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International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue.

7

Smart Grid Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control
Akash K Singh, PhD
IBM Corporation Sacramento, USA

Abstract
For century, there has been no change in
the fundamental structure of the electrical power
grid and vehicle networks. Current hierarchical,
centrally controlled grid of the electrical grid is
not best for growing demand. To address the
challenges of the existing power grid, the new
concept of smart grid and smarter planet are
under research. The smart grid can be considered
as a modern electric power grid infrastructure
for enhanced efficiency and reliability through
automated control, high-power converters,
modern communications infrastructure, sensing
and metering technologies, and modern energy
management
techniques
based
on
the
optimization of ondemand, energy and network
availability. While current power systems are
based on a solid information and communication
infrastructure, the new smart grid needs a
different and much more complex one, as its
dimension is much larger and needs utmost
performance. This paper addresses critical issues
on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of
information and communication technology
(ICT) issues and opportunities. The main
objective of this paper is to provide a
contemporary look at the current state of the art
in smart grid communications as well as to
discuss the still-open research issues in this field.
It is expected that this paper will provide a better
understanding of the technologies, potential
advantages and research challenges of the smart
grid and provoke interest among the research
community to further explore this promising
research area.
Keywords- Advanced metering infrastructure
(AMI), communication technologies, quality-ofservice (QoS), smart grid, standards
I. INTRODUCTION
Modern power grid is the most complex
human-made system, which is monitored by widearea monitoring system (WAMS). Providing timesynchronized data of power system operating
states,WAMS will play a crucial role in next
generation smart grid protection and control. WAMS
helps secure efficient energy transmission as well as
reliable and optimal grid management. As the key
enabler of a smart grid, numerous sensors such as
PMU and current sensors transmit real-time dynamic
data, which is usually protected by encryption
algorithm from malicious attacks, over wide-areaIssn 2250-3005(online)

network (WAN) to power system control centers so
that monitoring and control of the whole system is
possible. Security algorithms for power grid need to
consider both performance and energy efficiency
through code optimization techniques on encryption
and decryption. In this paper, we take power nodes
(sites) as platforms to experimentally study ways of
energy consumptions in different security
algorithms. First, we measure energy consumptions
of various security algorithms on CrossBow and
Ember sensor nodes. Second, we propose an array of
novel code optimization methods to increase energy
consumption efficiency of different security
algorithms. Finally, based on careful analysis of
measurement results, we propose a set of principles
on using security algorithms in WAMS nodes, such
as cryptography selections, parameter configuration,
and the like. Such principles can be used widely in
other computing systems with energy constraints.
A. Related Work
A large amount of works have been done
on energy consumption of security algorithms and
protocols in common network environment, such as
the energy consumption of the SSL protocol in PC
networks, the energy consumption of WEP inWi-Fi
networks, etc. However, there are few research on
the energy consumption of security algorithms in
WAMSs. Recently, most of the energy consumption
studies related to WAMSs are based on simulations.
The energy consumption is usually measured based
on the CPU computation time and the number of
data packets. However, this is a coarse grain
approximation. In simulation aspect, network
simulations, such as NS2, TOSSIMM [5], and
Atemu [6], can properly simulate the behaviors of
the network protocols, but they are not able to
simulate the single node well. Thus, the method
mentioned above is not suitable for our study on the
energy consumption of security algorithms in
WAMSs. There are some instruction-level energy
evaluation models for WAMSs, such as AEON [7],
and PowerTOSSIM [8]. These two models first
measure the currents of the sensor nodes, followed
by partitioning the measured currents to different
code segments and different components of sensor
nodes. Finally, the energy consumption of a certain
code segment or a certain component is calculated.
However, these models are not
suitable for
commercial WAMS sensors, due to the fact that
most of the manufacturers only provide software in
the form of ―black box.‖ Even obtaining the source
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International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue. 7

code, inserting instruction for measuring is not
convenient. To obtain the energy characteristics of
security algorithms, there are some studies based on
physical measurement.Wander et al. [9] has
measured the energy consumption of the RSA and
ECC on MICA2DOT sensor nodes. However, this
method cannot be implemented with the whole
version of code into the WAMS nodes. Gupta et al.
[10] has pointed out that the size of memory
consumption of standard code is close to 4KB for
cryptography algorithms such as DES. This means
that the memory will not be enough to directly
implement standard algorithms on some WAMS
nodes. WAMS is an autonomic network consisting
of a large number of sensor nodes deployed in the
monitoring area. The sensor nodes are connected by
an ad hoc network and communicate with the sink
through multihop. In aWAMS, the sensor nodes are
the basic parts of the implementation of information
sensing and communication. Compared to other
wireless network, the WAMS is a specific
application
oriented
network,
which
has
characteristics of large size and dynamic topology. A
sensor node inWAMS is a system with
multifunction, such as data collection, computation,
and communication. Compared to other wireless
network, the WAMS is a specific application
oriented network, which has characteristics of large
size and dynamic topology. A sensor node inWAMS
is a system with multifunction, such as data
collection, computation, and communication.
Compared to common sensor systems, the WAMS
sensor nodes have their constraints as listed below.
• Poor computation power. The sensors usually
adopt MCU that has slow computation speed as their
processors.
• Limited memory space. The ATmega128L
processor has only 4 KB SRAM onchip. And the
high-end CrossBow
Imote2 has 256 KB onchip and 32 MB offchip.
• Tight power consumption constraint. Due to the
limitations of deployed area, cost, and physical size,
some WAMS
nodes are usually equipped with low capacity
batteries.
Thus, there are strict requirements for
consecutive execution time on nodes. Because of the
strict constraints of computation resource and
energy, the WAMS nodes can only execute simple
computation tasks and communication tasks.
Currently, the hardware/software codesign is a key
part of WAMS study. PMU-based WAMS is a
cyber-physical system where the Internet-based
communication network overlays the physical
equipment-based
power
grid
[11],
[12].
Cybersecurity is crucial for ensuring integrity and
resiliency of future smart grid. The encryption
design for secure WAMS data communication must
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consider energy and bandwidth constraints. PMU
was first invented in Virginia Tech in 1988 to
measure phasors of voltage and current, frequency
and real/reactive power in real-time with GPS time
tagging [1], [13]. PMUs have thus been continuously
enhanced and are now being deployed in substations.
The PMU data are collected in a phasor data
concentrator (PDC) to facilitate real-time power
system situation awareness, analysis, operation,
protection, and control [13]–[15]. With large scale
integration of variable renewable energy integration,
PMU-based smart grid will ensure power system
stability and reliability.
II. WAMS SECURITY ISSUES
A. Security Threats Encountered in WAMs
WAMSs use public communication
channels, in which every device inside or outside the
network may obtain the information. The attackers
can directly destroy the WAMS nodes due to the
open deployment of nodes.
B. Energy Constraint on Security Algorithms
In order to prevent the attacker from
deciphering directly on WAMS nodes, the data on
nodes should be encrypted before stored. Complete
verification information needs to be inserted into
original message, so that the data packets will not be
modified maliciously. Thus, it is necessary to
introduce proper ID verification mechanism into
WAMSs to defend ID-based attack such as Sybil and
node duplication attack. Although the security
threats encountered byWAMSs are diverse, data
encryption, integrity protection, and verification are
the most basic security service requirements in
WAMSs. In WAMSs, the stronger the security
algorithm is, the more energy consumption on the
CPU [21]. Thus, in order to satisfy the security
requirement on the WAMS, energy consumption is
the major factor that constrains security algorithms.
C. Security Level and Energy Consumptions
The limited energy and computation
resources determine that the security mechanism in
WAMS nodes should be implemented as simple as
possible. Integrating security service directly and
control systems.
D. Introduction
Power system faults cause changes in
power system frequency and/or voltages due to the
loss of generation or/and load. These changes
depend on the power system robustness and its
ability to respond to these changes in a short time.
Each power system has a unique dynamic behaviour
that depends on factors such as network transmission
topology, load location (closed or far from
generation location), generation capacity, type of
generation (wind, hydro, nuclear, thermal plants),
etc. The phenomena involved during a power system
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disturbance/blackout can be classified in 5 main
classes:

Voltage collapse,

Frequency collapse,

Loss of synchronism,

Large power swings

Cascade of overloads.
Electrical networks are also more and more
interconnected in order to improve the robustness of
the electrical power system, to increase the exchange
capacity between the electric power transmission
system over a wider area that crosses state borders
and to ensure mutual assistance among system
operators (specially in case of wide area
disturbance).
Two characteristics are essential for any electrical
power system to maintain its stability and integrity:

Avoid the cascading of an isolated power
system fault over a wider area,

time constants that are involved cover very
different time scales.
The perturbations of the wave resulting
from electrical short circuits propagate close to the
speed of light. However Intelligent Electronic
Devices (IEDs) as Protective Relays, Programmable
Logic Controller, etc. operate in areas ranging from
tens of milliseconds to seconds and SCADA or EMS
in areas ranging from minutes to hours. In contrast to
conventional protection devices, which provide local
protection of individual equipment (transformer,
generator, line, etc.), the wide area protection system
provides comprehensive protection covering the
whole power system. When compared to
SCADA/EMS systems, that are responsible for
network control and management, the wide area
protection system is focused on maintaining power
system integrity. The idea is that a wide area
protection
and
optimization
system
shall
complement rather than substitute any of the existing
control and protection systems.
E. Use of WAMPAC
Faults in transmission system leading to
more widespread load outages are very rare in most
power systems, but if they occur they can have
serious impacts on many activities in society. If a
whole city or part of a region suffers a black out, the
economic and societal impacts can be very
significant, and consequently the requirements on
security must be much higher in the transmission
system as compared with the distribution level.
Furthermore, the restoration after a major
transmission system fault is a very complicated and
laborious task. In stressed power system the risk of
cascading events is of particular concern. Through
cascading, the consequences of a single event can be
spread over large geographical distances in a system.
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Hence, there is a need to assess and evaluate
different means of improving transmission system
security. Wide Area Monitoring Protection And
Control (WAMPAC) systems have been recently
proposed as one such means:

Preventive actions are implemented to
avoid such phenomena to occur by using Wide Area
Measurement Systems (WAMS).

Curative actions are implemented to avoid
the spreading and so saving the rest of the power
system by using manual or automatic mechanisms
depending of the quickness of the phenomena such
as Wide Area Control and Protection Systems
(WACS, WAPS).
A defense plan is a list of actions taken
automatically or manually after a severe contingency
(contains decision to take in order to minimize the
consequences of severe disturbances) and is based
on several studies which include: safety, emergency
and restoration plans.

The safety plan is a post-contingency
manual corrective action made by the operator to
reestablish the normal conditions and is based on
preventive analysis of expected contingencies.

The emergency plan tries to reduce
contingencies effects based on automatic remote
generation shedding and/or load shedding acting by
frequency relays.

The restoration plan fixes a procedure to
recover the electricity after the system shut down.
The electric system is subject to uncertainties in
permanence which can be grouped into four
families:

The hazards of consumption: Because of
the character not storable electrical energy must be
ensured at all times, adapting production to demand.
So the electrical power system is controlled by the
demand. One of the major factors is climatic (winter
peak load, summer peak load).

Climatic hazards. The electrical system
(overhead line, cable, transformer, hydro power
plant, cooling of the thermal and nuclear power
plants) must cope with external environmental
assaults as such as lightning, flood, storm, drought,
cold, etc. which can conduct to short circuit faults,
tripping of generation groups, etc.

Equipment failures (isolation failure, bus
bar fault, etc.) and external attacks as such as
mechanical excavator server a power cable, aircraft
crash, etc.

Dysfunction related to human factors
(design
failure,
poor
commissioning,
no
maintenance, etc.) initiatives related to WAMPAC
encompass the following essential elements.

