International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue.

7

Smart Grid Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control
Akash K Singh, PhD
IBM Corporation Sacramento, USA

Abstract
For century, there has been no change in
the fundamental structure of the electrical power
grid and vehicle networks. Current hierarchical,
centrally controlled grid of the electrical grid is
not best for growing demand. To address the
challenges of the existing power grid, the new
concept of smart grid and smarter planet are
under research. The smart grid can be considered
as a modern electric power grid infrastructure
for enhanced efficiency and reliability through
automated control, high-power converters,
modern communications infrastructure, sensing
and metering technologies, and modern energy
management
techniques
based
on
the
optimization of ondemand, energy and network
availability. While current power systems are
based on a solid information and communication
infrastructure, the new smart grid needs a
different and much more complex one, as its
dimension is much larger and needs utmost
performance. This paper addresses critical issues
on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of
information and communication technology
(ICT) issues and opportunities. The main
objective of this paper is to provide a
contemporary look at the current state of the art
in smart grid communications as well as to
discuss the still-open research issues in this field.
It is expected that this paper will provide a better
understanding of the technologies, potential
advantages and research challenges of the smart
grid and provoke interest among the research
community to further explore this promising
research area.
Keywords- Advanced metering infrastructure
(AMI), communication technologies, quality-ofservice (QoS), smart grid, standards
I. INTRODUCTION
Modern power grid is the most complex
human-made system, which is monitored by widearea monitoring system (WAMS). Providing timesynchronized data of power system operating
states,WAMS will play a crucial role in next
generation smart grid protection and control. WAMS
helps secure efficient energy transmission as well as
reliable and optimal grid management. As the key
enabler of a smart grid, numerous sensors such as
PMU and current sensors transmit real-time dynamic
data, which is usually protected by encryption
algorithm from malicious attacks, over wide-areaIssn 2250-3005(online)

network (WAN) to power system control centers so
that monitoring and control of the whole system is
possible. Security algorithms for power grid need to
consider both performance and energy efficiency
through code optimization techniques on encryption
and decryption. In this paper, we take power nodes
(sites) as platforms to experimentally study ways of
energy consumptions in different security
algorithms. First, we measure energy consumptions
of various security algorithms on CrossBow and
Ember sensor nodes. Second, we propose an array of
novel code optimization methods to increase energy
consumption efficiency of different security
algorithms. Finally, based on careful analysis of
measurement results, we propose a set of principles
on using security algorithms in WAMS nodes, such
as cryptography selections, parameter configuration,
and the like. Such principles can be used widely in
other computing systems with energy constraints.
A. Related Work
A large amount of works have been done
on energy consumption of security algorithms and
protocols in common network environment, such as
the energy consumption of the SSL protocol in PC
networks, the energy consumption of WEP inWi-Fi
networks, etc. However, there are few research on
the energy consumption of security algorithms in
WAMSs. Recently, most of the energy consumption
studies related to WAMSs are based on simulations.
The energy consumption is usually measured based
on the CPU computation time and the number of
data packets. However, this is a coarse grain
approximation. In simulation aspect, network
simulations, such as NS2, TOSSIMM [5], and
Atemu [6], can properly simulate the behaviors of
the network protocols, but they are not able to
simulate the single node well. Thus, the method
mentioned above is not suitable for our study on the
energy consumption of security algorithms in
WAMSs. There are some instruction-level energy
evaluation models for WAMSs, such as AEON [7],
and PowerTOSSIM [8]. These two models first
measure the currents of the sensor nodes, followed
by partitioning the measured currents to different
code segments and different components of sensor
nodes. Finally, the energy consumption of a certain
code segment or a certain component is calculated.
However, these models are not
suitable for
commercial WAMS sensors, due to the fact that
most of the manufacturers only provide software in
the form of ―black box.‖ Even obtaining the source
November| 2012

Page 553

International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue. 7

code, inserting instruction for measuring is not
convenient. To obtain the energy characteristics of
security algorithms, there are some studies based on
physical measurement.Wander et al. [9] has
measured the energy consumption of the RSA and
ECC on MICA2DOT sensor nodes. However, this
method cannot be implemented with the whole
version of code into the WAMS nodes. Gupta et al.
[10] has pointed out that the size of memory
consumption of standard code is close to 4KB for
cryptography algorithms such as DES. This means
that the memory will not be enough to directly
implement standard algorithms on some WAMS
nodes. WAMS is an autonomic network consisting
of a large number of sensor nodes deployed in the
monitoring area. The sensor nodes are connected by
an ad hoc network and communicate with the sink
through multihop. In aWAMS, the sensor nodes are
the basic parts of the implementation of information
sensing and communication. Compared to other
wireless network, the WAMS is a specific
application
oriented
network,
which
has
characteristics of large size and dynamic topology. A
sensor node inWAMS is a system with
multifunction, such as data collection, computation,
and communication. Compared to other wireless
network, the WAMS is a specific application
oriented network, which has characteristics of large
size and dynamic topology. A sensor node inWAMS
is a system with multifunction, such as data
collection, computation, and communication.
Compared to common sensor systems, the WAMS
sensor nodes have their constraints as listed below.
• Poor computation power. The sensors usually
adopt MCU that has slow computation speed as their
processors.
• Limited memory space. The ATmega128L
processor has only 4 KB SRAM onchip. And the
high-end CrossBow
Imote2 has 256 KB onchip and 32 MB offchip.
• Tight power consumption constraint. Due to the
limitations of deployed area, cost, and physical size,
some WAMS
nodes are usually equipped with low capacity
batteries.
Thus, there are strict requirements for
consecutive execution time on nodes. Because of the
strict constraints of computation resource and
energy, the WAMS nodes can only execute simple
computation tasks and communication tasks.
Currently, the hardware/software codesign is a key
part of WAMS study. PMU-based WAMS is a
cyber-physical system where the Internet-based
communication network overlays the physical
equipment-based
power
grid
[11],
[12].
Cybersecurity is crucial for ensuring integrity and
resiliency of future smart grid. The encryption
design for secure WAMS data communication must
Issn 2250-3005(online)

consider energy and bandwidth constraints. PMU
was first invented in Virginia Tech in 1988 to
measure phasors of voltage and current, frequency
and real/reactive power in real-time with GPS time
tagging [1], [13]. PMUs have thus been continuously
enhanced and are now being deployed in substations.
The PMU data are collected in a phasor data
concentrator (PDC) to facilitate real-time power
system situation awareness, analysis, operation,
protection, and control [13]–[15]. With large scale
integration of variable renewable energy integration,
PMU-based smart grid will ensure power system
stability and reliability.
II. WAMS SECURITY ISSUES
A. Security Threats Encountered in WAMs
WAMSs use public communication
channels, in which every device inside or outside the
network may obtain the information. The attackers
can directly destroy the WAMS nodes due to the
open deployment of nodes.
B. Energy Constraint on Security Algorithms
In order to prevent the attacker from
deciphering directly on WAMS nodes, the data on
nodes should be encrypted before stored. Complete
verification information needs to be inserted into
original message, so that the data packets will not be
modified maliciously. Thus, it is necessary to
introduce proper ID verification mechanism into
WAMSs to defend ID-based attack such as Sybil and
node duplication attack. Although the security
threats encountered byWAMSs are diverse, data
encryption, integrity protection, and verification are
the most basic security service requirements in
WAMSs. In WAMSs, the stronger the security
algorithm is, the more energy consumption on the
CPU [21]. Thus, in order to satisfy the security
requirement on the WAMS, energy consumption is
the major factor that constrains security algorithms.
C. Security Level and Energy Consumptions
The limited energy and computation
resources determine that the security mechanism in
WAMS nodes should be implemented as simple as
possible. Integrating security service directly and
control systems.
D. Introduction
Power system faults cause changes in
power system frequency and/or voltages due to the
loss of generation or/and load. These changes
depend on the power system robustness and its
ability to respond to these changes in a short time.
Each power system has a unique dynamic behaviour
that depends on factors such as network transmission
topology, load location (closed or far from
generation location), generation capacity, type of
generation (wind, hydro, nuclear, thermal plants),
etc. The phenomena involved during a power system
November| 2012

Page 554

International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue. 7

disturbance/blackout can be classified in 5 main
classes:

Voltage collapse,

Frequency collapse,

Loss of synchronism,

Large power swings

Cascade of overloads.
Electrical networks are also more and more
interconnected in order to improve the robustness of
the electrical power system, to increase the exchange
capacity between the electric power transmission
system over a wider area that crosses state borders
and to ensure mutual assistance among system
operators (specially in case of wide area
disturbance).
Two characteristics are essential for any electrical
power system to maintain its stability and integrity:

Avoid the cascading of an isolated power
system fault over a wider area,

time constants that are involved cover very
different time scales.
The perturbations of the wave resulting
from electrical short circuits propagate close to the
speed of light. However Intelligent Electronic
Devices (IEDs) as Protective Relays, Programmable
Logic Controller, etc. operate in areas ranging from
tens of milliseconds to seconds and SCADA or EMS
in areas ranging from minutes to hours. In contrast to
conventional protection devices, which provide local
protection of individual equipment (transformer,
generator, line, etc.), the wide area protection system
provides comprehensive protection covering the
whole power system. When compared to
SCADA/EMS systems, that are responsible for
network control and management, the wide area
protection system is focused on maintaining power
system integrity. The idea is that a wide area
protection
and
optimization
system
shall
complement rather than substitute any of the existing
control and protection systems.
E. Use of WAMPAC
Faults in transmission system leading to
more widespread load outages are very rare in most
power systems, but if they occur they can have
serious impacts on many activities in society. If a
whole city or part of a region suffers a black out, the
economic and societal impacts can be very
significant, and consequently the requirements on
security must be much higher in the transmission
system as compared with the distribution level.
Furthermore, the restoration after a major
transmission system fault is a very complicated and
laborious task. In stressed power system the risk of
cascading events is of particular concern. Through
cascading, the consequences of a single event can be
spread over large geographical distances in a system.
Issn 2250-3005(online)

Hence, there is a need to assess and evaluate
different means of improving transmission system
security. Wide Area Monitoring Protection And
Control (WAMPAC) systems have been recently
proposed as one such means:

Preventive actions are implemented to
avoid such phenomena to occur by using Wide Area
Measurement Systems (WAMS).

Curative actions are implemented to avoid
the spreading and so saving the rest of the power
system by using manual or automatic mechanisms
depending of the quickness of the phenomena such
as Wide Area Control and Protection Systems
(WACS, WAPS).
A defense plan is a list of actions taken
automatically or manually after a severe contingency
(contains decision to take in order to minimize the
consequences of severe disturbances) and is based
on several studies which include: safety, emergency
and restoration plans.

The safety plan is a post-contingency
manual corrective action made by the operator to
reestablish the normal conditions and is based on
preventive analysis of expected contingencies.

The emergency plan tries to reduce
contingencies effects based on automatic remote
generation shedding and/or load shedding acting by
frequency relays.

The restoration plan fixes a procedure to
recover the electricity after the system shut down.
The electric system is subject to uncertainties in
permanence which can be grouped into four
families:

The hazards of consumption: Because of
the character not storable electrical energy must be
ensured at all times, adapting production to demand.
So the electrical power system is controlled by the
demand. One of the major factors is climatic (winter
peak load, summer peak load).

Climatic hazards. The electrical system
(overhead line, cable, transformer, hydro power
plant, cooling of the thermal and nuclear power
plants) must cope with external environmental
assaults as such as lightning, flood, storm, drought,
cold, etc. which can conduct to short circuit faults,
tripping of generation groups, etc.

Equipment failures (isolation failure, bus
bar fault, etc.) and external attacks as such as
mechanical excavator server a power cable, aircraft
crash, etc.

Dysfunction related to human factors
(design
failure,
poor
commissioning,
no
maintenance, etc.) initiatives related to WAMPAC
encompass the following essential elements.

November| 2012

Page 555

Following the success of Phase 1. etc.) to provide additional information for system operators. from sources such as Energy Management Systems (EMS). earthquake. it is not recommended until future generation with WASAS closed loop control. Unified Communication Architecture The Unified Communication Architecture. fire. the uplink traffic is around 1. Wide-range of data sharing: having access to all measurement data and the system/application generated output data will increase the data redundancy level for all functions and applications and reduce the overall system cost to achieve the same level of redundancy for each system. Phase 2 will migrate the remaining RASs. SCE plans on procurement and deployment of the system in the near future. and business needs. As illustrated in Fig. For future sharing of downlinks. 7 F. However. and it may eventually share one of the CRAS redundant pair uplinks. and it introduces the risk of opening CRAS critical dual redundant control VLANs to other connections and traffic. which Issn 2250-3005(online) consists of fully redundant identical A & B systems. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and nonelectrical system data (weather. 2 Issue. CRAS are special protection schemes (SPS) that enable an automatic protection system designed to maintain system reliability by detecting abnormal or predetermined system conditions and taking corrective actions other than (or in addition to) the isolation of faulted components. K. WASAS is primarily based on the synchronized phasor measurement technology. and triple redundant central controller for each system. The Phase 1 of the project is to build the central controller facilities and migrate two selected existing RASs. Field experience is not yet available. Development (DEV) and Operator Training Simulator (OTS). WASAS streaming rates are modest compared to CRAS binary burst traffic rates. traffic. SCEnet2 Deployment The SCEnet2 is an on-going effort to establish a future communication backbone as part of SCE‘s Unified Communication Architecture. 2. Centralized Remedial Action Scheme (CRAS) The CRAS project will replace existing individual RASs and accommodate any additional RASs in the future [10]. their similarities will favor an integrated WAMPAC system architecture design with the expected benefits: 1. For CRAS data. the uplink streaming traffic is around 100kb/s. Wide Area Situation Awareness System (WASAS) The WASAS is a project involving deployment of PMU devices in 500 kV and 230 kV substations and grid control center situation awareness applications for supporting system operators in real-time decision making [9]. it will install four sub-systems at Grid Control Center (GCC) and AGCC locations: Operational Production (OP). One of the main objectives of SCEnet2 is to move from dedicated routers and fixed bandwidth for each system to virtual connections sharing routers and bandwidth. I. Its architecture design and component specifications were completed in 2009 and it will be procured and deployed in near future. Irvine SG Demonstration This project is a demonstration of an integrated. The Unified Communication Architecture is in the planning and designing stage. the project will improve the annual RAS updates and maintenance efficiency and enhance grid reliability by reducing RAS logic overlapping and cascading outage risks. it will serve as a technology reference for WAMPAC integration.25Mb/s and the downlink traffic is around 4Mb/s. III. It will utilize other wide-area information input. WASAS stream packets may be delayed by milliseconds during CRAS GOOSE burst. J.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. scalable Smart Grid system. It may not have direct impact on WAMPAC as WAMPAC has more demanding performance requirements. such as voltage phase angle different monitoring. assuming four substations trigger for state change and six substations mitigate. will provide a unified communication infrastructure to support all present and future communication and networking needs for control and operation systems. It will implement a number of monitoring and alarm functions. Data Traffic Estimation It is very difficult to estimate how much data traffic will be generated when all these applications are sharing the communication infrastructure. G. Part of the SCEnet2 will be developed through several on-going SCE capital projects. the following assumptions can be made based on preliminary estimations of data traffic specified for WASAS and CRAS implementation. November| 2012 Page 556 . The conceptual system design was approved by WECC in 2008. By centralizing the distributed RAS logic. Concurrent with Phase 2 is accommodation of newer generation RASs. INTEGRATED WAMPAC ARCHITECTURE Despite differences among various WAM/WAC/WAP systems and capabilities. Production Testing (PT=OP). However. Assuming WASAS synchrophasor values are streamed as Ethernet UDP/IP packets with 60 packets per second and 16 synchrophasor measurements per packets. The primary focus of this project is for distribution applications and interoperability demonstrations. H.

