this does indeed yield a joint probability distribution.Note..  m being our fixed choice of primitive unity.P) satisfies the Markov condition. and let a discrete conditional probability distribution of each node given values of its parents in G be specified. we show the Markov condition is satisfied.. Specified conditional distributions are the conditional distributions they notationally represent in the joint distribution. Finally.. to determine this. Let Dk   X k 1 .. 7   ! F (  ) F (! F (  ))  F ()  2 F ()  .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. P( x1... X 2 . .... if P(nd k | pak )  0 and P( xk | pak )  0 then P( xk | nd k . Note that this ordering depends on k . Since  n m  m .. as the variables range through all their possible values. 0  P( x1 . We if m is odd. we will do so from now on. pak )  P( xk | pak ). then (D.. X k 1 F (! F (  )) 2 X 1 ...  (m) over Q since  m ( x) has degree  (m) . so the complex embeddings of Q  x / (m ( x)) are simply the  (m) maps  k : Q  x  / ( m ( x))  C ... where d : F ( D)  D is the mediating arrow from  F ( ) to the cocone  Theorem 1. X k precede X k in the ordering. First for a given k .5 contained in Q( m ) is Q ( n ) PROOF. This means that we can write Q( m ) for Q x / (m ( x)) without much fear of ambiguity. X 2 ..m roots of unity. that  m is a 2mth root of unity.

. Since 1 2  Q( p e1 )Q( p f1 ).. and so )  P( xi ) and also I ( xi .  n ) has degree  (mn) over Q .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. y j )  log 2 bits. so we must have Q(m . pkfk pi are distinct primes. n denote where the Write the least common m  p1e1 .. yj P( xi ) connected to the corresponding self-information that corresponds to the input multiple and the greatest common divisor of m and n... and so they constitute an input –output pair ( xi . y j ) log 2   i. here k  Q(m .  n )  Q( nm ) and Q( m )  Q( n )  Q Q( m .. a given channel will operate between these two extremes. 7 Q( m .n ).. pkek and p1f1 . y j )  0. f ) ). (We allow ei or fi to be zero) k p1 k max( ek . yi )  log 2 P( xi ) yi bits P( xi ) (1) In a noise-free channel.Q ( 1 that is. One checks easily that  m n is a primitive 1  Q( th mn root of unity.. that is.. p k 1 p1 ) An entirely similar computation Q( m )  Q( n )  Q( ( m .Q( p fk ) 1 2 k Thus Q( m .....n ) ). this implies that Q( m . the output be P( completely xi yj xi In a y i and input xi would uncorrelated..n ) ) Mutual information transferred when measures the shows that information xi is sent and y i is received. n )  Q(m. j i.  n )  Q( nm ) We know that Q( m .. An average of the calculation of the mutual information for all input-output pairs of a given channel is the average mutual information:  P( xi   yj  I ( X . yi ) for which 1 x P( i ) 1 and I ( xi . respectively. The mutual information is defined between the input and the output of a given channel...  n )  Q( Q(m .. PROOF.. and is defined as I ( xi .. there is no transference of information. n and  m.Q( p fk ) 1 PROOF.   (m) (n)   (mn).. f ) ) k p1 max( e1. y j )   P( xi .. y j ) I ( xi . The average mutual information..  n ) is the compositum of Q( m ) and Q( n ) ) (Recall the Q( m )  Q( p e1 )Q( p e2 ). This calculation is done over the input and output alphabets. n ) : Q  Q(m ) : QQ(n : Q Q(mn ) : Q  (mn). The following expressions are useful for modifying the mutual information expression: Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 566 . 1 max( e1. f ) 1 .. 2 Issue...n ) : Q(m )  (m) Q(m ) : Q(m )  Q(n )  (m) And thus that Q( m )  Q( n )  Q PROPOSITION 1.n ) And m.. Y )   P( xi .Q( p ek )Q( p fk ) very noisy channel. In general...2 For any m and n Q(m .. n ) : Q(m )  (n) and Q(m . j  P( xi )    bits per symbol .Q( p ek )Q( p f1 ).. so that Q( mn )  Q( m .. each y i is uniquely xi .Q( p ek ) 1 2 k and Q( n )  Q( p f1 )Q( p f2 ).. the transferred information is equal to the Q( m )  Q( n )  Q( ( m.. f ) max( ek .  n )  Q( p e1 ).com) Vol...

j And by interchanging input and output it is also true that j 2 i. j   P ( xi .Y )  H ( X )  H ( X ) Y Where yj. 2 Issue. y j ) 1 P ( xi ) P ( y j ) Theorem 1. However. y j ) log 2   P ( xi . y j ) log 2    i.com) Vol. and the number of bits needed for determining a given input symbol after knowing the corresponding output symbol ) P( xi ) ) P( xi ) ) P( y j ) Then I ( X . j  P ( xi )     1   P ( xi . j As the channel mutual information expression is a difference between two quantities. Thus. y j )  P( xi P( y j )   P( yj i P( xi )   P( i xi ) P( y j )  P( yj xi yj yj xi This last entropy is usually called the noise entropy. 7 P( xi . This difference is the mutual information of the channel. y j ) log 2   P( xi . it seems that this parameter can adopt negative values. X ) I ( X . when the input and the output are independent of each other. j  P ( xi )  is spite of the fact that for some 1  x     P ( i ) P ( y j )  log 2 y j P ( xi )  i  1 i P( xi ) log 2 P( x )  H ( X ) i  I ( X . Alternatively. P( x1 )   and P( x2 )  1   . Y )   P ( xi . y j ) I ( X . y j ) log 2  P ( x ) P ( xi ) P ( y j ) i. which in this expression is a dummy variable that fits the condition  Q  1 . j i Then i.Y )  H ( X )  H ( X ) Y i. y j ) log 2   x i. j I ( X . Y )  I (Y . which is the product of two 1 P( y j ) Qi . Y )  H (Y )  H (Y 0 probabilities. In a sense. the information transferred through the channel is the difference between the output entropy and the noise entropy. y j ) can be larger than H ( X ) . y j ) The above expression can be applied due to the is usually called the equivocation. It can also be equal to zero. H (X / yj ) 1 P ( xi . y j ) log 2 i.5: Entropies of the binary erasure channel (BEC) The BEC is defined with an alphabet of two inputs and three outputs. with symbol probabilities. and transition probabilities November| 2012 Page 567 . this is not possible for the average value calculated over all the outputs: x P( i ) yj P( xi . and is a function of the backward conditional probability. j P( xi .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. It can be concluded i i that the average mutual information is a nonnegative number. y j ) log 2 Y M  P log i 1 P( 1 xi xi yj ) y j provides H ( X )  H ( X ) bits of Y yj ) P( y j )  P( yj xi X ) Where Issn 2250-3005(online) ( Qi )0 Pi P ( xi ) P ( y j ). it can be said that the channel mutual information is the difference between the number of bits needed for determining a given input symbol before knowing the corresponding output symbol. j  P( i )  yj    1  P ( xi . y j ) log 2   i. the equivocation can be seen as the information lost in the noisy channel. Y )   P ( xi . so that it behaves as the quantity ) P( xi ) The mutual information fits the condition H (Y )   P ( y j ) log 2 i factor information. j i. Mutual Information: Properties Since P( P( xi . y j ) P( xi . j H ( X )   i . The observation of an output symbol P( xi ) P( y j ) Because this expression is of the form I ( X . Y )   P( xi . y j ) P ( xi ) P ( y j ) P ( xi . A related entropy called the joint entropy is defined as H ( X . y j ) log 2 i. and  1    P ( xi .