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the project will improve the annual RAS updates and maintenance efficiency and enhance grid reliability by reducing RAS logic overlapping and cascading outage risks. The primary focus of this project is for distribution applications and interoperability demonstrations. WASAS is primarily based on the synchronized phasor measurement technology. November| 2012 Page 556 . Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and nonelectrical system data (weather. such as voltage phase angle different monitoring. the uplink streaming traffic is around 100kb/s. One of the main objectives of SCEnet2 is to move from dedicated routers and fixed bandwidth for each system to virtual connections sharing routers and bandwidth. Following the success of Phase 1. the following assumptions can be made based on preliminary estimations of data traffic specified for WASAS and CRAS implementation. Production Testing (PT=OP). their similarities will favor an integrated WAMPAC system architecture design with the expected benefits: 1. 2. I. WASAS stream packets may be delayed by milliseconds during CRAS GOOSE burst. it will serve as a technology reference for WAMPAC integration. However.) to provide additional information for system operators. However. Concurrent with Phase 2 is accommodation of newer generation RASs. J. and it introduces the risk of opening CRAS critical dual redundant control VLANs to other connections and traffic.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. 2 Issue. CRAS are special protection schemes (SPS) that enable an automatic protection system designed to maintain system reliability by detecting abnormal or predetermined system conditions and taking corrective actions other than (or in addition to) the isolation of faulted components. and it may eventually share one of the CRAS redundant pair uplinks. It will utilize other wide-area information input. G. 7 F. Field experience is not yet available. It will implement a number of monitoring and alarm functions. WASAS streaming rates are modest compared to CRAS binary burst traffic rates. traffic. K. Wide Area Situation Awareness System (WASAS) The WASAS is a project involving deployment of PMU devices in 500 kV and 230 kV substations and grid control center situation awareness applications for supporting system operators in real-time decision making [9]. fire. will provide a unified communication infrastructure to support all present and future communication and networking needs for control and operation systems. Centralized Remedial Action Scheme (CRAS) The CRAS project will replace existing individual RASs and accommodate any additional RASs in the future [10]. Data Traffic Estimation It is very difficult to estimate how much data traffic will be generated when all these applications are sharing the communication infrastructure. SCE plans on procurement and deployment of the system in the near future. and business needs. It may not have direct impact on WAMPAC as WAMPAC has more demanding performance requirements. Irvine SG Demonstration This project is a demonstration of an integrated. INTEGRATED WAMPAC ARCHITECTURE Despite differences among various WAM/WAC/WAP systems and capabilities. Assuming WASAS synchrophasor values are streamed as Ethernet UDP/IP packets with 60 packets per second and 16 synchrophasor measurements per packets. As illustrated in Fig. The Unified Communication Architecture is in the planning and designing stage. and triple redundant central controller for each system. H. from sources such as Energy Management Systems (EMS). scalable Smart Grid system. For future sharing of downlinks. Wide-range of data sharing: having access to all measurement data and the system/application generated output data will increase the data redundancy level for all functions and applications and reduce the overall system cost to achieve the same level of redundancy for each system. The conceptual system design was approved by WECC in 2008. it will install four sub-systems at Grid Control Center (GCC) and AGCC locations: Operational Production (OP). Part of the SCEnet2 will be developed through several on-going SCE capital projects.25Mb/s and the downlink traffic is around 4Mb/s. earthquake. SCEnet2 Deployment The SCEnet2 is an on-going effort to establish a future communication backbone as part of SCE‘s Unified Communication Architecture. By centralizing the distributed RAS logic. Phase 2 will migrate the remaining RASs. Development (DEV) and Operator Training Simulator (OTS). Unified Communication Architecture The Unified Communication Architecture.com) Vol. it is not recommended until future generation with WASAS closed loop control. Its architecture design and component specifications were completed in 2009 and it will be procured and deployed in near future. The Phase 1 of the project is to build the central controller facilities and migrate two selected existing RASs. III. the uplink traffic is around 1. For CRAS data. etc. assuming four substations trigger for state change and six substations mitigate. which Issn 2250-3005(online) consists of fully redundant identical A & B systems.

can be easily transferred among all locations as needed. IEC 61850 Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) has been applied as the message carrier. External non-electrical data from other sources. Fig. and database setting. Vars. an integrated WAMPAC system architecture roadmap was developed and proposed to enable SCE to realize its Smart Grid strategy. if it becomes available during the system deployment. IEDs in RAS particularly refer to the microprocessor based protection relays. Facilitate Dynamic Model Development and Renewable Impact Study Much work has been done to resolve the issues of lacking proper generic models. The Data module focuses on the components in data processing and storage for the WAMPAC system. storage. Some recent ones are designed to support the IEC 61850 standard [15]. Details may be adjusted throughout the migration process. In the application of transmitting power flows. since many assets are aging. wind. The data items in the database carry the same ―type‖ as the original data item. Watts. In some recent industrial RAS applications [16-17]. will be connected and visualized to provide additional situation awareness information to system operators at control center. traffic conditions. C.. etc. it can be sent to many other devices through an Ethernet switch and/or bridgerouter. cabling. elaborate sensor November| 2012 Page 557 . The WAMPAC will exchange synchrophasor data with other utilities and WECC through the NASPInet. Reviewing the various SCE activities. These data are provided at much faster sampling rates than traditionally offered by C. The Application module includes current and future synchrophasor-supported applications to service the needs of system operators and planners. particularly in recent years [12-14]. Our concept is the use of an ad-hoc and plug-and-play sensor network for maintenance to avoid or reduce maintenance works required to maintain ICT infrastructure such as battery replacement. such as weather reports (temperature. 2 Issue. asset states are initially collected and diagnosed by ordinary rounds. solar flare. which can be configured with any ―visible‖ data object in the relay such as Volts. Ease on system expansion: it will be much easier to add new measurement devices and new applications to an integrated system than to separate systems. and utilizing WASAS system and CRAS system architectures as main components. In contrast to the limited binary status information. to clearly define and explain the various renewable generation technologies and how they should be modeled for system studies. data. and delivery services within WAMPAC. 4 outlines the logical components of WAMPAC and their functions and relationships with other systems and entities. In the proposed architecture and process. etc. in engineering units. a side benefit from deployment of RAS is to assist model development and validation and help system planners and operators better understand the impacts of integrating renewable generation on the grid by continuously collecting data from the system with advanced Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). Network/communication resources sharing: an integrated architecture will allow communication network sharing and increase redundancy. The IEC GOOSE [18] is a multi-cast message originally designed to carry binary state information among multiple relays connected to the same Ethernet network inside a substation. inspections or a primitive sensor system. This is particularly important for WAMPAC system as the technology and the applications that utilize the technology are rapidly developing and advancing. we should minimize the number of important assets rendered out-of-service due to the attachment and detachment of sensors as well as the maintenance work for the sensor systems themselves.com) Vol. lightning. One desirable new feature of the IEC GOOSE is the ability to directly send analog data values. It also provides system administration functions that allow WAMPAC to provide system configuration and security services. breaker status. fire. and other information. such as device management. It is envisioned that the WAMPAC will interface with DMS. The Visualization module provides an effective visual presentation interface for WAMPAC system users to comprehend the wide-area situation awareness information. In this respect. When a failure symptom is detected.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. it is necessary to have enhanced system monitoring to gain better understanding of the behavior of the various renewable generations under a variety of system conditions. And Issn 2250-3005(online) to continue the effort of developing and validating proper models for system planning and operational studies. 7 2. the IEC GOOSE carries a ―userdefined‖ dataset. etc. 3. GIS and other corporate applications/users. Ad-hoc and Plug-and-play Sensor Network for Maintenance Asset management will be far more important in the age of the smarter grid. application management.). As a multi-cast message. The WAMPAC system will interface with SCE‘s existing EMS/SCADA system and historian to exchange phasor data and network model data/configuration. and the data management. validation. As intelligent sensors and a communications network for collecting health check signals will be technically available in the near future. The System & Data Management module provides system management. retrieval. which is the global standard for information model and information exchange for substation automation. storm.

.. for example. d p  d (  l ) V ( t . the propagation delays are not assumed to be identical for all populations. r )S[(V j (t   ij (r... For the sake. Vi  vi  S [ i (Vi  hi )]. represent external factors from I ext the p  ext ext dimensional vector ( I1 .. below. which helps reduce the maintenance of the sensor systems in the long run.   V ( t . 0] i i  (1) the slopes of the sigmoids at the origin. ( simplicity although our analysis applies to more general intrinsic dynamics. of generality. t  0. We use (  li ) for dt transfer.U matrix of functions J  {J ij }i . the value of the nodes potential corresponding to 50% of the maximal activity.. p represents the connectivity between populations i and the  (r . The p function is symmetric 1 S ( z)  1  e z p by described by a matrix We give an interpretation of the various parameters and functions that appear in (1)..  p ). we defined the history space   supt[  C  C 0 ([ m . R p ) which is a Hilbert space endowed with the usual inner product: p V . We assume for technical reasons V the p  dimensional vector (V1 .. hence they are  ij (r ..0]  (t ) F .. p... F ) m .. with which is the Banach phase space associated with equation (3).. The Issn 2250-3005(online) propagation delay between 2   C 0 ( .. They describe the dynamics of the mean anycast of each of p node populations. We note that  j . i  1. see below.  ij (r. p. r )   ( t ..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. represent the initial  the p  dimensional vector (1 . We note i . i  1. r )   ij (r. Is the intrinsic dynamics of the population given by the linear response of data d d  li ) is replaced by (  li ) 2 to use dt dt d the alpha function response. and subsequently been maintained or replaced...1) is the normalized sigmoid function: S ( x)  [ S ( 1 ( x1  h1 ))... packet data indicate that  is not a function i. V p ). j 1.. If parts are found to have failed or deteriorated.. thus is continuous. Finally the p real positive values li ..... The  . 0].com) Vol.e. The p function conditions. The value of T is obtained by considering the maximal delay: m  max  i . r ) (2) It describes the relation between the input rate vi of population i as a function of the packets potential. S ( p  h p ))]. 2 Issue. We also introduce the function S : R  R .. The p  p other network areas. r ).. l p ). r )   i i  dt  J ij (r.. determine F    Vi (r )U i (r )dr i 1  (1) To give a meaning to (1).. Using the November| 2012 Page 558 . r ) t  [ T . r ) i . 7 systems will be attached without stopping the assets... defined p R d ... that is. t ).. j (r . determine the speed at which each anycast node potential decreases exponentially toward its real value. i  1. the sensor systems are fully detached... j ( r .. The p real values determine the threshold of activity for each population. Rp p ). Key technologies include the construction method of field sensor networks (ad-hoc and multi-hop wired/wireless communications and sensors) for collecting field information and the plug-and-play scheme for automated data processing when a sensor is attached or detached as We consider the following anycast field equations defined over an open bounded piece of network and /or feature space   R . and the diagonal matrix p p L0  diag (l1 . The reason for this assumption is that it is still unclear from anycast if propagation delays are independent of the populations. We note I iext . In order to compute the righthand side of (1). i  1. r ) whose element population j at r and population i at r. r )  h | j )]d r j 1    I iext (r .. The vector r and r represent points in function S : R  (0. r ).. i  1. Mathematical Framework A convenient functional setting for the non-delayed packet field equations is to use the space F  L2 (.. we need to know the node potential factor V on interval [T . whereupon their states will be carefully monitored and diagnosed... see hi . 0]. I p ). that is Moreover no assumption is made about this symmetry unless otherwise stated.1  i  p.. p. p.  is finite piece of nodes and/or feature space and is represented as an open bounded set of p real positive values  i .. r ) (3) Hence we choose T   m A. p.

t ]. Thus T  0 | V (T )  BR ..V (t )  BR . Proposition 1. We consider three cases for the initial condition V0 . define  (E)   s d  (1)  is a measure on M .  V (t )   L0V (t )  L1S (Vt )  I ext (t ). 7 notation Vt ( )  V (t   ). if R Suppose T  sup{t | s [0. E2 .  (.. J F  I def lR2 def  R. f (t .1 : Let s and t be measured simple X . V (T   )  BR which contradicts T  R and BR is stable. R p p ). Proposition 1. Nevertheless. 2.      J (. dt that then thus V (t ) is F monotonically decreasing and reaches the value of R in finite time when V (t ) reaches BR .sup    m . r ))d r Is the linear L1  J continuous L2 ( 2 . d 2 t  0. Notice that most of the papers on this subject assume  infinite. is stable under the dynamics of Where L1 : C  F . there exists a unique solution V  C 1 ([0.VT )    0 dt V (T )  BR .0 All the trajectories are ultimately bounded by the same constant R if I  max tR I ext (t ) Proof :Let us F  .  V0    C . Because f<0 on BR . hence requiring  m  . Then for any   C . B. V F  2 . because BR is closed. effect to we also have d 2 because V F |t T  f (T . We know that V (t ) is defined for all satisfying . V (0)  BR implies that t  0. Theorem 1.   [  m ..com) Vol. V0 If set BR . the countable additivity of  shows that November| 2012 Page 559 .. (s  t )d    s d    td  Then 2 Issn 2250-3005(online) and F We note l  min i 1. If the following assumptions are 1. in BR .. then V (T ) is defined and belongs to E f (t . F ).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. Thus case V (0)  CBR . 2 Issue. Suppose t  0. 2 Notice that this result gives existence on R . are disjoint members of M whose union is E .Vt )   L0Vt (0)  L1S (Vt )  I (t ). p li Thus. . ). F )  C 0 ([ m . the boundary of BR .V (s)  BR }. functions on for E M . we write (1) as V (t ) F  2 .Vt )      0 l 2 ext 2 t  0s and that f  0 on BR . Finally we consider the the definition of T. V (t )  BR .   C 0 (2 .. Rp p ). Thus we deduce that for   0 and small enough.   (2) Let us show that the open route of F of center 0 and radius R.Vt )  l V (t ) F  ( p  J C F  I ) V (t )  X F X X (2) Proof : If s and if E1 . The external current I ext  C 0 ( R. F ) to (3) 3. r ) (r . 0].V (t )  F 2 dt def p  .0 satisfied. finitetime explosion is impossible for this delayed differential equation. a particular solution could grow indefinitely.. that T  R.. BR . the closure of BR . defined f : R  C  R  as 1d V f (t . we now prove that this cannot happen. This contradicts our assumption. Boundedness of Solutions A valid model of neural networks should only feature bounded packet node potentials. J  L2 (2 . R p p ) operator equation.