com) Vol. and the data management. IEDs in RAS particularly refer to the microprocessor based protection relays. lightning. As intelligent sensors and a communications network for collecting health check signals will be technically available in the near future. wind. Our concept is the use of an ad-hoc and plug-and-play sensor network for maintenance to avoid or reduce maintenance works required to maintain ICT infrastructure such as battery replacement. and database setting. 2 Issue.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. Vars. such as weather reports (temperature. 3. to clearly define and explain the various renewable generation technologies and how they should be modeled for system studies. The WAMPAC will exchange synchrophasor data with other utilities and WECC through the NASPInet. can be easily transferred among all locations as needed. The IEC GOOSE [18] is a multi-cast message originally designed to carry binary state information among multiple relays connected to the same Ethernet network inside a substation. elaborate sensor November| 2012 Page 557 . It is envisioned that the WAMPAC will interface with DMS. we should minimize the number of important assets rendered out-of-service due to the attachment and detachment of sensors as well as the maintenance work for the sensor systems themselves. if it becomes available during the system deployment. which can be configured with any ―visible‖ data object in the relay such as Volts.). Some recent ones are designed to support the IEC 61850 standard [15]. And Issn 2250-3005(online) to continue the effort of developing and validating proper models for system planning and operational studies. 4 outlines the logical components of WAMPAC and their functions and relationships with other systems and entities. Facilitate Dynamic Model Development and Renewable Impact Study Much work has been done to resolve the issues of lacking proper generic models. an integrated WAMPAC system architecture roadmap was developed and proposed to enable SCE to realize its Smart Grid strategy. Fig. will be connected and visualized to provide additional situation awareness information to system operators at control center. which is the global standard for information model and information exchange for substation automation. Details may be adjusted throughout the migration process. etc. Ad-hoc and Plug-and-play Sensor Network for Maintenance Asset management will be far more important in the age of the smarter grid. The data items in the database carry the same ―type‖ as the original data item. This is particularly important for WAMPAC system as the technology and the applications that utilize the technology are rapidly developing and advancing. In the proposed architecture and process. One desirable new feature of the IEC GOOSE is the ability to directly send analog data values. cabling.. In contrast to the limited binary status information. Reviewing the various SCE activities. etc. traffic conditions. since many assets are aging. C. The Data module focuses on the components in data processing and storage for the WAMPAC system. Watts. it is necessary to have enhanced system monitoring to gain better understanding of the behavior of the various renewable generations under a variety of system conditions. particularly in recent years [12-14]. It also provides system administration functions that allow WAMPAC to provide system configuration and security services. When a failure symptom is detected. GIS and other corporate applications/users. As a multi-cast message. data. and other information. The WAMPAC system will interface with SCE‘s existing EMS/SCADA system and historian to exchange phasor data and network model data/configuration. a side benefit from deployment of RAS is to assist model development and validation and help system planners and operators better understand the impacts of integrating renewable generation on the grid by continuously collecting data from the system with advanced Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). in engineering units. In this respect. inspections or a primitive sensor system. Ease on system expansion: it will be much easier to add new measurement devices and new applications to an integrated system than to separate systems. fire. and delivery services within WAMPAC. solar flare. retrieval. and utilizing WASAS system and CRAS system architectures as main components. IEC 61850 Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) has been applied as the message carrier. it can be sent to many other devices through an Ethernet switch and/or bridgerouter. such as device management. In some recent industrial RAS applications [16-17]. In the application of transmitting power flows. The Visualization module provides an effective visual presentation interface for WAMPAC system users to comprehend the wide-area situation awareness information. The Application module includes current and future synchrophasor-supported applications to service the needs of system operators and planners. storm. The System & Data Management module provides system management. breaker status. validation. 7 2. Network/communication resources sharing: an integrated architecture will allow communication network sharing and increase redundancy. the IEC GOOSE carries a ―userdefined‖ dataset. asset states are initially collected and diagnosed by ordinary rounds. storage. etc. These data are provided at much faster sampling rates than traditionally offered by C. application management. External non-electrical data from other sources.

. The  . for example. i  1. j 1.. We note that  j . thus is continuous. 2 Issue... We note i . The reason for this assumption is that it is still unclear from anycast if propagation delays are independent of the populations.1  i  p.. S ( p  h p ))].. represent external factors from I ext the p  ext ext dimensional vector ( I1 ... The p  p other network areas. Vi  vi  S [ i (Vi  hi )].... r ) whose element population j at r and population i at r. r )  h | j )]d r j 1    I iext (r . p. p represents the connectivity between populations i and the  (r . p... 0] i i  (1) the slopes of the sigmoids at the origin. r ).. r )S[(V j (t   ij (r. We assume for technical reasons V the p  dimensional vector (V1 ... the value of the nodes potential corresponding to 50% of the maximal activity. we need to know the node potential factor V on interval [T . Mathematical Framework A convenient functional setting for the non-delayed packet field equations is to use the space F  L2 (. V p ).. We note I iext . that is... Rp p ).. 7 systems will be attached without stopping the assets... determine F    Vi (r )U i (r )dr i 1  (1) To give a meaning to (1).  p ). r )   ( t . We use (  li ) for dt transfer..  is finite piece of nodes and/or feature space and is represented as an open bounded set of p real positive values  i . I p ).   V ( t .e.. d p  d (  l ) V ( t . r )   ij (r...1) is the normalized sigmoid function: S ( x)  [ S ( 1 ( x1  h1 )). r ) (3) Hence we choose T   m A. Key technologies include the construction method of field sensor networks (ad-hoc and multi-hop wired/wireless communications and sensors) for collecting field information and the plug-and-play scheme for automated data processing when a sensor is attached or detached as We consider the following anycast field equations defined over an open bounded piece of network and /or feature space   R . i  1. and the diagonal matrix p p L0  diag (l1 . Finally the p real positive values li . p. with which is the Banach phase space associated with equation (3). They describe the dynamics of the mean anycast of each of p node populations..com) Vol. i  1.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline... defined p R d . r ). If parts are found to have failed or deteriorated. For the sake. Using the November| 2012 Page 558 .. The p function is symmetric 1 S ( z)  1  e z p by described by a matrix We give an interpretation of the various parameters and functions that appear in (1). p. t ). see below. j (r . In order to compute the righthand side of (1). We also introduce the function S : R  R .. The p function conditions. 0]. r ) t  [ T .. i  1. R p ) which is a Hilbert space endowed with the usual inner product: p V . ( simplicity although our analysis applies to more general intrinsic dynamics.U matrix of functions J  {J ij }i . The vector r and r represent points in function S : R  (0. see hi . of generality... packet data indicate that  is not a function i. below... which helps reduce the maintenance of the sensor systems in the long run. and subsequently been maintained or replaced. the sensor systems are fully detached. The p real values determine the threshold of activity for each population... F ) m .. r ) i . represent the initial  the p  dimensional vector (1 . whereupon their states will be carefully monitored and diagnosed. hence they are  ij (r .. j ( r .. that is Moreover no assumption is made about this symmetry unless otherwise stated.0]  (t ) F . Is the intrinsic dynamics of the population given by the linear response of data d d  li ) is replaced by (  li ) 2 to use dt dt d the alpha function response. the propagation delays are not assumed to be identical for all populations. r )   i i  dt  J ij (r. we defined the history space   supt[  C  C 0 ([ m . The value of T is obtained by considering the maximal delay: m  max  i ... l p ). p. r ) (2) It describes the relation between the input rate vi of population i as a function of the packets potential. The Issn 2250-3005(online) propagation delay between 2   C 0 ( .. i  1.. 0]. t  0. determine the speed at which each anycast node potential decreases exponentially toward its real value.  ij (r.

because BR is closed.. F ) to (3) 3..  V0    C .      J (.VT )    0 dt V (T )  BR .V (t )  F 2 dt def p  . . Suppose t  0. Thus we deduce that for   0 and small enough. We consider three cases for the initial condition V0 .. V0 If set BR . hence requiring  m  . f (t . Rp p ). Because f<0 on BR .  (. 2 Notice that this result gives existence on R . Thus T  0 | V (T )  BR ..  V (t )   L0V (t )  L1S (Vt )  I ext (t ). t ]. r ) (r .0 All the trajectories are ultimately bounded by the same constant R if I  max tR I ext (t ) Proof :Let us F  . 7 notation Vt ( )  V (t   ). ).. J  L2 (2 .   [  m . d 2 t  0.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.V (t )  BR .sup    m . Notice that most of the papers on this subject assume  infinite. the closure of BR .. that T  R.com) Vol. is stable under the dynamics of Where L1 : C  F . defined f : R  C  R  as 1d V f (t .Vt )      0 l 2 ext 2 t  0s and that f  0 on BR . Then for any   C . r ))d r Is the linear L1  J continuous L2 ( 2 . R p p ). V (0)  BR implies that t  0. then V (T ) is defined and belongs to E f (t . B.Vt )  l V (t ) F  ( p  J C F  I ) V (t )  X F X X (2) Proof : If s and if E1 . J F  I def lR2 def  R. Proposition 1. Nevertheless. p li Thus. a particular solution could grow indefinitely.V (s)  BR }. 2. we write (1) as V (t ) F  2 . (s  t )d    s d    td  Then 2 Issn 2250-3005(online) and F We note l  min i 1.   C 0 (2 . V F  2 . This contradicts our assumption. E2 . Theorem 1. F )  C 0 ([ m .0 satisfied. BR .. V (T   )  BR which contradicts T  R and BR is stable. Proposition 1. 0]. Thus case V (0)  CBR . dt that then thus V (t ) is F monotonically decreasing and reaches the value of R in finite time when V (t ) reaches BR . we now prove that this cannot happen. are disjoint members of M whose union is E . the countable additivity of  shows that November| 2012 Page 559 . 2 Issue. Finally we consider the the definition of T.1 : Let s and t be measured simple X . there exists a unique solution V  C 1 ([0. finitetime explosion is impossible for this delayed differential equation. functions on for E M . effect to we also have d 2 because V F |t T  f (T . if R Suppose T  sup{t | s [0. define  (E)   s d  (1)  is a measure on M . If the following assumptions are 1. R p p ) operator equation. F ). We know that V (t ) is defined for all satisfying . V (t )  BR ..Vt )   L0Vt (0)  L1S (Vt )  I (t ). the boundary of BR . Boundedness of Solutions A valid model of neural networks should only feature bounded packet node potentials. in BR .   (2) Let us show that the open route of F of center 0 and radius R. The external current I ext  C 0 ( R.

(3) follows from (8).  Eij the ( s  t )d   ( i   j ) ( Eij ) and  Eij sd    td    i  ( Eij )   j  ( Eij ) ( z )   2 ( ) (3) .1  j  m).  a ' . disjoint of the sets Eij (1  i  n.  m be the distinct values of t. (8)  A  0.and let B j  {x : t ( x )   j } If Eij  Ai  B j .1: If K is a compact set in the plane whose complement is connected. then part of the hypothesis is vacuously satisfied. Proof: By Tietze‘s theorem.. put Eij Thus (2) holds with Eij in place of X . We shall prove that there is a polynomial P such that that for all z claim that f ( z2 )  f ( z1 ) Where subject 2 (11) R2 Since f and A have compact support. let  ( ) be the supremum of the numbers z1 and z2 are to the condition z2  z1   .000 ( ) ( z K ) (2) By (1). If the interior of K is empty. Since X is the f ( z )  ( z )   ( ). Now define ( z )   f ( z   ) Ad d   A( z   ) f ( )d d R2 (1) From now on.) We construct  as the convolution of f with a smoothing function A. To compute (10).com) Vol. It is clear that A Cc ( R ) . (5) Where X is the set of all points in the support of  whose distance from the complement of K does not  . Next. then there exists a P polynomial such that f ( z)  P( z)   for all z K . The difference quotients of A converge boundedly to the corresponding partial derivatives.. 2 Issue. (9) Rs R2 24 f ( z)  P( z)  10. Our first objective is the construction of a function  C ( R ). Note that K need to be connected. (Compute the integral in polar coordinates). the first half of our a(r )  union proposition implies that (2) holds. if f is a continuous complex function on K which is holomorphic in the interior of . and if   0. so that  is not identically  . (10) R3 The constants are so adjusted in (6) that (8) holds. and the conclusion holds for every f  C ( K ) . (Thus X contains no point which is ―far within‖ K . We fix one such extension and denote it again by f .. 7 n  n  ( E )    i  ( Ai  E )    i   ( Ai  Er ) i 1 i 1  r 1 ()( z )   n    i  ( Ai  Er )    ( Er ) r 1 i 1 And r 1 Also.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. will be fixed. We ' Theorem 1. (9) holds simply because A has compact support. so does Since . we have  lim  ( )  0  0  A  1. 3  2 (1  r2  2 (0  r   ). this proves the theorem. let s be as before.  ( )  0. Put a(r )  0 if r   . express A in polar coordinates. let 1 .. For any   0. )2 (6) And define A( z)  a( z ) (7) For all complex z . Since f is uniformly continous. ( z )  f ( z )   [ f ( z   )  f ( z )] A( )d d (12) R2 And A( )  0 if  . f can be extended to a continuous function in the plane. such ' c 2 2  A  15   .  (4) 1 ()( ) d d    z X (    i ). with compact support. and note that A A  r  0. since Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 560 .