ai b j . with a and b ideals in A and B .7.. 2. We will show by showing that t u   tea  P( X . To see this... y )dxdy. ( If t  0.. and so is a field. am ) and .. i  1.com) Vol. and that it consist of all finite sums of the form . Let A be a ring. y )dx dy y Ax 1 Where chosen   p ( x) Let Proof: A sequence  ( x . yn | x1 ... Clearly ab consists of all finite sums  aibi with ai  a bi  b .... The ideals of A  B are all of the form a  b .. sm  . p( x.. y ) A and P( y3 x )  1  p 2 a  (a1 . Set Bk  Ax( k )  p( x. amplitude-continuous channel whose restrictions are determined by sets Fn and whose density functions exhibit no dependence on the state s . note that if c is an ideal in A  B and November| 2012 Page 568 .. real number a. ambn ) . Y )  A  P X  F proceed as follows. A p ( x.. let   p( y | x) A  ( x. form the desired code.. A / p is an integral domain. Note that ab  a  b .. (Conceivably t  0 ).e... r  A  ra  A The ideal generated by a subset S of A is the intersection of all ideals A containing a ----.  ) such that   ue  P( X . property that ab  0. p ( x)dx F x  F such that P Y  Ax1 | X  x (1)   1   (1)   p ( x) x Choose the decoding set B1 to be Ax .. b  b is denoted by ab .... and if b  (b1 . y )  p ( x ) p ( y | x ) and P  X  F    .. select   and where Ax   y : ( x..... s ) for the ideal it generates. let n be a fixed positive integer. 7 P( y3 x )  1  p and P( y2 x )  0.xn ) and F for Fn For any . 2 Let 1 and P( y3 x )  0 B   j 1 B j . bn ) x (1) . i 1   k 1 i 1 B i . and p( x) an arbitrary probability density function on Euclidean p ( y | x) n-space.Let a be an ideal of A.. Y )  A   . y) : log  a (1) p( y )   Then for each positive integer u .. Algorithms Ideals. We r s i i with ri  A. Recall that an ideal a in A is a subset such that a is subgroup of A regarded as a group under addition. When S  s1 .. Thus assume that the process terminates after t steps. b  b ideals in A.. The ideal generated by ab | a  a.. Thus m is maximal if and only if A / m has no proper nonzero ideals. u . Thus p is prime if and only if A / p is nonzero and has the b  0  a  0. If the process does not terminate in a finite number of steps... si  S . Note that m maximal  m prime... Having (1) x k  F such that k 1   P Y  Ax( k )   Bi | X  x( k )   1   . 2 Issue. then the sequences x(i ) and decoding sets Bi .. Given an arbitrary restricted timediscrete.. x ( k 1) and B1 . we shall (2)write ( s .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.it is easy to verify that this is in fact an ideal.. denoted by a  b ..... An ideal m is maximal if m | A and there does not exist an ideal n contained strictly between m and A . Y )  A  t 1 2 Lemma 1. Then and P( y1 x )  p P ( X ... i.... then ab  (a1b1 . a m and b be a  b | a  a.. Issn 2250-3005(online) p( y | x)dy dx  yB  Ax p( y | x)dy dx   p( x) x C. Y )  A  P X  F a x P ( X . The set of cosets of a in A forms a ring A / a .. Bk 1 . The set is an ideal.. take B   ). for the density pn ( y1 .... n.. y ) A. a  a. there is a code (u. and is a homomorphism a aa 1  : A  A / a .. The map b   (b) is a one to one correspondence between the ideals of A / a and the ideals of A containing a An ideal p if prime if p  A and ab  p  a  p or b  p ..

X n  . ca1. The division algorithm allows us to divide a nonzero polynomial into another: let f and g be polynomials in k  X  with g  0. 0  0 Then we define. we can regard k as a subring of A ..e. with ties broken by reverse lexicographic ordering. Let k be a field.. The ring k  X1.. f  gh  g or h is constant.... i. b)  (a. Note that this isn‘t quite how the dictionary would order them: it would put XXXYYZZZZ after XXXYYZ ...... An A -algebra B is said to be finitely generated ( or of finite-type over A) if there exist elements x1 .. Graded reverse lexicographic order (grevlex). 2 Issue. For example: X 4Y 4 Z 7  X 5Y 5 Z 4 (total degree greater) XY 5 Z 2  X 4YZ 3 . If 1  0 in A ..........e.e.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.. Then we can write an element f of k  X1 ...0)  (a. i. i. aj  With the obvious notions of equality... For example.. X n  as a k -vector space. X n  in a canonical fashion.. then (a. A polynomial f ( X 1 . b)  c some a  a q. R  0 . then there exist Issn 2250-3005(online)   (b1 .   (a1 . such that the homomorphism A X1 ... and B is finitely generated as an A-module. b)(1.. homomorphism of A -algebra B  C is a homomorphism of rings  : B  C such that (Pure) lexicographic ordering (lex). X n  is an integral domain.. or  ai  bi and in    the right most nonzero entry is negative.1)  c .. More precisely. .. X n  are finite sums an n X .. We sometimes abbreviate it by X  . 0  1  ..... X n   B X i to xi is surjective. by re-ordering its elements in decreasing order.    if  ai  bi .. unique polynomials Moreover. Here monomials are ordered by lexicographic(dictionary) order. addition and multiplication.. monomial is a j  N . i... then    and X   X  (lexicographic ordering) if..e.X nan . there is an algorithm for deciding whether f  ( g ) . the Euclidean algorithm allows to pass from finite set of generators for an ideal in k  X  to a single generator by successively Let A be a ring. X n  .an  k . Division in k  X  .. xn  B such that every element of B can be expressed as a polynomial in the xi with coefficients in i ( A) ... The total degree of the ai . b)  c . A replacing each pair of generators with their greatest common divisor...com) Vol... polynomial ring c a1 . Polynomial rings. XY 2  Y 3 Z 4 .  The multidegree of f to be multdeg( f )= November| 2012 Page 569 0 . X 5YZ  X 4YZ 2 ..X . Let k be a field. X n ) is irreducible if it is nonconstant and has only the obvious factorizations.. then the map k  A is injective..bn ) be two elements of  n .. Orderings on k  X1 .. 7 (a.0)  c and (0. A ring homomorphism A  B is finite. let   (a1 . If 1=0 in a ring R. X  1 n . A monomial in X 1 .. Fix an ordering on the monomials in k  X1 .. an )   n The elements of the . find r and check whether it is zero.. An A -algebra is a ring B together with a homomorphism iB : A  B .an ) and  (iB (a))  iC (a) for all a  A .. This shows that c  a  b with a  a | (a.... X n is an expression of the form sending X1a1 .. in the vector difference     .an a1 1 k  X1. X 3Y 2 Z 4  X 3Y 2 Z . Here monomials are ordered by total degree. the R is the zero ring. r  k  X  such that f  qg  r with either r  0 or deg r < deg g . we can identify k with its image. namely. b)(0.. Thus the monomials from basis for k  X1. in decreasing order: f  a0 X 0 1 X 1  . For example. b)  c some b  b and b  b | (a. and the only units in it are the nonzero constant polynomials... we would write f  4 XY 2 Z  4Z 2  5 X 3  7 X 2 Z 2 as f  5 X 3  7 X 2 Z 2  4 XY 2 Z  4Z 2 (lex) or f  4 XY 2 Z  7 X 2 Z 2  5 X 3  4Z 2 ( grevlex) Let  a X   k  X .. the left most nonzero entry is positive. Moreover... and let A be a k -algebra. Thus..