so that  is not identically  .1  j  m).. We shall prove that there is a polynomial P such that that for all z claim that f ( z2 )  f ( z1 ) Where subject 2 (11) R2 Since f and A have compact support. (9) holds simply because A has compact support.. Note that K need to be connected.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.1: If K is a compact set in the plane whose complement is connected. Our first objective is the construction of a function  C ( R ). Now define ( z )   f ( z   ) Ad d   A( z   ) f ( )d d R2 (1) From now on. 3  2 (1  r2  2 (0  r   ). Next.) We construct  as the convolution of f with a smoothing function A. For any   0. 2 Issue. (8)  A  0. (5) Where X is the set of all points in the support of  whose distance from the complement of K does not  . It is clear that A Cc ( R ) . let 1 . (Thus X contains no point which is ―far within‖ K .000 ( ) ( z K ) (2) By (1). then there exists a P polynomial such that f ( z)  P( z)   for all z K .  (4) 1 ()( ) d d    z X (    i ). this proves the theorem.  Eij the ( s  t )d   ( i   j ) ( Eij ) and  Eij sd    td    i  ( Eij )   j  ( Eij ) ( z )   2 ( ) (3) .  m be the distinct values of t. We ' Theorem 1. If the interior of K is empty. with compact support. such ' c 2 2  A  15   . )2 (6) And define A( z)  a( z ) (7) For all complex z . 7 n  n  ( E )    i  ( Ai  E )    i   ( Ai  Er ) i 1 i 1  r 1 ()( z )   n    i  ( Ai  Er )    ( Er ) r 1 i 1 And r 1 Also. To compute (10). let s be as before. The difference quotients of A converge boundedly to the corresponding partial derivatives.. Since X is the f ( z )  ( z )   ( ).com) Vol. disjoint of the sets Eij (1  i  n. f can be extended to a continuous function in the plane..and let B j  {x : t ( x )   j } If Eij  Ai  B j . since Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 560 . the first half of our a(r )  union proposition implies that (2) holds. (3) follows from (8).  a ' . and if   0. put Eij Thus (2) holds with Eij in place of X . Put a(r )  0 if r   . will be fixed. if f is a continuous complex function on K which is holomorphic in the interior of . (10) R3 The constants are so adjusted in (6) that (8) holds. and note that A A  r  0. express A in polar coordinates. ( z )  f ( z )   [ f ( z   )  f ( z )] A( )d d (12) R2 And A( )  0 if  . then part of the hypothesis is vacuously satisfied. and the conclusion holds for every f  C ( K ) . Proof: By Tietze‘s theorem. Since f is uniformly continous. let  ( ) be the supremum of the numbers z1 and z2 are to the condition z2  z1   . so does Since . (Compute the integral in polar coordinates). we have  lim  ( )  0  0  A  1. (9) Rs R2 24 f ( z)  P( z)  10.  ( )  0. We fix one such extension and denote it again by f .

by (17) if 4  .. i Hence (22) yields .com) Vol.000( ) (24) ( z  ) F  H (). so that S 2  E j is connected and so that Define R ( .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. put   z   ei . with r  2 ..   D j . whose centers are For all z not in K . z ) d  d K  E j   . (20) Since. This completes the proof. 000 2  2 z  z  ()( )Q j ( . We shall do of . Since S  K is connected.. where G is the set of all z K whose distance from the complement of K exceeds  . ( X j . Dn . z )d d . By (20). of radius 2 . z ) 1   X ( z  ) F ( z)  F ( z)   j 1 1   X Q j ( . and S 2  K is connected. R2   [ f ( z   )  f ( z )](A)( )d  d (15) R2  G . and estimate the integrand in (22) by (16) if   4 . of diameter at least 2 . and (5) The definition of X shows that X is compact and that X can be covered by finitely many open discs D1 . z )  (18) November| 2012 Page 561 (25) . . z)  g j ( z)  (  bj ) g 2j ( z) be differentiated under the integral sign. K  .  . Hence the last expression in (11) may Qj ( . The integral in (22) is then seen to be less Now fix z than the sum of 4  50 1 2     d   808 0   (23) And  4.  En . The mean value property for harmonic functions therefore gives. and (5) we have F ( z )  ( z )   1 | d  d z  2 ( )   | R( . It follows that each D j contains a 2 compact connected set E j . (14) Note that f  0 in G . and we obtain Let  be the complement of E1  .. Now (10) and (13) give (4). if Issn 2250-3005(online) (21) Since (16) 1 4. z )  Q j ( . the center of each D j can be joined to  by a polygonal path in 2 S  K .. z ) X ( z  ) (22) Observe that the inequalities (16) and (17) are valid with R in place of Q j if   X and z  . we have now proved (3). since f is holomorphic there. There are functions inequalities. if we can show that   0 in G . (4). (17) Hence (3) and (25) show that (2) can be satisfied. Runge‘s theorem shows that F can be uniformly approximated on K by polynomials. If we write (13) with  x and  y in place  has continuous partial derivatives. for 2  j  n. z )   Hold for z  E j and (18) shows that F is a finite linear combination of the functions g j and g 2j . Hence F H (). Then ()( z )   (A)( z   ) f ( )d d R2   f ( z   )(A)( )d d (13) R2 The last equality depends on (9). Put X 1  X  D1 and X j  ( X  D j )  ( X 1  .. Now if z G. z  ) And 2  Q j ( .. F ( z)  ( z)  6. then z   is in the interior of K for all  with    . g j H (S 2  E j ) and constants b j so that the 50 (19) ()( ) R( . (4). 000 2 4 2  d   2. by the first equation in (11). 2 Issue.  2 0 0 ( z )   a(r )rdr  f ( z  rei )d   2 f ( z ) a(r )rdr  f ( z ) A  f ( z ) 0  is an open set which contains K . 7 A Cc' ( R 2 ) . we see that this by showing that ( z )  f ( z ) ( z G).  X j 1 ). 000 ..

.  | S PROOF... Every finitely ideal generated..0.. ) 2  r r     A    n |      n . n k  X  are exactly the ideals ( X ).. For example. g n  a . and the zero ideal (corresponding to the empty set A ). ideal. g s are any elements of a whose leading terms generate November| 2012 Page 562 .. n  1 . We LT (a) Issn 2250-3005(online) 1.. Conversely. the space of all ' 2 continuously differentiable functions in the plane. The proposition gives a classification of the monomial ideals in k  X1 . From the geometry of A . and so A satisfies the k  X 1 . a monomial is in a if and only if it is  divisible by one of the X .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. )  f ( z ) uniformly. with compact support.   S is the monomial LEMMA 1. )  f ( z  rei ).. gives (2) A A     n |   i   2 . g s ) where g1 ... here is a simple direct proof:  (r ..   n PROOF. )d r 2 0 As   0.... generated by the monomials X .  is periodic in  . the chain rule gives (f )( )  real 1 i   i   e   (r . (1) S be a subset of  n .. df a X  |   A is generated by the monomials DEFINITION 1. X n  is to one correspondence with the subsets A of  satisfying () .   a ). The integral of  /  is therefore 0. r  0. Clearly A satisfies  . some i  S 2 . 2 Issue.  A  .. then  are the corners of A ) Moreover..  i  S . Since ( LT (a)) can also be described as and so if A satisfies () ..... 7 Lemma 1.2.. if   A . X n  .. some g1 . as   0.com) Vol. and it equals ( LT ( g1 ).2 Let a be a nonzero ideal in X X X  a ....X n  ... The last statement follows   n from the fact that X | X       . with period   1 2  2 0 d     X  a and If such that  (The i ' s This X  k  X1.. it is clear that there is a finite set of elements S  1 . the monomial ideals in precisely. Let A   n satisfy  . X n  .. LT ( g n )) for (  c X  )(  d X  )   c d X   ( finite sums). X n  : they are in one n THEOREM k  X 1 .  ( .. Let Then the following ―Cauchy formula‖ holds: f ( z)   (f )( ) d d   R2   z ideal corresponding to 1 (    i ) df Proof: This may be deduced from Green‘s theorem. then the subspace the ideal generated by the leading monomials (rather  than the leading terms) of elements of a . and (2) Put X  |   A for the ideal corresponding to write a  X  |   A .   a . then ( LT (a)) is a monomial condition () . then (3) The right side of (2) is therefore equal to the limit..  i If   z  re .. and (4) becomes of k  X 1 . For a nonzero ideal a in X i . Put 1       i  2  x y   A (subspace generated by the X . However. we let ( LT (a)) be the ideal generated by LT ( f ) | f  a  LEMMA 1. some   S Thus.. a in more a  ( g1 .0 : Suppose f  Cc ( R ). The the  ideal a generated by X .. (5)  1 2 dr   ( . s  1  2   i     d dr 2  0  r r   (4) For each r  0. and    a .1. is an     ideal.. of     n   for X X X some  S . Conversely.

Also. has degree  deg( f ) ..e.com) Vol......1 .....  ar .... But is divisible by any r  f   ai g i  a . If A is Noetherian... Let g1 . X n ] is THEOREM 1.. g 0.1 . S is a standard basis if the leading term of every element of a is divisible by at least one of the leading terms of the a whose leading coefficients generate a ' .3 Noetherian i.. and divisible by one in g  ( g1 . gs  of an ideal a is a standard ( .. PROOF.g m g r 1. it is again an ideal in A .g m ) ft With a polynomial of degree t  r . LT ( g s ))  LT (a) .3. Then a  a ' ..1 . This means that a model D of the  calculus must have the property that given a term t whose interpretation is d  D.....| ..... We shall prove the theorem by induction on n .g d ... and so we can write a   bi ai .. 2 Issue. argument as above shows that any polynomial f d in The ring k[ X 1 ..1..... implies that every monomial occurring in r is LT ( g i ) .g 0.1 . g d . a bases for if (Gr obner ) ( LT ( g1 )..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. Let  :  D  D  D be the function that picks out elements of D to represent elements of  D  D and  : D   D  D be the function that maps elements of D to functions of D. the interpretation of a functional abstraction like  x . Now let f  a. LT ( g s )) . ai  leading coefficient of gi Now f   bi gi X s ri . and therefore LT (r )  LT (a)  ( LT ( g1 )..g r 1. Thus r  0 .. r is called the degree of f ... On applying this remark we find that f t  ( g r 1. On applying the division we find be finitely generated....1 . f  aX s  . X n 1 ) X nr  . and let r be the maximum degree of g i .  as gs  r. g m be elements of f  a1g1  .  ar ( X 1 . A finite subset S  g1 . ai  A..... we find that f  ft mod( g1 .. For a polynomial f ( X )  a0 X r  a1 X r 1  . x is most conveniently defined as a function from Dto D ... and since A is Noetherian. where either r  0 or no monomial occurring in it LT ( g i ) .m0 ) and so the polynomials g1 . bi  A... g 0. X n  . every ideal is finitely generated.. r  k  X1 .mr 1 .... ai . For each d  r ... g s ) ...m be polynomials of degree d whose d leading coefficients generate a d .. X n can be expressed uniquely as a polynomial in X n with coefficients in k[ X 1 . g 0.... X n ] : f ( X 1 . say.md ) With f d 1 of degree repeatedly  d 1 . k [ X ] is a principal ideal domain. Then the same gi .mr 1 ... which must then be regarded as an element of D. Let a be an ideal in A[ X ] . Since  ( f ) is intended to represent the November| 2012 Page 563 . DEFINITION 1.. Let g d . Note that the obvious map k[ X 1 . In other words. X n )  a0 ( X 1 .. which means that every ideal is generated by single element... 7 PROOF. In the untyped  -calculus. For n  1. Let f  a . a will Issn 2250-3005(online) a of degree can be written d f d  f d 1 mod( g d ... X n ] is an isomorphism – this simply says that every polynomial f in n variables X 1 ... X n 1 ][ X n ]  k[ X 1 .... let a d be the subset of A consisting of 0 and the leading coefficients of all polynomials in a of degree d ...1 .. a0  0. ri  deg( gi ).. and suppose f has degree s  r .. algorithm.. and a 0 is its leading coefficient.g 0.... We call 0 the leading coefficient of the polynomial 0....g r 1.. m0 generate a One of the great successes of category theory in computer science has been the development of a ―unified theory‖ of the constructions underlying denotational semantics. By continuing in this way.. The leading coefficients of the polynomials in a form an ideal ' ' a in A . X n 1 ) Thus the next lemma will complete the proof LEMMA 1... then so also is A[ X ] PROOF...m0 ) Hence ft  ( g1 . any term may appear in the function position of an application..

