International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue.

7

Smart Grid Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control
Akash K Singh, PhD
IBM Corporation Sacramento, USA

Abstract
For century, there has been no change in
the fundamental structure of the electrical power
grid and vehicle networks. Current hierarchical,
centrally controlled grid of the electrical grid is
not best for growing demand. To address the
challenges of the existing power grid, the new
concept of smart grid and smarter planet are
under research. The smart grid can be considered
as a modern electric power grid infrastructure
for enhanced efficiency and reliability through
automated control, high-power converters,
modern communications infrastructure, sensing
and metering technologies, and modern energy
management
techniques
based
on
the
optimization of ondemand, energy and network
availability. While current power systems are
based on a solid information and communication
infrastructure, the new smart grid needs a
different and much more complex one, as its
dimension is much larger and needs utmost
performance. This paper addresses critical issues
on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of
information and communication technology
(ICT) issues and opportunities. The main
objective of this paper is to provide a
contemporary look at the current state of the art
in smart grid communications as well as to
discuss the still-open research issues in this field.
It is expected that this paper will provide a better
understanding of the technologies, potential
advantages and research challenges of the smart
grid and provoke interest among the research
community to further explore this promising
research area.
Keywords- Advanced metering infrastructure
(AMI), communication technologies, quality-ofservice (QoS), smart grid, standards
I. INTRODUCTION
Modern power grid is the most complex
human-made system, which is monitored by widearea monitoring system (WAMS). Providing timesynchronized data of power system operating
states,WAMS will play a crucial role in next
generation smart grid protection and control. WAMS
helps secure efficient energy transmission as well as
reliable and optimal grid management. As the key
enabler of a smart grid, numerous sensors such as
PMU and current sensors transmit real-time dynamic
data, which is usually protected by encryption
algorithm from malicious attacks, over wide-areaIssn 2250-3005(online)

network (WAN) to power system control centers so
that monitoring and control of the whole system is
possible. Security algorithms for power grid need to
consider both performance and energy efficiency
through code optimization techniques on encryption
and decryption. In this paper, we take power nodes
(sites) as platforms to experimentally study ways of
energy consumptions in different security
algorithms. First, we measure energy consumptions
of various security algorithms on CrossBow and
Ember sensor nodes. Second, we propose an array of
novel code optimization methods to increase energy
consumption efficiency of different security
algorithms. Finally, based on careful analysis of
measurement results, we propose a set of principles
on using security algorithms in WAMS nodes, such
as cryptography selections, parameter configuration,
and the like. Such principles can be used widely in
other computing systems with energy constraints.
A. Related Work
A large amount of works have been done
on energy consumption of security algorithms and
protocols in common network environment, such as
the energy consumption of the SSL protocol in PC
networks, the energy consumption of WEP inWi-Fi
networks, etc. However, there are few research on
the energy consumption of security algorithms in
WAMSs. Recently, most of the energy consumption
studies related to WAMSs are based on simulations.
The energy consumption is usually measured based
on the CPU computation time and the number of
data packets. However, this is a coarse grain
approximation. In simulation aspect, network
simulations, such as NS2, TOSSIMM [5], and
Atemu [6], can properly simulate the behaviors of
the network protocols, but they are not able to
simulate the single node well. Thus, the method
mentioned above is not suitable for our study on the
energy consumption of security algorithms in
WAMSs. There are some instruction-level energy
evaluation models for WAMSs, such as AEON [7],
and PowerTOSSIM [8]. These two models first
measure the currents of the sensor nodes, followed
by partitioning the measured currents to different
code segments and different components of sensor
nodes. Finally, the energy consumption of a certain
code segment or a certain component is calculated.
However, these models are not
suitable for
commercial WAMS sensors, due to the fact that
most of the manufacturers only provide software in
the form of ―black box.‖ Even obtaining the source
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International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue. 7

code, inserting instruction for measuring is not
convenient. To obtain the energy characteristics of
security algorithms, there are some studies based on
physical measurement.Wander et al. [9] has
measured the energy consumption of the RSA and
ECC on MICA2DOT sensor nodes. However, this
method cannot be implemented with the whole
version of code into the WAMS nodes. Gupta et al.
[10] has pointed out that the size of memory
consumption of standard code is close to 4KB for
cryptography algorithms such as DES. This means
that the memory will not be enough to directly
implement standard algorithms on some WAMS
nodes. WAMS is an autonomic network consisting
of a large number of sensor nodes deployed in the
monitoring area. The sensor nodes are connected by
an ad hoc network and communicate with the sink
through multihop. In aWAMS, the sensor nodes are
the basic parts of the implementation of information
sensing and communication. Compared to other
wireless network, the WAMS is a specific
application
oriented
network,
which
has
characteristics of large size and dynamic topology. A
sensor node inWAMS is a system with
multifunction, such as data collection, computation,
and communication. Compared to other wireless
network, the WAMS is a specific application
oriented network, which has characteristics of large
size and dynamic topology. A sensor node inWAMS
is a system with multifunction, such as data
collection, computation, and communication.
Compared to common sensor systems, the WAMS
sensor nodes have their constraints as listed below.
• Poor computation power. The sensors usually
adopt MCU that has slow computation speed as their
processors.
• Limited memory space. The ATmega128L
processor has only 4 KB SRAM onchip. And the
high-end CrossBow
Imote2 has 256 KB onchip and 32 MB offchip.
• Tight power consumption constraint. Due to the
limitations of deployed area, cost, and physical size,
some WAMS
nodes are usually equipped with low capacity
batteries.
Thus, there are strict requirements for
consecutive execution time on nodes. Because of the
strict constraints of computation resource and
energy, the WAMS nodes can only execute simple
computation tasks and communication tasks.
Currently, the hardware/software codesign is a key
part of WAMS study. PMU-based WAMS is a
cyber-physical system where the Internet-based
communication network overlays the physical
equipment-based
power
grid
[11],
[12].
Cybersecurity is crucial for ensuring integrity and
resiliency of future smart grid. The encryption
design for secure WAMS data communication must
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consider energy and bandwidth constraints. PMU
was first invented in Virginia Tech in 1988 to
measure phasors of voltage and current, frequency
and real/reactive power in real-time with GPS time
tagging [1], [13]. PMUs have thus been continuously
enhanced and are now being deployed in substations.
The PMU data are collected in a phasor data
concentrator (PDC) to facilitate real-time power
system situation awareness, analysis, operation,
protection, and control [13]–[15]. With large scale
integration of variable renewable energy integration,
PMU-based smart grid will ensure power system
stability and reliability.
II. WAMS SECURITY ISSUES
A. Security Threats Encountered in WAMs
WAMSs use public communication
channels, in which every device inside or outside the
network may obtain the information. The attackers
can directly destroy the WAMS nodes due to the
open deployment of nodes.
B. Energy Constraint on Security Algorithms
In order to prevent the attacker from
deciphering directly on WAMS nodes, the data on
nodes should be encrypted before stored. Complete
verification information needs to be inserted into
original message, so that the data packets will not be
modified maliciously. Thus, it is necessary to
introduce proper ID verification mechanism into
WAMSs to defend ID-based attack such as Sybil and
node duplication attack. Although the security
threats encountered byWAMSs are diverse, data
encryption, integrity protection, and verification are
the most basic security service requirements in
WAMSs. In WAMSs, the stronger the security
algorithm is, the more energy consumption on the
CPU [21]. Thus, in order to satisfy the security
requirement on the WAMS, energy consumption is
the major factor that constrains security algorithms.
C. Security Level and Energy Consumptions
The limited energy and computation
resources determine that the security mechanism in
WAMS nodes should be implemented as simple as
possible. Integrating security service directly and
control systems.
D. Introduction
Power system faults cause changes in
power system frequency and/or voltages due to the
loss of generation or/and load. These changes
depend on the power system robustness and its
ability to respond to these changes in a short time.
Each power system has a unique dynamic behaviour
that depends on factors such as network transmission
topology, load location (closed or far from
generation location), generation capacity, type of
generation (wind, hydro, nuclear, thermal plants),
etc. The phenomena involved during a power system
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disturbance/blackout can be classified in 5 main
classes:

Voltage collapse,

Frequency collapse,

Loss of synchronism,

Large power swings

Cascade of overloads.
Electrical networks are also more and more
interconnected in order to improve the robustness of
the electrical power system, to increase the exchange
capacity between the electric power transmission
system over a wider area that crosses state borders
and to ensure mutual assistance among system
operators (specially in case of wide area
disturbance).
Two characteristics are essential for any electrical
power system to maintain its stability and integrity:

Avoid the cascading of an isolated power
system fault over a wider area,

time constants that are involved cover very
different time scales.
The perturbations of the wave resulting
from electrical short circuits propagate close to the
speed of light. However Intelligent Electronic
Devices (IEDs) as Protective Relays, Programmable
Logic Controller, etc. operate in areas ranging from
tens of milliseconds to seconds and SCADA or EMS
in areas ranging from minutes to hours. In contrast to
conventional protection devices, which provide local
protection of individual equipment (transformer,
generator, line, etc.), the wide area protection system
provides comprehensive protection covering the
whole power system. When compared to
SCADA/EMS systems, that are responsible for
network control and management, the wide area
protection system is focused on maintaining power
system integrity. The idea is that a wide area
protection
and
optimization
system
shall
complement rather than substitute any of the existing
control and protection systems.
E. Use of WAMPAC
Faults in transmission system leading to
more widespread load outages are very rare in most
power systems, but if they occur they can have
serious impacts on many activities in society. If a
whole city or part of a region suffers a black out, the
economic and societal impacts can be very
significant, and consequently the requirements on
security must be much higher in the transmission
system as compared with the distribution level.
Furthermore, the restoration after a major
transmission system fault is a very complicated and
laborious task. In stressed power system the risk of
cascading events is of particular concern. Through
cascading, the consequences of a single event can be
spread over large geographical distances in a system.
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Hence, there is a need to assess and evaluate
different means of improving transmission system
security. Wide Area Monitoring Protection And
Control (WAMPAC) systems have been recently
proposed as one such means:

Preventive actions are implemented to
avoid such phenomena to occur by using Wide Area
Measurement Systems (WAMS).

Curative actions are implemented to avoid
the spreading and so saving the rest of the power
system by using manual or automatic mechanisms
depending of the quickness of the phenomena such
as Wide Area Control and Protection Systems
(WACS, WAPS).
A defense plan is a list of actions taken
automatically or manually after a severe contingency
(contains decision to take in order to minimize the
consequences of severe disturbances) and is based
on several studies which include: safety, emergency
and restoration plans.

The safety plan is a post-contingency
manual corrective action made by the operator to
reestablish the normal conditions and is based on
preventive analysis of expected contingencies.

The emergency plan tries to reduce
contingencies effects based on automatic remote
generation shedding and/or load shedding acting by
frequency relays.

The restoration plan fixes a procedure to
recover the electricity after the system shut down.
The electric system is subject to uncertainties in
permanence which can be grouped into four
families:

The hazards of consumption: Because of
the character not storable electrical energy must be
ensured at all times, adapting production to demand.
So the electrical power system is controlled by the
demand. One of the major factors is climatic (winter
peak load, summer peak load).

Climatic hazards. The electrical system
(overhead line, cable, transformer, hydro power
plant, cooling of the thermal and nuclear power
plants) must cope with external environmental
assaults as such as lightning, flood, storm, drought,
cold, etc. which can conduct to short circuit faults,
tripping of generation groups, etc.