. X n  . X .. It is clear from its definition that a monomial ideal a is the k -subspace of k  X1.. and is given by P[C ( n )  c]  n  n 1 c 1 1 N (n. In general. mn .7 For nonnegative integers m1.2.. The division algorithm in k  X1 . This can be established directly by exploiting cancellation of the form [mj ] cj / c!j  1/ (c j  m j )! when c j  m j .. C (n) 1 The ( n) n joint distribution of ) follows from Cauchy‘s formula.  n  1 m j  n [m ]  E   (C (j n ) ) j        j 1   j 1  j    n  1  jm j  n    j 1   (1...    n      () a is the k -subspace of k  X1 ...LT ( g s ) Step 2: Rewrite r1  LT (r1 )  r2 . 2  n satisfying  . n Lemma1. Then A satisfies the   A..3... the division algorithm then constructs polynomials a1 .. Write m   jmj . Fix a monomial ordering in  2 .. 2 the leading monomial is 2 XY Z ....  as g s  LT (r1 )  r3 : (different ai ' s ) Monomial ideals.  as g s  r1 so on... c)  1  jc j  n   ( ) j . X n  generated by is a monomial ideal. for example.. then the counts random C (n) C (j n ) of cycles of length j are dependent variables..5.. a subset of f to be LM( f ) =  The leading monomial of 0 a0 X 0  The leading term of f to be LT( f ) = f  4 XY Z  . which occurs between the ingredients in Cauchy‘s formula and the falling factorials in the moments.. X n  n  j 1 condition And  d j  c j  m j . X n  .1) .. LT ( g s ) Step 1: If LT ( g1 ) | LT ( f ) ....g s ) of polynomials. of A is Issn 2250-3005(online) n  n 1 1 1 jd j  n  m  d j m j   j d  j 1  j 1 j (d j )! This last sum simplifies to the indicator 1(m  n)...  (C . we have Y or X .com) Vol. 7  The leading coefficient of f to be LC( f )= a 0 . Then. [m ] PROPOSITION 1.... an ideal a will contain a polynomial without containing the individual terms of the polynomial.. and term is f  a1 g1  .. repeat the process until f  a1 g1  f1 (different a1 ) with LT ( f1 ) not divisible by LT ( g1 ) . If a permutation is chosen uniformly and at random from the n ! possible permutations in S n ... X n  generated by the set of monomials it contains. and   A   | X   a . then Page 570 (1. Suppose given a polynomial f and an ordered set ( g1 ..1).. Conversely...   A ... and repeat Step 1 r2 with f for f  a1 g1  ... let X a of k  X1 . the leading coefficient is 4.. Let a be a monomial ideal. corresponding to the fact that if November| 2012 n  m  0.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.  as g s  r Where either r  0 or no monomial in r is divisible by any of LT ( g1 ).. If X a and X   k  X1 ...4) Proof... the For the polynomial multidegree is (1.cn )   n and the last sum indexed by d  (d1 ... until With LT (r1 ) not divisible by any LT ( g1 ). An ideal a is monomial if c X   a  X   a  |  A PROOF. 2 Issue. d n )   n via the correspondence n  n [m ]  [m ] E   (C (j n ) ) j    P[C ( n )  c]  (c j ) j j 1  j 1  c n  n (c j ) j  1  jc j  n   c j  c:c j  m j for all j  j 1  j 1 j c j ! all  with c  0 . and the leading 2 4XY Z ... X n  LT ( g1 ) If LT ( g1 ) | LT ( h) ..as and r such that f  a1 g1  ... then the k-subspace  generated by the X . n!  j 1  j 1 j c j ! for c    . a1   k  X 1 . divide g1 into f to get LT ( f ) f  a1 g1  h. with the first sum indexed by c  (c1 ... the ideal a  (Y  X ) contains 2 3 Y 2  X 3 but not 3 DEFINITION 1.. Now divide g 2 into f1 .

..1. The moments of C (j n ) follow immediately as (1... The joint (n) (n) distribution of (C1 ..... G is the set of permutations   Sn such that  is one of the cycles of  . lb       (1)    i 1  i  li !  i 1  i  ci ! l  il0 with  i n m The joint (n) 1 moments (n) b C ... the limit random variables are independent. summing over all sets of r distinct properties..3) .. k! C (j n ) converges in distribution to a random variable Z j having a Poisson distribution with So that mean 1/ j. Z 2 . C of the first b counts can be obtained directly from (1. n not in  must be permuted among themselves.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline...... so that I  n[ j ]/ j .3) random variables that satisfy E ( Z j )  1/ j The marginal distribution of cycle counts provides a formula for the joint distribution of the cycle C nj ..7).2) with j  1. We then have G  (n  j)!. for n  2. the inclusion-exclusion series for the number of permutations having exactly k properties is li b  b  1 ci 1  1 1 l1 .. which is the sum of the probabilities of the r -fold intersection of properties...... the mean and (n) variance of C1 are both equal to 1. There are two cases to consider.com) Vol... and there are (n  rj )!1(rj  n) permutations in the intersection....3) by setting mb 1  . as n  . we find the distribution of C nj using a Lemma 1. C .. k l  Sk l .2)  k ! l 0 l! (n) and the moments of C1 follow from (1. 2.4) can also be written in the form  n  n [m ]   n  [m ]  E   (C (j n ) ) j   E   Z j j 1  jm j  n  . length with the [ n / j ] k  (1)l l 0 Consider the set I j l l! (1. then the intersection specifies how rj elements are moved by the permutation.. we substitute j=1 in (1... [ rj ] r There are n / ( j r !) such intersections. k  0... 2. 2 Issue. Infact.. Thus Sr  (n  rj )!1(rj  n)  Which simplifies to (1.n..1) Returning to the original hat-check problem. since the elements of 1. That is.. For each   I . If the r properties are indexed by r cycles having no elements in common. formed with elements chosen from 1. For the other case.  mn  0 The limit distribution of cycle counts It follows immediately from Lemma 1.. (C .. cb )   b with m   ici .1. 7 d j  0 for j  n  m. P[C (j n )  k ]  j  k 1/ j e . In particular.2.2) We note for future reference that (1. For any c  (c1 . To use the inclusion-exclusion formula we need to calculate the term S r .8. Theorem 1. (1. that is. consider the ―property‖ G of having .) (n) 1 (n) 2 (1.2) and (1.. and the r -fold intersection is empty. and a random permutation in Snm must have some cycle structure (d1 . n.   j 1   j 1   j 1 (1.2 that for n  ..  l   (1)  l0 E(C(j n) )[ r ]  j r 1 jr  n counts Finally. Cb ) for any 1 b  n has an expression similar to (1. we use the notation C(j n) d Z j where Z j  Po (1/ j ) to describe this.. this too can be derived by inclusion-exclusion. P[(C1( n ) . so no permutation can have both these properties. d n  m ) . For k  0. 1 nk 1 (1)l . some two distinct properties name some element in common. each fixed as j. j k k! l P[C1( n )  k ]  Where the Z j are independent Poisson-distribution combinatorial approach combined inclusion-exclusion formula.1) of all possible cycles of j ..6 The process of cycle counts converges in distribution to a Poisson process of  with intensity j 1 . Cb( n ) )  c] 1  j  n.) d ( Z1 . For P[C (j n )  k ]  Proof.1) to obtain the distribution of the number of fixed points of a random permutation..1) n[ rj ] 1 1  1(rj  n) r r j r ! n! j r! Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 571 (1.