a pair of maps f X fo   Do D1 D2 . an   chain in K is a diagram of the following form: fo f1 f2   Do D1 D2 . Instead of a least fixed point of the function. The key shift of perspective from the domain-theoretic to the more general categorytheoretic approach lies in considering F not as a function on domains. F. Define the   chain  by November| 2012 Page 564 . a colimit  :   X is a cocone with all or  o   id D The latter condition is called extensionality. It is also convenient to there exists a unique mediating arrow  write   D1 f1 f2 D2 .. F ( f )  F ( f ).etc..that is.that is. Colimits of   chains are sometimes referred to op as   co lim its . Definition 1.  o  id DD Furthermore. to denote all of  Do and f 0 . i  fi o i 1 .. finding domains X such that X  A   X  X  . and A cone  op  chain  is a K-object X a collection of K-arrows i : Di | i  0 such :X  that for all of an i  0. For the images of  and  under F we write except F ( fo ) F ( f1 ) F ( f2 ) F (  )  F ( Do ) F ( D1 )F ( D2 ) .. i o k   i . Let K be a category with initial object  and let F : K  K be a functor..a).. We write  k (or just  ) for the distinguish initial object of K. This equation can be solved by finding least fixed points of the function F ( X )  A   X  X  from domains to domains --. and F ( )  F (i ) | i  0 We write – F i for the i-fold iterated composition of F that is. vi  k o i . and such that for any domain Y also satisfying this equation.com) Vol.. F ( f )  F ( F ( f )) o 1 2 .3: Let K be a category and F : K  K as a functor. when it has one. with a tag. 2 Issue.Let us working with the untyped the equation   calculus . there is an embedding of X to Y --... we need a solution ot D  A   D  D . A prefixed point of F is a pair (A. We sometimes write  :   X as a reminder of the arrangement of  ' s components Similarly.  Y fR Such that f R o f  id X f o f  idY Where f  g means that f approximates g in R some ordering representing their information content.. and  A for the unique arrow from  to each K-object A. where A is some predetermined domain containing interpretations for elements of C. Dually. it makes sense to  ( ( f ))  f . D is isomorphic to the space of functions from D to D that can be the interpretations of functional abstractions: suppose we are D   D  D ..4 : An   chain in a category K is a diagram of the following form: view every element of D as representing some function from D to D and require that elements representing the same function be equal – that is Recall that a cocone object X and a function  ( (d ))  d f1 f2  of an   chain  is a Kcollection of K –arrows i : Di  X | i  0 such that i  i 1o fi for i  0 . With these definitions we can state that every monitonic function on a complete lattice has a least fixed point: Lemma 1.. F ( f )  f . A fixed point of F is a pair (A.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. Each element of D corresponds to either an element of A or an element of  D  D ... then an k : X'  X such that for all i  0. where A is a K-object and a : F ( A)  A is an isomorphism. These conditions together imply that  and  are inverses--.. we often want to Definition 1.   is i | i  1 . require that that is.. By analogy. 7 f as an element of D.. An  op -limit of  op  chain  is a cone  : X   with ' the property that if  : X   is also a cone.a). where A is a K-object and a is any arrow from F(A) to A Issn 2250-3005(online) the property that if  :   X is also a cocone then there exists a unique mediating arrow ' k : X  X ' such that for all i  0.4. but as a functor on a category of domains.

X n  follows  dk mth cyclotomic field to be the field Q  x / (m ( x)) Where  m ( x) is the mth We define the cyclotomic polynomial. Clearly... Specified conditional distributions are the conditional distributions they notationally represent in the joint distribution... 1  k  m.. the images of the  i coincide. X 2 . Clearly then where  k ( x)   mk .. Proof. We now investigate some basic properties of cyclotomic fields. We if m is odd. the identification being  m  x.com) Vol. where d : F ( D)  D is the mediating arrow from  F ( ) to the cocone  Theorem 1. it follows Q( m )  Q( mk ) for all k relatively prime to m . then LEMMA 1. Then the product of these conditional distributions yields a joint probability distribution P of the variables... we show the Markov condition is satisfied. Order the nodes according to an ancestral ordering. If both  :   D and F (  ) : F ()  F ( D) are colimits.d) is an intial F-algebra.P( x2 | pa2 ) P( x1 | pa1 )..  (m) over Q since  m ( x) has degree  (m) . To do this.xn ) 1 for all values of the variables.4 Let a DAG G given in which each node is a random variable.Note..or intersections or compositums.. is equal to one. and (G. m)  1.. Let Dk   X k 1 . Note that that mth root of  mk  Q( m ) for every k . and let a discrete conditional probability distribution of each node given values of its parents in G be specified. One advantage of this is that one can easily talk about cyclotomic fields being extensions of one another. x2 . The first issue is whether or not they are all distinct. as the variables range through all their possible values. The roots of  m ( x) are just the primitive has degree mth roots of unity.5 contained in Q( m ) is Q ( n ) PROOF.. .  m being our fixed choice of primitive unity. Therefore.. X 2 . to show we have a joint distribution. pak )  P( xk | pak ).. so the complex embeddings of Q  x / (m ( x)) are simply the  (m) maps  k : Q  x  / ( m ( x))  C . This means that we can write Q( m ) for Q x / (m ( x)) without much fear of ambiguity. order the nodes so that all and only nondescendents of Q  x / (m ( x))  m ( x) If m divides n . X n be the resultant ordering. that  m is a 2mth root of unity. 2 Issue.. for example.. we need to know which roots of unity lie in Q( m ) . Next define.... 0  P( x1 .. x2 .. we will do so from now on. X k  2 .. so the result is clear LEMMA 1. we have  m  Q( n )... Note that this ordering depends on k .. then will show that this is the only way in which one can th obtain any non. Where PAi is the set of parents of X i of in G and P ( xi | pai ) is the specified conditional probability distribution.. if P(nd k | pak )  0 and P( xk | pak )  0 then P( xk | nd k . we need show for 1  k  n that whenever P( pak )  0. X k precede X k in the ordering. we need only show P( xk | nd k )  P( xk | pak ) . First for a given k .. then (D.xn )  P( xn | pa n ) P( xn1 | Pan1 ). Where NDk is the set of nondescendents of X k of in G. In particular. X k 1 F (! F (  )) 2 X 1 . to determine this. Since PAk  NDk .. Let NDk   X 1 . (k .P) satisfies the Markov condition. so Q  x / (m ( x)) is Galois over Q .6 If m and n are relatively prime. 7   ! F (  ) F (! F (  ))  F ()  2 F ()  . Finally.. First we show this does indeed yield a joint probability distribution.. whereas the ordering in the first part of the proof does not.m roots of unity. P( x1. To that end. all of these things take place considering them as subfield of C.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. then Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 565 .... Since  n m  m .

.... a given channel will operate between these two extremes. that is. In general..Q( p ek )Q( p f1 ). Y )   P( xi .. n ) : Q(m )  (n) and Q(m .Q ( 1 that is. pkek and p1f1 . The mutual information is defined between the input and the output of a given channel.Q( p ek )Q( p fk ) very noisy channel... n )  Q(m.  n ) has degree  (mn) over Q . y j )   P( xi . f ) ).. y j )  log 2 bits. The following expressions are useful for modifying the mutual information expression: Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 566 .. f ) 1 .Q( p ek ) 1 2 k and Q( n )  Q( p f1 )Q( p f2 ). and so they constitute an input –output pair ( xi .. y j ) I ( xi .. n ) : Q  Q(m ) : QQ(n : Q Q(mn ) : Q  (mn).. f ) ) k p1 max( e1.. so that Q( mn )  Q( m .... pkfk pi are distinct primes..   (m) (n)   (mn).  n ) is the compositum of Q( m ) and Q( n ) ) (Recall the Q( m )  Q( p e1 )Q( p e2 ). An average of the calculation of the mutual information for all input-output pairs of a given channel is the average mutual information:  P( xi   yj  I ( X . yi )  log 2 P( xi ) yi bits P( xi ) (1) In a noise-free channel.  n )  Q( nm ) and Q( m )  Q( n )  Q Q( m ..  n )  Q( Q(m .. PROOF. Since 1 2  Q( p e1 )Q( p f1 )...n ). p k 1 p1 ) An entirely similar computation Q( m )  Q( n )  Q( ( m . y j )  0.2 For any m and n Q(m ...n ) : Q(m )  (m) Q(m ) : Q(m )  Q(n )  (m) And thus that Q( m )  Q( n )  Q PROPOSITION 1.n ) ).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. respectively.. there is no transference of information..Q( p fk ) 1 PROOF. The average mutual information.com) Vol. n denote where the Write the least common m  p1e1 .. here k  Q(m .n ) And m. each y i is uniquely xi . (We allow ei or fi to be zero) k p1 k max( ek . y j ) log 2   i.  n )  Q( p e1 )... n and  m. yj P( xi ) connected to the corresponding self-information that corresponds to the input multiple and the greatest common divisor of m and n. j i.. 1 max( e1. One checks easily that  m n is a primitive 1  Q( th mn root of unity. so we must have Q(m .  n )  Q( nm ) We know that Q( m ..Q( p fk ) 1 2 k Thus Q( m ..n ) ) Mutual information transferred when measures the shows that information xi is sent and y i is received. yi ) for which 1 x P( i ) 1 and I ( xi . the output be P( completely xi yj xi In a y i and input xi would uncorrelated.. 7 Q( m . This calculation is done over the input and output alphabets. 2 Issue. j  P( xi )    bits per symbol .. and so )  P( xi ) and also I ( xi . and is defined as I ( xi . f ) max( ek .. the transferred information is equal to the Q( m )  Q( n )  Q( ( m. this implies that Q( m ..

with symbol probabilities. y j ) The above expression can be applied due to the is usually called the equivocation.Y )  H ( X )  H ( X ) Y Where yj. y j ) log 2   P ( xi . y j )  P( xi P( y j )   P( yj i P( xi )   P( i xi ) P( y j )  P( yj xi yj yj xi This last entropy is usually called the noise entropy. j   P ( xi . P( x1 )   and P( x2 )  1   .com) Vol. y j ) log 2 i. j I ( X . so that it behaves as the quantity ) P( xi ) The mutual information fits the condition H (Y )   P ( y j ) log 2 i factor information. y j ) log 2 i. j  P ( xi )  is spite of the fact that for some 1  x     P ( i ) P ( y j )  log 2 y j P ( xi )  i  1 i P( xi ) log 2 P( x )  H ( X ) i  I ( X . j i. it can be said that the channel mutual information is the difference between the number of bits needed for determining a given input symbol before knowing the corresponding output symbol. and is a function of the backward conditional probability. j i Then i. and the number of bits needed for determining a given input symbol after knowing the corresponding output symbol ) P( xi ) ) P( xi ) ) P( y j ) Then I ( X . y j ) log 2    i. when the input and the output are independent of each other. y j ) log 2   i. H (X / yj ) 1 P ( xi . Alternatively. j As the channel mutual information expression is a difference between two quantities. Y )  H (Y )  H (Y 0 probabilities. j P( xi . y j ) I ( X . j  P ( xi )     1   P ( xi . Mutual Information: Properties Since P( P( xi . y j ) log 2  P ( x ) P ( xi ) P ( y j ) i. 7 P( xi . X ) I ( X . y j ) P ( xi ) P ( y j ) P ( xi . Thus. This difference is the mutual information of the channel. 2 Issue.5: Entropies of the binary erasure channel (BEC) The BEC is defined with an alphabet of two inputs and three outputs. y j ) log 2 Y M  P log i 1 P( 1 xi xi yj ) y j provides H ( X )  H ( X ) bits of Y yj ) P( y j )  P( yj xi X ) Where Issn 2250-3005(online) ( Qi )0 Pi P ( xi ) P ( y j ). A related entropy called the joint entropy is defined as H ( X .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. However. j And by interchanging input and output it is also true that j 2 i. j  P( i )  yj    1  P ( xi . which in this expression is a dummy variable that fits the condition  Q  1 . this is not possible for the average value calculated over all the outputs: x P( i ) yj P( xi . It can also be equal to zero. Y )   P ( xi .Y )  H ( X )  H ( X ) Y i. which is the product of two 1 P( y j ) Qi . j H ( X )   i . Y )   P ( xi . Y )  I (Y . y j ) log 2   P( xi . In a sense. y j ) log 2   x i. Y )   P( xi . the information transferred through the channel is the difference between the output entropy and the noise entropy. the equivocation can be seen as the information lost in the noisy channel. It can be concluded i i that the average mutual information is a nonnegative number. and  1    P ( xi . The observation of an output symbol P( xi ) P( y j ) Because this expression is of the form I ( X . y j ) P( xi . y j ) can be larger than H ( X ) . and transition probabilities November| 2012 Page 567 . y j ) 1 P ( xi ) P ( y j ) Theorem 1. it seems that this parameter can adopt negative values.