7 A Cc' ( R 2 ) . and S 2  K is connected.. K  . if Issn 2250-3005(online) (21) Since (16) 1 4. of radius 2 . Put X 1  X  D1 and X j  ( X  D j )  ( X 1  .  2 0 0 ( z )   a(r )rdr  f ( z  rei )d   2 f ( z ) a(r )rdr  f ( z ) A  f ( z ) 0  is an open set which contains K . whose centers are For all z not in K .000( ) (24) ( z  ) F  H (). where G is the set of all z K whose distance from the complement of K exceeds  . Then ()( z )   (A)( z   ) f ( )d d R2   f ( z   )(A)( )d d (13) R2 The last equality depends on (9). Hence the last expression in (11) may Qj ( . Hence F H (). We shall do of .. z ) X ( z  ) (22) Observe that the inequalities (16) and (17) are valid with R in place of Q j if   X and z  . z )   Hold for z  E j and (18) shows that F is a finite linear combination of the functions g j and g 2j . and estimate the integrand in (22) by (16) if   4 . F ( z)  ( z)  6.. of diameter at least 2 . z )d d . with r  2 . for 2  j  n. z )  Q j ( . (20) Since. and (5) The definition of X shows that X is compact and that X can be covered by finitely many open discs D1 . and we obtain Let  be the complement of E1  .com) Vol. and (5) we have F ( z )  ( z )   1 | d  d z  2 ( )   | R( . There are functions inequalities. Now if z G. the center of each D j can be joined to  by a polygonal path in 2 S  K . Runge‘s theorem shows that F can be uniformly approximated on K by polynomials. The mean value property for harmonic functions therefore gives.   D j . we have now proved (3).  X j 1 ).. (4). i Hence (22) yields . The integral in (22) is then seen to be less Now fix z than the sum of 4  50 1 2     d   808 0   (23) And  4.. By (20). by the first equation in (11). 000 . z ) 1   X ( z  ) F ( z)  F ( z)   j 1 1   X Q j ( .. by (17) if 4  . g j H (S 2  E j ) and constants b j so that the 50 (19) ()( ) R( . If we write (13) with  x and  y in place  has continuous partial derivatives. then z   is in the interior of K for all  with    . This completes the proof. z)  g j ( z)  (  bj ) g 2j ( z) be differentiated under the integral sign. (4).. Now (10) and (13) give (4). since f is holomorphic there. we see that this by showing that ( z )  f ( z ) ( z G). Dn . z  ) And 2  Q j ( . 000 2  2 z  z  ()( )Q j ( . if we can show that   0 in G . It follows that each D j contains a 2 compact connected set E j . (17) Hence (3) and (25) show that (2) can be satisfied. Since S  K is connected. R2   [ f ( z   )  f ( z )](A)( )d  d (15) R2  G . 2 Issue. 000 2 4 2  d   2. put   z   ei . z ) d  d K  E j   .  . (14) Note that f  0 in G .  En . z )  (18) November| 2012 Page 561 (25) .. so that S 2  E j is connected and so that Define R ( . .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. ( X j .

 )  f ( z  rei ).com) Vol.0 : Suppose f  Cc ( R ). (1) S be a subset of  n .2 Let a be a nonzero ideal in X X X  a .. n k  X  are exactly the ideals ( X ). Since ( LT (a)) can also be described as and so if A satisfies () . is an     ideal. s  1  2   i     d dr 2  0  r r   (4) For each r  0. if   A . and so A satisfies the k  X 1 . Let A   n satisfy  ....  ( ... the space of all ' 2 continuously differentiable functions in the plane. X n  . it is clear that there is a finite set of elements S  1 .. we let ( LT (a)) be the ideal generated by LT ( f ) | f  a  LEMMA 1.  is periodic in  . gives (2) A A     n |   i   2 ... a in more a  ( g1 . The integral of  /  is therefore 0. X n  : they are in one n THEOREM k  X 1 . of     n   for X X X some  S ...   n PROOF. some   S Thus. as   0... then (3) The right side of (2) is therefore equal to the limit. The the  ideal a generated by X .. with compact support. We LT (a) Issn 2250-3005(online) 1... 2 Issue. the chain rule gives (f )( )  real 1 i   i   e   (r .  i  S . )d r 2 0 As   0.. the monomial ideals in precisely. a monomial is in a if and only if it is  divisible by one of the X . For example.. and (4) becomes of k  X 1 . Clearly A satisfies  .  A  . here is a simple direct proof:  (r . then  are the corners of A ) Moreover... ) 2  r r     A    n |      n . (5)  1 2 dr   ( . g s are any elements of a whose leading terms generate November| 2012 Page 562 ...   S is the monomial LEMMA 1. The proposition gives a classification of the monomial ideals in k  X1 . and it equals ( LT ( g1 )... and (2) Put X  |   A for the ideal corresponding to write a  X  |   A . with period   1 2  2 0 d     X  a and If such that  (The i ' s This X  k  X1.. then the subspace the ideal generated by the leading monomials (rather  than the leading terms) of elements of a . some g1 . then ( LT (a)) is a monomial condition () . g s ) where g1 .  | S PROOF. X n  is to one correspondence with the subsets A of  satisfying () .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. and the zero ideal (corresponding to the empty set A ).. r  0. The last statement follows   n from the fact that X | X       . For a nonzero ideal a in X i . Conversely..X n  .. Let Then the following ―Cauchy formula‖ holds: f ( z)   (f )( ) d d   R2   z ideal corresponding to 1 (    i ) df Proof: This may be deduced from Green‘s theorem. ideal. Conversely.. X n  . From the geometry of A .. df a X  |   A is generated by the monomials DEFINITION 1. n  1 . LT ( g n )) for (  c X  )(  d X  )   c d X   ( finite sums).. However. and    a .   a .  i If   z  re . )  f ( z ) uniformly..   a ).. generated by the monomials X .2. some i  S 2 .. Put 1       i  2  x y   A (subspace generated by the X . 7 Lemma 1.1.0.. g n  a ... Every finitely ideal generated.

and let r be the maximum degree of g i ... it is again an ideal in A . and suppose f has degree s  r .. g 0... r  k  X1 . LT ( g s )) . Then a  a ' . g m be elements of f  a1g1  . where either r  0 or no monomial occurring in it LT ( g i ) .... 2 Issue. ai  A... X n )  a0 ( X 1 ... g s ) . The leading coefficients of the polynomials in a form an ideal ' ' a in A .. algorithm. Let g d .e..1 . g 0.. 7 PROOF.  ar .md ) With f d 1 of degree repeatedly  d 1 .. x is most conveniently defined as a function from Dto D ........3.g 0.... say...1 . A finite subset S  g1 . LT ( g s ))  LT (a) .... Let  :  D  D  D be the function that picks out elements of D to represent elements of  D  D and  : D   D  D be the function that maps elements of D to functions of D.m0 ) and so the polynomials g1 . S is a standard basis if the leading term of every element of a is divisible by at least one of the leading terms of the a whose leading coefficients generate a ' ... and therefore LT (r )  LT (a)  ( LT ( g1 ). Let f  a ... a will Issn 2250-3005(online) a of degree can be written d f d  f d 1 mod( g d ....  as gs  r. X n 1 ) X nr  ... X n 1 ][ X n ]  k[ X 1 .g m ) ft With a polynomial of degree t  r ..1 .. This means that a model D of the  calculus must have the property that given a term t whose interpretation is d  D.1. We shall prove the theorem by induction on n . ri  deg( gi ). PROOF. ai  leading coefficient of gi Now f   bi gi X s ri . implies that every monomial occurring in r is LT ( g i ) .. f  aX s  ....com) Vol...m be polynomials of degree d whose d leading coefficients generate a d .. But is divisible by any r  f   ai g i  a . On applying the division we find be finitely generated.. then so also is A[ X ] PROOF. which must then be regarded as an element of D. Let a be an ideal in A[ X ] . m0 generate a One of the great successes of category theory in computer science has been the development of a ―unified theory‖ of the constructions underlying denotational semantics.. If A is Noetherian..1 .. a0  0. every ideal is finitely generated..g d .. and so we can write a   bi ai .. and divisible by one in g  ( g1 ... X n 1 ) Thus the next lemma will complete the proof LEMMA 1.... We call 0 the leading coefficient of the polynomial 0. For each d  r ..m0 ) Hence ft  ( g1 ... and a 0 is its leading coefficient. For a polynomial f ( X )  a0 X r  a1 X r 1  .1 ..g m g r 1.... For n  1.mr 1 .. Note that the obvious map k[ X 1 .. k [ X ] is a principal ideal domain. By continuing in this way. gs  of an ideal a is a standard ( .. any term may appear in the function position of an application.| . bi  A.. g 0..mr 1 . X n ] is an isomorphism – this simply says that every polynomial f in n variables X 1 ... Then the same gi .  ar ( X 1 . X n ] is THEOREM 1.. Now let f  a... In the untyped  -calculus. argument as above shows that any polynomial f d in The ring k[ X 1 . Also.... has degree  deg( f ) . let a d be the subset of A consisting of 0 and the leading coefficients of all polynomials in a of degree d ..g r 1.. Let g1 .1 ..g 0.. a bases for if (Gr obner ) ( LT ( g1 )... and since A is Noetherian.. X n ] : f ( X 1 ..3 Noetherian i. we find that f  ft mod( g1 .. the interpretation of a functional abstraction like  x .g r 1. which means that every ideal is generated by single element. X n  . In other words..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. Thus r  0 . ai . On applying this remark we find that f t  ( g r 1.... Since  ( f ) is intended to represent the November| 2012 Page 563 . r is called the degree of f .. DEFINITION 1. X n can be expressed uniquely as a polynomial in X n with coefficients in k[ X 1 . g d ..

This equation can be solved by finding least fixed points of the function F ( X )  A   X  X  from domains to domains --... where A is a K-object and a : F ( A)  A is an isomorphism.. i o k   i ... then an k : X'  X such that for all i  0. a colimit  :   X is a cocone with all or  o   id D The latter condition is called extensionality. The key shift of perspective from the domain-theoretic to the more general categorytheoretic approach lies in considering F not as a function on domains. Each element of D corresponds to either an element of A or an element of  D  D . D is isomorphic to the space of functions from D to D that can be the interpretations of functional abstractions: suppose we are D   D  D .. to denote all of  Do and f 0 .. We sometimes write  :   X as a reminder of the arrangement of  ' s components Similarly.  o  id DD Furthermore. it makes sense to  ( ( f ))  f . Define the   chain  by November| 2012 Page 564 . F ( f )  F ( F ( f )) o 1 2 .. require that that is. we need a solution ot D  A   D  D . but as a functor on a category of domains.4. there is an embedding of X to Y --. F ( f )  F ( f ). A prefixed point of F is a pair (A. For the images of  and  under F we write except F ( fo ) F ( f1 ) F ( f2 ) F (  )  F ( Do ) F ( D1 )F ( D2 ) . with a tag. Instead of a least fixed point of the function.. An  op -limit of  op  chain  is a cone  : X   with ' the property that if  : X   is also a cone. By analogy.that is.4 : An   chain in a category K is a diagram of the following form: view every element of D as representing some function from D to D and require that elements representing the same function be equal – that is Recall that a cocone object X and a function  ( (d ))  d f1 f2  of an   chain  is a Kcollection of K –arrows i : Di  X | i  0 such that i  i 1o fi for i  0 . Colimits of   chains are sometimes referred to op as   co lim its . F... an   chain in K is a diagram of the following form: fo f1 f2   Do D1 D2 . where A is a K-object and a is any arrow from F(A) to A Issn 2250-3005(online) the property that if  :   X is also a cocone then there exists a unique mediating arrow ' k : X  X ' such that for all i  0. vi  k o i .that is. With these definitions we can state that every monitonic function on a complete lattice has a least fixed point: Lemma 1.3: Let K be a category and F : K  K as a functor. F ( f )  f . i  fi o i 1 .etc. These conditions together imply that  and  are inverses--. and such that for any domain Y also satisfying this equation.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline..  Y fR Such that f R o f  id X f o f  idY Where f  g means that f approximates g in R some ordering representing their information content. Definition 1. It is also convenient to there exists a unique mediating arrow  write   D1 f1 f2 D2 . 7 f as an element of D.Let us working with the untyped the equation   calculus .a).. finding domains X such that X  A   X  X  .   is i | i  1 . and A cone  op  chain  is a K-object X a collection of K-arrows i : Di | i  0 such :X  that for all of an i  0.com) Vol. Dually.. We write  k (or just  ) for the distinguish initial object of K..a). and F ( )  F (i ) | i  0 We write – F i for the i-fold iterated composition of F that is.a pair of maps f X fo   Do D1 D2 . and  A for the unique arrow from  to each K-object A. A fixed point of F is a pair (A.. Let K be a category with initial object  and let F : K  K be a functor. when it has one. 2 Issue. we often want to Definition 1.. where A is some predetermined domain containing interpretations for elements of C.