Equipment failures (isolation failure, bus
bar fault, etc.) and external attacks as such as
mechanical excavator server a power cable, aircraft
crash, etc.

Dysfunction related to human factors
(design
failure,
poor
commissioning,
no
maintenance, etc.) initiatives related to WAMPAC
encompass the following essential elements.

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the uplink streaming traffic is around 100kb/s. WASAS is primarily based on the synchronized phasor measurement technology.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. scalable Smart Grid system. Its architecture design and component specifications were completed in 2009 and it will be procured and deployed in near future. traffic. it will install four sub-systems at Grid Control Center (GCC) and AGCC locations: Operational Production (OP). Wide Area Situation Awareness System (WASAS) The WASAS is a project involving deployment of PMU devices in 500 kV and 230 kV substations and grid control center situation awareness applications for supporting system operators in real-time decision making [9]. Phase 2 will migrate the remaining RASs. J. the uplink traffic is around 1. III. It may not have direct impact on WAMPAC as WAMPAC has more demanding performance requirements. 2. For CRAS data. which Issn 2250-3005(online) consists of fully redundant identical A & B systems. Irvine SG Demonstration This project is a demonstration of an integrated. Assuming WASAS synchrophasor values are streamed as Ethernet UDP/IP packets with 60 packets per second and 16 synchrophasor measurements per packets.) to provide additional information for system operators.com) Vol. H. G. SCE plans on procurement and deployment of the system in the near future. 2 Issue. Concurrent with Phase 2 is accommodation of newer generation RASs. assuming four substations trigger for state change and six substations mitigate. Field experience is not yet available. it is not recommended until future generation with WASAS closed loop control. INTEGRATED WAMPAC ARCHITECTURE Despite differences among various WAM/WAC/WAP systems and capabilities. it will serve as a technology reference for WAMPAC integration. I. earthquake. such as voltage phase angle different monitoring. The Phase 1 of the project is to build the central controller facilities and migrate two selected existing RASs. It will implement a number of monitoring and alarm functions. and triple redundant central controller for each system. the following assumptions can be made based on preliminary estimations of data traffic specified for WASAS and CRAS implementation. It will utilize other wide-area information input. K. from sources such as Energy Management Systems (EMS). The primary focus of this project is for distribution applications and interoperability demonstrations.25Mb/s and the downlink traffic is around 4Mb/s. etc. WASAS streaming rates are modest compared to CRAS binary burst traffic rates. Following the success of Phase 1. November| 2012 Page 556 . and it introduces the risk of opening CRAS critical dual redundant control VLANs to other connections and traffic. As illustrated in Fig. fire. Production Testing (PT=OP). and it may eventually share one of the CRAS redundant pair uplinks. Data Traffic Estimation It is very difficult to estimate how much data traffic will be generated when all these applications are sharing the communication infrastructure. The Unified Communication Architecture is in the planning and designing stage. One of the main objectives of SCEnet2 is to move from dedicated routers and fixed bandwidth for each system to virtual connections sharing routers and bandwidth. 7 F. The conceptual system design was approved by WECC in 2008. By centralizing the distributed RAS logic. Part of the SCEnet2 will be developed through several on-going SCE capital projects. However. will provide a unified communication infrastructure to support all present and future communication and networking needs for control and operation systems. their similarities will favor an integrated WAMPAC system architecture design with the expected benefits: 1. the project will improve the annual RAS updates and maintenance efficiency and enhance grid reliability by reducing RAS logic overlapping and cascading outage risks. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and nonelectrical system data (weather. WASAS stream packets may be delayed by milliseconds during CRAS GOOSE burst. CRAS are special protection schemes (SPS) that enable an automatic protection system designed to maintain system reliability by detecting abnormal or predetermined system conditions and taking corrective actions other than (or in addition to) the isolation of faulted components. Centralized Remedial Action Scheme (CRAS) The CRAS project will replace existing individual RASs and accommodate any additional RASs in the future [10]. Unified Communication Architecture The Unified Communication Architecture. and business needs. Development (DEV) and Operator Training Simulator (OTS). However. For future sharing of downlinks. SCEnet2 Deployment The SCEnet2 is an on-going effort to establish a future communication backbone as part of SCE‘s Unified Communication Architecture. Wide-range of data sharing: having access to all measurement data and the system/application generated output data will increase the data redundancy level for all functions and applications and reduce the overall system cost to achieve the same level of redundancy for each system.

3. retrieval. the IEC GOOSE carries a ―userdefined‖ dataset. wind. In the proposed architecture and process. cabling.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. In some recent industrial RAS applications [16-17]. if it becomes available during the system deployment.com) Vol.). storage. IEDs in RAS particularly refer to the microprocessor based protection relays. In this respect. GIS and other corporate applications/users. 4 outlines the logical components of WAMPAC and their functions and relationships with other systems and entities. in engineering units. The data items in the database carry the same ―type‖ as the original data item. The Data module focuses on the components in data processing and storage for the WAMPAC system. It is envisioned that the WAMPAC will interface with DMS. validation. data. such as device management. and database setting. application management. inspections or a primitive sensor system. particularly in recent years [12-14]. solar flare. C. These data are provided at much faster sampling rates than traditionally offered by C. One desirable new feature of the IEC GOOSE is the ability to directly send analog data values. In contrast to the limited binary status information. The Application module includes current and future synchrophasor-supported applications to service the needs of system operators and planners. Ad-hoc and Plug-and-play Sensor Network for Maintenance Asset management will be far more important in the age of the smarter grid. etc. traffic conditions. And Issn 2250-3005(online) to continue the effort of developing and validating proper models for system planning and operational studies. Reviewing the various SCE activities. When a failure symptom is detected. 7 2. As a multi-cast message. It also provides system administration functions that allow WAMPAC to provide system configuration and security services. External non-electrical data from other sources.. a side benefit from deployment of RAS is to assist model development and validation and help system planners and operators better understand the impacts of integrating renewable generation on the grid by continuously collecting data from the system with advanced Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). and the data management. to clearly define and explain the various renewable generation technologies and how they should be modeled for system studies. 2 Issue. will be connected and visualized to provide additional situation awareness information to system operators at control center. In the application of transmitting power flows. IEC 61850 Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) has been applied as the message carrier. Watts. such as weather reports (temperature. fire. As intelligent sensors and a communications network for collecting health check signals will be technically available in the near future. Details may be adjusted throughout the migration process. Fig. since many assets are aging. Facilitate Dynamic Model Development and Renewable Impact Study Much work has been done to resolve the issues of lacking proper generic models. it is necessary to have enhanced system monitoring to gain better understanding of the behavior of the various renewable generations under a variety of system conditions. The WAMPAC system will interface with SCE‘s existing EMS/SCADA system and historian to exchange phasor data and network model data/configuration. which can be configured with any ―visible‖ data object in the relay such as Volts. etc. which is the global standard for information model and information exchange for substation automation. can be easily transferred among all locations as needed. The System & Data Management module provides system management. The WAMPAC will exchange synchrophasor data with other utilities and WECC through the NASPInet. elaborate sensor November| 2012 Page 557 . an integrated WAMPAC system architecture roadmap was developed and proposed to enable SCE to realize its Smart Grid strategy. Network/communication resources sharing: an integrated architecture will allow communication network sharing and increase redundancy. we should minimize the number of important assets rendered out-of-service due to the attachment and detachment of sensors as well as the maintenance work for the sensor systems themselves. The Visualization module provides an effective visual presentation interface for WAMPAC system users to comprehend the wide-area situation awareness information. Vars. etc. storm. Our concept is the use of an ad-hoc and plug-and-play sensor network for maintenance to avoid or reduce maintenance works required to maintain ICT infrastructure such as battery replacement. Some recent ones are designed to support the IEC 61850 standard [15]. and utilizing WASAS system and CRAS system architectures as main components. it can be sent to many other devices through an Ethernet switch and/or bridgerouter. and other information. Ease on system expansion: it will be much easier to add new measurement devices and new applications to an integrated system than to separate systems. breaker status. and delivery services within WAMPAC. The IEC GOOSE [18] is a multi-cast message originally designed to carry binary state information among multiple relays connected to the same Ethernet network inside a substation. This is particularly important for WAMPAC system as the technology and the applications that utilize the technology are rapidly developing and advancing. lightning. asset states are initially collected and diagnosed by ordinary rounds.

hence they are  ij (r .. t ). that is Moreover no assumption is made about this symmetry unless otherwise stated. r )....e. r ) whose element population j at r and population i at r.. Using the November| 2012 Page 558 . We also introduce the function S : R  R . see below. S ( p  h p ))].0]  (t ) F . d p  d (  l ) V ( t ... 0].. t  0.. and the diagonal matrix p p L0  diag (l1 . packet data indicate that  is not a function i... Key technologies include the construction method of field sensor networks (ad-hoc and multi-hop wired/wireless communications and sensors) for collecting field information and the plug-and-play scheme for automated data processing when a sensor is attached or detached as We consider the following anycast field equations defined over an open bounded piece of network and /or feature space   R .. r )  h | j )]d r j 1    I iext (r . The vector r and r represent points in function S : R  (0. of generality.. with which is the Banach phase space associated with equation (3).com) Vol. p. Finally the p real positive values li . see hi .. V p ). r ) t  [ T ... 0]. p...   V ( t . The Issn 2250-3005(online) propagation delay between 2   C 0 ( ..  ij (r. l p ). They describe the dynamics of the mean anycast of each of p node populations.. r )   i i  dt  J ij (r. we defined the history space   supt[  C  C 0 ([ m .. p... If parts are found to have failed or deteriorated. thus is continuous.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. i  1.. Rp p ). r ) (2) It describes the relation between the input rate vi of population i as a function of the packets potential. the propagation delays are not assumed to be identical for all populations.. defined p R d . represent external factors from I ext the p  ext ext dimensional vector ( I1 . The p  p other network areas. for example. ( simplicity although our analysis applies to more general intrinsic dynamics. The reason for this assumption is that it is still unclear from anycast if propagation delays are independent of the populations. We assume for technical reasons V the p  dimensional vector (V1 . We note that  j . We use (  li ) for dt transfer. The  .. that is. whereupon their states will be carefully monitored and diagnosed. r ). The value of T is obtained by considering the maximal delay: m  max  i ...  p ). r )S[(V j (t   ij (r. which helps reduce the maintenance of the sensor systems in the long run. i  1. 0] i i  (1) the slopes of the sigmoids at the origin. We note i .. R p ) which is a Hilbert space endowed with the usual inner product: p V .U matrix of functions J  {J ij }i . i  1. r ) (3) Hence we choose T   m A. determine the speed at which each anycast node potential decreases exponentially toward its real value. and subsequently been maintained or replaced. p represents the connectivity between populations i and the  (r .. j (r .. Is the intrinsic dynamics of the population given by the linear response of data d d  li ) is replaced by (  li ) 2 to use dt dt d the alpha function response... I p ). p. i  1. j ( r .. The p function is symmetric 1 S ( z)  1  e z p by described by a matrix We give an interpretation of the various parameters and functions that appear in (1). we need to know the node potential factor V on interval [T .. Vi  vi  S [ i (Vi  hi )]. 2 Issue. In order to compute the righthand side of (1). the value of the nodes potential corresponding to 50% of the maximal activity.. Mathematical Framework A convenient functional setting for the non-delayed packet field equations is to use the space F  L2 (. p.. i  1. below. j 1. determine F    Vi (r )U i (r )dr i 1  (1) To give a meaning to (1)...... The p function conditions. The p real values determine the threshold of activity for each population. For the sake. represent the initial  the p  dimensional vector (1 . r ) i . r )   ( t . 7 systems will be attached without stopping the assets.1  i  p.. We note I iext . F ) m .  is finite piece of nodes and/or feature space and is represented as an open bounded set of p real positive values  i . r )   ij (r...1) is the normalized sigmoid function: S ( x)  [ S ( 1 ( x1  h1 )). the sensor systems are fully detached.