. bn ) x (1) . ambn ) . let   p( y | x) A  ( x. property that ab  0. Note that ab  a  b . yn | x1 . p( x.. b  b ideals in A.. 7 P( y3 x )  1  p and P( y2 x )  0.. Y )  A  P X  F a x P ( X . Clearly ab consists of all finite sums  aibi with ai  a bi  b . 2 Issue.. Having (1) x k  F such that k 1   P Y  Ax( k )   Bi | X  x( k )   1   .. y) : log  a (1) p( y )   Then for each positive integer u . and p( x) an arbitrary probability density function on Euclidean p ( y | x) n-space.. y )dx dy y Ax 1 Where chosen   p ( x) Let Proof: A sequence  ( x .... i  1.. note that if c is an ideal in A  B and November| 2012 Page 568 . The ideal generated by ab | a  a.. am ) and .  ) such that   ue  P( X . The set is an ideal.. and if b  (b1 .. 2..it is easy to verify that this is in fact an ideal.. Issn 2250-3005(online) p( y | x)dy dx  yB  Ax p( y | x)dy dx   p( x) x C.. A / p is an integral domain. 2 Let 1 and P( y3 x )  0 B   j 1 B j . a m and b be a  b | a  a...... and so is a field. Algorithms Ideals. Let A be a ring. si  S . ai b j .... We will show by showing that t u   tea  P( X . sm  . amplitude-continuous channel whose restrictions are determined by sets Fn and whose density functions exhibit no dependence on the state s .. (Conceivably t  0 ).. y ) A. An ideal m is maximal if m | A and there does not exist an ideal n contained strictly between m and A . Thus p is prime if and only if A / p is nonzero and has the b  0  a  0. We r s i i with ri  A. Note that m maximal  m prime.. Recall that an ideal a in A is a subset such that a is subgroup of A regarded as a group under addition. real number a. ( If t  0.. n. u .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. then the sequences x(i ) and decoding sets Bi . The map b   (b) is a one to one correspondence between the ideals of A / a and the ideals of A containing a An ideal p if prime if p  A and ab  p  a  p or b  p .. for the density pn ( y1 .. If the process does not terminate in a finite number of steps.. let n be a fixed positive integer...7. y )dxdy. and that it consist of all finite sums of the form . we shall (2)write ( s ... To see this. Y )  A  t 1 2 Lemma 1. b  b is denoted by ab . and is a homomorphism a aa 1  : A  A / a .. y ) A and P( y3 x )  1  p 2 a  (a1 . A p ( x. r  A  ra  A The ideal generated by a subset S of A is the intersection of all ideals A containing a ----. take B   ).. s ) for the ideal it generates. Y )  A   ... there is a code (u. select   and where Ax   y : ( x...com) Vol.. x ( k 1) and B1 .e.. i 1   k 1 i 1 B i .. a  a.. Given an arbitrary restricted timediscrete. y )  p ( x ) p ( y | x ) and P  X  F    . i. form the desired code. Bk 1 ..... denoted by a  b .Let a be an ideal of A. The set of cosets of a in A forms a ring A / a . When S  s1 .. Set Bk  Ax( k )  p( x. p ( x)dx F x  F such that P Y  Ax1 | X  x (1)   1   (1)   p ( x) x Choose the decoding set B1 to be Ax . Thus m is maximal if and only if A / m has no proper nonzero ideals..xn ) and F for Fn For any . with a and b ideals in A and B . Then and P( y1 x )  p P ( X .. The ideals of A  B are all of the form a  b . Thus assume that the process terminates after t steps.. Y )  A  P X  F proceed as follows... then ab  (a1b1 ..

Let k be a field. X n  .. we can identify k with its image. Here monomials are ordered by total degree. Moreover.. the Euclidean algorithm allows to pass from finite set of generators for an ideal in k  X  to a single generator by successively Let A be a ring. For example. ca1. Graded reverse lexicographic order (grevlex).. b)  (a.....e. X n is an expression of the form sending X1a1 .  The multidegree of f to be multdeg( f )= November| 2012 Page 569 0 . homomorphism of A -algebra B  C is a homomorphism of rings  : B  C such that (Pure) lexicographic ordering (lex). xn  B such that every element of B can be expressed as a polynomial in the xi with coefficients in i ( A) . An A -algebra is a ring B together with a homomorphism iB : A  B .an ) and  (iB (a))  iC (a) for all a  A ... b)(0.. X n  in a canonical fashion.. An A -algebra B is said to be finitely generated ( or of finite-type over A) if there exist elements x1 .e. namely. and B is finitely generated as an A-module.. The total degree of the ai .. aj  With the obvious notions of equality... there is an algorithm for deciding whether f  ( g ) . More precisely. and the only units in it are the nonzero constant polynomials. or  ai  bi and in    the right most nonzero entry is negative..an a1 1 k  X1.an  k . 7 (a. A replacing each pair of generators with their greatest common divisor.. i.. A polynomial f ( X 1 . Let k be a field. 0  1  . monomial is a j  N . let   (a1 .. then there exist Issn 2250-3005(online)   (b1 . in the vector difference     . For example: X 4Y 4 Z 7  X 5Y 5 Z 4 (total degree greater) XY 5 Z 2  X 4YZ 3 .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. R  0 . X  1 n .. X 3Y 2 Z 4  X 3Y 2 Z . polynomial ring c a1 . addition and multiplication. i..0)  c and (0...bn ) be two elements of  n .. such that the homomorphism A X1 ... f  gh  g or h is constant. b)(1.X nan . i. unique polynomials Moreover.. and let A be a k -algebra... A ring homomorphism A  B is finite.   (a1 .com) Vol.0)  (a..... we would write f  4 XY 2 Z  4Z 2  5 X 3  7 X 2 Z 2 as f  5 X 3  7 X 2 Z 2  4 XY 2 Z  4Z 2 (lex) or f  4 XY 2 Z  7 X 2 Z 2  5 X 3  4Z 2 ( grevlex) Let  a X   k  X .. r  k  X  such that f  qg  r with either r  0 or deg r < deg g . i.. Thus the monomials from basis for k  X1. This shows that c  a  b with a  a | (a. b)  c some b  b and b  b | (a. X n  . with ties broken by reverse lexicographic ordering.. For example. the left most nonzero entry is positive.. X n  are finite sums an n X .. we can regard k as a subring of A .. by re-ordering its elements in decreasing order. Here monomials are ordered by lexicographic(dictionary) order. ... X n   B X i to xi is surjective. X n  is an integral domain.e.1)  c . Fix an ordering on the monomials in k  X1 .. If 1=0 in a ring R... If 1  0 in A ... 2 Issue. an )   n The elements of the . A monomial in X 1 .. Division in k  X  . We sometimes abbreviate it by X  . find r and check whether it is zero....e... 0  0 Then we define..... in decreasing order: f  a0 X 0 1 X 1  . Thus. The ring k  X1. then    and X   X  (lexicographic ordering) if. the R is the zero ring...    if  ai  bi .... Orderings on k  X1 ..X . then (a.... The division algorithm allows us to divide a nonzero polynomial into another: let f and g be polynomials in k  X  with g  0.... b)  c some a  a q. XY 2  Y 3 Z 4 . Then we can write an element f of k  X1 . b)  c . Polynomial rings. X n ) is irreducible if it is nonconstant and has only the obvious factorizations. Note that this isn‘t quite how the dictionary would order them: it would put XXXYYZZZZ after XXXYYZ .. X 5YZ  X 4YZ 2 .. X n  as a k -vector space.. then the map k  A is injective.

5.. which occurs between the ingredients in Cauchy‘s formula and the falling factorials in the moments. X n  LT ( g1 ) If LT ( g1 ) | LT ( h) .. an ideal a will contain a polynomial without containing the individual terms of the polynomial. n!  j 1  j 1 j c j ! for c    ...7 For nonnegative integers m1.. n Lemma1... 2 the leading monomial is 2 XY Z .. repeat the process until f  a1 g1  f1 (different a1 ) with LT ( f1 ) not divisible by LT ( g1 ) . In general.. An ideal a is monomial if c X   a  X   a  |  A PROOF. a1   k  X 1 . X .. Write m   jmj .. C (n) 1 The ( n) n joint distribution of ) follows from Cauchy‘s formula. The division algorithm in k  X1 .    n      () a is the k -subspace of k  X1 .cn )   n and the last sum indexed by d  (d1 ... 2  n satisfying  ..   A . 2 Issue. Then.. If a permutation is chosen uniformly and at random from the n ! possible permutations in S n .. we have Y or X ....1) ...com) Vol. then Page 570 (1.1).. the leading coefficient is 4.. Suppose given a polynomial f and an ordered set ( g1 .. mn .. until With LT (r1 ) not divisible by any LT ( g1 ).... let X a of k  X1 . with the first sum indexed by c  (c1 . If X a and X   k  X1 . X n  generated by is a monomial ideal. [m ] PROPOSITION 1. X n  . Now divide g 2 into f1 . It is clear from its definition that a monomial ideal a is the k -subspace of k  X1. for example..... Let a be a monomial ideal..g s ) of polynomials.. c)  1  jc j  n   ( ) j .. and term is f  a1 g1  . and   A   | X   a .... the For the polynomial multidegree is (1. divide g1 into f to get LT ( f ) f  a1 g1  h. corresponding to the fact that if November| 2012 n  m  0. X n  n  j 1 condition And  d j  c j  m j .. then the counts random C (n) C (j n ) of cycles of length j are dependent variables.. X n  generated by the set of monomials it contains. of A is Issn 2250-3005(online) n  n 1 1 1 jd j  n  m  d j m j   j d  j 1  j 1 j (d j )! This last sum simplifies to the indicator 1(m  n).2..as and r such that f  a1 g1  .. a subset of f to be LM( f ) =  The leading monomial of 0 a0 X 0  The leading term of f to be LT( f ) = f  4 XY Z  . and repeat Step 1 r2 with f for f  a1 g1  .  n  1 m j  n [m ]  E   (C (j n ) ) j        j 1   j 1  j    n  1  jm j  n    j 1   (1. 7  The leading coefficient of f to be LC( f )= a 0 .3..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. X n  .  (C ... LT ( g s ) Step 1: If LT ( g1 ) | LT ( f ) .. the ideal a  (Y  X ) contains 2 3 Y 2  X 3 but not 3 DEFINITION 1.. and the leading 2 4XY Z .  as g s  r Where either r  0 or no monomial in r is divisible by any of LT ( g1 ). This can be established directly by exploiting cancellation of the form [mj ] cj / c!j  1/ (c j  m j )! when c j  m j . Then A satisfies the   A.... the division algorithm then constructs polynomials a1 .. d n )   n via the correspondence n  n [m ]  [m ] E   (C (j n ) ) j    P[C ( n )  c]  (c j ) j j 1  j 1  c n  n (c j ) j  1  jc j  n   c j  c:c j  m j for all j  j 1  j 1 j c j ! all  with c  0 . Conversely.. Fix a monomial ordering in  2 ...4) Proof.LT ( g s ) Step 2: Rewrite r1  LT (r1 )  r2 ...... then the k-subspace  generated by the X .. and is given by P[C ( n )  c]  n  n 1 c 1 1 N (n.  as g s  r1 so on.  as g s  LT (r1 )  r3 : (different ai ' s ) Monomial ideals.

We then have G  (n  j)!.2) We note for future reference that (1.2. Theorem 1. For any c  (c1 . j k k! l P[C1( n )  k ]  Where the Z j are independent Poisson-distribution combinatorial approach combined inclusion-exclusion formula. In particular. (C . 1 nk 1 (1)l .. and there are (n  rj )!1(rj  n) permutations in the intersection.3) random variables that satisfy E ( Z j )  1/ j The marginal distribution of cycle counts provides a formula for the joint distribution of the cycle C nj .. P[(C1( n ) .. 2 Issue..... we substitute j=1 in (1.) (n) 1 (n) 2 (1. For k  0..n.8.2) and (1. For each   I . that is...1) to obtain the distribution of the number of fixed points of a random permutation..1) of all possible cycles of j . k  0. n. Infact..6 The process of cycle counts converges in distribution to a Poisson process of  with intensity j 1 . To use the inclusion-exclusion formula we need to calculate the term S r ...com) Vol..1.3) .7). lb       (1)    i 1  i  li !  i 1  i  ci ! l  il0 with  i n m The joint (n) 1 moments (n) b C . For the other case.. If the r properties are indexed by r cycles having no elements in common. C of the first b counts can be obtained directly from (1. which is the sum of the probabilities of the r -fold intersection of properties.. [ rj ] r There are n / ( j r !) such intersections. P[C (j n )  k ]  j  k 1/ j e .  mn  0 The limit distribution of cycle counts It follows immediately from Lemma 1. The joint (n) (n) distribution of (C1 .. formed with elements chosen from 1.. then the intersection specifies how rj elements are moved by the permutation....   j 1   j 1   j 1 (1.4) can also be written in the form  n  n [m ]   n  [m ]  E   (C (j n ) ) j   E   Z j j 1  jm j  n  . we find the distribution of C nj using a Lemma 1.2 that for n  ... so no permutation can have both these properties..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline..... the inclusion-exclusion series for the number of permutations having exactly k properties is li b  b  1 ci 1  1 1 l1 ..2)  k ! l 0 l! (n) and the moments of C1 follow from (1. consider the ―property‖ G of having .. (1. Cb( n ) )  c] 1  j  n.1. so that I  n[ j ]/ j .. 7 d j  0 for j  n  m. as n  . Thus Sr  (n  rj )!1(rj  n)  Which simplifies to (1.. 2.2) with j  1. the limit random variables are independent.. That is. k! C (j n ) converges in distribution to a random variable Z j having a Poisson distribution with So that mean 1/ j..1) Returning to the original hat-check problem...) d ( Z1 .  l   (1)  l0 E(C(j n) )[ r ]  j r 1 jr  n counts Finally.. C . 2. and a random permutation in Snm must have some cycle structure (d1 .. for n  2.3) by setting mb 1  .. we use the notation C(j n) d Z j where Z j  Po (1/ j ) to describe this. Z 2 . each fixed as j. n not in  must be permuted among themselves. The moments of C (j n ) follow immediately as (1. Cb ) for any 1 b  n has an expression similar to (1. length with the [ n / j ] k  (1)l l 0 Consider the set I j l l! (1. some two distinct properties name some element in common... cb )   b with m   ici . and the r -fold intersection is empty. the mean and (n) variance of C1 are both equal to 1. There are two cases to consider. since the elements of 1. summing over all sets of r distinct properties. G is the set of permutations   Sn such that  is one of the cycles of  . For P[C (j n )  k ]  Proof. this too can be derived by inclusion-exclusion.. d n  m ) ..1) n[ rj ] 1 1  1(rj  n) r r j r ! n! j r! Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 571 (1. k l  Sk l ..