Note that that mth root of  mk  Q( m ) for every k .. We now investigate some basic properties of cyclotomic fields. Clearly.. we need show for 1  k  n that whenever P( pak )  0.. where d : F ( D)  D is the mediating arrow from  F ( ) to the cocone  Theorem 1. Where NDk is the set of nondescendents of X k of in G. Specified conditional distributions are the conditional distributions they notationally represent in the joint distribution. Order the nodes according to an ancestral ordering. the images of the  i coincide. order the nodes so that all and only nondescendents of Q  x / (m ( x))  m ( x) If m divides n .4 Let a DAG G given in which each node is a random variable.. 2 Issue.. so the result is clear LEMMA 1. x2 . for example.. (k .. the identification being  m  x. We if m is odd. X k  2 ..5 contained in Q( m ) is Q ( n ) PROOF.or intersections or compositums..Note. To do this. If both  :   D and F (  ) : F ()  F ( D) are colimits. The first issue is whether or not they are all distinct. m)  1.. X 2 ..com) Vol. 7   ! F (  ) F (! F (  ))  F ()  2 F ()  .P( x2 | pa2 ) P( x1 | pa1 ). so Q  x / (m ( x)) is Galois over Q .. we have  m  Q( n ). to show we have a joint distribution... it follows Q( m )  Q( mk ) for all k relatively prime to m . Let NDk   X 1 . all of these things take place considering them as subfield of C. Note that this ordering depends on k . we need only show P( xk | nd k )  P( xk | pak ) . then will show that this is the only way in which one can th obtain any non. then Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 565 . 1  k  m. This means that we can write Q( m ) for Q x / (m ( x)) without much fear of ambiguity... To that end. we need to know which roots of unity lie in Q( m ) . to determine this. In particular. P( x1. that  m is a 2mth root of unity. if P(nd k | pak )  0 and P( xk | pak )  0 then P( xk | nd k . whereas the ordering in the first part of the proof does not.6 If m and n are relatively prime. Let Dk   X k 1 ... The roots of  m ( x) are just the primitive has degree mth roots of unity.. Next define.  (m) over Q since  m ( x) has degree  (m) . Since PAk  NDk . X k precede X k in the ordering.. so the complex embeddings of Q  x / (m ( x)) are simply the  (m) maps  k : Q  x  / ( m ( x))  C . 0  P( x1 . First for a given k . pak )  P( xk | pak ). we show the Markov condition is satisfied. First we show this does indeed yield a joint probability distribution.. . Proof. we will do so from now on.. One advantage of this is that one can easily talk about cyclotomic fields being extensions of one another. Therefore. and let a discrete conditional probability distribution of each node given values of its parents in G be specified. as the variables range through all their possible values..P) satisfies the Markov condition. Finally. is equal to one.. x2 ...  m being our fixed choice of primitive unity. Clearly then where  k ( x)   mk . then (D. then LEMMA 1. X n be the resultant ordering. X n  follows  dk mth cyclotomic field to be the field Q  x / (m ( x)) Where  m ( x) is the mth We define the cyclotomic polynomial. X k 1 F (! F (  )) 2 X 1 . Then the product of these conditional distributions yields a joint probability distribution P of the variables.m roots of unity. Where PAi is the set of parents of X i of in G and P ( xi | pai ) is the specified conditional probability distribution.. Since  n m  m .. and (G.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.xn ) 1 for all values of the variables. X 2 .....d) is an intial F-algebra..xn )  P( xn | pa n ) P( xn1 | Pan1 )..

. This calculation is done over the input and output alphabets.. n )  Q(m.Q( p ek )Q( p f1 ). and is defined as I ( xi .. n and  m.. j i. y j )   P( xi .. and so )  P( xi ) and also I ( xi . The mutual information is defined between the input and the output of a given channel. 7 Q( m ..n ) : Q(m )  (m) Q(m ) : Q(m )  Q(n )  (m) And thus that Q( m )  Q( n )  Q PROPOSITION 1.Q( p ek )Q( p fk ) very noisy channel.. In general. The average mutual information. yj P( xi ) connected to the corresponding self-information that corresponds to the input multiple and the greatest common divisor of m and n. the output be P( completely xi yj xi In a y i and input xi would uncorrelated. pkfk pi are distinct primes. 1 max( e1.n ) And m. f ) max( ek . PROOF...Q( p ek ) 1 2 k and Q( n )  Q( p f1 )Q( p f2 ).Q( p fk ) 1 2 k Thus Q( m ...  n ) has degree  (mn) over Q .. Since 1 2  Q( p e1 )Q( p f1 ). n denote where the Write the least common m  p1e1 . One checks easily that  m n is a primitive 1  Q( th mn root of unity. n ) : Q(m )  (n) and Q(m . each y i is uniquely xi ... respectively.. there is no transference of information. j  P( xi )    bits per symbol . 2 Issue. p k 1 p1 ) An entirely similar computation Q( m )  Q( n )  Q( ( m .n ). f ) ).Q ( 1 that is.  n )  Q( Q(m ..   (m) (n)   (mn). so we must have Q(m . and so they constitute an input –output pair ( xi .. the transferred information is equal to the Q( m )  Q( n )  Q( ( m.com) Vol.2 For any m and n Q(m .Q( p fk ) 1 PROOF. pkek and p1f1 . that is.. a given channel will operate between these two extremes.  n )  Q( nm ) We know that Q( m .. so that Q( mn )  Q( m . y j ) log 2   i.. y j )  log 2 bits.  n )  Q( nm ) and Q( m )  Q( n )  Q Q( m .n ) ) Mutual information transferred when measures the shows that information xi is sent and y i is received. Y )   P( xi ..... y j ) I ( xi . An average of the calculation of the mutual information for all input-output pairs of a given channel is the average mutual information:  P( xi   yj  I ( X .n ) ).. f ) ) k p1 max( e1. (We allow ei or fi to be zero) k p1 k max( ek ..  n ) is the compositum of Q( m ) and Q( n ) ) (Recall the Q( m )  Q( p e1 )Q( p e2 ). yi )  log 2 P( xi ) yi bits P( xi ) (1) In a noise-free channel...  n )  Q( p e1 ). The following expressions are useful for modifying the mutual information expression: Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 566 ....... here k  Q(m . this implies that Q( m .. yi ) for which 1 x P( i ) 1 and I ( xi . n ) : Q  Q(m ) : QQ(n : Q Q(mn ) : Q  (mn).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. y j )  0.. f ) 1 .

y j ) P( xi . y j ) P ( xi ) P ( y j ) P ( xi . y j ) The above expression can be applied due to the is usually called the equivocation. Y )  H (Y )  H (Y 0 probabilities. it seems that this parameter can adopt negative values. y j ) log 2 Y M  P log i 1 P( 1 xi xi yj ) y j provides H ( X )  H ( X ) bits of Y yj ) P( y j )  P( yj xi X ) Where Issn 2250-3005(online) ( Qi )0 Pi P ( xi ) P ( y j ). 7 P( xi . Y )   P ( xi . and transition probabilities November| 2012 Page 567 . j As the channel mutual information expression is a difference between two quantities. which is the product of two 1 P( y j ) Qi . j I ( X . Y )  I (Y . y j ) log 2  P ( x ) P ( xi ) P ( y j ) i.Y )  H ( X )  H ( X ) Y Where yj. P( x1 )   and P( x2 )  1   . y j ) log 2   P ( xi . Thus. In a sense. j i. It can also be equal to zero. and is a function of the backward conditional probability. it can be said that the channel mutual information is the difference between the number of bits needed for determining a given input symbol before knowing the corresponding output symbol. y j ) log 2   i. j  P ( xi )     1   P ( xi . when the input and the output are independent of each other. y j )  P( xi P( y j )   P( yj i P( xi )   P( i xi ) P( y j )  P( yj xi yj yj xi This last entropy is usually called the noise entropy. Mutual Information: Properties Since P( P( xi . which in this expression is a dummy variable that fits the condition  Q  1 . It can be concluded i i that the average mutual information is a nonnegative number. the equivocation can be seen as the information lost in the noisy channel. H (X / yj ) 1 P ( xi . Y )   P ( xi . j H ( X )   i . A related entropy called the joint entropy is defined as H ( X . y j ) log 2   x i. However. 2 Issue. y j ) 1 P ( xi ) P ( y j ) Theorem 1. The observation of an output symbol P( xi ) P( y j ) Because this expression is of the form I ( X . j   P ( xi . y j ) log 2    i.5: Entropies of the binary erasure channel (BEC) The BEC is defined with an alphabet of two inputs and three outputs. j i Then i. j  P ( xi )  is spite of the fact that for some 1  x     P ( i ) P ( y j )  log 2 y j P ( xi )  i  1 i P( xi ) log 2 P( x )  H ( X ) i  I ( X .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. so that it behaves as the quantity ) P( xi ) The mutual information fits the condition H (Y )   P ( y j ) log 2 i factor information. Alternatively. with symbol probabilities. and  1    P ( xi . this is not possible for the average value calculated over all the outputs: x P( i ) yj P( xi . and the number of bits needed for determining a given input symbol after knowing the corresponding output symbol ) P( xi ) ) P( xi ) ) P( y j ) Then I ( X . y j ) I ( X . X ) I ( X .Y )  H ( X )  H ( X ) Y i.com) Vol. y j ) log 2 i. j And by interchanging input and output it is also true that j 2 i. y j ) log 2   P( xi . Y )   P( xi . y j ) log 2 i. j P( xi . j  P( i )  yj    1  P ( xi . This difference is the mutual information of the channel. y j ) can be larger than H ( X ) . the information transferred through the channel is the difference between the output entropy and the noise entropy.

The ideal generated by ab | a  a. let   p( y | x) A  ( x.. si  S .. A p ( x. y ) A..xn ) and F for Fn For any . To see this.. Y )  A   .. i 1   k 1 i 1 B i . property that ab  0.it is easy to verify that this is in fact an ideal.. The set is an ideal.. i  1. select   and where Ax   y : ( x. y )dxdy. 7 P( y3 x )  1  p and P( y2 x )  0. and that it consist of all finite sums of the form .com) Vol... We r s i i with ri  A.. 2 Let 1 and P( y3 x )  0 B   j 1 B j . Bk 1 . then ab  (a1b1 .. Note that ab  a  b . n. The map b   (b) is a one to one correspondence between the ideals of A / a and the ideals of A containing a An ideal p if prime if p  A and ab  p  a  p or b  p .. amplitude-continuous channel whose restrictions are determined by sets Fn and whose density functions exhibit no dependence on the state s .Let a be an ideal of A.. ( If t  0... and if b  (b1 ... Note that m maximal  m prime. i...... Let A be a ring. Thus p is prime if and only if A / p is nonzero and has the b  0  a  0. denoted by a  b . p ( x)dx F x  F such that P Y  Ax1 | X  x (1)   1   (1)   p ( x) x Choose the decoding set B1 to be Ax . bn ) x (1) . s ) for the ideal it generates. Clearly ab consists of all finite sums  aibi with ai  a bi  b . The ideals of A  B are all of the form a  b . Thus m is maximal if and only if A / m has no proper nonzero ideals. u . note that if c is an ideal in A  B and November| 2012 Page 568 .. with a and b ideals in A and B . Algorithms Ideals.. and so is a field.... When S  s1 . sm  .7... yn | x1 . Given an arbitrary restricted timediscrete....... Y )  A  P X  F proceed as follows.. If the process does not terminate in a finite number of steps... then the sequences x(i ) and decoding sets Bi . y )  p ( x ) p ( y | x ) and P  X  F    . r  A  ra  A The ideal generated by a subset S of A is the intersection of all ideals A containing a ----. Having (1) x k  F such that k 1   P Y  Ax( k )   Bi | X  x( k )   1   .. for the density pn ( y1 ..... Issn 2250-3005(online) p( y | x)dy dx  yB  Ax p( y | x)dy dx   p( x) x C.. y) : log  a (1) p( y )   Then for each positive integer u .e.  ) such that   ue  P( X . The set of cosets of a in A forms a ring A / a . b  b ideals in A.. and is a homomorphism a aa 1  : A  A / a . am ) and . a  a. An ideal m is maximal if m | A and there does not exist an ideal n contained strictly between m and A . Then and P( y1 x )  p P ( X . Y )  A  t 1 2 Lemma 1. y )dx dy y Ax 1 Where chosen   p ( x) Let Proof: A sequence  ( x .. ambn ) . 2 Issue. we shall (2)write ( s .. Y )  A  P X  F a x P ( X .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. and p( x) an arbitrary probability density function on Euclidean p ( y | x) n-space. (Conceivably t  0 ).. form the desired code. ai b j . there is a code (u. y ) A and P( y3 x )  1  p 2 a  (a1 .. 2.. a m and b be a  b | a  a.. Thus assume that the process terminates after t steps. real number a.. take B   ).. Set Bk  Ax( k )  p( x. p( x.. We will show by showing that t u   tea  P( X . x ( k 1) and B1 . A / p is an integral domain. b  b is denoted by ab . let n be a fixed positive integer.... Recall that an ideal a in A is a subset such that a is subgroup of A regarded as a group under addition.