d 2 t  0. Because f<0 on BR .V (s)  BR }. J  L2 (2 . t ]. F ) to (3) 3.. Notice that most of the papers on this subject assume  infinite.0 All the trajectories are ultimately bounded by the same constant R if I  max tR I ext (t ) Proof :Let us F  . finitetime explosion is impossible for this delayed differential equation.. R p p ) operator equation. E2 .VT )    0 dt V (T )  BR . Thus we deduce that for   0 and small enough. Finally we consider the the definition of T. 2. 0]..   [  m .. ). that T  R. Proposition 1. J F  I def lR2 def  R. F )  C 0 ([ m . We consider three cases for the initial condition V0 . dt that then thus V (t ) is F monotonically decreasing and reaches the value of R in finite time when V (t ) reaches BR . hence requiring  m  . Proposition 1.Vt )  l V (t ) F  ( p  J C F  I ) V (t )  X F X X (2) Proof : If s and if E1 .V (t )  F 2 dt def p  . r ) (r . Thus T  0 | V (T )  BR . because BR is closed. This contradicts our assumption.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. (s  t )d    s d    td  Then 2 Issn 2250-3005(online) and F We note l  min i 1. BR .  V (t )   L0V (t )  L1S (Vt )  I ext (t ).Vt )      0 l 2 ext 2 t  0s and that f  0 on BR .1 : Let s and t be measured simple X . We know that V (t ) is defined for all satisfying .  V0    C . Boundedness of Solutions A valid model of neural networks should only feature bounded packet node potentials. then V (T ) is defined and belongs to E f (t . we write (1) as V (t ) F  2 . V (0)  BR implies that t  0. p li Thus. are disjoint members of M whose union is E . If the following assumptions are 1. the countable additivity of  shows that November| 2012 Page 559 . effect to we also have d 2 because V F |t T  f (T . F ). 2 Issue.. define  (E)   s d  (1)  is a measure on M . R p p ).. Nevertheless. Theorem 1. Rp p ). The external current I ext  C 0 ( R. .. V F  2 .com) Vol. r ))d r Is the linear L1  J continuous L2 ( 2 . we now prove that this cannot happen. V0 If set BR . Then for any   C .   (2) Let us show that the open route of F of center 0 and radius R.Vt )   L0Vt (0)  L1S (Vt )  I (t ). V (t )  BR . the boundary of BR . in BR ..      J (.V (t )  BR .0 satisfied. 2 Notice that this result gives existence on R . if R Suppose T  sup{t | s [0.  (. is stable under the dynamics of Where L1 : C  F . V (T   )  BR which contradicts T  R and BR is stable. a particular solution could grow indefinitely.   C 0 (2 . functions on for E M . f (t . Thus case V (0)  CBR . the closure of BR .sup    m . 7 notation Vt ( )  V (t   ). Suppose t  0. there exists a unique solution V  C 1 ([0. defined f : R  C  R  as 1d V f (t . B.

We shall prove that there is a polynomial P such that that for all z claim that f ( z2 )  f ( z1 ) Where subject 2 (11) R2 Since f and A have compact support. 2 Issue. Now define ( z )   f ( z   ) Ad d   A( z   ) f ( )d d R2 (1) From now on.. the first half of our a(r )  union proposition implies that (2) holds. since Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 560 . let s be as before.  Eij the ( s  t )d   ( i   j ) ( Eij ) and  Eij sd    td    i  ( Eij )   j  ( Eij ) ( z )   2 ( ) (3) . If the interior of K is empty. (3) follows from (8). such ' c 2 2  A  15   .. 3  2 (1  r2  2 (0  r   ). put Eij Thus (2) holds with Eij in place of X . We ' Theorem 1.  (4) 1 ()( ) d d    z X (    i ). then part of the hypothesis is vacuously satisfied. with compact support.  a ' . It is clear that A Cc ( R ) . Since X is the f ( z )  ( z )   ( ). Proof: By Tietze‘s theorem. (8)  A  0. Our first objective is the construction of a function  C ( R ).  m be the distinct values of t.. let 1 .000 ( ) ( z K ) (2) By (1). express A in polar coordinates. Note that K need to be connected. (5) Where X is the set of all points in the support of  whose distance from the complement of K does not  .  ( )  0. so that  is not identically  . For any   0. Next.com) Vol. The difference quotients of A converge boundedly to the corresponding partial derivatives.. and note that A A  r  0. We fix one such extension and denote it again by f . if f is a continuous complex function on K which is holomorphic in the interior of . and the conclusion holds for every f  C ( K ) . (9) Rs R2 24 f ( z)  P( z)  10.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. (9) holds simply because A has compact support. and if   0. Since f is uniformly continous. then there exists a P polynomial such that f ( z)  P( z)   for all z K . let  ( ) be the supremum of the numbers z1 and z2 are to the condition z2  z1   . Put a(r )  0 if r   . so does Since . we have  lim  ( )  0  0  A  1.and let B j  {x : t ( x )   j } If Eij  Ai  B j . (10) R3 The constants are so adjusted in (6) that (8) holds.1  j  m). disjoint of the sets Eij (1  i  n. 7 n  n  ( E )    i  ( Ai  E )    i   ( Ai  Er ) i 1 i 1  r 1 ()( z )   n    i  ( Ai  Er )    ( Er ) r 1 i 1 And r 1 Also. ( z )  f ( z )   [ f ( z   )  f ( z )] A( )d d (12) R2 And A( )  0 if  . To compute (10). (Compute the integral in polar coordinates). will be fixed.1: If K is a compact set in the plane whose complement is connected. f can be extended to a continuous function in the plane. this proves the theorem. )2 (6) And define A( z)  a( z ) (7) For all complex z . (Thus X contains no point which is ―far within‖ K .) We construct  as the convolution of f with a smoothing function A.

z ) d  d K  E j   . We shall do of . (14) Note that f  0 in G . 000 2 4 2  d   2.000( ) (24) ( z  ) F  H (). where G is the set of all z K whose distance from the complement of K exceeds  . ( X j . z ) 1   X ( z  ) F ( z)  F ( z)   j 1 1   X Q j ( .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. z ) X ( z  ) (22) Observe that the inequalities (16) and (17) are valid with R in place of Q j if   X and z  . (4). Dn . by the first equation in (11). This completes the proof. and (5) we have F ( z )  ( z )   1 | d  d z  2 ( )   | R( . we have now proved (3). put   z   ei .. with r  2 . Now (10) and (13) give (4).  2 0 0 ( z )   a(r )rdr  f ( z  rei )d   2 f ( z ) a(r )rdr  f ( z ) A  f ( z ) 0  is an open set which contains K . It follows that each D j contains a 2 compact connected set E j . g j H (S 2  E j ) and constants b j so that the 50 (19) ()( ) R( . if Issn 2250-3005(online) (21) Since (16) 1 4..  . Hence F H (). K  . by (17) if 4  . There are functions inequalities. If we write (13) with  x and  y in place  has continuous partial derivatives. (4). z )d d . whose centers are For all z not in K . since f is holomorphic there. the center of each D j can be joined to  by a polygonal path in 2 S  K . Hence the last expression in (11) may Qj ( . Then ()( z )   (A)( z   ) f ( )d d R2   f ( z   )(A)( )d d (13) R2 The last equality depends on (9). 000 . Put X 1  X  D1 and X j  ( X  D j )  ( X 1  .  En .. we see that this by showing that ( z )  f ( z ) ( z G). The mean value property for harmonic functions therefore gives. 7 A Cc' ( R 2 ) .. and estimate the integrand in (22) by (16) if   4 .. z )  Q j ( .   D j . By (20). (20) Since. and S 2  K is connected. R2   [ f ( z   )  f ( z )](A)( )d  d (15) R2  G .. Now if z G. of radius 2 . z )   Hold for z  E j and (18) shows that F is a finite linear combination of the functions g j and g 2j . then z   is in the interior of K for all  with    . i Hence (22) yields . z  ) And 2  Q j ( . of diameter at least 2 . The integral in (22) is then seen to be less Now fix z than the sum of 4  50 1 2     d   808 0   (23) And  4. .. 2 Issue.  X j 1 ). (17) Hence (3) and (25) show that (2) can be satisfied. and (5) The definition of X shows that X is compact and that X can be covered by finitely many open discs D1 .com) Vol. F ( z)  ( z)  6. Since S  K is connected. and we obtain Let  be the complement of E1  . z)  g j ( z)  (  bj ) g 2j ( z) be differentiated under the integral sign. z )  (18) November| 2012 Page 561 (25) . if we can show that   0 in G . so that S 2  E j is connected and so that Define R ( . for 2  j  n.. 000 2  2 z  z  ()( )Q j ( . Runge‘s theorem shows that F can be uniformly approximated on K by polynomials.

The the  ideal a generated by X . Conversely. )d r 2 0 As   0. Every finitely ideal generated. and (4) becomes of k  X 1 . and it equals ( LT ( g1 ). some g1 .. X n  : they are in one n THEOREM k  X 1 . then the subspace the ideal generated by the leading monomials (rather  than the leading terms) of elements of a . The proposition gives a classification of the monomial ideals in k  X1 .. Let A   n satisfy  .. (1) S be a subset of  n . then ( LT (a)) is a monomial condition () .. The last statement follows   n from the fact that X | X       ... a monomial is in a if and only if it is  divisible by one of the X . (5)  1 2 dr   ( . 2 Issue.. From the geometry of A . a in more a  ( g1 . X n  .. and    a .   S is the monomial LEMMA 1..  i  S .0 : Suppose f  Cc ( R ).   a .. ) 2  r r     A    n |      n .. X n  is to one correspondence with the subsets A of  satisfying () .. df a X  |   A is generated by the monomials DEFINITION 1. Let Then the following ―Cauchy formula‖ holds: f ( z)   (f )( ) d d   R2   z ideal corresponding to 1 (    i ) df Proof: This may be deduced from Green‘s theorem. if   A . Conversely. The integral of  /  is therefore 0. n k  X  are exactly the ideals ( X ).. and so A satisfies the k  X 1 .X n  . Put 1       i  2  x y   A (subspace generated by the X . some i  S 2 . as   0. then  are the corners of A ) Moreover. the chain rule gives (f )( )  real 1 i   i   e   (r ...com) Vol. r  0.  | S PROOF.. generated by the monomials X . ideal.. g s are any elements of a whose leading terms generate November| 2012 Page 562 . and the zero ideal (corresponding to the empty set A )..  ( . For example. g n  a .   a ). However..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.... Since ( LT (a)) can also be described as and so if A satisfies () .. n  1 . with compact support.  is periodic in  . the space of all ' 2 continuously differentiable functions in the plane. and (2) Put X  |   A for the ideal corresponding to write a  X  |   A ..   n PROOF. )  f ( z  rei ). We LT (a) Issn 2250-3005(online) 1.2 Let a be a nonzero ideal in X X X  a .. it is clear that there is a finite set of elements S  1 .2.... For a nonzero ideal a in X i . is an     ideal. )  f ( z ) uniformly. s  1  2   i     d dr 2  0  r r   (4) For each r  0.1.  i If   z  re ...  A  . some   S Thus... the monomial ideals in precisely. LT ( g n )) for (  c X  )(  d X  )   c d X   ( finite sums). g s ) where g1 .0.. Clearly A satisfies  .. 7 Lemma 1. with period   1 2  2 0 d     X  a and If such that  (The i ' s This X  k  X1. we let ( LT (a)) be the ideal generated by LT ( f ) | f  a  LEMMA 1.. gives (2) A A     n |   i   2 . X n  .. here is a simple direct proof:  (r . of     n   for X X X some  S .. then (3) The right side of (2) is therefore equal to the limit.