. b] | T0b ( Z )  l ).7 (n.. L( Z [1. L( Z [1. Elementary analysis can be used to estimate this rate when b  1 . 7 Where Z j . ( n) ij n 1 if g '  1. b])) For    An (C ( n) )  under Establish the asymptotics of conditions ( A0 ) and ( B01 )... Z b )  c] P[T0 n ( Z ' )  n]  k  0. (n)  (1 d ) P[ An (C )]  Kn for a constant K .2. the Poisson-distributed are random independent variables with 1 E (Z j )  j Proof.7 (n) tend to zero as n  .11) that the total variation distance (n) (n) between the distribution L (C1 ) of C1 and the distribution L ( Z1 ) of Z1 approximation is of order 0  b  n / 8 and n  n0 . b)  O(b / n) under Conditions ( A0 ). Cb( n ) )  c]  P[( Z1 .. under these circumstances. P[(C1( n ) . 2 Issue. from 1 1 1 (  )  P[C1( n )  k ]  P[ Z1  k ] k ! (n  k  1)! (n  k  2)! 1  k !(n  k  1)! depending on Z and the ri ' and computable explicitly from (1... Using properties of alternating series with decreasing terms. 2. where An (C ( n ) )    C 1i  n  ri' 1 j  ri  i  (ri' / rid ) 1  O(i  g ) ' and as   dTV ( L(C[1. since. (n  1)! n  2 (n  2)(n  3) (n  1)! free polynomials.. To establish the converges in distribution one shows that for each fixed b  1. with n0 dTV ( L(C[1.2. L( Z [1. b]))  dTV ( L(T0b (C )). b])..1) – (1.2.7 (n) (1.2) and P[T0 n ( Z ' )  n]  Error rates The proof of Theorem says nothing about the rate of convergence.. b]). P[T0 m ( Z ' )  n] P[ An (C )]  P[T0 m ( Z )  n] It follows by direct calculation that ' (n)  1i  n ri' 1 j  ri    1  (1  Ei 0 )   iri  (1...7 (n)) 1 (1.. L(T0b ( Z )))  max  P[T0b ( Z )  r ] A r A  P[Tbn ( Z )  n  r ]  1   P[T0 n ( Z )  n]   Suppressing the argument obtain Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Z (1.7 (n) and n11. We start with the expression L(C[1.   exp  [log(1  i 1 d )  i 1 d ] n  i 1  1  O(n  '1.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. as n  . b]))   7.. Where 0 . the relative error in this asymptotic Since P[ Z1  n]  g '  0.)  ..4) from now on.2. we thus Page 572 . j  1.com) Vol.7 (n)) 1 '1.   some g  0..1.3) refers to the quantity derived It thus follows that Z' . n.2..7 (n. both (1. by the Conditioning i  .1)   dTV ( L(C[1. b]). In particular. if Conditions ( A0 ) and ( B01 ) are satisfied and if  i  O(i  g ) from some ' It follows that n 2n 1 n 2n 1  1   P[C1( n )  k ]  P[ Z1  k ]  (n  1)! n  2 k 0 ( n  1)! n1'1. b).. 7. for d d   exp  [log(1  i 1 d )  i 1 d ] n  i 1  1  O(n Where  1. for polynomials and square e 1 1 1 1 (1    .11) We see from (1. ( D1 ) and ( B11 ) Since. for Relation. b] | T0b (C )  l )  L( Z [1.3).

b)  2n ET0b ( Z ) 1  P   P [0. leading to  a  1 a final error estimate in order O(bn  n 1 ) for any   0 .7 (n.  P [0.7 n. iterating the cycle. This makes it possible to replace condition ( A1 ) by the weaker pair of conditions ( A0 ) and ( D1 ) in the      P[T0b  s]( P[Tbn  n  s]  P[Tbn  n  r ]  s 0   P[T r n / 2 0b r 0 P[Tbn  n  s]  P[Tbn  n  r ] s 0 P[T0 n  n] [ n /2]   P[T0b  r ] s 0 difference. which has the required order.7 (n. n1 is replaced by n1 . being otherwise of ) for any   0.8 (n)   7. than are made in ( B11 ) . since all the classical applications make far more stringent assumptions about the  i1 . ( D1 ) and ( B11 ).  contribution of the form  10.com) Vol. b to be of order O(b / n). finally leading to a contribution of order  0 in 7. For s  n / 2.5(1) (n / 2. differences that are of the form P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  t ] can be Required order under Conditions ( A0 ). that we should need  l 2 l il  O(i a1 ) to hold for some a1  1 .5(1) 1 1 a1  ) for differences of the form P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  1].8 (n) ET0b  P [0. This is needed to obtain the right approximation error for the random mappings example. This would be O(b / n) for large enough b .10 (n).1] [ n /2] [ n /2] 3n 1 4n210. b) (1. but would still be coarser for small b. contains a far  n1 of the form 1 ( n)  u1 ( n). b). in the remainder of the proof. The order O(n 3n . The  r ]   P[T0b  r ]   P[T0b  s] n  s [ n /2]1 critical point of the proof is seen where the initial estimate of the difference P[T  s]P[Tbn  n  s] / P[T0 n  n] 1 The first sum is at most 2n ET0b . which.8 (n)  P[T0b  r ]  P[T0b  s] r  s  P [0. this gives rise 1 a1  1210. since a2  1 is in any case assumed. without the restriction on the ri S ()   . of the ideal order November| 2012 Page 573 . b]). l  2. in which one estimate of a difference in point probabilities is improved to an estimate of smaller order. to replace 7. a bound of the form P[Tbn  s]  P[Tbn  s  t ]  O(n2t  n1a1  ) for any   0 could perhaps be attained.1] 10. tail element from ( max P[T0b  s]) / P[T0 n  n]  i 1 is shifted from  i1 itself to its first order [ n / 2] [ n /2]  eventual assumptions needed for 7. L( Z [1. A first observation is that a Issn 2250-3005(online) 1 (n)  u1 (n). the decay rate requirement of n   i1 1 a  to a contribution of order O (n 1 ) in the estimate of the difference P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  1]. If not. defining the function g by g (w)  1ws 1ws t . b) n factor which should be small. ( D1 ) and directly estimated.1] 10. 7   similar problem arises with the rate of decay of dTV ( L(C[1. bn a1  for any Some improvement would seem to be possible. implied by that is. is translated into a n contribution of order O(tn Hence we may take  610.11   n can be  n  in the above. Then.7 (n. 2 Issue. b]))   P[Tbn  n  r ]    P[T0b  r ] 1   P[T0 n  n]  r 0  [ n /2] P[T0b  r ]   P[T0b  r ]   r  n /2 r  0 P[T0 b  n ] as well.1]  6   (n / 2.1] 2 r 0 s 0  P[Tbn( m )  s ]  P[Tbn( m )  s  1] .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. b). Examining the Conditions ( A0 ). the third is bound by n /2 s  n 210. if S ()  . For this reason. However. it is perhaps surprising to find that ( B11 ) is required instead of just ( B01 ).5)  P [0.8 replaced by 10. at a cost of only a single ( B11 ). which is only small if a1  1.

14 (n. As before. ( D1 ) and ( B12 ) . 7. b) [ n /2] r 0  4n 2 ET02b  ( max P[T0b  s]) / P[T0 n  n]  8n 2 ET02b  0b and then by observing that ( s  r )(1   )   P[T0b  s]   P[T0b  r ]  n 1 r [ n /2] s 0  1  n 1   ( ET0b P[T0b  n / 2]  E (T0b1T0b  n / 2))  P[Tbn  n  r ]    P[T0b  r ] 1   P[T0 n  n]  r 0  r 0  P[T 1 dTV ( L(C[1. b) .2) Issn 2250-3005(online)  10. has the required order without the restriction on the ri implied by assuming that S ()  .1]  P[T  dTV ( L(C[1. b]))  (n  1) 1 1   E T0b  ET0b 2  7.8 (n. with 12 .1] .5) . we thus find tha  n /2 s  n  P [0.1]   2 r 0 2 0b [ n / 2]   (  P[T0b  s ]( P[Tbn  n  s ]  P[Tbn  n  r ]  s 0  The quantity 7.8 ( n) 3 ( )  nP [0.2) is further simplified by noting that (1. that S ()  .1] 1 K   4 0 ET0b 10. L( Z [1.1] 10.8 (n. 7 With b and n as in the previous section.8 (n.1)  We have P[T0b  r ] [ n / 2]  P[T0n  n]   3  (n / 2. b). b]))   (n  1) 1  P[T0b  r ]  P[T0b  s ]( s  r )(1   )  r 0  s 0    7. a direct calculation now shows that  P[T r 0  0b    r ]  P[T0b  s]( s  r )(1   )   s 0  1 1   E T0b  ET0b 2 November| 2012 Page 574 (1. Finally.14 (n. we wish to show that 1 dTV ( L(C[1.4) Combining the contributions of (1.8 (n) is replaced  by 10.8 (n.3).2) –(1. this supplementary condition can be removed if 10.8 claimed under Conditions ( A0 ). The proof uses sharper estimates.11 (n)   ( n) in the definition of 7. b)  2n 1 ET0b 10.8 (n. ( D1 ) and ( B12 ).3)  4 1   n 2 ET02b (1. b)  P[T0b  n / 2] 3 10.com) Vol. b)  O(n1b[n1b  n  12  Where ])   0 under Conditions ( A0 ). for any  Now we observe that 0b  n  s [ n /2]1  P[Tbn  n  r ]  [ n /2] P[T0b  r ]  r ] 1    P[T0 n  n]  r 0 P[T0 n  n]  P[T0b  s ]( P[Tbn  n  s ]  P[Tbn  n  r ]) r 0 ( s  r )(1   )     P[T0b  s]  n 1  s 0   . b]))  P[T [ n /2] (s  r )(1   )   r ]   P[T0b  s]  n 1  s 0  [ n /2]  1   n E (T0b1T0b  n / 2)  2 1   n 2 ET02b . b]).14 (n. L( Z [1.5(2)  24 1   10. L( Z [1.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. b)    4 1   n 2 ET02b K 0  410. 2 Issue. we begin with the formula  The approximation in (1. (1. b)  2(r  s ) 1   n  6  nP [0. b)  P [0.5(2) (n / 2. b]). b) is seen to be of the order [ n / 2]  ( s  r )(1   )    P[T0b  s ] P[T0 n  n] ) n 1  s 0  provided  1 P[T0b  s ] s  r  P[T0b  r ] 2 n P[T0 n  n] r 0 s 0    10.  r] 0b  s [ n /2] P[T0b  s ] (s  r ) 1   n 1 (1. b]).8 (n)   2n ET 4  3 1      P [0.