.. b). b])) For    An (C ( n) )  under Establish the asymptotics of conditions ( A0 ) and ( B01 ). Z b )  c] P[T0 n ( Z ' )  n]  k  0. where An (C ( n ) )    C 1i  n  ri' 1 j  ri  i  (ri' / rid ) 1  O(i  g ) ' and as   dTV ( L(C[1. L(T0b ( Z )))  max  P[T0b ( Z )  r ] A r A  P[Tbn ( Z )  n  r ]  1   P[T0 n ( Z )  n]   Suppressing the argument obtain Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Z (1.3) refers to the quantity derived It thus follows that Z' .7 (n. L( Z [1. both (1.7 (n) (1.7 (n) tend to zero as n  . the relative error in this asymptotic Since P[ Z1  n]  g '  0. from 1 1 1 (  )  P[C1( n )  k ]  P[ Z1  k ] k ! (n  k  1)! (n  k  2)! 1  k !(n  k  1)! depending on Z and the ri ' and computable explicitly from (1. Elementary analysis can be used to estimate this rate when b  1 . b)  O(b / n) under Conditions ( A0 ). ( n) ij n 1 if g '  1. L( Z [1. L( Z [1. if Conditions ( A0 ) and ( B01 ) are satisfied and if  i  O(i  g ) from some ' It follows that n 2n 1 n 2n 1  1   P[C1( n )  k ]  P[ Z1  k ]  (n  1)! n  2 k 0 ( n  1)! n1'1. for d d   exp  [log(1  i 1 d )  i 1 d ] n  i 1  1  O(n Where  1.7 (n) and n11..4) from now on. for Relation....2. n. b]). In particular. by the Conditioning i  . Cb( n ) )  c]  P[( Z1 . 7 Where Z j ..7 (n.   some g  0..)  . as n  ..3).7 (n)) 1 (1.. ( D1 ) and ( B11 ) Since. (n  1)! n  2 (n  2)(n  3) (n  1)! free polynomials. P[T0 m ( Z ' )  n] P[ An (C )]  P[T0 m ( Z )  n] It follows by direct calculation that ' (n)  1i  n ri' 1 j  ri    1  (1  Ei 0 )   iri  (1.. We start with the expression L(C[1. for polynomials and square e 1 1 1 1 (1    .11) We see from (1.2. b]))   7. 2 Issue. b]).. Where 0 ...2.. b] | T0b ( Z )  l )..11) that the total variation distance (n) (n) between the distribution L (C1 ) of C1 and the distribution L ( Z1 ) of Z1 approximation is of order 0  b  n / 8 and n  n0 . b] | T0b (C )  l )  L( Z [1. 7. the Poisson-distributed are random independent variables with 1 E (Z j )  j Proof.2) and P[T0 n ( Z ' )  n]  Error rates The proof of Theorem says nothing about the rate of convergence.1)   dTV ( L(C[1. b]))  dTV ( L(T0b (C ))..7 (n)) 1 '1.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. with n0 dTV ( L(C[1. b]).com) Vol. under these circumstances. since. Using properties of alternating series with decreasing terms.   exp  [log(1  i 1 d )  i 1 d ] n  i 1  1  O(n  '1. 2. j  1. To establish the converges in distribution one shows that for each fixed b  1..2. P[(C1( n ) .1. (n)  (1 d ) P[ An (C )]  Kn for a constant K . we thus Page 572 .1) – (1.2.

if S ()  . which. Then. the decay rate requirement of n   i1 1 a  to a contribution of order O (n 1 ) in the estimate of the difference P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  1]. If not. defining the function g by g (w)  1ws 1ws t . of the ideal order November| 2012 Page 573 .  contribution of the form  10. in the remainder of the proof. L( Z [1.5(1) (n / 2. This would be O(b / n) for large enough b . finally leading to a contribution of order  0 in 7. it is perhaps surprising to find that ( B11 ) is required instead of just ( B01 ). since a2  1 is in any case assumed.8 (n) ET0b  P [0. a bound of the form P[Tbn  s]  P[Tbn  s  t ]  O(n2t  n1a1  ) for any   0 could perhaps be attained. b) (1. ( D1 ) and ( B11 ). For this reason.1] [ n /2] [ n /2] 3n 1 4n210. The order O(n 3n . in which one estimate of a difference in point probabilities is improved to an estimate of smaller order. implied by that is. that we should need  l 2 l il  O(i a1 ) to hold for some a1  1 . l  2.8 (n)   7. The  r ]   P[T0b  r ]   P[T0b  s] n  s [ n /2]1 critical point of the proof is seen where the initial estimate of the difference P[T  s]P[Tbn  n  s] / P[T0 n  n] 1 The first sum is at most 2n ET0b .  P [0. b). differences that are of the form P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  t ] can be Required order under Conditions ( A0 ).10 (n).com) Vol.7 (n. This makes it possible to replace condition ( A1 ) by the weaker pair of conditions ( A0 ) and ( D1 ) in the      P[T0b  s]( P[Tbn  n  s]  P[Tbn  n  r ]  s 0   P[T r n / 2 0b r 0 P[Tbn  n  s]  P[Tbn  n  r ] s 0 P[T0 n  n] [ n /2]   P[T0b  r ] s 0 difference.1] 2 r 0 s 0  P[Tbn( m )  s ]  P[Tbn( m )  s  1] . this gives rise 1 a1  1210. than are made in ( B11 ) .7 (n.1]  6   (n / 2. b) n factor which should be small.1] 10. leading to  a  1 a final error estimate in order O(bn  n 1 ) for any   0 . However. the third is bound by n /2 s  n 210. being otherwise of ) for any   0. b).8 (n)  P[T0b  r ]  P[T0b  s] r  s  P [0. contains a far  n1 of the form 1 ( n)  u1 ( n).11   n can be  n  in the above. bn a1  for any Some improvement would seem to be possible. to replace 7. n1 is replaced by n1 . tail element from ( max P[T0b  s]) / P[T0 n  n]  i 1 is shifted from  i1 itself to its first order [ n / 2] [ n /2]  eventual assumptions needed for 7.7 n. b)  2n ET0b ( Z ) 1  P   P [0. which is only small if a1  1.5(1) 1 1 a1  ) for differences of the form P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  1]. but would still be coarser for small b. 2 Issue. b to be of order O(b / n).8 replaced by 10. b]))   P[Tbn  n  r ]    P[T0b  r ] 1   P[T0 n  n]  r 0  [ n /2] P[T0b  r ]   P[T0b  r ]   r  n /2 r  0 P[T0 b  n ] as well.1] 10.7 (n.5)  P [0. at a cost of only a single ( B11 ). b]). is translated into a n contribution of order O(tn Hence we may take  610. This is needed to obtain the right approximation error for the random mappings example. since all the classical applications make far more stringent assumptions about the  i1 . iterating the cycle. Examining the Conditions ( A0 ). 7   similar problem arises with the rate of decay of dTV ( L(C[1.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. ( D1 ) and directly estimated. which has the required order. without the restriction on the ri S ()   . For s  n / 2. A first observation is that a Issn 2250-3005(online) 1 (n)  u1 (n).