say. But is divisible by any r  f   ai g i  a . which means that every ideal is generated by single element. X n )  a0 ( X 1 . Let g1 .mr 1 ... On applying this remark we find that f t  ( g r 1.. By continuing in this way. m0 generate a One of the great successes of category theory in computer science has been the development of a ―unified theory‖ of the constructions underlying denotational semantics... Then the same gi ...3 Noetherian i. and suppose f has degree s  r ....m0 ) Hence ft  ( g1 .. We shall prove the theorem by induction on n ... Since  ( f ) is intended to represent the November| 2012 Page 563 . and divisible by one in g  ( g1 .... r is called the degree of f ... g 0.. X n ] is an isomorphism – this simply says that every polynomial f in n variables X 1 . X n 1 ][ X n ]  k[ X 1 .1 .. LT ( g s )) .g r 1...... X n ] : f ( X 1 . Thus r  0 ... ai  leading coefficient of gi Now f   bi gi X s ri . X n 1 ) Thus the next lemma will complete the proof LEMMA 1. This means that a model D of the  calculus must have the property that given a term t whose interpretation is d  D.... a will Issn 2250-3005(online) a of degree can be written d f d  f d 1 mod( g d .mr 1 .g 0... ri  deg( gi ). ai . g 0..g d .m0 ) and so the polynomials g1 ..md ) With f d 1 of degree repeatedly  d 1 ..1 .1....g r 1. implies that every monomial occurring in r is LT ( g i ) . On applying the division we find be finitely generated. and so we can write a   bi ai .  as gs  r.g m g r 1. Also. For a polynomial f ( X )  a0 X r  a1 X r 1  ... LT ( g s ))  LT (a) . X n  . every ideal is finitely generated..... let a d be the subset of A consisting of 0 and the leading coefficients of all polynomials in a of degree d .... We call 0 the leading coefficient of the polynomial 0.3...  ar ( X 1 . any term may appear in the function position of an application. and let r be the maximum degree of g i . Let g d .| . DEFINITION 1.. g s ) . The leading coefficients of the polynomials in a form an ideal ' ' a in A . it is again an ideal in A . which must then be regarded as an element of D. For each d  r .... x is most conveniently defined as a function from Dto D .... Let f  a .. and therefore LT (r )  LT (a)  ( LT ( g1 ).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.  ar . Let  :  D  D  D be the function that picks out elements of D to represent elements of  D  D and  : D   D  D be the function that maps elements of D to functions of D.1 .. Note that the obvious map k[ X 1 .... A finite subset S  g1 ..com) Vol. X n 1 ) X nr  . then so also is A[ X ] PROOF..g 0... Then a  a ' . argument as above shows that any polynomial f d in The ring k[ X 1 ..g m ) ft With a polynomial of degree t  r . where either r  0 or no monomial occurring in it LT ( g i ) . bi  A. algorithm... Let a be an ideal in A[ X ] .e...... a bases for if (Gr obner ) ( LT ( g1 ). g m be elements of f  a1g1  .... 7 PROOF.. g 0. S is a standard basis if the leading term of every element of a is divisible by at least one of the leading terms of the a whose leading coefficients generate a ' . has degree  deg( f ) ... 2 Issue. we find that f  ft mod( g1 .. X n ] is THEOREM 1. For n  1. and since A is Noetherian. k [ X ] is a principal ideal domain.. a0  0. In the untyped  -calculus. g d . In other words.. r  k  X1 .....1 .... gs  of an ideal a is a standard ( .m be polynomials of degree d whose d leading coefficients generate a d ... Now let f  a.. and a 0 is its leading coefficient. If A is Noetherian. PROOF... X n can be expressed uniquely as a polynomial in X n with coefficients in k[ X 1 . the interpretation of a functional abstraction like  x . ai  A.1 ..1 .. f  aX s  .

.. D is isomorphic to the space of functions from D to D that can be the interpretations of functional abstractions: suppose we are D   D  D .Let us working with the untyped the equation   calculus .. A fixed point of F is a pair (A.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.that is. F ( f )  F ( F ( f )) o 1 2 .that is. Each element of D corresponds to either an element of A or an element of  D  D . there is an embedding of X to Y --.4.   is i | i  1 ..com) Vol. It is also convenient to there exists a unique mediating arrow  write   D1 f1 f2 D2 . For the images of  and  under F we write except F ( fo ) F ( f1 ) F ( f2 ) F (  )  F ( Do ) F ( D1 )F ( D2 ) . an   chain in K is a diagram of the following form: fo f1 f2   Do D1 D2 . Define the   chain  by November| 2012 Page 564 .etc.  Y fR Such that f R o f  id X f o f  idY Where f  g means that f approximates g in R some ordering representing their information content.  o  id DD Furthermore. it makes sense to  ( ( f ))  f .. where A is a K-object and a : F ( A)  A is an isomorphism. Definition 1.. with a tag... and A cone  op  chain  is a K-object X a collection of K-arrows i : Di | i  0 such :X  that for all of an i  0.. when it has one. This equation can be solved by finding least fixed points of the function F ( X )  A   X  X  from domains to domains --. we often want to Definition 1.4 : An   chain in a category K is a diagram of the following form: view every element of D as representing some function from D to D and require that elements representing the same function be equal – that is Recall that a cocone object X and a function  ( (d ))  d f1 f2  of an   chain  is a Kcollection of K –arrows i : Di  X | i  0 such that i  i 1o fi for i  0 . vi  k o i . F ( f )  F ( f ).. F ( f )  f ...a). and F ( )  F (i ) | i  0 We write – F i for the i-fold iterated composition of F that is.a pair of maps f X fo   Do D1 D2 . The key shift of perspective from the domain-theoretic to the more general categorytheoretic approach lies in considering F not as a function on domains.. where A is some predetermined domain containing interpretations for elements of C. We sometimes write  :   X as a reminder of the arrangement of  ' s components Similarly. and such that for any domain Y also satisfying this equation. We write  k (or just  ) for the distinguish initial object of K. where A is a K-object and a is any arrow from F(A) to A Issn 2250-3005(online) the property that if  :   X is also a cocone then there exists a unique mediating arrow ' k : X  X ' such that for all i  0.. Let K be a category with initial object  and let F : K  K be a functor. A prefixed point of F is a pair (A. a colimit  :   X is a cocone with all or  o   id D The latter condition is called extensionality. F. but as a functor on a category of domains. Dually. Colimits of   chains are sometimes referred to op as   co lim its . i  fi o i 1 . to denote all of  Do and f 0 . 7 f as an element of D. i o k   i . then an k : X'  X such that for all i  0. By analogy. An  op -limit of  op  chain  is a cone  : X   with ' the property that if  : X   is also a cone. These conditions together imply that  and  are inverses--. 2 Issue. With these definitions we can state that every monitonic function on a complete lattice has a least fixed point: Lemma 1.. we need a solution ot D  A   D  D ... finding domains X such that X  A   X  X  . and  A for the unique arrow from  to each K-object A.3: Let K be a category and F : K  K as a functor. require that that is.a). Instead of a least fixed point of the function.

Specified conditional distributions are the conditional distributions they notationally represent in the joint distribution.com) Vol. We now investigate some basic properties of cyclotomic fields. then (D.. that  m is a 2mth root of unity. so the result is clear LEMMA 1. X k  2 . and let a discrete conditional probability distribution of each node given values of its parents in G be specified. x2 . then will show that this is the only way in which one can th obtain any non.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. x2 . if P(nd k | pak )  0 and P( xk | pak )  0 then P( xk | nd k . The roots of  m ( x) are just the primitive has degree mth roots of unity. we have  m  Q( n ). the identification being  m  x. we need show for 1  k  n that whenever P( pak )  0. Since PAk  NDk . m)  1.xn ) 1 for all values of the variables... First we show this does indeed yield a joint probability distribution. to show we have a joint distribution. Proof. First for a given k .. and (G. as the variables range through all their possible values. X k precede X k in the ordering. whereas the ordering in the first part of the proof does not. then Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 565 .. we need only show P( xk | nd k )  P( xk | pak ) ... X 2 .4 Let a DAG G given in which each node is a random variable. for example. 7   ! F (  ) F (! F (  ))  F ()  2 F ()  ... Where PAi is the set of parents of X i of in G and P ( xi | pai ) is the specified conditional probability distribution... Finally. so Q  x / (m ( x)) is Galois over Q .. is equal to one. Clearly. we will do so from now on. X n  follows  dk mth cyclotomic field to be the field Q  x / (m ( x)) Where  m ( x) is the mth We define the cyclotomic polynomial. to determine this.d) is an intial F-algebra.. all of these things take place considering them as subfield of C..6 If m and n are relatively prime. Note that that mth root of  mk  Q( m ) for every k . we show the Markov condition is satisfied.  (m) over Q since  m ( x) has degree  (m) .. pak )  P( xk | pak )... 2 Issue. Note that this ordering depends on k . To do this. we need to know which roots of unity lie in Q( m ) .P( x2 | pa2 ) P( x1 | pa1 ). To that end.. Then the product of these conditional distributions yields a joint probability distribution P of the variables.xn )  P( xn | pa n ) P( xn1 | Pan1 ). Where NDk is the set of nondescendents of X k of in G.  m being our fixed choice of primitive unity. Therefore..Note. Let Dk   X k 1 ....m roots of unity. In particular.P) satisfies the Markov condition. X n be the resultant ordering. If both  :   D and F (  ) : F ()  F ( D) are colimits. This means that we can write Q( m ) for Q x / (m ( x)) without much fear of ambiguity. X 2 .. Next define. X k 1 F (! F (  )) 2 X 1 .. ..5 contained in Q( m ) is Q ( n ) PROOF.. then LEMMA 1. it follows Q( m )  Q( mk ) for all k relatively prime to m . Let NDk   X 1 . Clearly then where  k ( x)   mk .. the images of the  i coincide.. order the nodes so that all and only nondescendents of Q  x / (m ( x))  m ( x) If m divides n . The first issue is whether or not they are all distinct... Since  n m  m ... where d : F ( D)  D is the mediating arrow from  F ( ) to the cocone  Theorem 1. Order the nodes according to an ancestral ordering. P( x1. so the complex embeddings of Q  x / (m ( x)) are simply the  (m) maps  k : Q  x  / ( m ( x))  C . 1  k  m. One advantage of this is that one can easily talk about cyclotomic fields being extensions of one another.. 0  P( x1 .or intersections or compositums. (k . We if m is odd..