Fix an ordering on the monomials in k  X1 . then there exist Issn 2250-3005(online)   (b1 . aj  With the obvious notions of equality.e. X n  .. xn  B such that every element of B can be expressed as a polynomial in the xi with coefficients in i ( A) . b)  c some a  a q..e.. Graded reverse lexicographic order (grevlex).... 0  0 Then we define. An A -algebra B is said to be finitely generated ( or of finite-type over A) if there exist elements x1 . XY 2  Y 3 Z 4 . then (a.an ) and  (iB (a))  iC (a) for all a  A .. b)(1. polynomial ring c a1 . We sometimes abbreviate it by X  . in the vector difference     .... homomorphism of A -algebra B  C is a homomorphism of rings  : B  C such that (Pure) lexicographic ordering (lex).. X n   B X i to xi is surjective.. X n  as a k -vector space.    if  ai  bi .. This shows that c  a  b with a  a | (a. The ring k  X1.. Here monomials are ordered by total degree. addition and multiplication.   (a1 .... R  0 ... X 5YZ  X 4YZ 2 . r  k  X  such that f  qg  r with either r  0 or deg r < deg g . .... 7 (a.0)  c and (0. unique polynomials Moreover..X .... there is an algorithm for deciding whether f  ( g ) . Orderings on k  X1 . An A -algebra is a ring B together with a homomorphism iB : A  B . monomial is a j  N .X nan .e... For example.... Let k be a field.. b)  c some b  b and b  b | (a. Polynomial rings. the Euclidean algorithm allows to pass from finite set of generators for an ideal in k  X  to a single generator by successively Let A be a ring. with ties broken by reverse lexicographic ordering. the R is the zero ring.. and the only units in it are the nonzero constant polynomials. Then we can write an element f of k  X1 . Division in k  X  .. The division algorithm allows us to divide a nonzero polynomial into another: let f and g be polynomials in k  X  with g  0... and let A be a k -algebra. X  1 n . then    and X   X  (lexicographic ordering) if.. an )   n The elements of the . More precisely. f  gh  g or h is constant. the left most nonzero entry is positive. we can regard k as a subring of A .an  k .1)  c . For example. A polynomial f ( X 1 . 2 Issue. A replacing each pair of generators with their greatest common divisor.an a1 1 k  X1. ca1.. X n is an expression of the form sending X1a1 .. then the map k  A is injective. If 1  0 in A . X n  .. i... Note that this isn‘t quite how the dictionary would order them: it would put XXXYYZZZZ after XXXYYZ . X n ) is irreducible if it is nonconstant and has only the obvious factorizations. Moreover. X n  are finite sums an n X .. i.  The multidegree of f to be multdeg( f )= November| 2012 Page 569 0 .. b)  c . i. in decreasing order: f  a0 X 0 1 X 1  .. A ring homomorphism A  B is finite.. Let k be a field....bn ) be two elements of  n . we would write f  4 XY 2 Z  4Z 2  5 X 3  7 X 2 Z 2 as f  5 X 3  7 X 2 Z 2  4 XY 2 Z  4Z 2 (lex) or f  4 XY 2 Z  7 X 2 Z 2  5 X 3  4Z 2 ( grevlex) Let  a X   k  X . A monomial in X 1 .. and B is finitely generated as an A-module.. X n  is an integral domain. Thus. b)  (a... X 3Y 2 Z 4  X 3Y 2 Z .... The total degree of the ai . Here monomials are ordered by lexicographic(dictionary) order.. namely. i. X n  in a canonical fashion.e... If 1=0 in a ring R. such that the homomorphism A X1 . Thus the monomials from basis for k  X1.... b)(0.. 0  1  .. by re-ordering its elements in decreasing order..0)  (a. we can identify k with its image....... find r and check whether it is zero. For example: X 4Y 4 Z 7  X 5Y 5 Z 4 (total degree greater) XY 5 Z 2  X 4YZ 3 . let   (a1 .com) Vol.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. or  ai  bi and in    the right most nonzero entry is negative.

.. a subset of f to be LM( f ) =  The leading monomial of 0 a0 X 0  The leading term of f to be LT( f ) = f  4 XY Z  ... Then A satisfies the   A.. then the k-subspace  generated by the X . the division algorithm then constructs polynomials a1 .... This can be established directly by exploiting cancellation of the form [mj ] cj / c!j  1/ (c j  m j )! when c j  m j . n Lemma1.. d n )   n via the correspondence n  n [m ]  [m ] E   (C (j n ) ) j    P[C ( n )  c]  (c j ) j j 1  j 1  c n  n (c j ) j  1  jc j  n   c j  c:c j  m j for all j  j 1  j 1 j c j ! all  with c  0 .. 7  The leading coefficient of f to be LC( f )= a 0 . repeat the process until f  a1 g1  f1 (different a1 ) with LT ( f1 ) not divisible by LT ( g1 ) . LT ( g s ) Step 1: If LT ( g1 ) | LT ( f ) .  as g s  r Where either r  0 or no monomial in r is divisible by any of LT ( g1 ). Conversely. which occurs between the ingredients in Cauchy‘s formula and the falling factorials in the moments... let X a of k  X1 . An ideal a is monomial if c X   a  X   a  |  A PROOF.2. Now divide g 2 into f1 ... then Page 570 (1. X n  n  j 1 condition And  d j  c j  m j ... X n  generated by the set of monomials it contains..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. the leading coefficient is 4..5. X n  ... and the leading 2 4XY Z .  as g s  LT (r1 )  r3 : (different ai ' s ) Monomial ideals... C (n) 1 The ( n) n joint distribution of ) follows from Cauchy‘s formula. X n  generated by is a monomial ideal.LT ( g s ) Step 2: Rewrite r1  LT (r1 )  r2 . In general.. 2 Issue...... Fix a monomial ordering in  2 ..  as g s  r1 so on.3.. and   A   | X   a .. 2 the leading monomial is 2 XY Z ..  n  1 m j  n [m ]  E   (C (j n ) ) j        j 1   j 1  j    n  1  jm j  n    j 1   (1. then the counts random C (n) C (j n ) of cycles of length j are dependent variables. If X a and X   k  X1 .. The division algorithm in k  X1 . and term is f  a1 g1  . we have Y or X ... until With LT (r1 ) not divisible by any LT ( g1 ).1) . mn . X . and repeat Step 1 r2 with f for f  a1 g1  .. and is given by P[C ( n )  c]  n  n 1 c 1 1 N (n....  (C ... with the first sum indexed by c  (c1 .. It is clear from its definition that a monomial ideal a is the k -subspace of k  X1..cn )   n and the last sum indexed by d  (d1 .. X n  ...g s ) of polynomials.. of A is Issn 2250-3005(online) n  n 1 1 1 jd j  n  m  d j m j   j d  j 1  j 1 j (d j )! This last sum simplifies to the indicator 1(m  n). If a permutation is chosen uniformly and at random from the n ! possible permutations in S n . the ideal a  (Y  X ) contains 2 3 Y 2  X 3 but not 3 DEFINITION 1..... a1   k  X 1 .. X n  LT ( g1 ) If LT ( g1 ) | LT ( h) .as and r such that f  a1 g1  .   A . Suppose given a polynomial f and an ordered set ( g1 . corresponding to the fact that if November| 2012 n  m  0. Then. [m ] PROPOSITION 1. divide g1 into f to get LT ( f ) f  a1 g1  h..4) Proof... for example.. n!  j 1  j 1 j c j ! for c    . Let a be a monomial ideal.com) Vol.7 For nonnegative integers m1.    n      () a is the k -subspace of k  X1 . c)  1  jc j  n   ( ) j ... Write m   jmj . the For the polynomial multidegree is (1.. 2  n satisfying  . an ideal a will contain a polynomial without containing the individual terms of the polynomial..1).

. Infact.. For P[C (j n )  k ]  Proof.... 2..1) n[ rj ] 1 1  1(rj  n) r r j r ! n! j r! Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 571 (1. Theorem 1. summing over all sets of r distinct properties. that is. so no permutation can have both these properties. For any c  (c1 . n not in  must be permuted among themselves. k! C (j n ) converges in distribution to a random variable Z j having a Poisson distribution with So that mean 1/ j. P[(C1( n ) . P[C (j n )  k ]  j  k 1/ j e ..n. consider the ―property‖ G of having . we use the notation C(j n) d Z j where Z j  Po (1/ j ) to describe this.. We then have G  (n  j)!. the limit random variables are independent..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline..1.. G is the set of permutations   Sn such that  is one of the cycles of  .1.. some two distinct properties name some element in common.. Cb ) for any 1 b  n has an expression similar to (1..3) random variables that satisfy E ( Z j )  1/ j The marginal distribution of cycle counts provides a formula for the joint distribution of the cycle C nj . since the elements of 1. d n  m ) . which is the sum of the probabilities of the r -fold intersection of properties. the mean and (n) variance of C1 are both equal to 1.. formed with elements chosen from 1.. and a random permutation in Snm must have some cycle structure (d1 . then the intersection specifies how rj elements are moved by the permutation. For each   I ...3) by setting mb 1  . we find the distribution of C nj using a Lemma 1. as n  ..   j 1   j 1   j 1 (1... 2. Cb( n ) )  c] 1  j  n.6 The process of cycle counts converges in distribution to a Poisson process of  with intensity j 1 . so that I  n[ j ]/ j .2...8.com) Vol.7).2)  k ! l 0 l! (n) and the moments of C1 follow from (1... There are two cases to consider.4) can also be written in the form  n  n [m ]   n  [m ]  E   (C (j n ) ) j   E   Z j j 1  jm j  n  .1) Returning to the original hat-check problem. this too can be derived by inclusion-exclusion. 2 Issue. Thus Sr  (n  rj )!1(rj  n)  Which simplifies to (1.  l   (1)  l0 E(C(j n) )[ r ]  j r 1 jr  n counts Finally. k  0. The moments of C (j n ) follow immediately as (1.) (n) 1 (n) 2 (1. each fixed as j. we substitute j=1 in (1.. The joint (n) (n) distribution of (C1 . 7 d j  0 for j  n  m.2) and (1. the inclusion-exclusion series for the number of permutations having exactly k properties is li b  b  1 ci 1  1 1 l1 .... cb )   b with m   ici . and there are (n  rj )!1(rj  n) permutations in the intersection.. k l  Sk l ..1) to obtain the distribution of the number of fixed points of a random permutation.2) with j  1. To use the inclusion-exclusion formula we need to calculate the term S r . n..2) We note for future reference that (1..... If the r properties are indexed by r cycles having no elements in common.  mn  0 The limit distribution of cycle counts It follows immediately from Lemma 1.. C of the first b counts can be obtained directly from (1.. j k k! l P[C1( n )  k ]  Where the Z j are independent Poisson-distribution combinatorial approach combined inclusion-exclusion formula. for n  2.) d ( Z1 .. In particular.. For the other case..3) . and the r -fold intersection is empty. That is. C . (C . Z 2 . length with the [ n / j ] k  (1)l l 0 Consider the set I j l l! (1.2 that for n  . lb       (1)    i 1  i  li !  i 1  i  ci ! l  il0 with  i n m The joint (n) 1 moments (n) b C . [ rj ] r There are n / ( j r !) such intersections.1) of all possible cycles of j . (1. 1 nk 1 (1)l .... For k  0..

.. b]). Z b )  c] P[T0 n ( Z ' )  n]  k  0. L( Z [1.4) from now on.1)   dTV ( L(C[1. the Poisson-distributed are random independent variables with 1 E (Z j )  j Proof.. we thus Page 572 .11) that the total variation distance (n) (n) between the distribution L (C1 ) of C1 and the distribution L ( Z1 ) of Z1 approximation is of order 0  b  n / 8 and n  n0 .   some g  0.2. j  1.. Cb( n ) )  c]  P[( Z1 . Using properties of alternating series with decreasing terms. with n0 dTV ( L(C[1. the relative error in this asymptotic Since P[ Z1  n]  g '  0..2. since.. b])) For    An (C ( n) )  under Establish the asymptotics of conditions ( A0 ) and ( B01 ). for polynomials and square e 1 1 1 1 (1    . P[(C1( n ) . if Conditions ( A0 ) and ( B01 ) are satisfied and if  i  O(i  g ) from some ' It follows that n 2n 1 n 2n 1  1   P[C1( n )  k ]  P[ Z1  k ]  (n  1)! n  2 k 0 ( n  1)! n1'1. n. Elementary analysis can be used to estimate this rate when b  1 .2.. for Relation. 7 Where Z j . To establish the converges in distribution one shows that for each fixed b  1. (n)  (1 d ) P[ An (C )]  Kn for a constant K .2) and P[T0 n ( Z ' )  n]  Error rates The proof of Theorem says nothing about the rate of convergence.3).1) – (1. both (1. b)  O(b / n) under Conditions ( A0 ). as n  . b] | T0b ( Z )  l ).com) Vol. ( D1 ) and ( B11 ) Since. L( Z [1. ( n) ij n 1 if g '  1.   exp  [log(1  i 1 d )  i 1 d ] n  i 1  1  O(n  '1. L(T0b ( Z )))  max  P[T0b ( Z )  r ] A r A  P[Tbn ( Z )  n  r ]  1   P[T0 n ( Z )  n]   Suppressing the argument obtain Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Z (1.7 (n) (1. b]))  dTV ( L(T0b (C )).. In particular. (n  1)! n  2 (n  2)(n  3) (n  1)! free polynomials..7 (n. 2 Issue. b] | T0b (C )  l )  L( Z [1.7 (n)) 1 '1.7 (n)) 1 (1.. 2. for d d   exp  [log(1  i 1 d )  i 1 d ] n  i 1  1  O(n Where  1. where An (C ( n ) )    C 1i  n  ri' 1 j  ri  i  (ri' / rid ) 1  O(i  g ) ' and as   dTV ( L(C[1.. from 1 1 1 (  )  P[C1( n )  k ]  P[ Z1  k ] k ! (n  k  1)! (n  k  2)! 1  k !(n  k  1)! depending on Z and the ri ' and computable explicitly from (1. 7... P[T0 m ( Z ' )  n] P[ An (C )]  P[T0 m ( Z )  n] It follows by direct calculation that ' (n)  1i  n ri' 1 j  ri    1  (1  Ei 0 )   iri  (1. by the Conditioning i  .11) We see from (1.7 (n. b])..3) refers to the quantity derived It thus follows that Z' . We start with the expression L(C[1.. b]).2.)  . under these circumstances. b]))   7. Where 0 ..2.1.. b).7 (n) tend to zero as n  ..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.7 (n) and n11. L( Z [1.