Finally.  r] 0b  s [ n /2] P[T0b  s ] (s  r ) 1   n 1 (1.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.5) .1]  P[T  dTV ( L(C[1. this supplementary condition can be removed if 10. that S ()  . (1.8 (n) is replaced  by 10.14 (n.2) –(1.3). L( Z [1.8 ( n) 3 ( )  nP [0. we wish to show that 1 dTV ( L(C[1.5(2) (n / 2. with 12 . b)  2(r  s ) 1   n  6  nP [0. b)    4 1   n 2 ET02b K 0  410. ( D1 ) and ( B12 ) . 7 With b and n as in the previous section. a direct calculation now shows that  P[T r 0  0b    r ]  P[T0b  s]( s  r )(1   )   s 0  1 1   E T0b  ET0b 2 November| 2012 Page 574 (1. b]).14 (n. b]))  P[T [ n /2] (s  r )(1   )   r ]   P[T0b  s]  n 1  s 0  [ n /2]  1   n E (T0b1T0b  n / 2)  2 1   n 2 ET02b .1)  We have P[T0b  r ] [ n / 2]  P[T0n  n]   3  (n / 2.8 (n.2) is further simplified by noting that (1.8 claimed under Conditions ( A0 ).5(2)  24 1   10. 2 Issue. for any  Now we observe that 0b  n  s [ n /2]1  P[Tbn  n  r ]  [ n /2] P[T0b  r ]  r ] 1    P[T0 n  n]  r 0 P[T0 n  n]  P[T0b  s ]( P[Tbn  n  s ]  P[Tbn  n  r ]) r 0 ( s  r )(1   )     P[T0b  s]  n 1  s 0   .1]   2 r 0 2 0b [ n / 2]   (  P[T0b  s ]( P[Tbn  n  s ]  P[Tbn  n  r ]  s 0  The quantity 7.4) Combining the contributions of (1. b) .1] 1 K   4 0 ET0b 10.8 (n.8 (n)   2n ET 4  3 1      P [0.com) Vol.1] . b)  P [0. b)  2n 1 ET0b 10. L( Z [1.14 (n. The proof uses sharper estimates. ( D1 ) and ( B12 ).2) Issn 2250-3005(online)  10.1] 10. b) is seen to be of the order [ n / 2]  ( s  r )(1   )    P[T0b  s ] P[T0 n  n] ) n 1  s 0  provided  1 P[T0b  s ] s  r  P[T0b  r ] 2 n P[T0 n  n] r 0 s 0    10. we thus find tha  n /2 s  n  P [0. 7.3)  4 1   n 2 ET02b (1. b)  P[T0b  n / 2] 3 10. b). has the required order without the restriction on the ri implied by assuming that S ()  .11 (n)   ( n) in the definition of 7.8 (n. b) [ n /2] r 0  4n 2 ET02b  ( max P[T0b  s]) / P[T0 n  n]  8n 2 ET02b  0b and then by observing that ( s  r )(1   )   P[T0b  s]   P[T0b  r ]  n 1 r [ n /2] s 0  1  n 1   ( ET0b P[T0b  n / 2]  E (T0b1T0b  n / 2))  P[Tbn  n  r ]    P[T0b  r ] 1   P[T0 n  n]  r 0  r 0  P[T 1 dTV ( L(C[1. As before. b]). b)  O(n1b[n1b  n  12  Where ])   0 under Conditions ( A0 ).8 (n.8 (n. L( Z [1. b]))  (n  1) 1 1   E T0b  ET0b 2  7. b]). b]))   (n  1) 1  P[T0b  r ]  P[T0b  s ]( s  r )(1   )  r 0  s 0    7. we begin with the formula  The approximation in (1.

x n ) and r  ( x1 . To define angles.. The Euclidean structure.. b) .. dx . a  tb)  0 is a quadratic polynomial in t which is never negative.Going to the left directions: means introducing some extra structure which will make the geometry richer.  treated in this way is called an n-dimensional affine space. its discriminant must be less or equal zero.. Namely. going further in this direction will lead us to the so-called ―smooth (or differentiable) manifolds‖.. Writing this explicitly yields (5).h. Intuitively..  (a n )2  d ( A. a) . Consider the function f ( x )  x Example 1.. So let us say a few words about it: n Remark 1.... making  a Euclidean space. is useful for examples and applications. In  considered as an affine space we can already do a good deal of geometry. we define the angle between them by the equality cos  : ( a. (Or. So our natural direction is to the right. addition. For an arbitrary vector r . A. Consider the point O  (0.. C )  d (C. B) (the ―triangle inequality‖). (1) After that we can also define distances between points as follows: Issn 2250-3005(online) i November| 2012 Page 575 . they are not fixed at points and n ―float freely‖ in space. To be able to do so. B and C. and quadric surfaces like an ellipsoid. the coordinates of the point x  O  r are equal to the n respective coordinates of the vector r : x  ( x1 . in greater detail: r is the radius-vector of x w.. As (a  tb. 2 Issue.From these examples follows that we can rewrite df as f f df  1 dx1  . b) a b (4) The angle itself is defined up to an integral multiple of 2 . also. for three points.. This follows from the inequality (a. the set of points and the set of vectors so that the operations as above are defined axiomatically). We have n considered  and interpreted its elements in two ways: as points and as vectors.. the distance from A to B is the same as that from B to A (symmetry)... h 2 . x n ) .s. we define the length of a vector a  (a . however. The linear function which is the standard form. Going to the right means forgetting about part of the affine structure.. Points are frequently specified by their radiusvectors. Euclidean geometry. One of the ways of proving (5) is to consider the scalar square of the linear combination a  tb. Let us summarize. Hence h its coordinates h1 . n subtracting two points (giving a vector).. and hence is often Thus referred to as the ―dot product‖ .t an origin O). for nonzero vectors.. we can consider lines and planes...International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. we have to introduce n some more definitions. (1) x x (the i-th coordinate). dxi (the i differential of x ) applied to an arbitrary vector h i is simply h . For example.com) Vol. The vector r such as in the example is called the position vector or the radius vector of the point x .  a nb n (3) a  (a. ―angles‖ or ―areas‖ and ―volumes‖. For this definition to be consistent we have to ensure that the r. 7 Example 1. B)  d ( A.  n dx n . Hence we may say that we leading with the two copies of  n: n= n {points}. b) : a1b1  . From  considered as an affine space we can precede in two opposite  n as an Euclidean space   n as an n affine space   as a manifold. B) : AB (2) One can check that the distance so defined possesses natural properties that we expect: is it always nonnegative and equals zero only for coinciding points.r.. Once again: the partial derivatives in (1) are just the coefficients (depending 1 2 on x ).  = {vectors} Operations with vectors: multiplication by a number.0.. of (4) does not exceed 1 by the absolute value. (An ―abstract‖ affine space is a pair of sets .. 0)  . Now. The theory of differential forms does not require any extra geometry. a ) to be 1 n a : (a1 )2  .0.b  (a. we cannot discuss such things as ―lengths‖. This presupposes the choice of O as the ―standard origin‖. where t  R .1. The scalar product is also denote by dot: a.. However. Notice that vectors in an affine space are also known as ―free vectors‖. we have d ( A.. we first introduce the scalar product of two vectors (a. dx . Operations with points and vectors: adding a vector to a point (giving a point).. are linear functions giving on an arbitrary vector respectively. b)2  a b 2 2 (5) known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality (various combinations of these three names are applied in different books). The triangle inequality for distances also follows from the inequality (5)..