each y i is uniquely xi .  n ) has degree  (mn) over Q .n ) : Q(m )  (m) Q(m ) : Q(m )  Q(n )  (m) And thus that Q( m )  Q( n )  Q PROPOSITION 1.. p k 1 p1 ) An entirely similar computation Q( m )  Q( n )  Q( ( m . y j )  0.  n ) is the compositum of Q( m ) and Q( n ) ) (Recall the Q( m )  Q( p e1 )Q( p e2 ).n ) )... yi )  log 2 P( xi ) yi bits P( xi ) (1) In a noise-free channel.. The mutual information is defined between the input and the output of a given channel. n )  Q(m. so we must have Q(m .Q( p ek )Q( p f1 ). Since 1 2  Q( p e1 )Q( p f1 ).Q( p ek ) 1 2 k and Q( n )  Q( p f1 )Q( p f2 ). there is no transference of information. 7 Q( m . f ) ) k p1 max( e1. here k  Q(m . j  P( xi )    bits per symbol .n ) ) Mutual information transferred when measures the shows that information xi is sent and y i is received.. PROOF...  n )  Q( nm ) and Q( m )  Q( n )  Q Q( m . The following expressions are useful for modifying the mutual information expression: Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 566 .. This calculation is done over the input and output alphabets.  n )  Q( nm ) We know that Q( m . yi ) for which 1 x P( i ) 1 and I ( xi . y j )  log 2 bits.... n ) : Q(m )  (n) and Q(m .. and so they constitute an input –output pair ( xi .. respectively... and so )  P( xi ) and also I ( xi .. and is defined as I ( xi .. y j )   P( xi .   (m) (n)   (mn). yj P( xi ) connected to the corresponding self-information that corresponds to the input multiple and the greatest common divisor of m and n... In general. the transferred information is equal to the Q( m )  Q( n )  Q( ( m.Q( p ek )Q( p fk ) very noisy channel..Q( p fk ) 1 PROOF. f ) 1 . One checks easily that  m n is a primitive 1  Q( th mn root of unity.. n ) : Q  Q(m ) : QQ(n : Q Q(mn ) : Q  (mn).Q( p fk ) 1 2 k Thus Q( m ... pkfk pi are distinct primes.. f ) max( ek . y j ) I ( xi .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.. (We allow ei or fi to be zero) k p1 k max( ek .2 For any m and n Q(m .. f ) ). The average mutual information.n )..n ) And m.. 2 Issue. so that Q( mn )  Q( m . j i..com) Vol.. y j ) log 2   i.Q ( 1 that is.  n )  Q( Q(m .  n )  Q( p e1 ).... the output be P( completely xi yj xi In a y i and input xi would uncorrelated.. n denote where the Write the least common m  p1e1 . this implies that Q( m . 1 max( e1.. An average of the calculation of the mutual information for all input-output pairs of a given channel is the average mutual information:  P( xi   yj  I ( X . n and  m. that is.. a given channel will operate between these two extremes. pkek and p1f1 . Y )   P( xi .

y j ) log 2    i. H (X / yj ) 1 P ( xi . y j ) 1 P ( xi ) P ( y j ) Theorem 1. Thus. and the number of bits needed for determining a given input symbol after knowing the corresponding output symbol ) P( xi ) ) P( xi ) ) P( y j ) Then I ( X .5: Entropies of the binary erasure channel (BEC) The BEC is defined with an alphabet of two inputs and three outputs. which in this expression is a dummy variable that fits the condition  Q  1 . A related entropy called the joint entropy is defined as H ( X . y j ) P( xi . j And by interchanging input and output it is also true that j 2 i. y j ) can be larger than H ( X ) . y j ) log 2 i. y j )  P( xi P( y j )   P( yj i P( xi )   P( i xi ) P( y j )  P( yj xi yj yj xi This last entropy is usually called the noise entropy. and  1    P ( xi . y j ) log 2   x i. Y )   P( xi . j i.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. Mutual Information: Properties Since P( P( xi . y j ) log 2  P ( x ) P ( xi ) P ( y j ) i. y j ) log 2 Y M  P log i 1 P( 1 xi xi yj ) y j provides H ( X )  H ( X ) bits of Y yj ) P( y j )  P( yj xi X ) Where Issn 2250-3005(online) ( Qi )0 Pi P ( xi ) P ( y j ). j  P ( xi )     1   P ( xi . 7 P( xi . y j ) I ( X . y j ) log 2 i. j As the channel mutual information expression is a difference between two quantities. This difference is the mutual information of the channel. it can be said that the channel mutual information is the difference between the number of bits needed for determining a given input symbol before knowing the corresponding output symbol. Y )  H (Y )  H (Y 0 probabilities. j P( xi . j I ( X . y j ) log 2   P( xi . this is not possible for the average value calculated over all the outputs: x P( i ) yj P( xi . Y )   P ( xi . X ) I ( X . and is a function of the backward conditional probability. the equivocation can be seen as the information lost in the noisy channel. j  P ( xi )  is spite of the fact that for some 1  x     P ( i ) P ( y j )  log 2 y j P ( xi )  i  1 i P( xi ) log 2 P( x )  H ( X ) i  I ( X . Y )   P ( xi . However. j i Then i.com) Vol. so that it behaves as the quantity ) P( xi ) The mutual information fits the condition H (Y )   P ( y j ) log 2 i factor information. y j ) log 2   P ( xi . It can also be equal to zero. It can be concluded i i that the average mutual information is a nonnegative number. which is the product of two 1 P( y j ) Qi . with symbol probabilities. the information transferred through the channel is the difference between the output entropy and the noise entropy. y j ) P ( xi ) P ( y j ) P ( xi .Y )  H ( X )  H ( X ) Y i. P( x1 )   and P( x2 )  1   . when the input and the output are independent of each other. j   P ( xi . it seems that this parameter can adopt negative values. y j ) log 2   i. The observation of an output symbol P( xi ) P( y j ) Because this expression is of the form I ( X . Alternatively. and transition probabilities November| 2012 Page 567 . j H ( X )   i . In a sense. j  P( i )  yj    1  P ( xi . 2 Issue. Y )  I (Y . y j ) The above expression can be applied due to the is usually called the equivocation.Y )  H ( X )  H ( X ) Y Where yj.

A p ( x. ai b j . si  S . To see this. We will show by showing that t u   tea  P( X . ( If t  0. Having (1) x k  F such that k 1   P Y  Ax( k )   Bi | X  x( k )   1   . Given an arbitrary restricted timediscrete. Thus p is prime if and only if A / p is nonzero and has the b  0  a  0. and so is a field.. A / p is an integral domain.e.. Y )  A  t 1 2 Lemma 1. Note that m maximal  m prime.. i  1.. 2 Issue. for the density pn ( y1 .. let n be a fixed positive integer.. 2. Y )  A  P X  F a x P ( X . 2 Let 1 and P( y3 x )  0 B   j 1 B j .. then the sequences x(i ) and decoding sets Bi . property that ab  0. The ideal generated by ab | a  a...... An ideal m is maximal if m | A and there does not exist an ideal n contained strictly between m and A ... Thus m is maximal if and only if A / m has no proper nonzero ideals.. u . Then and P( y1 x )  p P ( X ..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. y )dxdy... The ideals of A  B are all of the form a  b . Let A be a ring...it is easy to verify that this is in fact an ideal. a  a. Recall that an ideal a in A is a subset such that a is subgroup of A regarded as a group under addition. The set of cosets of a in A forms a ring A / a ..Let a be an ideal of A. n. amplitude-continuous channel whose restrictions are determined by sets Fn and whose density functions exhibit no dependence on the state s .. Bk 1 . a m and b be a  b | a  a..... y )dx dy y Ax 1 Where chosen   p ( x) Let Proof: A sequence  ( x . (Conceivably t  0 ). x ( k 1) and B1 . ambn ) . y) : log  a (1) p( y )   Then for each positive integer u .. Thus assume that the process terminates after t steps... Y )  A   . sm  . If the process does not terminate in a finite number of steps. The set is an ideal.. Issn 2250-3005(online) p( y | x)dy dx  yB  Ax p( y | x)dy dx   p( x) x C.. y )  p ( x ) p ( y | x ) and P  X  F    . s ) for the ideal it generates. y ) A. Y )  A  P X  F proceed as follows. take B   ). i 1   k 1 i 1 B i .... We r s i i with ri  A..  ) such that   ue  P( X .. bn ) x (1) .xn ) and F for Fn For any . and is a homomorphism a aa 1  : A  A / a . b  b ideals in A.. i. form the desired code... note that if c is an ideal in A  B and November| 2012 Page 568 .. 7 P( y3 x )  1  p and P( y2 x )  0.. with a and b ideals in A and B . we shall (2)write ( s .. and p( x) an arbitrary probability density function on Euclidean p ( y | x) n-space... Algorithms Ideals.. b  b is denoted by ab . am ) and . then ab  (a1b1 .. and if b  (b1 ..com) Vol. p ( x)dx F x  F such that P Y  Ax1 | X  x (1)   1   (1)   p ( x) x Choose the decoding set B1 to be Ax . there is a code (u. r  A  ra  A The ideal generated by a subset S of A is the intersection of all ideals A containing a ----. Note that ab  a  b . let   p( y | x) A  ( x.... The map b   (b) is a one to one correspondence between the ideals of A / a and the ideals of A containing a An ideal p if prime if p  A and ab  p  a  p or b  p . y ) A and P( y3 x )  1  p 2 a  (a1 ...7.. yn | x1 . Clearly ab consists of all finite sums  aibi with ai  a bi  b . Set Bk  Ax( k )  p( x.. and that it consist of all finite sums of the form . select   and where Ax   y : ( x. p( x.. When S  s1 . denoted by a  b ... real number a.

Graded reverse lexicographic order (grevlex). X  1 n .bn ) be two elements of  n .. Let k be a field. and B is finitely generated as an A-module. then the map k  A is injective.. More precisely. Moreover. xn  B such that every element of B can be expressed as a polynomial in the xi with coefficients in i ( A) .... A ring homomorphism A  B is finite.com) Vol. For example: X 4Y 4 Z 7  X 5Y 5 Z 4 (total degree greater) XY 5 Z 2  X 4YZ 3 . b)  c some b  b and b  b | (a.. Thus the monomials from basis for k  X1. in decreasing order: f  a0 X 0 1 X 1  . A polynomial f ( X 1 . X n  in a canonical fashion. Division in k  X  . An A -algebra B is said to be finitely generated ( or of finite-type over A) if there exist elements x1 .an ) and  (iB (a))  iC (a) for all a  A . in the vector difference     . For example. an )   n The elements of the ... X 3Y 2 Z 4  X 3Y 2 Z .. 2 Issue. with ties broken by reverse lexicographic ordering.. then    and X   X  (lexicographic ordering) if. there is an algorithm for deciding whether f  ( g ) . Here monomials are ordered by total degree. 0  0 Then we define... then (a..    if  ai  bi . find r and check whether it is zero.... unique polynomials Moreover. Here monomials are ordered by lexicographic(dictionary) order.an  k .. we would write f  4 XY 2 Z  4Z 2  5 X 3  7 X 2 Z 2 as f  5 X 3  7 X 2 Z 2  4 XY 2 Z  4Z 2 (lex) or f  4 XY 2 Z  7 X 2 Z 2  5 X 3  4Z 2 ( grevlex) Let  a X   k  X .   (a1 ... If 1  0 in A . i. b)  (a. R  0 ... Let k be a field. we can regard k as a subring of A .e.. 0  1  . the Euclidean algorithm allows to pass from finite set of generators for an ideal in k  X  to a single generator by successively Let A be a ring. such that the homomorphism A X1 . X n is an expression of the form sending X1a1 .... monomial is a j  N .... X 5YZ  X 4YZ 2 . 7 (a..e...e.. The ring k  X1. namely. we can identify k with its image. r  k  X  such that f  qg  r with either r  0 or deg r < deg g . Polynomial rings. For example..X nan ... let   (a1 . . Fix an ordering on the monomials in k  X1 ... Orderings on k  X1 ... The total degree of the ai . X n  .. We sometimes abbreviate it by X  .. polynomial ring c a1 . homomorphism of A -algebra B  C is a homomorphism of rings  : B  C such that (Pure) lexicographic ordering (lex).0)  c and (0... b)(1. X n  . XY 2  Y 3 Z 4 . b)  c .. X n  are finite sums an n X . An A -algebra is a ring B together with a homomorphism iB : A  B . X n ) is irreducible if it is nonconstant and has only the obvious factorizations.0)  (a.... X n  as a k -vector space... addition and multiplication. b)(0..X ... X n   B X i to xi is surjective.. Note that this isn‘t quite how the dictionary would order them: it would put XXXYYZZZZ after XXXYYZ .. If 1=0 in a ring R. aj  With the obvious notions of equality.an a1 1 k  X1. the left most nonzero entry is positive.. i. and the only units in it are the nonzero constant polynomials. ca1. or  ai  bi and in    the right most nonzero entry is negative. Then we can write an element f of k  X1 . This shows that c  a  b with a  a | (a.e.. A monomial in X 1 . f  gh  g or h is constant.. The division algorithm allows us to divide a nonzero polynomial into another: let f and g be polynomials in k  X  with g  0.. b)  c some a  a q.. i. i... then there exist Issn 2250-3005(online)   (b1 .1)  c ... the R is the zero ring. X n  is an integral domain.....International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. A replacing each pair of generators with their greatest common divisor. and let A be a k -algebra....  The multidegree of f to be multdeg( f )= November| 2012 Page 569 0 . by re-ordering its elements in decreasing order. Thus..