A first observation is that a Issn 2250-3005(online) 1 (n)  u1 (n). finally leading to a contribution of order  0 in 7.8 (n) ET0b  P [0.  P [0. since a2  1 is in any case assumed. contains a far  n1 of the form 1 ( n)  u1 ( n). being otherwise of ) for any   0.com) Vol. than are made in ( B11 ) . b)  2n ET0b ( Z ) 1  P   P [0. without the restriction on the ri S ()   . is translated into a n contribution of order O(tn Hence we may take  610. b]))   P[Tbn  n  r ]    P[T0b  r ] 1   P[T0 n  n]  r 0  [ n /2] P[T0b  r ]   P[T0b  r ]   r  n /2 r  0 P[T0 b  n ] as well. 2 Issue. The  r ]   P[T0b  r ]   P[T0b  s] n  s [ n /2]1 critical point of the proof is seen where the initial estimate of the difference P[T  s]P[Tbn  n  s] / P[T0 n  n] 1 The first sum is at most 2n ET0b .8 (n)  P[T0b  r ]  P[T0b  s] r  s  P [0. bn a1  for any Some improvement would seem to be possible. which. For this reason.8 (n)   7.1]  6   (n / 2. it is perhaps surprising to find that ( B11 ) is required instead of just ( B01 ). b) (1. b to be of order O(b / n). b]). Then. this gives rise 1 a1  1210. n1 is replaced by n1 . ( D1 ) and directly estimated. the third is bound by n /2 s  n 210. of the ideal order November| 2012 Page 573 . the decay rate requirement of n   i1 1 a  to a contribution of order O (n 1 ) in the estimate of the difference P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  1].7 (n.8 replaced by 10. ( D1 ) and ( B11 ). b) n factor which should be small. b).7 (n.5(1) (n / 2. This is needed to obtain the right approximation error for the random mappings example. This makes it possible to replace condition ( A1 ) by the weaker pair of conditions ( A0 ) and ( D1 ) in the      P[T0b  s]( P[Tbn  n  s]  P[Tbn  n  r ]  s 0   P[T r n / 2 0b r 0 P[Tbn  n  s]  P[Tbn  n  r ] s 0 P[T0 n  n] [ n /2]   P[T0b  r ] s 0 difference. which is only small if a1  1. to replace 7. defining the function g by g (w)  1ws 1ws t . which has the required order. b). a bound of the form P[Tbn  s]  P[Tbn  s  t ]  O(n2t  n1a1  ) for any   0 could perhaps be attained. L( Z [1. For s  n / 2. at a cost of only a single ( B11 ). This would be O(b / n) for large enough b . Examining the Conditions ( A0 ).5)  P [0.1] 2 r 0 s 0  P[Tbn( m )  s ]  P[Tbn( m )  s  1] . leading to  a  1 a final error estimate in order O(bn  n 1 ) for any   0 . since all the classical applications make far more stringent assumptions about the  i1 .1] [ n /2] [ n /2] 3n 1 4n210. tail element from ( max P[T0b  s]) / P[T0 n  n]  i 1 is shifted from  i1 itself to its first order [ n / 2] [ n /2]  eventual assumptions needed for 7. However. If not.7 n. that we should need  l 2 l il  O(i a1 ) to hold for some a1  1 . iterating the cycle. The order O(n 3n . differences that are of the form P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  t ] can be Required order under Conditions ( A0 ).7 (n. in the remainder of the proof.11   n can be  n  in the above.5(1) 1 1 a1  ) for differences of the form P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  1].1] 10. l  2.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. 7   similar problem arises with the rate of decay of dTV ( L(C[1.1] 10. implied by that is. in which one estimate of a difference in point probabilities is improved to an estimate of smaller order. if S ()  . but would still be coarser for small b.  contribution of the form  10.10 (n).

8 (n)   2n ET 4  3 1      P [0. for any  Now we observe that 0b  n  s [ n /2]1  P[Tbn  n  r ]  [ n /2] P[T0b  r ]  r ] 1    P[T0 n  n]  r 0 P[T0 n  n]  P[T0b  s ]( P[Tbn  n  s ]  P[Tbn  n  r ]) r 0 ( s  r )(1   )     P[T0b  s]  n 1  s 0   .8 (n. 7 With b and n as in the previous section.2) is further simplified by noting that (1.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. we wish to show that 1 dTV ( L(C[1. b)  P [0.5(2) (n / 2. 2 Issue.8 (n.3).1] 1 K   4 0 ET0b 10. b) [ n /2] r 0  4n 2 ET02b  ( max P[T0b  s]) / P[T0 n  n]  8n 2 ET02b  0b and then by observing that ( s  r )(1   )   P[T0b  s]   P[T0b  r ]  n 1 r [ n /2] s 0  1  n 1   ( ET0b P[T0b  n / 2]  E (T0b1T0b  n / 2))  P[Tbn  n  r ]    P[T0b  r ] 1   P[T0 n  n]  r 0  r 0  P[T 1 dTV ( L(C[1. has the required order without the restriction on the ri implied by assuming that S ()  . b]). Finally.com) Vol.2) Issn 2250-3005(online)  10. b]))  P[T [ n /2] (s  r )(1   )   r ]   P[T0b  s]  n 1  s 0  [ n /2]  1   n E (T0b1T0b  n / 2)  2 1   n 2 ET02b . with 12 .1]   2 r 0 2 0b [ n / 2]   (  P[T0b  s ]( P[Tbn  n  s ]  P[Tbn  n  r ]  s 0  The quantity 7. b]).5) . b)  P[T0b  n / 2] 3 10.11 (n)   ( n) in the definition of 7.8 (n. this supplementary condition can be removed if 10.2) –(1.1]  P[T  dTV ( L(C[1. L( Z [1. b) .1] .  r] 0b  s [ n /2] P[T0b  s ] (s  r ) 1   n 1 (1.14 (n. b]))   (n  1) 1  P[T0b  r ]  P[T0b  s ]( s  r )(1   )  r 0  s 0    7.8 claimed under Conditions ( A0 ). b)  2n 1 ET0b 10.8 (n) is replaced  by 10. b) is seen to be of the order [ n / 2]  ( s  r )(1   )    P[T0b  s ] P[T0 n  n] ) n 1  s 0  provided  1 P[T0b  s ] s  r  P[T0b  r ] 2 n P[T0 n  n] r 0 s 0    10.5(2)  24 1   10.1)  We have P[T0b  r ] [ n / 2]  P[T0n  n]   3  (n / 2. L( Z [1. we begin with the formula  The approximation in (1. we thus find tha  n /2 s  n  P [0. b]). b]))  (n  1) 1 1   E T0b  ET0b 2  7. b).1] 10.4) Combining the contributions of (1. b)  O(n1b[n1b  n  12  Where ])   0 under Conditions ( A0 ).14 (n. ( D1 ) and ( B12 ). L( Z [1. 7. a direct calculation now shows that  P[T r 0  0b    r ]  P[T0b  s]( s  r )(1   )   s 0  1 1   E T0b  ET0b 2 November| 2012 Page 574 (1.14 (n.3)  4 1   n 2 ET02b (1.8 ( n) 3 ( )  nP [0. The proof uses sharper estimates.8 (n. ( D1 ) and ( B12 ) . that S ()  . b)  2(r  s ) 1   n  6  nP [0.8 (n. As before. (1. b)    4 1   n 2 ET02b K 0  410.

0. b) .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. we cannot discuss such things as ―lengths‖. going further in this direction will lead us to the so-called ―smooth (or differentiable) manifolds‖. One of the ways of proving (5) is to consider the scalar square of the linear combination a  tb. Namely. where t  R . As (a  tb. For example. The scalar product is also denote by dot: a.. This follows from the inequality (a. we define the angle between them by the equality cos  : ( a. are linear functions giving on an arbitrary vector respectively.. To be able to do so. Going to the right means forgetting about part of the affine structure.. Consider the point O  (0. making  a Euclidean space. For an arbitrary vector r . Once again: the partial derivatives in (1) are just the coefficients (depending 1 2 on x ). So our natural direction is to the right. h 2 ..From these examples follows that we can rewrite df as f f df  1 dx1  . addition...  a nb n (3) a  (a. The triangle inequality for distances also follows from the inequality (5). So let us say a few words about it: n Remark 1. for three points.Going to the left directions: means introducing some extra structure which will make the geometry richer.. x n ) . Hence we may say that we leading with the two copies of  n: n= n {points}. B) : AB (2) One can check that the distance so defined possesses natural properties that we expect: is it always nonnegative and equals zero only for coinciding points. (1) x x (the i-th coordinate).. From  considered as an affine space we can precede in two opposite  n as an Euclidean space   n as an n affine space   as a manifold.. its discriminant must be less or equal zero. The Euclidean structure.. For this definition to be consistent we have to ensure that the r. the coordinates of the point x  O  r are equal to the n respective coordinates of the vector r : x  ( x1 . dx . we have d ( A. a ) to be 1 n a : (a1 )2  .  n dx n . b) : a1b1  . Consider the function f ( x )  x Example 1. C )  d (C. The vector r such as in the example is called the position vector or the radius vector of the point x .. 0)  . of (4) does not exceed 1 by the absolute value.1. Euclidean geometry.x n ) and r  ( x1 . Now... we define the length of a vector a  (a .s. the distance from A to B is the same as that from B to A (symmetry). Intuitively.. a) . also. we first introduce the scalar product of two vectors (a.h. a  tb)  0 is a quadratic polynomial in t which is never negative..com) Vol... we have to introduce n some more definitions. This presupposes the choice of O as the ―standard origin‖. 2 Issue... in greater detail: r is the radius-vector of x w. The linear function which is the standard form. B and C. and hence is often Thus referred to as the ―dot product‖ .b  (a.0. The theory of differential forms does not require any extra geometry. for nonzero vectors..t an origin O).  (a n )2  d ( A. (An ―abstract‖ affine space is a pair of sets . dxi (the i differential of x ) applied to an arbitrary vector h i is simply h .. is useful for examples and applications. 7 Example 1. However. we can consider lines and planes. To define angles. Points are frequently specified by their radiusvectors. however.r. Operations with points and vectors: adding a vector to a point (giving a point).. (1) After that we can also define distances between points as follows: Issn 2250-3005(online) i November| 2012 Page 575 . B) (the ―triangle inequality‖).. ―angles‖ or ―areas‖ and ―volumes‖. Hence h its coordinates h1 . b) a b (4) The angle itself is defined up to an integral multiple of 2 .. the set of points and the set of vectors so that the operations as above are defined axiomatically). B)  d ( A. We have n considered  and interpreted its elements in two ways: as points and as vectors. dx . b)2  a b 2 2 (5) known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality (various combinations of these three names are applied in different books). Let us summarize. Notice that vectors in an affine space are also known as ―free vectors‖. and quadric surfaces like an ellipsoid.. (Or. Writing this explicitly yields (5)..  treated in this way is called an n-dimensional affine space. A.. In  considered as an affine space we can already do a good deal of geometry. they are not fixed at points and n ―float freely‖ in space.  = {vectors} Operations with vectors: multiplication by a number. n subtracting two points (giving a vector)..

Combining it together. x n f 1 h  x1 Proof..... for the increment of f ( x(t )) we obtain f ( x(t0  t )  f ( x0 )  df ( x0 )( . n   dx1  x   x     . The statement of the theorem can be expressed by a simple formula: df ( x(t )) f 1 f  1 x  . Let a curve x(t ) be such that x(t0 )  x0 and x(t0 )   . Where t  0 ...7.9. Theorem 1. Consider an arbitrary point x0 and an arbitrary vector Hence Suppose we have a parametrized t  x(t ) passing through x0   n at t  t0 and with the velocity vector x(t0 )   Then df ( x(t )) (t0 )   f ( x0 )  df ( x0 )( ) (1) dt curve Proof. By the definition of the velocity vector. ..   . . d ( f  g )  df  dg d ( fg )  df . Indeed.. (2) Theorem 1. we have f ( x0  h)  f ( x 0 )  df ( x0 )(h)   (h) h for an arbitrary vector h . 7 df ( x)(h)   hf ( x )  . stretching from it. dF ) and F F dF  1 dx1  . almost without change the m theory generalizes to functions taking values in  instead of  . The only difference is that now the F : U   m at a point x n will be a linear function taking vectors in  to m vectors in  (instead of  ) . t   (t )t  df ( x0 )( ). dF ( x(t ))  dF ( x(t ))( x(t )) (1) dt Proof... differential of a map F ( x  h)  F ( x)  dF ( x)(h) +  (h) h (3) Where  (h)  0 when h  0 . ... We have 1 m dF  (dF . 2 Issue.. Theorem 1.8..  n x n dt x x To calculate the value Of given vector  (2) df at a point x0 on a one can take an arbitrary curve passing Through x0 at t0 with  as the velocity vector at t0 and calculate the usual derivative of f ( x(t )) at t  t0 .g  f . F   1 n x   x In this matrix notation we have to write vectors as vector-columns.  (4)  m n m  dx   F .. For an arbitrary parametrized curve x(t ) in  n .com) Vol....  n dx n x x 1 1  F F   1 .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. For an arbitrary n vector h |  . this means that the derivative of f ( x(t )) at t  t0 is exactly df ( x0 )( ) . consider a small increment of the parameter t : t0  t0  t . On the other hand...t   (t )t ).t   (t )t )   ( . n (1) (2) d ( f  g )( x0 )( )  at t  t0 and d ( fg )( x0 )( )  d ( f ( x(t ))  g ( x(t ))) dt d ( f ( x(t )) g ( x(t ))) dt at t  t0 Formulae (1) and (2) then immediately follow from the corresponding formulae for the usual derivative Now..  For functions U  . g :U   ..t   (t )t Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 576 (2) .t   (t )t For a certain  (t ) such that  (t )  0 when t  0 (we used the linearity of df ( x0 ) ). the differential of a map m n F : U   (where U   ) maps the velocity vector x (t ) to the velocity vector of the curve F ( x(t )) in  m : . By the definition. where  (h)  0 when h  0 . x(t  t )  x(t )  x(t ).  f n h .dg f ..