we define the angle between them by the equality cos  : ( a. (1) After that we can also define distances between points as follows: Issn 2250-3005(online) i November| 2012 Page 575 . are linear functions giving on an arbitrary vector respectively.1. To define angles.. also..com) Vol.. This presupposes the choice of O as the ―standard origin‖. is useful for examples and applications. dx . dxi (the i differential of x ) applied to an arbitrary vector h i is simply h . (Or.. b) : a1b1  . its discriminant must be less or equal zero. Namely.. So let us say a few words about it: n Remark 1. we have d ( A. For this definition to be consistent we have to ensure that the r.. b)2  a b 2 2 (5) known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality (various combinations of these three names are applied in different books).  (a n )2  d ( A. Once again: the partial derivatives in (1) are just the coefficients (depending 1 2 on x ).  treated in this way is called an n-dimensional affine space. Now. For an arbitrary vector r .From these examples follows that we can rewrite df as f f df  1 dx1  . the coordinates of the point x  O  r are equal to the n respective coordinates of the vector r : x  ( x1 . x n ) . where t  R . Going to the right means forgetting about part of the affine structure.t an origin O). B) : AB (2) One can check that the distance so defined possesses natural properties that we expect: is it always nonnegative and equals zero only for coinciding points.. going further in this direction will lead us to the so-called ―smooth (or differentiable) manifolds‖.. Notice that vectors in an affine space are also known as ―free vectors‖. Hence we may say that we leading with the two copies of  n: n= n {points}.  n dx n ... the set of points and the set of vectors so that the operations as above are defined axiomatically)..s. One of the ways of proving (5) is to consider the scalar square of the linear combination a  tb.. 2 Issue. making  a Euclidean space...0. In  considered as an affine space we can already do a good deal of geometry. in greater detail: r is the radius-vector of x w. Points are frequently specified by their radiusvectors. however. Consider the point O  (0. we can consider lines and planes. addition. b) . Consider the function f ( x )  x Example 1. we have to introduce n some more definitions. B) (the ―triangle inequality‖).. Intuitively. (1) x x (the i-th coordinate). and hence is often Thus referred to as the ―dot product‖ .. As (a  tb. ―angles‖ or ―areas‖ and ―volumes‖. A.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.r. (An ―abstract‖ affine space is a pair of sets ... a  tb)  0 is a quadratic polynomial in t which is never negative.Going to the left directions: means introducing some extra structure which will make the geometry richer.b  (a.. The Euclidean structure. This follows from the inequality (a.  = {vectors} Operations with vectors: multiplication by a number.  a nb n (3) a  (a.. To be able to do so... Writing this explicitly yields (5). Operations with points and vectors: adding a vector to a point (giving a point).. dx . they are not fixed at points and n ―float freely‖ in space. we cannot discuss such things as ―lengths‖. for three points.. h 2 . Let us summarize. b) a b (4) The angle itself is defined up to an integral multiple of 2 . a) ..h. 7 Example 1. Euclidean geometry. n subtracting two points (giving a vector). We have n considered  and interpreted its elements in two ways: as points and as vectors. The triangle inequality for distances also follows from the inequality (5). we define the length of a vector a  (a . From  considered as an affine space we can precede in two opposite  n as an Euclidean space   n as an n affine space   as a manifold. a ) to be 1 n a : (a1 )2  . The theory of differential forms does not require any extra geometry... the distance from A to B is the same as that from B to A (symmetry). B)  d ( A. C )  d (C. of (4) does not exceed 1 by the absolute value. However. The linear function which is the standard form.x n ) and r  ( x1 . The vector r such as in the example is called the position vector or the radius vector of the point x . 0)  . The scalar product is also denote by dot: a. we first introduce the scalar product of two vectors (a. Hence h its coordinates h1 .. and quadric surfaces like an ellipsoid.0. So our natural direction is to the right. B and C. for nonzero vectors. For example.

7. x n f 1 h  x1 Proof.. d ( f  g )  df  dg d ( fg )  df . By the definition of the velocity vector. where  (h)  0 when h  0 .. .   . for the increment of f ( x(t )) we obtain f ( x(t0  t )  f ( x0 )  df ( x0 )( . The only difference is that now the F : U   m at a point x n will be a linear function taking vectors in  to m vectors in  (instead of  ) ..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline..t   (t )t For a certain  (t ) such that  (t )  0 when t  0 (we used the linearity of df ( x0 ) ).  (4)  m n m  dx   F . 7 df ( x)(h)   hf ( x )  . ..9.. By the definition... The statement of the theorem can be expressed by a simple formula: df ( x(t )) f 1 f  1 x  .t   (t )t )   ( .  f n h ... we have f ( x0  h)  f ( x 0 )  df ( x0 )(h)   (h) h for an arbitrary vector h ... t   (t )t  df ( x0 )( ).  n dx n x x 1 1  F F   1 . F   1 n x   x In this matrix notation we have to write vectors as vector-columns.g  f . We have 1 m dF  (dF . For an arbitrary parametrized curve x(t ) in  n . Theorem 1.t   (t )t Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 576 (2) .dg f . n (1) (2) d ( f  g )( x0 )( )  at t  t0 and d ( fg )( x0 )( )  d ( f ( x(t ))  g ( x(t ))) dt d ( f ( x(t )) g ( x(t ))) dt at t  t0 Formulae (1) and (2) then immediately follow from the corresponding formulae for the usual derivative Now.. stretching from it. the differential of a map m n F : U   (where U   ) maps the velocity vector x (t ) to the velocity vector of the curve F ( x(t )) in  m : . n   dx1  x   x     . 2 Issue. dF ( x(t ))  dF ( x(t ))( x(t )) (1) dt Proof.t   (t )t ). Where t  0 .  n x n dt x x To calculate the value Of given vector  (2) df at a point x0 on a one can take an arbitrary curve passing Through x0 at t0 with  as the velocity vector at t0 and calculate the usual derivative of f ( x(t )) at t  t0 . Indeed. this means that the derivative of f ( x(t )) at t  t0 is exactly df ( x0 )( ) . Consider an arbitrary point x0 and an arbitrary vector Hence Suppose we have a parametrized t  x(t ) passing through x0   n at t  t0 and with the velocity vector x(t0 )   Then df ( x(t )) (t0 )   f ( x0 )  df ( x0 )( ) (1) dt curve Proof.com) Vol... x(t  t )  x(t )  x(t )... differential of a map F ( x  h)  F ( x)  dF ( x)(h) +  (h) h (3) Where  (h)  0 when h  0 . g :U   .8. dF ) and F F dF  1 dx1  . Theorem 1. Combining it together.. (2) Theorem 1.. consider a small increment of the parameter t : t0  t0  t .  For functions U  ... almost without change the m theory generalizes to functions taking values in  instead of  . Let a curve x(t ) be such that x(t0 )  x0 and x(t0 )   . On the other hand.. For an arbitrary n vector h |  . ..

. m y  y  d (GoF )  .. Consider an open domain Consider also another copy of distinction November| 2012 U n. m 1 1  x x   y y  y1 y1  1 . . vector x (t ) .... y y dF  (2) Then the chain rule can be expressed as follows: G G d (GoF )  1 dF 1  .. (1) expression for dy  dF from (3).e.W   (open domains).V   . then d (GoF ) is expressed by the product of these matrices....   m m  y . Or Applying the theorem once again.... Theorem 1.. x ) and in  by ( y . precisely means that dF ( x) x(t ) is the velocity vector of F ( x) .. d (GoF )( x)  dG (dF ( x)) for an arbitrary . ..... and the dependence of z  p on x  n is given by the composition GoF . This can also be expressed by the following matrix formula: i .  F ( x)  dF ( x)( x(t )t   (t )t )  . vector (6) y   m on x  n is given by the map F . dF of under the .. 1 m z  z  y i  .            (5) x ... By the same theorem....  x a i 1 y i x a n If we denote coordinates in m 1 m n  by ( x . y ) . . By the F ( x  h)  F ( x)  dF ( x)(h)   (h) h Where  (h)  0 when (3) h  0 ....... As every vector attached to a point can be viewed as the velocity vector of some curve passing through this point. Hence .  p  p p   z  z z z p    .. This when . the m p dependence of z  on y   is given by the G . ..  p p  G . . this theorem gives a clear geometric picture of dF as a linear map on vectors. denoted for  ny ... Then the differential of the composite map GoF : U  W is the composition of the differentials of F and G : d (GoF )( x)  dG( y)odF ( x) (4) n m Proof. it equals the image under dG of the m Anycast Flow vector to the curve F ( x(t )) in  .0...6..... ... y 1 x n  x    .. we see that the velocity vector to the curve F ( x(t )) is the image Where it is assumed that the dependence of velocity vector . Basically. with the standard coordinates Page 577 .. n  . and where F :U V U   .  n dx n 1 x x G 1 G dG  1 dy  . z  1 ..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline..  n .. n   y1 y m x    x  . F n   x1 x     dx1      .....t   (t )t )    h i Where dF are taken from (1)..... Let F : x  y  F ( x) ..com) Vol. p We can use the description of the x(t ) in  n with the differential .  G1 G1  1 .. the curve (GoF )( x(t )  G( F ( x(t )) ...  m dF m .. x(t )t   (t )t i . This is often written as 1 1  z1 z1   z . . 2 Issue... t  0 . . G  y1 y m    F 1 F 1   1 . Corollary 1. and write Issn 2250-3005(online) Definition 1. n x  x .  n dy n .10 Suppose we have two maps G :V  W .. . In other words. 7 Where  (t )  0 when definition of the differential. n x   x   .  ( x(t )t   (t )t ). we need to know to p which vector in  it is taken by d (GoF ) . F ( x(t  t ))  F ( x  x(t )..Consider a curve .    dx n      (4) i...  m m   F . (3) y y . . to get d (GoF ) we have to substitute into (2) the . we obtain F 1 F dx  .. if dG and dF are expressed by matrices of partial derivatives....  F ( x)  dF ( x)( x(t )t   (t )t  (t )  0 For some t  0 . map x ..    ..

er : x A characteristic feature of the basis er .  m m  dx n   F . we have dx x dr x d x x x    r  dt r dt  dt r  . Consider a curve in in polar coordinates as x(t ) : r  r (t ). By definition... V   ny is an open domain of  ny . The velocity vector has the same appearance in all coordinate systems. (2) F is invertible. The form of the df  differential does not change when we perform a change of coordinates. (5) Proposition 1. Vectors ―stuck to points‖ when we consider curvilinear coordinates. the elements of the basis ei  x x i (originally.3 Consider a 1-form in the standard coordinates: November| 2012  2 given in Page 578 .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline... Follows directly from the chain rule and the transformation law for the basis ei .sin  ) r x  ( r sin  . x U in this system are 1 n the standard coordinates of F ( x)  y The coordinates of a point In other words.. the velocity vectors for the curves r  x(r ... y ) 1 n 1 1 n (1) n Here the variables ( y . . x n ) We can simply use the chain rule. We can compare this with the formula in the ―standard‖ coordinates: .. x  are 2 vectors depending on point in  .    (t )  2 specified (1) t  (r (t ). 2 Issue... F   x n   x1 dF  (2) (4) From where it follows that these vectors make a basis at all points except for the origin (where r  0 ). Proof.In particular... y )  x  x( y ....   . x  are..com) Vol. 7 ( y1. . respectively.  n dx n .. . .2. The map t  x(t ) can be considered as the composition of .3. for the differential of a function we always have f f dx1  ..  )  x(r. y ) are the ―new‖ coordinates of the point x Example 1.. whence the partial derivatives x r . x  er r  e  .. r cos  )  (3) x .  ) (  0 fixed ) and r   x(r .. A system of coordinates in the open domain U is given by a map F : V  U . Explicitly we have x  (cos  . a formal notation) can be understood directly as the velocity vectors of the coordinate lines i (all coordinates but x are fixed).. drawing vectors corresponding to a point as starting from that point. Notice that .  ) if .  ) (r  r0 fixed ) Issn 2250-3005(online)  : . y n ) . e is that it F 1 : U  V is also smooth (3) .. em )  .. x r .  n dx n 1 x x 1  F F 1   1 ... (3) 1 x x i Where x are arbitrary coordinates.... . (2) Here x  e1 x  e2 y r xi  x( x1 . It is instructive to sketch a picture.. the velocity vector will have components ( r .. Consider the vectors  . . where that for an arbitrary curve given in polar coordinates . such that the as a basis we take following three conditions are satisfied : (1) F is smooth... . we set n dF ( x0 ) : m dx(t ) dF ( x(t )) (t0 )  (t0 ) dt dt (1) Now dF ( x0 ) is a linear map that takes vectors attached to a point x0   the point F ( x )   n to vectors attached to m F 1 F dx  . Since we now know how to handle velocities in arbitrary coordinates.. the maps Then. n   dx1  x   x   (e1 . Example 1.. x .  . F : ( y . . e : x is not ―constant‖ but depends on point.  ) . r and  are scalar coefficients depending on t .  (t )). by the chain rule.(r. the best way to treat the differential of a map F :    is by its action on the velocity vectors. We can conclude In particular.