  A .. 7  The leading coefficient of f to be LC( f )= a 0 .2.. Suppose given a polynomial f and an ordered set ( g1 .7 For nonnegative integers m1..1) ... a1   k  X 1 . X ... In general. with the first sum indexed by c  (c1 . C (n) 1 The ( n) n joint distribution of ) follows from Cauchy‘s formula....  (C .......  as g s  r Where either r  0 or no monomial in r is divisible by any of LT ( g1 ). Then A satisfies the   A. and is given by P[C ( n )  c]  n  n 1 c 1 1 N (n. 2  n satisfying  . X n  .. corresponding to the fact that if November| 2012 n  m  0..5..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. X n  .... then Page 570 (1.. If X a and X   k  X1 ..  n  1 m j  n [m ]  E   (C (j n ) ) j        j 1   j 1  j    n  1  jm j  n    j 1   (1..LT ( g s ) Step 2: Rewrite r1  LT (r1 )  r2 .. X n  n  j 1 condition And  d j  c j  m j . a subset of f to be LM( f ) =  The leading monomial of 0 a0 X 0  The leading term of f to be LT( f ) = f  4 XY Z  .com) Vol. we have Y or X .... LT ( g s ) Step 1: If LT ( g1 ) | LT ( f ) . X n  LT ( g1 ) If LT ( g1 ) | LT ( h) . This can be established directly by exploiting cancellation of the form [mj ] cj / c!j  1/ (c j  m j )! when c j  m j .. the ideal a  (Y  X ) contains 2 3 Y 2  X 3 but not 3 DEFINITION 1... the For the polynomial multidegree is (1.. n!  j 1  j 1 j c j ! for c    .  as g s  LT (r1 )  r3 : (different ai ' s ) Monomial ideals. mn .. It is clear from its definition that a monomial ideal a is the k -subspace of k  X1. and the leading 2 4XY Z .    n      () a is the k -subspace of k  X1 .. If a permutation is chosen uniformly and at random from the n ! possible permutations in S n .  as g s  r1 so on... and repeat Step 1 r2 with f for f  a1 g1  . X n  generated by is a monomial ideal... then the counts random C (n) C (j n ) of cycles of length j are dependent variables.. and term is f  a1 g1  . The division algorithm in k  X1 . divide g1 into f to get LT ( f ) f  a1 g1  h.. of A is Issn 2250-3005(online) n  n 1 1 1 jd j  n  m  d j m j   j d  j 1  j 1 j (d j )! This last sum simplifies to the indicator 1(m  n). Fix a monomial ordering in  2 . the division algorithm then constructs polynomials a1 ..g s ) of polynomials.. Now divide g 2 into f1 . [m ] PROPOSITION 1.1). the leading coefficient is 4. An ideal a is monomial if c X   a  X   a  |  A PROOF... n Lemma1.... and   A   | X   a . c)  1  jc j  n   ( ) j .4) Proof.. for example. Conversely. repeat the process until f  a1 g1  f1 (different a1 ) with LT ( f1 ) not divisible by LT ( g1 ) . 2 the leading monomial is 2 XY Z ... which occurs between the ingredients in Cauchy‘s formula and the falling factorials in the moments.. d n )   n via the correspondence n  n [m ]  [m ] E   (C (j n ) ) j    P[C ( n )  c]  (c j ) j j 1  j 1  c n  n (c j ) j  1  jc j  n   c j  c:c j  m j for all j  j 1  j 1 j c j ! all  with c  0 .. let X a of k  X1 . an ideal a will contain a polynomial without containing the individual terms of the polynomial... X n  generated by the set of monomials it contains... then the k-subspace  generated by the X . 2 Issue. until With LT (r1 ) not divisible by any LT ( g1 ). Write m   jmj .as and r such that f  a1 g1  .3. Then...cn )   n and the last sum indexed by d  (d1 .. Let a be a monomial ideal.

 lb       (1)    i 1  i  li !  i 1  i  ci ! l  il0 with  i n m The joint (n) 1 moments (n) b C . For each   I . for n  2.) (n) 1 (n) 2 (1. 2 Issue. Theorem 1. cb )   b with m   ici ...1) n[ rj ] 1 1  1(rj  n) r r j r ! n! j r! Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 571 (1. d n  m ) .. 7 d j  0 for j  n  m.. C of the first b counts can be obtained directly from (1. Z 2 ..  mn  0 The limit distribution of cycle counts It follows immediately from Lemma 1.1) to obtain the distribution of the number of fixed points of a random permutation. some two distinct properties name some element in common. then the intersection specifies how rj elements are moved by the permutation. In particular. For any c  (c1 .4) can also be written in the form  n  n [m ]   n  [m ]  E   (C (j n ) ) j   E   Z j j 1  jm j  n  .. k! C (j n ) converges in distribution to a random variable Z j having a Poisson distribution with So that mean 1/ j.. Cb( n ) )  c] 1  j  n. If the r properties are indexed by r cycles having no elements in common... 2.. The joint (n) (n) distribution of (C1 ....1) Returning to the original hat-check problem.. we substitute j=1 in (1...) d ( Z1 .6 The process of cycle counts converges in distribution to a Poisson process of  with intensity j 1 . and there are (n  rj )!1(rj  n) permutations in the intersection..3) random variables that satisfy E ( Z j )  1/ j The marginal distribution of cycle counts provides a formula for the joint distribution of the cycle C nj . (C .2) with j  1. C . n. P[(C1( n ) .n. G is the set of permutations   Sn such that  is one of the cycles of  .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline... formed with elements chosen from 1. Infact. P[C (j n )  k ]  j  k 1/ j e .com) Vol. the limit random variables are independent. summing over all sets of r distinct properties. consider the ―property‖ G of having ....1. Thus Sr  (n  rj )!1(rj  n)  Which simplifies to (1.. [ rj ] r There are n / ( j r !) such intersections. this too can be derived by inclusion-exclusion. so no permutation can have both these properties. so that I  n[ j ]/ j . That is..7). that is..2)  k ! l 0 l! (n) and the moments of C1 follow from (1.1) of all possible cycles of j ... n not in  must be permuted among themselves.  l   (1)  l0 E(C(j n) )[ r ]  j r 1 jr  n counts Finally. and a random permutation in Snm must have some cycle structure (d1 ..3) by setting mb 1  ... 2..8. To use the inclusion-exclusion formula we need to calculate the term S r . The moments of C (j n ) follow immediately as (1. 1 nk 1 (1)l .3) .2..   j 1   j 1   j 1 (1... as n  . length with the [ n / j ] k  (1)l l 0 Consider the set I j l l! (1.. which is the sum of the probabilities of the r -fold intersection of properties. the mean and (n) variance of C1 are both equal to 1. (1.2 that for n  .. k  0. we find the distribution of C nj using a Lemma 1. the inclusion-exclusion series for the number of permutations having exactly k properties is li b  b  1 ci 1  1 1 l1 . For P[C (j n )  k ]  Proof. since the elements of 1.1. j k k! l P[C1( n )  k ]  Where the Z j are independent Poisson-distribution combinatorial approach combined inclusion-exclusion formula. For the other case... We then have G  (n  j)!. and the r -fold intersection is empty... For k  0.... There are two cases to consider. Cb ) for any 1 b  n has an expression similar to (1.. each fixed as j. k l  Sk l .2) and (1..2) We note for future reference that (1. we use the notation C(j n) d Z j where Z j  Po (1/ j ) to describe this.

b])) For    An (C ( n) )  under Establish the asymptotics of conditions ( A0 ) and ( B01 ).7 (n)) 1 (1.4) from now on. b] | T0b (C )  l )  L( Z [1. In particular. Where 0 . the Poisson-distributed are random independent variables with 1 E (Z j )  j Proof.7 (n) tend to zero as n  .7 (n. Using properties of alternating series with decreasing terms... both (1. We start with the expression L(C[1. 2 Issue.2. Elementary analysis can be used to estimate this rate when b  1 . b] | T0b ( Z )  l ). L( Z [1.1)   dTV ( L(C[1.. L(T0b ( Z )))  max  P[T0b ( Z )  r ] A r A  P[Tbn ( Z )  n  r ]  1   P[T0 n ( Z )  n]   Suppressing the argument obtain Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Z (1. (n)  (1 d ) P[ An (C )]  Kn for a constant K . b). if Conditions ( A0 ) and ( B01 ) are satisfied and if  i  O(i  g ) from some ' It follows that n 2n 1 n 2n 1  1   P[C1( n )  k ]  P[ Z1  k ]  (n  1)! n  2 k 0 ( n  1)! n1'1. where An (C ( n ) )    C 1i  n  ri' 1 j  ri  i  (ri' / rid ) 1  O(i  g ) ' and as   dTV ( L(C[1...7 (n) and n11. b]). for Relation..2. n.. for d d   exp  [log(1  i 1 d )  i 1 d ] n  i 1  1  O(n Where  1.2.   exp  [log(1  i 1 d )  i 1 d ] n  i 1  1  O(n  '1. as n  . since.2. P[(C1( n ) .2.. b)  O(b / n) under Conditions ( A0 ). 2..... L( Z [1.2) and P[T0 n ( Z ' )  n]  Error rates The proof of Theorem says nothing about the rate of convergence..7 (n)) 1 '1.3) refers to the quantity derived It thus follows that Z' .   some g  0. Cb( n ) )  c]  P[( Z1 . b]))  dTV ( L(T0b (C )).)  . under these circumstances. we thus Page 572 .11) that the total variation distance (n) (n) between the distribution L (C1 ) of C1 and the distribution L ( Z1 ) of Z1 approximation is of order 0  b  n / 8 and n  n0 . the relative error in this asymptotic Since P[ Z1  n]  g '  0. L( Z [1. by the Conditioning i  .1) – (1. from 1 1 1 (  )  P[C1( n )  k ]  P[ Z1  k ] k ! (n  k  1)! (n  k  2)! 1  k !(n  k  1)! depending on Z and the ri ' and computable explicitly from (1. with n0 dTV ( L(C[1.3).1. b]).11) We see from (1. 7 Where Z j .. b]). for polynomials and square e 1 1 1 1 (1    .7 (n) (1. To establish the converges in distribution one shows that for each fixed b  1.. Z b )  c] P[T0 n ( Z ' )  n]  k  0. 7.. P[T0 m ( Z ' )  n] P[ An (C )]  P[T0 m ( Z )  n] It follows by direct calculation that ' (n)  1i  n ri' 1 j  ri    1  (1  Ei 0 )   iri  (1.7 (n.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. ( D1 ) and ( B11 ) Since. (n  1)! n  2 (n  2)(n  3) (n  1)! free polynomials. ( n) ij n 1 if g '  1.. b]))   7.. j  1.com) Vol.