Combining it together.. dF ) and F F dF  1 dx1  . x n f 1 h  x1 Proof. t   (t )t  df ( x0 )( ).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. n (1) (2) d ( f  g )( x0 )( )  at t  t0 and d ( fg )( x0 )( )  d ( f ( x(t ))  g ( x(t ))) dt d ( f ( x(t )) g ( x(t ))) dt at t  t0 Formulae (1) and (2) then immediately follow from the corresponding formulae for the usual derivative Now.9.  n dx n x x 1 1  F F   1 .com) Vol.  (4)  m n m  dx   F . Consider an arbitrary point x0 and an arbitrary vector Hence Suppose we have a parametrized t  x(t ) passing through x0   n at t  t0 and with the velocity vector x(t0 )   Then df ( x(t )) (t0 )   f ( x0 )  df ( x0 )( ) (1) dt curve Proof.g  f . where  (h)  0 when h  0 . We have 1 m dF  (dF . g :U   . this means that the derivative of f ( x(t )) at t  t0 is exactly df ( x0 )( ) . The only difference is that now the F : U   m at a point x n will be a linear function taking vectors in  to m vectors in  (instead of  ) ... Theorem 1. Where t  0 . n   dx1  x   x     . for the increment of f ( x(t )) we obtain f ( x(t0  t )  f ( x0 )  df ( x0 )( .. . Theorem 1. differential of a map F ( x  h)  F ( x)  dF ( x)(h) +  (h) h (3) Where  (h)  0 when h  0 . On the other hand... (2) Theorem 1.. x(t  t )  x(t )  x(t ). 2 Issue.t   (t )t )   ( .t   (t )t Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 576 (2) . ... F   1 n x   x In this matrix notation we have to write vectors as vector-columns.  f n h . almost without change the m theory generalizes to functions taking values in  instead of  .  For functions U  ..... The statement of the theorem can be expressed by a simple formula: df ( x(t )) f 1 f  1 x  .dg f .. Let a curve x(t ) be such that x(t0 )  x0 and x(t0 )   .. stretching from it.8. we have f ( x0  h)  f ( x 0 )  df ( x0 )(h)   (h) h for an arbitrary vector h . By the definition of the velocity vector. For an arbitrary parametrized curve x(t ) in  n . dF ( x(t ))  dF ( x(t ))( x(t )) (1) dt Proof. . consider a small increment of the parameter t : t0  t0  t ....7.. By the definition.t   (t )t For a certain  (t ) such that  (t )  0 when t  0 (we used the linearity of df ( x0 ) ).   . d ( f  g )  df  dg d ( fg )  df . For an arbitrary n vector h |  .t   (t )t ). Indeed.  n x n dt x x To calculate the value Of given vector  (2) df at a point x0 on a one can take an arbitrary curve passing Through x0 at t0 with  as the velocity vector at t0 and calculate the usual derivative of f ( x(t )) at t  t0 .... 7 df ( x)(h)   hf ( x )  .. the differential of a map m n F : U   (where U   ) maps the velocity vector x (t ) to the velocity vector of the curve F ( x(t )) in  m : .

. (3) y y ...    . this theorem gives a clear geometric picture of dF as a linear map on vectors. map x ...W   (open domains). ..  n dy n .. F n   x1 x     dx1      .  p  p p   z  z z z p    .. 7 Where  (t )  0 when definition of the differential.. (1) expression for dy  dF from (3).. we need to know to p which vector in  it is taken by d (GoF ) ..  n ..... x ) and in  by ( y .. d (GoF )( x)  dG (dF ( x)) for an arbitrary .10 Suppose we have two maps G :V  W . and the dependence of z  p on x  n is given by the composition GoF ....International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline..            (5) x .    dx n      (4) i. . This when .. . .. y ) .. As every vector attached to a point can be viewed as the velocity vector of some curve passing through this point. Consider an open domain Consider also another copy of distinction November| 2012 U n. Theorem 1. the curve (GoF )( x(t )  G( F ( x(t )) . then d (GoF ) is expressed by the product of these matrices....  F ( x)  dF ( x)( x(t )t   (t )t )  . the m p dependence of z  on y   is given by the G . dF of under the .. Hence . vector x (t ) .... we see that the velocity vector to the curve F ( x(t )) is the image Where it is assumed that the dependence of velocity vector . with the standard coordinates Page 577 ..   m m  y . n x   x   . denoted for  ny . 1 m z  z  y i  .. By the F ( x  h)  F ( x)  dF ( x)(h)   (h) h Where  (h)  0 when (3) h  0 .. n  .... In other words. x(t )t   (t )t i .. precisely means that dF ( x) x(t ) is the velocity vector of F ( x) . m y  y  d (GoF )  . . to get d (GoF ) we have to substitute into (2) the . we obtain F 1 F dx  . . 2 Issue.  m m   F .. . n   y1 y m x    x  .  p p  G . By the same theorem.. z  1 ..V   .6...  G1 G1  1 .  x a i 1 y i x a n If we denote coordinates in m 1 m n  by ( x ........ This can also be expressed by the following matrix formula: i .  m dF m . and write Issn 2250-3005(online) Definition 1..com) Vol..... G  y1 y m    F 1 F 1   1 . Then the differential of the composite map GoF : U  W is the composition of the differentials of F and G : d (GoF )( x)  dG( y)odF ( x) (4) n m Proof.. y y dF  (2) Then the chain rule can be expressed as follows: G G d (GoF )  1 dF 1  . ... vector (6) y   m on x  n is given by the map F ..Consider a curve . y 1 x n  x    . Corollary 1. Or Applying the theorem once again.. if dG and dF are expressed by matrices of partial derivatives.  F ( x)  dF ( x)( x(t )t   (t )t  (t )  0 For some t  0 ..t   (t )t )    h i Where dF are taken from (1). Let F : x  y  F ( x) . Basically. .. This is often written as 1 1  z1 z1   z . t  0 . p We can use the description of the x(t ) in  n with the differential ..0..e.. m 1 1  x x   y y  y1 y1  1 ... it equals the image under dG of the m Anycast Flow vector to the curve F ( x(t )) in  . ..  n dx n 1 x x G 1 G dG  1 dy  . F ( x(t  t ))  F ( x  x(t )... and where F :U V U   .  ( x(t )t   (t )t )... n x  x ..

 )  x(r.. er : x A characteristic feature of the basis er .. whence the partial derivatives x r . (5) Proposition 1. Consider the vectors  . . (3) 1 x x i Where x are arbitrary coordinates.  n dx n .  ) (  0 fixed ) and r   x(r . .. x r . the velocity vector will have components ( r .3.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.In particular.. The form of the df  differential does not change when we perform a change of coordinates. x  are 2 vectors depending on point in  . 2 Issue. 7 ( y1.  ) (r  r0 fixed ) Issn 2250-3005(online)  : .  m m  dx n   F .. x n ) We can simply use the chain rule. Vectors ―stuck to points‖ when we consider curvilinear coordinates. y )  x  x( y . drawing vectors corresponding to a point as starting from that point. x  are. we set n dF ( x0 ) : m dx(t ) dF ( x(t )) (t0 )  (t0 ) dt dt (1) Now dF ( x0 ) is a linear map that takes vectors attached to a point x0   the point F ( x )   n to vectors attached to m F 1 F dx  .. by the chain rule.. V   ny is an open domain of  ny . for the differential of a function we always have f f dx1  ... Consider a curve in in polar coordinates as x(t ) : r  r (t ). . It is instructive to sketch a picture.. we have dx x dr x d x x x    r  dt r dt  dt r  .  (t )).(r. A system of coordinates in the open domain U is given by a map F : V  U . Example 1. x  er r  e  . Since we now know how to handle velocities in arbitrary coordinates. Proof.com) Vol.. . the elements of the basis ei  x x i (originally.    (t )  2 specified (1) t  (r (t )..  ) if .. a formal notation) can be understood directly as the velocity vectors of the coordinate lines i (all coordinates but x are fixed). r cos  )  (3) x ... F : ( y .. the maps Then.  ) . (2) Here x  e1 x  e2 y r xi  x( x1 . e is that it F 1 : U  V is also smooth (3) .. the best way to treat the differential of a map F :    is by its action on the velocity vectors. the velocity vectors for the curves r  x(r .  . .. such that the as a basis we take following three conditions are satisfied : (1) F is smooth. .. x U in this system are 1 n the standard coordinates of F ( x)  y The coordinates of a point In other words.. e : x is not ―constant‖ but depends on point..   ..3 Consider a 1-form in the standard coordinates: November| 2012  2 given in Page 578 . By definition. y ) are the ―new‖ coordinates of the point x Example 1.sin  ) r x  ( r sin  .. We can compare this with the formula in the ―standard‖ coordinates: ... The map t  x(t ) can be considered as the composition of .. Follows directly from the chain rule and the transformation law for the basis ei ...2. where that for an arbitrary curve given in polar coordinates .. Explicitly we have x  (cos  . (2) F is invertible. . Notice that .. y ) 1 n 1 1 n (1) n Here the variables ( y .. . em )  ... We can conclude In particular. y n ) .. The velocity vector has the same appearance in all coordinate systems. r and  are scalar coefficients depending on t . x . respectively.. n   dx1  x   x   (e1 . F   x n   x1 dF  (2) (4) From where it follows that these vectors make a basis at all points except for the origin (where r  0 ).  n dx n 1 x x 1  F F 1   1 .