By the same theorem.. m y  y  d (GoF )  .....Consider a curve . x(t )t   (t )t i .0. denoted for  ny ..6.... vector x (t ) . and the dependence of z  p on x  n is given by the composition GoF . Or Applying the theorem once again. the curve (GoF )( x(t )  G( F ( x(t )) . this theorem gives a clear geometric picture of dF as a linear map on vectors. n  ..W   (open domains).... we obtain F 1 F dx  . dF of under the . z  1 .. By the F ( x  h)  F ( x)  dF ( x)(h)   (h) h Where  (h)  0 when (3) h  0 .. y y dF  (2) Then the chain rule can be expressed as follows: G G d (GoF )  1 dF 1  . n x  x . This is often written as 1 1  z1 z1   z . Hence .  x a i 1 y i x a n If we denote coordinates in m 1 m n  by ( x . G  y1 y m    F 1 F 1   1 .... ... d (GoF )( x)  dG (dF ( x)) for an arbitrary .  n .  n dx n 1 x x G 1 G dG  1 dy  ... we need to know to p which vector in  it is taken by d (GoF ) .. we see that the velocity vector to the curve F ( x(t )) is the image Where it is assumed that the dependence of velocity vector ... F ( x(t  t ))  F ( x  x(t ).. precisely means that dF ( x) x(t ) is the velocity vector of F ( x) . . map x .  p  p p   z  z z z p    . with the standard coordinates Page 577 .... 1 m z  z  y i  . . if dG and dF are expressed by matrices of partial derivatives... 2 Issue. n x   x   .            (5) x .. ... Let F : x  y  F ( x) .  m dF m . n   y1 y m x    x  . Then the differential of the composite map GoF : U  W is the composition of the differentials of F and G : d (GoF )( x)  dG( y)odF ( x) (4) n m Proof. m 1 1  x x   y y  y1 y1  1 .. 7 Where  (t )  0 when definition of the differential.  F ( x)  dF ( x)( x(t )t   (t )t )  . Basically... (1) expression for dy  dF from (3). As every vector attached to a point can be viewed as the velocity vector of some curve passing through this point. Theorem 1.   m m  y .... . (3) y y . y ) .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.. In other words.....  F ( x)  dF ( x)( x(t )t   (t )t  (t )  0 For some t  0 .com) Vol.. vector (6) y   m on x  n is given by the map F .t   (t )t )    h i Where dF are taken from (1). .. Corollary 1. it equals the image under dG of the m Anycast Flow vector to the curve F ( x(t )) in  .  p p  G . F n   x1 x     dx1      . This when .    dx n      (4) i.  m m   F .  ( x(t )t   (t )t ).. then d (GoF ) is expressed by the product of these matrices.V   .. Consider an open domain Consider also another copy of distinction November| 2012 U n. ...  n dy n . the m p dependence of z  on y   is given by the G .... and where F :U V U   . t  0 .. to get d (GoF ) we have to substitute into (2) the ..... . y 1 x n  x    ...  G1 G1  1 .. This can also be expressed by the following matrix formula: i . p We can use the description of the x(t ) in  n with the differential ...e..... x ) and in  by ( y ...10 Suppose we have two maps G :V  W ..    .. and write Issn 2250-3005(online) Definition 1. . .

. 2 Issue..  n dx n 1 x x 1  F F 1   1 .. Example 1. . drawing vectors corresponding to a point as starting from that point.(r.  (t )). Consider the vectors  . whence the partial derivatives x r .. e : x is not ―constant‖ but depends on point... r cos  )  (3) x . ... we have dx x dr x d x x x    r  dt r dt  dt r  ... By definition. x n ) We can simply use the chain rule.. .. x r .  )  x(r.   . Notice that . (2) Here x  e1 x  e2 y r xi  x( x1 . Vectors ―stuck to points‖ when we consider curvilinear coordinates.. Proof..  m m  dx n   F . x  are. (3) 1 x x i Where x are arbitrary coordinates. the velocity vectors for the curves r  x(r . er : x A characteristic feature of the basis er ... y )  x  x( y .    (t )  2 specified (1) t  (r (t ). the maps Then. The map t  x(t ) can be considered as the composition of . the velocity vector will have components ( r .... Since we now know how to handle velocities in arbitrary coordinates.. .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.3. y n ) . The velocity vector has the same appearance in all coordinate systems. y ) 1 n 1 1 n (1) n Here the variables ( y .  ) . e is that it F 1 : U  V is also smooth (3) . a formal notation) can be understood directly as the velocity vectors of the coordinate lines i (all coordinates but x are fixed). the best way to treat the differential of a map F :    is by its action on the velocity vectors.. V   ny is an open domain of  ny . by the chain rule. (5) Proposition 1.  ) if .. respectively. We can compare this with the formula in the ―standard‖ coordinates: .2...  ) (  0 fixed ) and r   x(r . 7 ( y1. x U in this system are 1 n the standard coordinates of F ( x)  y The coordinates of a point In other words.In particular. Explicitly we have x  (cos  .sin  ) r x  ( r sin  .. The form of the df  differential does not change when we perform a change of coordinates.... ... It is instructive to sketch a picture. n   dx1  x   x   (e1 .com) Vol.. Consider a curve in in polar coordinates as x(t ) : r  r (t ). . em )  .. for the differential of a function we always have f f dx1  . y ) are the ―new‖ coordinates of the point x Example 1. . A system of coordinates in the open domain U is given by a map F : V  U .  n dx n . we set n dF ( x0 ) : m dx(t ) dF ( x(t )) (t0 )  (t0 ) dt dt (1) Now dF ( x0 ) is a linear map that takes vectors attached to a point x0   the point F ( x )   n to vectors attached to m F 1 F dx  . Follows directly from the chain rule and the transformation law for the basis ei .3 Consider a 1-form in the standard coordinates: November| 2012  2 given in Page 578 . x  are 2 vectors depending on point in  .. r and  are scalar coefficients depending on t . x . F : ( y . F   x n   x1 dF  (2) (4) From where it follows that these vectors make a basis at all points except for the origin (where r  0 ). (2) F is invertible.. . such that the as a basis we take following three conditions are satisfied : (1) F is smooth. x  er r  e  .  ) (r  r0 fixed ) Issn 2250-3005(online)  : . where that for an arbitrary curve given in polar coordinates . We can conclude In particular.  . the elements of the basis ei  x x i (originally..

International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.  2 p 1 .. we get A  r sin  (cos  dr  r sin  d )  r cos  (sin  dr  r cos  d ) TrK /  ( j )     2  . We begin Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 579 . ' ..1 For any   OK . That is.. Secondly. 1   is a unit in O K . we find that (1) x i j . so it has only the dx dt ' and As dx dt dx ' =  ( x(t (t ))). ' . We wish to show p that OK    . Consider dx  ( x(t (t ' ))).. Recall that the  i  j  (2)   parametrization of remains the same. We give a proof without assuming unique factorization of ideals. where ei  x . Let j is not divisible by p.. we use the factorization at  ( x   )( x   2 )..(1   p 1 ) Since the (1   ) are the conjugates of (1   ). write (1   ) in OK . a linear combination of the differentials of coordinates with functions as coefficients. ' dt  TrK /  (1   this shows that N K /  (1   )  p The key result Theorem 1. the integral TrK /  (1   )  TrK /  (1   2 )  .. Plugging in x  1 shows that p  (1   )(1   2 ). hence dx  cos  dr  r sin  d dy  sin  dr  r cos  d j be with some norm and trace computations. 2 Issue. p 1 ) p We also need to compute the norm of 1   ..  n n . Therefore A . Note that  is a root of x  1.  . and  x dxi (e j )  dxi  j  x x every point .( x   p 1 ).. in a more conceptual way. PROOF. TrK /  ((1   ) )  p. 7 A   ydx  xdy In the polar coordinates we will have x  r cos  . For this. We have and thus is an algebraic integer.. so the inclusion (1   )OK    p is immediate. we must have (1   )OK     Thus we can write 1   (1   ) For some   OK .  1   p ( x) differentials of functions were defined as linear functions on vectors (at every point).   p1   p ( ) 1  1  r 2 (sin 2   cos 2  )d  r 2 d If p does divide Hence A  r d is the formula for A in the polar coordinates. For arbitrary 1-form . since  K is a ring we have that     OK .. then  j  1. we can define a 1-form in a domain U as a linear function on vectors at every point of U : one conjugate 1.  ( x(t )). We  for  p or this section. ' dt dt dt Let p be a rational prime and let K   ( p ). y  r sin  . TrK /  ( j )  p 1 By linearity of the trace...9. Recall that K has degree  ( p)  p  1 over  . and Substituting into 2  ( )  1 1  . j  and path  for determining the ring of integers OK is the following.9 (1   )OK    p provide the orientation We saw above that p is a multiple of Proof. If primitive p are th root of unity. Proof:  ( x(t (t ' ))). and thus its conjugates  . then  is a j an integer.com) Vol. does not change if we change  LEMMA 1.. we see that this is again a 1-form. x p 1  x p 2  . COROLLARY 1. If    ei i . now Suppose that the inclusion is strict.. In particular.. Since (1   )OK   is an ideal of  containing p and p is a maximal ideal of  .

p and write   a0  a1  .4 Let p be a prime number and factorization of a  OK in O K . so   a  OK . p  pnOK . then the local ring  ( p) is simply the subring of  of rational numbers with denominator relatively prime to p . 1   is a multiple of 1   in OK for every j  0. that a is generated by the elements of a in a  OK ..com) Vol. p for some n... p .. p  OK . this map surjection. p . p is a Dedekind domain. the inclusion OK  OK . K ) with the usual ordering.. it remains to show that it is integrally closed in K .  a p2 p3 . Then we can write    /  where   OK and   p. The same in OK / p . Let a be any ideal of OK .  /     OK . p has the form p nOK . It is also now clear that p nOK . p Since pOK . In argument as above shows that a1   . To an algebraic integer since p 1 continuing in this way we find that all of the a i are in  .. we find that November| 2012 Page 580 .4 Let K   . Then  (1   )  a0 (1   )  a1 (   2 )  .  a p 2 ( p 2  p 1 implies that    /   (a  OK )OK . p is the unique non-zero prime ideal in OK . p . Thus the map is an isomorphism.. p  OK  p.. p is integrally close in K . p  pnbOK . so a0   Next consider the algebraic integer (  a0 ) 1  a1  a2  . p ) By the linearity of the trace and our above calculations we find that TrK /  ( (1   ))  pa0 We also have TrK /  ( (1   ))  p . as claimed. Furthermore. m 1. The usefulness of OK . p .. which makes sense since  is invertible (with and is. Thus   OK .   OK With ai   . So let   K be a root of a polynomial with coefficients in OK . also a rational integer. so   OK and   p. Multiplying by xm  m  is the root of a monic polynomial with coefficients in O K . to get  p one must complete  ( p) . p 2 p Let Thus is an integral basis for OK . Then OK   [ p ]   [ x] / ( p ( x)).  (1   p 1 ) p 1 ( ) i are the complex embeddings of K (which we are really viewing as automorphisms of Where the clear from the definition of an ideal that a  (a  OK )OK .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline..... Thus Since TrK /  ( (1   ))  (1   )OK Since the trace is use this fact to determine all of the ideals of OK .   p 1 (1   ) p 1 ( )  (1   )1 ( )  . Example 1.  a p2 p2 this Since bOK .We can a  OK  p n b For some n and some ideal b . p . Furthermore.. 1. Set    0 1. we claim first that bOK .. p comes from the fact that it has a particularly simple ideal structure. Thus OK . 7 TrK /  ((1   ) )  1 ((1   ) )  . p is maximal. p   p ) is the image of  1 in OK / p . It is Issn 2250-3005(online) show that OK . p .. relatively prime to p. Note that this ring  ( p) is not the ring  p of p -adic integers.  PROOF. p .. since the residue class of   OK is also  /   OK . Let a be any proper ideal of OK . since we have   p. write it as j let K |  ( p ) be the p th cyclotomic field. p / pOK . p and consider the ideal PROPOSITION 1. p . it is now abundantly clear that every nonzero prime ideal of OK .. and particular...   a (since  /   a and a is an ideal). p and consider the ideal a  OK of OK . let  be any element of a .  0 With  i  OK and  m 1 0  i  OK  p . We now find that a  (a  OK )OK . That is. p .  p . 2 Issue. This is  1   . 1/   OK . To prove the other inclusion. Thus every ideal of OK .   p 1 ((1   ) )  1 (1   )1 ( )  . p is noetherian. In particular. This completes the proof. it follows immediately that OK . We claim that a  (a  OK )OK . write this polynomial as  m 1 m 1  x  .