7 n. n1 is replaced by n1 . of the ideal order November| 2012 Page 573 . in the remainder of the proof. b).8 (n)  P[T0b  r ]  P[T0b  s] r  s  P [0.5(1) (n / 2. ( D1 ) and ( B11 ). which is only small if a1  1.1] 10.5)  P [0. L( Z [1. The  r ]   P[T0b  r ]   P[T0b  s] n  s [ n /2]1 critical point of the proof is seen where the initial estimate of the difference P[T  s]P[Tbn  n  s] / P[T0 n  n] 1 The first sum is at most 2n ET0b . to replace 7. b) (1. b]))   P[Tbn  n  r ]    P[T0b  r ] 1   P[T0 n  n]  r 0  [ n /2] P[T0b  r ]   P[T0b  r ]   r  n /2 r  0 P[T0 b  n ] as well.8 (n) ET0b  P [0. which. This is needed to obtain the right approximation error for the random mappings example. 2 Issue.8 replaced by 10. defining the function g by g (w)  1ws 1ws t . being otherwise of ) for any   0.  contribution of the form  10. However.1] 2 r 0 s 0  P[Tbn( m )  s ]  P[Tbn( m )  s  1] . implied by that is. finally leading to a contribution of order  0 in 7.  P [0. in which one estimate of a difference in point probabilities is improved to an estimate of smaller order. contains a far  n1 of the form 1 ( n)  u1 ( n).7 (n. bn a1  for any Some improvement would seem to be possible. Examining the Conditions ( A0 ). without the restriction on the ri S ()   . the third is bound by n /2 s  n 210. it is perhaps surprising to find that ( B11 ) is required instead of just ( B01 ). For this reason.8 (n)   7.1] [ n /2] [ n /2] 3n 1 4n210. This makes it possible to replace condition ( A1 ) by the weaker pair of conditions ( A0 ) and ( D1 ) in the      P[T0b  s]( P[Tbn  n  s]  P[Tbn  n  r ]  s 0   P[T r n / 2 0b r 0 P[Tbn  n  s]  P[Tbn  n  r ] s 0 P[T0 n  n] [ n /2]   P[T0b  r ] s 0 difference. tail element from ( max P[T0b  s]) / P[T0 n  n]  i 1 is shifted from  i1 itself to its first order [ n / 2] [ n /2]  eventual assumptions needed for 7. For s  n / 2.1] 10. 7   similar problem arises with the rate of decay of dTV ( L(C[1.5(1) 1 1 a1  ) for differences of the form P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  1]. b to be of order O(b / n). since a2  1 is in any case assumed. b). b)  2n ET0b ( Z ) 1  P   P [0. leading to  a  1 a final error estimate in order O(bn  n 1 ) for any   0 . differences that are of the form P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  t ] can be Required order under Conditions ( A0 ).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol.1]  6   (n / 2. Then. The order O(n 3n .7 (n. This would be O(b / n) for large enough b . b) n factor which should be small. ( D1 ) and directly estimated. the decay rate requirement of n   i1 1 a  to a contribution of order O (n 1 ) in the estimate of the difference P[Tbn  s ]  P[Tbn  s  1]. l  2. at a cost of only a single ( B11 ). If not. which has the required order. this gives rise 1 a1  1210. A first observation is that a Issn 2250-3005(online) 1 (n)  u1 (n). than are made in ( B11 ) . if S ()  . but would still be coarser for small b. is translated into a n contribution of order O(tn Hence we may take  610.10 (n). a bound of the form P[Tbn  s]  P[Tbn  s  t ]  O(n2t  n1a1  ) for any   0 could perhaps be attained.7 (n. that we should need  l 2 l il  O(i a1 ) to hold for some a1  1 . since all the classical applications make far more stringent assumptions about the  i1 .11   n can be  n  in the above. iterating the cycle. b]).

14 (n.8 (n. b)  P [0. 7.8 (n. b]))   (n  1) 1  P[T0b  r ]  P[T0b  s ]( s  r )(1   )  r 0  s 0    7. b) [ n /2] r 0  4n 2 ET02b  ( max P[T0b  s]) / P[T0 n  n]  8n 2 ET02b  0b and then by observing that ( s  r )(1   )   P[T0b  s]   P[T0b  r ]  n 1 r [ n /2] s 0  1  n 1   ( ET0b P[T0b  n / 2]  E (T0b1T0b  n / 2))  P[Tbn  n  r ]    P[T0b  r ] 1   P[T0 n  n]  r 0  r 0  P[T 1 dTV ( L(C[1. b)  O(n1b[n1b  n  12  Where ])   0 under Conditions ( A0 ).8 (n) is replaced  by 10. we thus find tha  n /2 s  n  P [0.1] . b) . b]).3).8 claimed under Conditions ( A0 ). b)    4 1   n 2 ET02b K 0  410.14 (n. that S ()  . ( D1 ) and ( B12 ) . b) is seen to be of the order [ n / 2]  ( s  r )(1   )    P[T0b  s ] P[T0 n  n] ) n 1  s 0  provided  1 P[T0b  s ] s  r  P[T0b  r ] 2 n P[T0 n  n] r 0 s 0    10. Finally.3)  4 1   n 2 ET02b (1. As before. with 12 .4) Combining the contributions of (1.1] 1 K   4 0 ET0b 10.5(2) (n / 2.2) Issn 2250-3005(online)  10. b]))  P[T [ n /2] (s  r )(1   )   r ]   P[T0b  s]  n 1  s 0  [ n /2]  1   n E (T0b1T0b  n / 2)  2 1   n 2 ET02b . 7 With b and n as in the previous section. b)  P[T0b  n / 2] 3 10.1]  P[T  dTV ( L(C[1. this supplementary condition can be removed if 10. for any  Now we observe that 0b  n  s [ n /2]1  P[Tbn  n  r ]  [ n /2] P[T0b  r ]  r ] 1    P[T0 n  n]  r 0 P[T0 n  n]  P[T0b  s ]( P[Tbn  n  s ]  P[Tbn  n  r ]) r 0 ( s  r )(1   )     P[T0b  s]  n 1  s 0   .5) . b]).1]   2 r 0 2 0b [ n / 2]   (  P[T0b  s ]( P[Tbn  n  s ]  P[Tbn  n  r ]  s 0  The quantity 7. The proof uses sharper estimates. has the required order without the restriction on the ri implied by assuming that S ()  . b]))  (n  1) 1 1   E T0b  ET0b 2  7.14 (n. ( D1 ) and ( B12 ).International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. L( Z [1.8 (n.8 (n)   2n ET 4  3 1      P [0.1)  We have P[T0b  r ] [ n / 2]  P[T0n  n]   3  (n / 2. b]). we wish to show that 1 dTV ( L(C[1. b)  2n 1 ET0b 10.2) –(1.1] 10. we begin with the formula  The approximation in (1.8 ( n) 3 ( )  nP [0.5(2)  24 1   10.8 (n.  r] 0b  s [ n /2] P[T0b  s ] (s  r ) 1   n 1 (1. b)  2(r  s ) 1   n  6  nP [0. 2 Issue.11 (n)   ( n) in the definition of 7. L( Z [1. b). (1.com) Vol. a direct calculation now shows that  P[T r 0  0b    r ]  P[T0b  s]( s  r )(1   )   s 0  1 1   E T0b  ET0b 2 November| 2012 Page 574 (1.2) is further simplified by noting that (1. L( Z [1.8 (n.

Going to the right means forgetting about part of the affine structure.com) Vol.Going to the left directions: means introducing some extra structure which will make the geometry richer... The triangle inequality for distances also follows from the inequality (5). Operations with points and vectors: adding a vector to a point (giving a point).1.. Let us summarize. In  considered as an affine space we can already do a good deal of geometry. ―angles‖ or ―areas‖ and ―volumes‖. also. One of the ways of proving (5) is to consider the scalar square of the linear combination a  tb. we can consider lines and planes.s. The theory of differential forms does not require any extra geometry.. Notice that vectors in an affine space are also known as ―free vectors‖..From these examples follows that we can rewrite df as f f df  1 dx1  . and quadric surfaces like an ellipsoid. Points are frequently specified by their radiusvectors. we first introduce the scalar product of two vectors (a.. A..r. Consider the function f ( x )  x Example 1.. b) a b (4) The angle itself is defined up to an integral multiple of 2 . The vector r such as in the example is called the position vector or the radius vector of the point x . For example. the set of points and the set of vectors so that the operations as above are defined axiomatically).0. 7 Example 1. in greater detail: r is the radius-vector of x w.. To be able to do so. This follows from the inequality (a.t an origin O).h. However..x n ) and r  ( x1 . we define the length of a vector a  (a . This presupposes the choice of O as the ―standard origin‖. The linear function which is the standard form. a ) to be 1 n a : (a1 )2  . Writing this explicitly yields (5).. b)2  a b 2 2 (5) known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality (various combinations of these three names are applied in different books). So let us say a few words about it: n Remark 1..  a nb n (3) a  (a. addition. h 2 . we have to introduce n some more definitions. Intuitively.. where t  R .. we have d ( A. dx ... B) : AB (2) One can check that the distance so defined possesses natural properties that we expect: is it always nonnegative and equals zero only for coinciding points. B)  d ( A.. x n ) . going further in this direction will lead us to the so-called ―smooth (or differentiable) manifolds‖. As (a  tb. For this definition to be consistent we have to ensure that the r. 0)  . From  considered as an affine space we can precede in two opposite  n as an Euclidean space   n as an n affine space   as a manifold. making  a Euclidean space...  (a n )2  d ( A. Once again: the partial derivatives in (1) are just the coefficients (depending 1 2 on x ). a) ... (1) After that we can also define distances between points as follows: Issn 2250-3005(online) i November| 2012 Page 575 . The scalar product is also denote by dot: a. To define angles.  = {vectors} Operations with vectors: multiplication by a number.  n dx n . for nonzero vectors. we define the angle between them by the equality cos  : ( a.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. For an arbitrary vector r . Hence we may say that we leading with the two copies of  n: n= n {points}. the coordinates of the point x  O  r are equal to the n respective coordinates of the vector r : x  ( x1 .. B) (the ―triangle inequality‖).. B and C. So our natural direction is to the right. dxi (the i differential of x ) applied to an arbitrary vector h i is simply h . Euclidean geometry. dx .b  (a... however. b) . (An ―abstract‖ affine space is a pair of sets ... The Euclidean structure. Hence h its coordinates h1 .. of (4) does not exceed 1 by the absolute value. we cannot discuss such things as ―lengths‖. its discriminant must be less or equal zero. Consider the point O  (0. C )  d (C. the distance from A to B is the same as that from B to A (symmetry).0. n subtracting two points (giving a vector). (1) x x (the i-th coordinate). a  tb)  0 is a quadratic polynomial in t which is never negative. they are not fixed at points and n ―float freely‖ in space. Namely. 2 Issue. Now.  treated in this way is called an n-dimensional affine space. b) : a1b1  . (Or. We have n considered  and interpreted its elements in two ways: as points and as vectors. for three points. are linear functions giving on an arbitrary vector respectively. and hence is often Thus referred to as the ―dot product‖ . is useful for examples and applications.