1   is a unit in O K . now Suppose that the inclusion is strict. Plugging in x  1 shows that p  (1   )(1   2 ). we see that this is again a 1-form. Consider dx  ( x(t (t ' ))). and thus its conjugates  . ' dt  TrK /  (1   this shows that N K /  (1   )  p The key result Theorem 1. does not change if we change  LEMMA 1. Let j is not divisible by p. Recall that K has degree  ( p)  p  1 over  .  n n . Proof:  ( x(t (t ' ))).( x   p 1 ). We wish to show p that OK    .  .   p1   p ( ) 1  1  r 2 (sin 2   cos 2  )d  r 2 d If p does divide Hence A  r d is the formula for A in the polar coordinates. If primitive p are th root of unity. then  j  1. we find that (1) x i j . PROOF.9 (1   )OK    p provide the orientation We saw above that p is a multiple of Proof. we get A  r sin  (cos  dr  r sin  d )  r cos  (sin  dr  r cos  d ) TrK /  ( j )     2  .com) Vol....(1   p 1 ) Since the (1   ) are the conjugates of (1   ). In particular... If    ei i . For arbitrary 1-form . That is. ' dt dt dt Let p be a rational prime and let K   ( p ).. write (1   ) in OK . y  r sin  . then  is a j an integer. COROLLARY 1. x p 1  x p 2  . ' .  1   p ( x) differentials of functions were defined as linear functions on vectors (at every point). TrK /  ((1   ) )  p. Since (1   )OK   is an ideal of  containing p and p is a maximal ideal of  . we can define a 1-form in a domain U as a linear function on vectors at every point of U : one conjugate 1..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. For this.. Therefore A . since  K is a ring we have that     OK .9... 2 Issue. Recall that the  i  j  (2)   parametrization of remains the same. TrK /  ( j )  p 1 By linearity of the trace. p 1 ) p We also need to compute the norm of 1   ... 7 A   ydx  xdy In the polar coordinates we will have x  r cos  ..1 For any   OK . we must have (1   )OK     Thus we can write 1   (1   ) For some   OK . a linear combination of the differentials of coordinates with functions as coefficients. and Substituting into 2  ( )  1 1  .  ( x(t )). Secondly.. j  and path  for determining the ring of integers OK is the following. in a more conceptual way.. where ei  x . we use the factorization at  ( x   )( x   2 ). We give a proof without assuming unique factorization of ideals. the integral TrK /  (1   )  TrK /  (1   2 )  . Note that  is a root of x  1. hence dx  cos  dr  r sin  d dy  sin  dr  r cos  d j be with some norm and trace computations. ' . We begin Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 579 . and  x dxi (e j )  dxi  j  x x every point . so the inclusion (1   )OK    p is immediate.  2 p 1 . so it has only the dx dt ' and As dx dt dx ' =  ( x(t (t ))). We have and thus is an algebraic integer.. We  for  p or this section.

.. Thus the map is an isomorphism.  (1   p 1 ) p 1 ( ) i are the complex embeddings of K (which we are really viewing as automorphisms of Where the clear from the definition of an ideal that a  (a  OK )OK .. relatively prime to p. Set    0 1. Note that this ring  ( p) is not the ring  p of p -adic integers... p for some n. p   p ) is the image of  1 in OK / p .4 Let K   ... We now find that a  (a  OK )OK . so a0   Next consider the algebraic integer (  a0 ) 1  a1  a2  . K ) with the usual ordering. Multiplying by xm  m  is the root of a monic polynomial with coefficients in O K . it follows immediately that OK . p Since pOK . and particular. also a rational integer.. We claim that a  (a  OK )OK .  0 With  i  OK and  m 1 0  i  OK  p . Let a be any ideal of OK .. p . 2 Issue. p . so   a  OK . write it as j let K |  ( p ) be the p th cyclotomic field.   OK With ai   . In argument as above shows that a1   .  a p2 p2 this Since bOK . that a is generated by the elements of a in a  OK . 1   is a multiple of 1   in OK for every j  0.. The usefulness of OK . Then OK   [ p ]   [ x] / ( p ( x)). m 1.We can a  OK  p n b For some n and some ideal b . The same in OK / p .. So let   K be a root of a polynomial with coefficients in OK . That is. Then we can write    /  where   OK and   p.. This completes the proof. p . To an algebraic integer since p 1 continuing in this way we find that all of the a i are in  . then the local ring  ( p) is simply the subring of  of rational numbers with denominator relatively prime to p .. p  OK .  a p 2 ( p 2  p 1 implies that    /   (a  OK )OK . p . let  be any element of a . this map surjection. 1. 1/   OK . p  pnOK . p . which makes sense since  is invertible (with and is.   p 1 (1   ) p 1 ( )  (1   )1 ( )  . Example 1. p . p comes from the fact that it has a particularly simple ideal structure.   a (since  /   a and a is an ideal).. p is the unique non-zero prime ideal in OK .  /     OK . Thus every ideal of OK . since the residue class of   OK is also  /   OK . p  OK  p. as claimed... p 2 p Let Thus is an integral basis for OK . so   OK and   p.. p . p .  p .   p 1 ((1   ) )  1 (1   )1 ( )  . p  pnbOK .4 Let p be a prime number and factorization of a  OK in O K . In particular.. the inclusion OK  OK . p is noetherian. Thus OK . we find that November| 2012 Page 580 . p / pOK . Then  (1   )  a0 (1   )  a1 (   2 )  .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. p and consider the ideal PROPOSITION 1. Furthermore. p is integrally close in K . It is Issn 2250-3005(online) show that OK . it is now abundantly clear that every nonzero prime ideal of OK . Let a be any proper ideal of OK . it remains to show that it is integrally closed in K . to get  p one must complete  ( p) .com) Vol. To prove the other inclusion. p and write   a0  a1  . p and consider the ideal a  OK of OK . 7 TrK /  ((1   ) )  1 ((1   ) )  . p has the form p nOK . p is a Dedekind domain. we claim first that bOK .  a p2 p3 . p . p ) By the linearity of the trace and our above calculations we find that TrK /  ( (1   ))  pa0 We also have TrK /  ( (1   ))  p . since we have   p. It is also now clear that p nOK . Thus   OK . p is maximal.. Furthermore. write this polynomial as  m 1 m 1  x  . This is  1   .  PROOF.. Thus Since TrK /  ( (1   ))  (1   )OK Since the trace is use this fact to determine all of the ideals of OK .