This type of control. Control schemes for regional voltage control would be useful in North America as voltage collapse has played a prominent part in all recent blackouts. Phasor measurements have already been shown to be very helpful in tracking the oscillation modes and their damping in near real time. Let K be a number field of degree n and let  be in OK then N K' /  ( OK )  N K /  ( ) PROOF. The speed of calculation is not a major concern as changing the setpoints can be done quite infrequently. let L be the Galois closure of K and set [ L : K ]  m. the conceptual functionality of these local controls will remain the same. The primary governor control at the generators is local while the secondary AGC control that adjusts the governor setpoints is area-wide. The challenge here is that the calculation of PSS setpoints requires large analytical calculations. As this control is quite slow (2-4 second sampling). C. OK / N K /  ( )OK Will have order NK /  ( )n . The concepts are presented in the order of increasing complexity.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. the bandwidth requirement remains modest. like frequency control. In the general case. The wide-area controls presented here will often take care of the local controllers but the main objective is to improve the overall stability of the power system. Such remote signal inputs will obviously require a more flexible communication mesh network. The main hurdle has been the selection of input and output variables of the controller that can handle all the varied operating conditions that the power system endures. Ancillary markets for regulation capacity have developed to handle this service. which are today done off-line but will have to be done on-line in this case. this shows that Galois. feasibility of control is not a problem. Small signal stability control Small signal instability occurs when a system perturbation. also implying that the ones presented first would be easier to implement. Regional Voltage Control Voltage control in North America has always been local. 2 Issue. It is  (OK ) /  ( )  OK / . even a small one. Thus this challenge is a classical one of developing a practical robust controller. Although local controls continue to be improved using newer technologies. However. although Europe and China are trying some regional control schemes. this areawide AGC control has become more decentralized. usually under 1Hz. therefore NK' /  ( NK /  ( )OK )  NK /  (OK )n This completes the proof. Assume first that K /  is  be an element of Gal ( K /  ). clear that since  (OK )  OK . Frequency Control Frequency is controlled by balancing load with generation. 7 COROLLARY 1.com) Vol. a procedure that works well for local oscillation modes but not interarea modes. These oscillations are slow. D. A. is relatively slow and so the feasibility of the control and communication is not an issue.2. This would be analogous to the AGC control by introducing a secondary control scheme that would periodically adjust the setpoints of the local PSS controllers as the system changes. These PSS are local controllers on the generators. The more complex communication scheme required is also not a problem. The main method used today to guard against small signal instability is the off-line tuning of power system stabilizers (PSS). FERC recognizes voltage-VAR control as an ancillary service but it has been difficult to develop any auction markets for this service. We assume a bit more Galois theory than usual for this proof. B. New controllers need to be developed that can use system-wide inputs (not necessarily more inputs per controller but input signals from further away). Another control concept is to adaptively change the PSS setpoints according to the power system operating conditions. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ancillary service regulations do allow third-party AGC but a new communication-computation-control scheme needs to be developed before this can occur in any large scale. IV. WIDEAREA CONTROL The proposed control concepts described here are all widearea controls. probably minutes. Given that all generators in a region are no longer owned by the same organization. Let NK' /  ( ( )OK )  NK' /  (OK ) . we have Since NK' /  ( NK /  ( )OK )  NK' /  (OK )n N K /  ( ) is a rational integer and OK is a free  module of rank n. Thus local controllers are used to mitigate system oscillation modes. such a network introduces other modes of failures like signal delays and the control have to be robust enough to handle them. excites a natural oscillatory mode of the power system. The primary control is continuous whereas the secondary control is discrete usually using 2-4 second sampling. Taking the product over all   Gal ( K /  ). Voltage stability control Voltage instability occurs when a change in the power system causes an operating condition that November| 2012 Page 581 . although a meshed Issn 2250-3005(online) communication network is required rather than the present star network.

can be identified and corrected right at the substation. In addition. including switch statuses. Although many phasor measurements and a comprehensive communication scheme will be required in this type of control. -the second is to automatically adjust these protective schemes with on-line calculations. What is proposed here is the development of soft-computing techniques using pattern-recognition. In that case a mini state estimator can be run within each substation to estimate all complex voltages and all currents out at each substation. This is not a stability control in the traditional sense that responds to a disturbance. In reality. -the third and final would be to directly operate the control actions after the disturbance occurs.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. to process the realtime data to decide the best control action. the computation needed to determine the disturbance scenario and then computing the necessary controls for stabilization. Because there are always some noise November| 2012 Page 582 . This concept is approached in three increasingly difficult levels: -the first is to use off-line studies to manually adjust protective schemes which would operate only if the disturbance occurs. Whether this is indeed possible with today‘s technology is not known. However. this data is usually not timestamped. G. 2 Issue. Let us assume that enough phasor measurements will be available at all substations that voltage angles at all substations will be measured. New preventive control schemes are needed that can also include special protection schemes that could isolate those areas with var deficiencies. the state estimate for the network will have to be more than just a collection of the complex voltages from the substations. I. On-line setting of special protection schemes A step forward will be to develop methods to control transient stability but with less dependence on offline studies and more use of on-line computation. bad data. These SPS today are developed from the results of voluminous offline studies and are implemented with a ‗hard-wired‘ communication system. some have referred to this as state measurement (precluding the need for a state estimator altogether). H. The main idea here is to use more real-time data to determine what control is needed. The RC may also exchange such data with neighboring RCs. Thus. neuralnetworks. Real Time Modeling (State Estimation) The state estimator (SE) today runs at the control center EMS using the data from the SCADA real time data and the static database. the goal here would be to determine what kind of communication-computation structure will be needed to make this feasible. There are two levels of SEs running today – at the Balancing Authorities (BA) level and at the Reliability Coordinators (RC) level. Real time control of transient stability The objective here is to develop a global control for transient stability (with no off-line assists). Often the BAs also have communications between themselves to exchange real time data so that each BA SE can construct its own external model. So far. expert systems. The BA SCADA gets the real time data from the RTUs and uses that for its SE.com) Vol. Transient stability control The development of such a control scheme is by far the most difficult because a disturbance that can cause instability can only be controlled if a significant amount of computation (analysis) and communication can be accomplished very rapidly. etc. has to be in the same time-frame as today‘s protection schemes (milliseconds). F. Because this data includes voltage angles. To achieve this the BA control centers have to have communication connections to the RC control center. ‘Soft-wired’ special protection schemes A step advance in this direction will be to generalize special protection schemes (SPS) to control transient stability. This processed data would be very different in character than the raw measurement data that is fed to the control center SE today. This calculation requires good contingency analysis which in turn requires a good real time model (state estimator) as discussed in the next section. Of Issn 2250-3005(online) course. E. Because there are enough redundant measurements within a substation these voltages and currents can be very accurate. What is proposed here is the development of a generalized communication system that can enable the implementation of new SPS by software modification. only SCADA data is exchanged and moreover. (It should be noted that many papers assume that the control centers exchange state estimated data for this purpose but this is not the case. it also passes on the same real time data to the ISO level for its SE.) It is expected that the availability of large amounts of phasor measurements will significantly change the nature of state estimators. the system values and statuses monitored and the breakers controlled cannot be modified. the computation requirements will be modest as the control schemes are largely defined off-line. Guarding against such instability requires the anticipation of such contingencies that can cause voltage instability and taking preventive action. This is an action plan to ensure that the system operating condition does not stray into an area where a perturbation can cause voltage instability. 7 is deficient in reactive power support. For this to be feasible. much off-line training of the software may still be required off-line but the expectation is that the control action would be much more efficient than those purely decided off-line.

Lambert. 2006. Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Information Processing (ISIP‘09). 756. 2. China. and Z. Comput. Menlo Park. Handling Communication Restrictions and Team Formation in Congestion Games.May 1–4. Networks. ―A survey on communication networks for electric system automation. pp. Kurt et al.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. . ―Telecommunications for smart grid: Backhaul solutions for the distribution network. Issn 2250-3005(online) [14] [15] [16] [17] Agogino. Department of Energy. Conf. R. U. P. 13(1):97–115. Modeling and Evaluation of Intrusion Tolerant Systems Based on Dynamic Diversity Backups. Laverty. 2011. Buratti. pp. 7 and errors in the data. 26. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Dynamics and Control of Large Electric Power Systems. He is the recipient of numerous awards from World Congress in Computer Science. p. and C. J. M. A. vol. Authors and Affiliations Dr Akash Singh is working with IBM Corporation as an IT Architect and has been designing Mission Critical System and Service Solutions. pp. V. September 27. 1. 58. Oregon State University D. Bruckner. C. 1–4. Lewis. 2011. 877–897. pp. Energy Assurance Daily. pp. Gong.‖ in Proc. Jul. 4495–4503. a central state estimator will have to reconcile (get the best fit) from all the measurements received. 1–4. Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.K.‖ Comput. ―Smart grid communication network capacity planning for power utilities. pp. 000047– 000052.. et al. SRI International. A. Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering. 2 Issue. He is a member of IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). pp. April 25. Oct. 2010. D. 2010. 2009. and IP Multimedia System 2008 and Billing and Roaming 2008. Ind. April 24. Inc. Nov. C. He is active research in the field of Artificial Intelligence and advancement in Medical Systems. Lancashire. P. vol. Computer Engineering and Applied Computing 2010. Sustainable Alternative Energy (SAE). Gezer and C. Bhattacharya. Gungor and F. M. Meng. He joined IBM in Jul 2003 as a IT Architect which conducts research and design of High Performance Smart Grid Services and Systems and design mission critical architecture for High Performance Computing Platform and Computational Intelligence and High Speed Communication systems. Sharp. no. 25–29.‖ IEEE Trans. Electron.S. CA 2003. Sep.com) Vol. and Tumer. School of Mechanical.‖ IEEE Trans. John Wiley & Sons. K.. 2011. ―A ZigBee smart energy implementation for energy efficient buildings. Wenpeng. F. pp. 2011. et al. (VTC Spring). November| 2012 Page 583 . J. August 21-23. Yarali.‖ IEEE Trans. Paudyal.‖ IEEE Trans. Zhongfu. 1–6. Morrow. 19–22. and Zaborszky. Conf. pp. Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration Division. Palensky. K. 1. 101–104 Characterizing Intrusion Tolerant Systems Using A State Transition Model. © 2000. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting.. A. IEEE 73rd Veh. vol. no. Expo. Ind. 2010. Y. A major advantage of obtaining complex measurements of voltages and currents is that the estimator equations will be linear and the estimation will not require iterations like the present estimator. A. May 2006.‖ in Proc. 2010. C. Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems. G. 3577– 3584. 2010. J..‖ in Proc. S. L. 2009. Crossley. 173–180. Igic. Ilic. Smart Grid. and K. R. and P. ―Wireless mesh networking technology for commercial and industrial customers. no. Jan. Best. He has published papers in IEEE and other International Conferences and Journals. Electron. 11.. Transmission Distrib. Konoledge. C. M. pp. IEEE PES/IAS Conf. 2007. 2011. D. the AAAI (Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence) and the AACR (American Association for Cancer Research). vol. ―Transmission characteristics of low-voltage distribution networks in China under the smart grids environment. Y. Canizares. Power Delivery. Dietrich. D. College of Engineering. pp. 10. R. Zhai. IEEE PES. Apr. May 15–18. Eng. ―Assessment of communication methods for smart electricity metering in the U. ―Communication and computation in buildings: A short introduction and overview. 1–5. He is in Industry for 18 Years where he performed various role to provide the Leadership in Information Technology and Cutting edge Technology. Peizhong. D. P. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Research. and P. ―Developing ZigBee deployment guideline under WiFi interference for smart grid applications. Mar. 50. 110–120. CENTIBOTS Large Scale Robot Teams. vol. Artificial Intelligence Center. and S. Zhou. Huangshan. 2008. no. ―Optimal operation of distribution feeders in smart grids..‖ in Proc. Iwayemi. Technol.‖ in Proc. Elect. CCECE. Zucker. 57.

Tanabe. no. 268–273. Swart (Editors). L. 2009. ―Comments request for information on smart grid communications requirements. T. no. ―The deployment of a smart monitoring system using wireless sensors and actuators networks.. and R. Mag. P. ―Single frequency network technology for fast ad hoc communication networks over power lines. Rep. Conf. D. 24. pp. 2010. and M.‖ Jul. Apr. 10. 2. IEEE Int.‖ IEEE Trans. pp. Green. Ind. vol. L. Conf. T. vol.‖ IEEE Commun. Power Syst.. 4. pp. pp.. vol.com) Vol. and M. ―Smart grid—A reliability perspective.‖ IEEE Commun. Inform.‖ in Proc. (ISPLC). 19–21. New York: Wiley. 1–8. Kocak. 2011. Durresi. C. Gungor. A. ―Power line communications for large-scale Issn 2250-3005(online) [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] control and automation systems. 4. Tech. November| 2012 Page 584 . C. Smart Grid Commun. 58. Kumar. Li. 8. ―Smart grid communications and networking. Q. pp. ―Securing powerline communications. 2010.‖ Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT). and D. Tavakoli.. Vangelista. Hrasnica. Paruchuri. Apr 2011. V. N. J. A. ―Probabilistic LMP forecasting considering load uncertainty. design guidelines and protocols. Lampe. M. (SmartGridComm). S. Zorzi.‖ in Proc. 7. 2–4. no. Apr. pp. Southern Company Services. 47. ―Hydro: A hybrid routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks. 274–278.‖ IEEE Trans.‖ in Proc. Bumiller. and S. N. H. and T. Jan. and H. (SmartGridComm). no. Smart Grid Commun. K. Ergüt. pp. ―IEEE 1901 access system: An overview of its uniqueness and motivation. ―Location assisted routing techniques for power line communication in smart grids. 150– 157. pp. Biagi and L. 106– 113. G. Marin-Perez. Sauter and M. Bazzaco. Ramesh. Oct.. Power Line Commun. Electron. Casari. 85–91. 48. no. Lampe. Lobashov. Dawson-Haggerty. May 2011. 2010. J. vol. 316–327. Mag.. 48. ―Beacon-less geographic routing made partical: Challenges. 49–54. Bui. Sanchez. Culler. A. Sahin. Bo and F. 2010. and T. Symp. 7 [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [31] V... Aug. 2010 R. L. ―Communication infrastructures for distributed control of power distribution networks. 2010. Appl. 2 Issue. Ferreira. 2009. IEEE Int. vol. vol.Yang. Conf. Aug. ―End-to-end communication architecture for smart grids. 1279–1289.‖ IEEE Commun. IEEE Int. Ind. IEEE Int. Bumiller. Eds. P. J. Lampe. 1218–1228. L. Stein 2010..‖ WiKuWissenschaftsverlag Dr. Barria. 2010. G. 64–69. Inc. Mag. pp.‖ IEEE Trans. Newbury. J. Power Line Communications. 11316-01. 2010. Bressan. 2008. Goldfisher and S. S. Ruiz.‖ Türk Telekom. Moslehi and R. pp. Smart Grid Commun. Apr. pp.‖ in Proc.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.