Plugging in x  1 shows that p  (1   )(1   2 ). Secondly. hence dx  cos  dr  r sin  d dy  sin  dr  r cos  d j be with some norm and trace computations.. 1   is a unit in O K .. Recall that the  i  j  (2)   parametrization of remains the same.. TrK /  ((1   ) )  p. x p 1  x p 2  . We  for  p or this section. We begin Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 579 . in a more conceptual way. p 1 ) p We also need to compute the norm of 1   . so the inclusion (1   )OK    p is immediate.9 (1   )OK    p provide the orientation We saw above that p is a multiple of Proof. then  j  1. where ei  x ..9. TrK /  ( j )  p 1 By linearity of the trace. a linear combination of the differentials of coordinates with functions as coefficients. Therefore A . and  x dxi (e j )  dxi  j  x x every point .( x   p 1 ). Note that  is a root of x  1. write (1   ) in OK . since  K is a ring we have that     OK . we use the factorization at  ( x   )( x   2 ).. so it has only the dx dt ' and As dx dt dx ' =  ( x(t (t )))..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. and Substituting into 2  ( )  1 1  ... Proof:  ( x(t (t ' ))). In particular. That is. Consider dx  ( x(t (t ' ))).com) Vol.  ( x(t )).. we find that (1) x i j .. 7 A   ydx  xdy In the polar coordinates we will have x  r cos  . we must have (1   )OK     Thus we can write 1   (1   ) For some   OK . Let j is not divisible by p.   p1   p ( ) 1  1  r 2 (sin 2   cos 2  )d  r 2 d If p does divide Hence A  r d is the formula for A in the polar coordinates.1 For any   OK .  2 p 1 . does not change if we change  LEMMA 1. y  r sin  .. For arbitrary 1-form . we get A  r sin  (cos  dr  r sin  d )  r cos  (sin  dr  r cos  d ) TrK /  ( j )     2  .. PROOF..(1   p 1 ) Since the (1   ) are the conjugates of (1   ). We wish to show p that OK    . and thus its conjugates  . then  is a j an integer. Since (1   )OK   is an ideal of  containing p and p is a maximal ideal of  . we see that this is again a 1-form. ' dt  TrK /  (1   this shows that N K /  (1   )  p The key result Theorem 1. ' . If primitive p are th root of unity..  1   p ( x) differentials of functions were defined as linear functions on vectors (at every point). If    ei i . For this.  n n .  . Recall that K has degree  ( p)  p  1 over  . now Suppose that the inclusion is strict.. We have and thus is an algebraic integer. We give a proof without assuming unique factorization of ideals. the integral TrK /  (1   )  TrK /  (1   2 )  . 2 Issue. ' dt dt dt Let p be a rational prime and let K   ( p ). we can define a 1-form in a domain U as a linear function on vectors at every point of U : one conjugate 1. COROLLARY 1. ' .. j  and path  for determining the ring of integers OK is the following.

since the residue class of   OK is also  /   OK . p has the form p nOK . Thus   OK . which makes sense since  is invertible (with and is.   OK With ai   .  PROOF. p ) By the linearity of the trace and our above calculations we find that TrK /  ( (1   ))  pa0 We also have TrK /  ( (1   ))  p .. p is maximal. In argument as above shows that a1   . 1. Furthermore. since we have   p. Furthermore. it follows immediately that OK . write it as j let K |  ( p ) be the p th cyclotomic field. to get  p one must complete  ( p) . it is now abundantly clear that every nonzero prime ideal of OK . K ) with the usual ordering.   p 1 ((1   ) )  1 (1   )1 ( )  . p and consider the ideal PROPOSITION 1.. we claim first that bOK .. In particular. p ....  a p 2 ( p 2  p 1 implies that    /   (a  OK )OK . p .. To an algebraic integer since p 1 continuing in this way we find that all of the a i are in  . Example 1. p  OK  p. p is the unique non-zero prime ideal in OK .  a p2 p3 . 2 Issue. The usefulness of OK . p .. then the local ring  ( p) is simply the subring of  of rational numbers with denominator relatively prime to p . this map surjection. p and write   a0  a1  . let  be any element of a . This completes the proof. We now find that a  (a  OK )OK . write this polynomial as  m 1 m 1  x  ..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.We can a  OK  p n b For some n and some ideal b .4 Let p be a prime number and factorization of a  OK in O K . The same in OK / p . p . p . So let   K be a root of a polynomial with coefficients in OK . it remains to show that it is integrally closed in K . p . p .. Multiplying by xm  m  is the root of a monic polynomial with coefficients in O K .. Thus OK . so   OK and   p. p Since pOK .. Let a be any proper ideal of OK .. also a rational integer. Thus Since TrK /  ( (1   ))  (1   )OK Since the trace is use this fact to determine all of the ideals of OK .. m 1. 1   is a multiple of 1   in OK for every j  0. To prove the other inclusion. p is noetherian.   a (since  /   a and a is an ideal). Set    0 1. p . as claimed. p  pnOK . p is a Dedekind domain. 7 TrK /  ((1   ) )  1 ((1   ) )  .  0 With  i  OK and  m 1 0  i  OK  p . p  OK . It is Issn 2250-3005(online) show that OK . Let a be any ideal of OK . p 2 p Let Thus is an integral basis for OK .4 Let K   . p / pOK . Then we can write    /  where   OK and   p. It is also now clear that p nOK .  /     OK . p for some n. We claim that a  (a  OK )OK ... Note that this ring  ( p) is not the ring  p of p -adic integers. That is.  p . 1/   OK .  (1   p 1 ) p 1 ( ) i are the complex embeddings of K (which we are really viewing as automorphisms of Where the clear from the definition of an ideal that a  (a  OK )OK . Thus every ideal of OK . so a0   Next consider the algebraic integer (  a0 ) 1  a1  a2  .  a p2 p2 this Since bOK . p and consider the ideal a  OK of OK . and particular. relatively prime to p. the inclusion OK  OK . so   a  OK . that a is generated by the elements of a in a  OK .   p 1 (1   ) p 1 ( )  (1   )1 ( )  . p is integrally close in K ... Then OK   [ p ]   [ x] / ( p ( x)). This is  1   . we find that November| 2012 Page 580 . p  pnbOK .. Thus the map is an isomorphism.com) Vol. Then  (1   )  a0 (1   )  a1 (   2 )  .. p   p ) is the image of  1 in OK / p . p . p comes from the fact that it has a particularly simple ideal structure.

However. Another control concept is to adaptively change the PSS setpoints according to the power system operating conditions. Such remote signal inputs will obviously require a more flexible communication mesh network. 7 COROLLARY 1. Although local controls continue to be improved using newer technologies. We assume a bit more Galois theory than usual for this proof. The more complex communication scheme required is also not a problem. Let K be a number field of degree n and let  be in OK then N K' /  ( OK )  N K /  ( ) PROOF. OK / N K /  ( )OK Will have order NK /  ( )n . FERC recognizes voltage-VAR control as an ancillary service but it has been difficult to develop any auction markets for this service. New controllers need to be developed that can use system-wide inputs (not necessarily more inputs per controller but input signals from further away). which are today done off-line but will have to be done on-line in this case. 2 Issue. These oscillations are slow. Given that all generators in a region are no longer owned by the same organization. The speed of calculation is not a major concern as changing the setpoints can be done quite infrequently. even a small one. clear that since  (OK )  OK . Assume first that K /  is  be an element of Gal ( K /  ). the bandwidth requirement remains modest. This type of control. although Europe and China are trying some regional control schemes. Ancillary markets for regulation capacity have developed to handle this service. WIDEAREA CONTROL The proposed control concepts described here are all widearea controls. also implying that the ones presented first would be easier to implement. Voltage stability control Voltage instability occurs when a change in the power system causes an operating condition that November| 2012 Page 581 . The main hurdle has been the selection of input and output variables of the controller that can handle all the varied operating conditions that the power system endures. Taking the product over all   Gal ( K /  ). The primary governor control at the generators is local while the secondary AGC control that adjusts the governor setpoints is area-wide. C. is relatively slow and so the feasibility of the control and communication is not an issue. this areawide AGC control has become more decentralized. This would be analogous to the AGC control by introducing a secondary control scheme that would periodically adjust the setpoints of the local PSS controllers as the system changes. The challenge here is that the calculation of PSS setpoints requires large analytical calculations.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. the conceptual functionality of these local controls will remain the same. B. this shows that Galois. probably minutes. Thus this challenge is a classical one of developing a practical robust controller. feasibility of control is not a problem. Regional Voltage Control Voltage control in North America has always been local. Thus local controllers are used to mitigate system oscillation modes. Phasor measurements have already been shown to be very helpful in tracking the oscillation modes and their damping in near real time. Frequency Control Frequency is controlled by balancing load with generation. The concepts are presented in the order of increasing complexity. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ancillary service regulations do allow third-party AGC but a new communication-computation-control scheme needs to be developed before this can occur in any large scale.com) Vol. As this control is quite slow (2-4 second sampling). In the general case. like frequency control. These PSS are local controllers on the generators. therefore NK' /  ( NK /  ( )OK )  NK /  (OK )n This completes the proof. excites a natural oscillatory mode of the power system. The wide-area controls presented here will often take care of the local controllers but the main objective is to improve the overall stability of the power system. Control schemes for regional voltage control would be useful in North America as voltage collapse has played a prominent part in all recent blackouts. A. It is  (OK ) /  ( )  OK / . such a network introduces other modes of failures like signal delays and the control have to be robust enough to handle them. Let NK' /  ( ( )OK )  NK' /  (OK ) . IV. let L be the Galois closure of K and set [ L : K ]  m. D.2. usually under 1Hz. although a meshed Issn 2250-3005(online) communication network is required rather than the present star network. The main method used today to guard against small signal instability is the off-line tuning of power system stabilizers (PSS). Small signal stability control Small signal instability occurs when a system perturbation. we have Since NK' /  ( NK /  ( )OK )  NK' /  (OK )n N K /  ( ) is a rational integer and OK is a free  module of rank n. The primary control is continuous whereas the secondary control is discrete usually using 2-4 second sampling. a procedure that works well for local oscillation modes but not interarea modes.

F. I. E. can be identified and corrected right at the substation. This is an action plan to ensure that the system operating condition does not stray into an area where a perturbation can cause voltage instability. including switch statuses. some have referred to this as state measurement (precluding the need for a state estimator altogether). (It should be noted that many papers assume that the control centers exchange state estimated data for this purpose but this is not the case. the computation requirements will be modest as the control schemes are largely defined off-line. The RC may also exchange such data with neighboring RCs. What is proposed here is the development of soft-computing techniques using pattern-recognition. Real time control of transient stability The objective here is to develop a global control for transient stability (with no off-line assists). H. Of Issn 2250-3005(online) course. Because there are enough redundant measurements within a substation these voltages and currents can be very accurate. 2 Issue. The BA SCADA gets the real time data from the RTUs and uses that for its SE. Whether this is indeed possible with today‘s technology is not known. For this to be feasible. This calculation requires good contingency analysis which in turn requires a good real time model (state estimator) as discussed in the next section. the goal here would be to determine what kind of communication-computation structure will be needed to make this feasible. What is proposed here is the development of a generalized communication system that can enable the implementation of new SPS by software modification. However. -the third and final would be to directly operate the control actions after the disturbance occurs. has to be in the same time-frame as today‘s protection schemes (milliseconds). This processed data would be very different in character than the raw measurement data that is fed to the control center SE today. to process the realtime data to decide the best control action. Guarding against such instability requires the anticipation of such contingencies that can cause voltage instability and taking preventive action. only SCADA data is exchanged and moreover. There are two levels of SEs running today – at the Balancing Authorities (BA) level and at the Reliability Coordinators (RC) level. In that case a mini state estimator can be run within each substation to estimate all complex voltages and all currents out at each substation. the system values and statuses monitored and the breakers controlled cannot be modified.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. The main idea here is to use more real-time data to determine what control is needed. Transient stability control The development of such a control scheme is by far the most difficult because a disturbance that can cause instability can only be controlled if a significant amount of computation (analysis) and communication can be accomplished very rapidly. In reality. 7 is deficient in reactive power support. This concept is approached in three increasingly difficult levels: -the first is to use off-line studies to manually adjust protective schemes which would operate only if the disturbance occurs.) It is expected that the availability of large amounts of phasor measurements will significantly change the nature of state estimators. Although many phasor measurements and a comprehensive communication scheme will be required in this type of control. On-line setting of special protection schemes A step forward will be to develop methods to control transient stability but with less dependence on offline studies and more use of on-line computation. the computation needed to determine the disturbance scenario and then computing the necessary controls for stabilization. So far. -the second is to automatically adjust these protective schemes with on-line calculations. In addition. G. it also passes on the same real time data to the ISO level for its SE. much off-line training of the software may still be required off-line but the expectation is that the control action would be much more efficient than those purely decided off-line. This is not a stability control in the traditional sense that responds to a disturbance. Let us assume that enough phasor measurements will be available at all substations that voltage angles at all substations will be measured. These SPS today are developed from the results of voluminous offline studies and are implemented with a ‗hard-wired‘ communication system. this data is usually not timestamped. To achieve this the BA control centers have to have communication connections to the RC control center. Often the BAs also have communications between themselves to exchange real time data so that each BA SE can construct its own external model. Because this data includes voltage angles. Real Time Modeling (State Estimation) The state estimator (SE) today runs at the control center EMS using the data from the SCADA real time data and the static database. Thus. the state estimate for the network will have to be more than just a collection of the complex voltages from the substations. neuralnetworks.com) Vol. ‘Soft-wired’ special protection schemes A step advance in this direction will be to generalize special protection schemes (SPS) to control transient stability. New preventive control schemes are needed that can also include special protection schemes that could isolate those areas with var deficiencies. etc. expert systems. Because there are always some noise November| 2012 Page 582 . bad data.

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