even a small one. The concepts are presented in the order of increasing complexity. also implying that the ones presented first would be easier to implement. 2 Issue. the bandwidth requirement remains modest. As this control is quite slow (2-4 second sampling). although a meshed Issn 2250-3005(online) communication network is required rather than the present star network. However.com) Vol. The speed of calculation is not a major concern as changing the setpoints can be done quite infrequently. In the general case. WIDEAREA CONTROL The proposed control concepts described here are all widearea controls. Small signal stability control Small signal instability occurs when a system perturbation. therefore NK' /  ( NK /  ( )OK )  NK /  (OK )n This completes the proof. this shows that Galois. The main hurdle has been the selection of input and output variables of the controller that can handle all the varied operating conditions that the power system endures. Control schemes for regional voltage control would be useful in North America as voltage collapse has played a prominent part in all recent blackouts. although Europe and China are trying some regional control schemes. Although local controls continue to be improved using newer technologies. a procedure that works well for local oscillation modes but not interarea modes. It is  (OK ) /  ( )  OK / . Taking the product over all   Gal ( K /  ). let L be the Galois closure of K and set [ L : K ]  m. OK / N K /  ( )OK Will have order NK /  ( )n . excites a natural oscillatory mode of the power system. Phasor measurements have already been shown to be very helpful in tracking the oscillation modes and their damping in near real time. The primary control is continuous whereas the secondary control is discrete usually using 2-4 second sampling. Given that all generators in a region are no longer owned by the same organization. A. which are today done off-line but will have to be done on-line in this case. Thus local controllers are used to mitigate system oscillation modes. such a network introduces other modes of failures like signal delays and the control have to be robust enough to handle them. New controllers need to be developed that can use system-wide inputs (not necessarily more inputs per controller but input signals from further away). This would be analogous to the AGC control by introducing a secondary control scheme that would periodically adjust the setpoints of the local PSS controllers as the system changes. This type of control. this areawide AGC control has become more decentralized. Ancillary markets for regulation capacity have developed to handle this service. Regional Voltage Control Voltage control in North America has always been local. Another control concept is to adaptively change the PSS setpoints according to the power system operating conditions. usually under 1Hz. FERC recognizes voltage-VAR control as an ancillary service but it has been difficult to develop any auction markets for this service. we have Since NK' /  ( NK /  ( )OK )  NK' /  (OK )n N K /  ( ) is a rational integer and OK is a free  module of rank n. feasibility of control is not a problem. 7 COROLLARY 1. Let NK' /  ( ( )OK )  NK' /  (OK ) . C. The primary governor control at the generators is local while the secondary AGC control that adjusts the governor setpoints is area-wide. We assume a bit more Galois theory than usual for this proof. The challenge here is that the calculation of PSS setpoints requires large analytical calculations. These oscillations are slow. The more complex communication scheme required is also not a problem. The main method used today to guard against small signal instability is the off-line tuning of power system stabilizers (PSS). the conceptual functionality of these local controls will remain the same. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ancillary service regulations do allow third-party AGC but a new communication-computation-control scheme needs to be developed before this can occur in any large scale. The wide-area controls presented here will often take care of the local controllers but the main objective is to improve the overall stability of the power system. Assume first that K /  is  be an element of Gal ( K /  ). probably minutes. is relatively slow and so the feasibility of the control and communication is not an issue. Such remote signal inputs will obviously require a more flexible communication mesh network. like frequency control. These PSS are local controllers on the generators. Let K be a number field of degree n and let  be in OK then N K' /  ( OK )  N K /  ( ) PROOF. Thus this challenge is a classical one of developing a practical robust controller.2.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. D. Frequency Control Frequency is controlled by balancing load with generation. Voltage stability control Voltage instability occurs when a change in the power system causes an operating condition that November| 2012 Page 581 . IV. B. clear that since  (OK )  OK .

H. ‘Soft-wired’ special protection schemes A step advance in this direction will be to generalize special protection schemes (SPS) to control transient stability. On-line setting of special protection schemes A step forward will be to develop methods to control transient stability but with less dependence on offline studies and more use of on-line computation. In that case a mini state estimator can be run within each substation to estimate all complex voltages and all currents out at each substation. This is an action plan to ensure that the system operating condition does not stray into an area where a perturbation can cause voltage instability. Although many phasor measurements and a comprehensive communication scheme will be required in this type of control. Because there are enough redundant measurements within a substation these voltages and currents can be very accurate. -the second is to automatically adjust these protective schemes with on-line calculations. the state estimate for the network will have to be more than just a collection of the complex voltages from the substations. etc. can be identified and corrected right at the substation. Thus. For this to be feasible. Let us assume that enough phasor measurements will be available at all substations that voltage angles at all substations will be measured. Guarding against such instability requires the anticipation of such contingencies that can cause voltage instability and taking preventive action. I. Of Issn 2250-3005(online) course. 2 Issue. the system values and statuses monitored and the breakers controlled cannot be modified. expert systems. F. the computation needed to determine the disturbance scenario and then computing the necessary controls for stabilization. the computation requirements will be modest as the control schemes are largely defined off-line. E. Because there are always some noise November| 2012 Page 582 . However. What is proposed here is the development of soft-computing techniques using pattern-recognition. (It should be noted that many papers assume that the control centers exchange state estimated data for this purpose but this is not the case. This concept is approached in three increasingly difficult levels: -the first is to use off-line studies to manually adjust protective schemes which would operate only if the disturbance occurs. to process the realtime data to decide the best control action. In addition. neuralnetworks. Often the BAs also have communications between themselves to exchange real time data so that each BA SE can construct its own external model. New preventive control schemes are needed that can also include special protection schemes that could isolate those areas with var deficiencies. this data is usually not timestamped. Whether this is indeed possible with today‘s technology is not known. The BA SCADA gets the real time data from the RTUs and uses that for its SE. including switch statuses. bad data. This is not a stability control in the traditional sense that responds to a disturbance. What is proposed here is the development of a generalized communication system that can enable the implementation of new SPS by software modification. To achieve this the BA control centers have to have communication connections to the RC control center. In reality. some have referred to this as state measurement (precluding the need for a state estimator altogether). The RC may also exchange such data with neighboring RCs. only SCADA data is exchanged and moreover. This calculation requires good contingency analysis which in turn requires a good real time model (state estimator) as discussed in the next section. has to be in the same time-frame as today‘s protection schemes (milliseconds). G.) It is expected that the availability of large amounts of phasor measurements will significantly change the nature of state estimators. Real Time Modeling (State Estimation) The state estimator (SE) today runs at the control center EMS using the data from the SCADA real time data and the static database. 7 is deficient in reactive power support.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. Real time control of transient stability The objective here is to develop a global control for transient stability (with no off-line assists). Transient stability control The development of such a control scheme is by far the most difficult because a disturbance that can cause instability can only be controlled if a significant amount of computation (analysis) and communication can be accomplished very rapidly. So far. There are two levels of SEs running today – at the Balancing Authorities (BA) level and at the Reliability Coordinators (RC) level. The main idea here is to use more real-time data to determine what control is needed. Because this data includes voltage angles. much off-line training of the software may still be required off-line but the expectation is that the control action would be much more efficient than those purely decided off-line.com) Vol. the goal here would be to determine what kind of communication-computation structure will be needed to make this feasible. it also passes on the same real time data to the ISO level for its SE. -the third and final would be to directly operate the control actions after the disturbance occurs. This processed data would be very different in character than the raw measurement data that is fed to the control center SE today. These SPS today are developed from the results of voluminous offline studies and are implemented with a ‗hard-wired‘ communication system.

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