. for the increment of f ( x(t )) we obtain f ( x(t0  t )  f ( x0 )  df ( x0 )( .. almost without change the m theory generalizes to functions taking values in  instead of  . By the definition. dF ( x(t ))  dF ( x(t ))( x(t )) (1) dt Proof.7... Theorem 1.9.t   (t )t )   ( . Where t  0 . stretching from it.. The statement of the theorem can be expressed by a simple formula: df ( x(t )) f 1 f  1 x  ..International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.  (4)  m n m  dx   F . For an arbitrary n vector h |  .. For an arbitrary parametrized curve x(t ) in  n . 7 df ( x)(h)   hf ( x )  .. where  (h)  0 when h  0 .8. we have f ( x0  h)  f ( x 0 )  df ( x0 )(h)   (h) h for an arbitrary vector h ... Indeed. differential of a map F ( x  h)  F ( x)  dF ( x)(h) +  (h) h (3) Where  (h)  0 when h  0 .com) Vol. We have 1 m dF  (dF . .. n (1) (2) d ( f  g )( x0 )( )  at t  t0 and d ( fg )( x0 )( )  d ( f ( x(t ))  g ( x(t ))) dt d ( f ( x(t )) g ( x(t ))) dt at t  t0 Formulae (1) and (2) then immediately follow from the corresponding formulae for the usual derivative Now. . t   (t )t  df ( x0 )( ). n   dx1  x   x     .... 2 Issue. Theorem 1. x n f 1 h  x1 Proof. By the definition of the velocity vector.  n dx n x x 1 1  F F   1 . Let a curve x(t ) be such that x(t0 )  x0 and x(t0 )   ... .t   (t )t ). consider a small increment of the parameter t : t0  t0  t . the differential of a map m n F : U   (where U   ) maps the velocity vector x (t ) to the velocity vector of the curve F ( x(t )) in  m : .dg f . this means that the derivative of f ( x(t )) at t  t0 is exactly df ( x0 )( ) ..   .. dF ) and F F dF  1 dx1  .. Consider an arbitrary point x0 and an arbitrary vector Hence Suppose we have a parametrized t  x(t ) passing through x0   n at t  t0 and with the velocity vector x(t0 )   Then df ( x(t )) (t0 )   f ( x0 )  df ( x0 )( ) (1) dt curve Proof. d ( f  g )  df  dg d ( fg )  df . x(t  t )  x(t )  x(t ).  n x n dt x x To calculate the value Of given vector  (2) df at a point x0 on a one can take an arbitrary curve passing Through x0 at t0 with  as the velocity vector at t0 and calculate the usual derivative of f ( x(t )) at t  t0 ... (2) Theorem 1. On the other hand..t   (t )t For a certain  (t ) such that  (t )  0 when t  0 (we used the linearity of df ( x0 ) ).  f n h .  For functions U  . Combining it together. The only difference is that now the F : U   m at a point x n will be a linear function taking vectors in  to m vectors in  (instead of  ) ..g  f . F   1 n x   x In this matrix notation we have to write vectors as vector-columns.t   (t )t Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 576 (2) . g :U   .

d (GoF )( x)  dG (dF ( x)) for an arbitrary .... In other words...6. . t  0 . ... ..... then d (GoF ) is expressed by the product of these matrices.. .. we obtain F 1 F dx  . Corollary 1. F ( x(t  t ))  F ( x  x(t ).. x ) and in  by ( y .. this theorem gives a clear geometric picture of dF as a linear map on vectors..   m m  y . As every vector attached to a point can be viewed as the velocity vector of some curve passing through this point... to get d (GoF ) we have to substitute into (2) the .. m y  y  d (GoF )  . (1) expression for dy  dF from (3)..  ( x(t )t   (t )t ). vector x (t ) . (3) y y .W   (open domains). the m p dependence of z  on y   is given by the G . G  y1 y m    F 1 F 1   1 . vector (6) y   m on x  n is given by the map F . precisely means that dF ( x) x(t ) is the velocity vector of F ( x) ... n x  x . p We can use the description of the x(t ) in  n with the differential . n x   x   . F n   x1 x     dx1      .. Let F : x  y  F ( x) .            (5) x . . .. y y dF  (2) Then the chain rule can be expressed as follows: G G d (GoF )  1 dF 1  . denoted for  ny . and the dependence of z  p on x  n is given by the composition GoF ..  x a i 1 y i x a n If we denote coordinates in m 1 m n  by ( x ..  n .... Then the differential of the composite map GoF : U  W is the composition of the differentials of F and G : d (GoF )( x)  dG( y)odF ( x) (4) n m Proof... the curve (GoF )( x(t )  G( F ( x(t )) .. 7 Where  (t )  0 when definition of the differential... . y 1 x n  x    . This is often written as 1 1  z1 z1   z .    . This when . map x ...  F ( x)  dF ( x)( x(t )t   (t )t  (t )  0 For some t  0 . and write Issn 2250-3005(online) Definition 1. . Or Applying the theorem once again. Hence .. dF of under the ....Consider a curve .  n dy n .. x(t )t   (t )t i .  G1 G1  1 . By the same theorem.. if dG and dF are expressed by matrices of partial derivatives. m 1 1  x x   y y  y1 y1  1 . with the standard coordinates Page 577 .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline....... . Consider an open domain Consider also another copy of distinction November| 2012 U n.  p  p p   z  z z z p    .  m m   F ...e.... 1 m z  z  y i  . Theorem 1.  p p  G . and where F :U V U   ...0. .. Basically..10 Suppose we have two maps G :V  W .t   (t )t )    h i Where dF are taken from (1)... we need to know to p which vector in  it is taken by d (GoF ) . This can also be expressed by the following matrix formula: i .. n  . By the F ( x  h)  F ( x)  dF ( x)(h)   (h) h Where  (h)  0 when (3) h  0 ... 2 Issue..    dx n      (4) i.  F ( x)  dF ( x)( x(t )t   (t )t )  .... y ) .com) Vol. n   y1 y m x    x  .. we see that the velocity vector to the curve F ( x(t )) is the image Where it is assumed that the dependence of velocity vector .. z  1 ..V   .... it equals the image under dG of the m Anycast Flow vector to the curve F ( x(t )) in  .  m dF m .  n dx n 1 x x G 1 G dG  1 dy  .

the velocity vector will have components ( r .. It is instructive to sketch a picture.  ) . Proof.. n   dx1  x   x   (e1 ..  )  x(r. A system of coordinates in the open domain U is given by a map F : V  U . Since we now know how to handle velocities in arbitrary coordinates. 7 ( y1. x  are. the elements of the basis ei  x x i (originally... (5) Proposition 1. x U in this system are 1 n the standard coordinates of F ( x)  y The coordinates of a point In other words..    (t )  2 specified (1) t  (r (t ). The form of the df  differential does not change when we perform a change of coordinates. Explicitly we have x  (cos  . we have dx x dr x d x x x    r  dt r dt  dt r  ...  ) (r  r0 fixed ) Issn 2250-3005(online)  : ...2.. such that the as a basis we take following three conditions are satisfied : (1) F is smooth. the best way to treat the differential of a map F :    is by its action on the velocity vectors. r cos  )  (3) x . Notice that . Vectors ―stuck to points‖ when we consider curvilinear coordinates.  n dx n 1 x x 1  F F 1   1 .. the velocity vectors for the curves r  x(r . e is that it F 1 : U  V is also smooth (3) . by the chain rule.. 2 Issue.   .3 Consider a 1-form in the standard coordinates: November| 2012  2 given in Page 578 . . y ) 1 n 1 1 n (1) n Here the variables ( y . . y )  x  x( y . (3) 1 x x i Where x are arbitrary coordinates. .. Example 1. drawing vectors corresponding to a point as starting from that point. the maps Then. Consider a curve in in polar coordinates as x(t ) : r  r (t ). . We can conclude In particular.sin  ) r x  ( r sin  . x  are 2 vectors depending on point in  .  (t )).In particular. where that for an arbitrary curve given in polar coordinates .(r... we set n dF ( x0 ) : m dx(t ) dF ( x(t )) (t0 )  (t0 ) dt dt (1) Now dF ( x0 ) is a linear map that takes vectors attached to a point x0   the point F ( x )   n to vectors attached to m F 1 F dx  .. . a formal notation) can be understood directly as the velocity vectors of the coordinate lines i (all coordinates but x are fixed). e : x is not ―constant‖ but depends on point. y ) are the ―new‖ coordinates of the point x Example 1.. x r .. . By definition.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.  .. y n ) ....... F : ( y . Follows directly from the chain rule and the transformation law for the basis ei . (2) F is invertible.. (2) Here x  e1 x  e2 y r xi  x( x1 . respectively. whence the partial derivatives x r ..com) Vol.. em )  . V   ny is an open domain of  ny . F   x n   x1 dF  (2) (4) From where it follows that these vectors make a basis at all points except for the origin (where r  0 ).  n dx n .. ..  ) if . r and  are scalar coefficients depending on t . The velocity vector has the same appearance in all coordinate systems. x  er r  e  ..3. . x .  ) (  0 fixed ) and r   x(r . Consider the vectors  . for the differential of a function we always have f f dx1  .  m m  dx n   F . er : x A characteristic feature of the basis er ... The map t  x(t ) can be considered as the composition of . We can compare this with the formula in the ―standard‖ coordinates: .. x n ) We can simply use the chain rule.

. Note that  is a root of x  1. If primitive p are th root of unity. Therefore A . Proof:  ( x(t (t ' ))). 2 Issue. where ei  x . x p 1  x p 2  . ' .   p1   p ( ) 1  1  r 2 (sin 2   cos 2  )d  r 2 d If p does divide Hence A  r d is the formula for A in the polar coordinates. we get A  r sin  (cos  dr  r sin  d )  r cos  (sin  dr  r cos  d ) TrK /  ( j )     2  ... If    ei i ..9 (1   )OK    p provide the orientation We saw above that p is a multiple of Proof.1 For any   OK . ' dt  TrK /  (1   this shows that N K /  (1   )  p The key result Theorem 1. j  and path  for determining the ring of integers OK is the following.. and thus its conjugates  ..9. We  for  p or this section.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. For this.  1   p ( x) differentials of functions were defined as linear functions on vectors (at every point)..  ( x(t )).com) Vol. a linear combination of the differentials of coordinates with functions as coefficients. ' dt dt dt Let p be a rational prime and let K   ( p ). Let j is not divisible by p. now Suppose that the inclusion is strict.  2 p 1 .. we can define a 1-form in a domain U as a linear function on vectors at every point of U : one conjugate 1. then  is a j an integer.. Recall that the  i  j  (2)   parametrization of remains the same.. We have and thus is an algebraic integer. COROLLARY 1. then  j  1. we must have (1   )OK     Thus we can write 1   (1   ) For some   OK . p 1 ) p We also need to compute the norm of 1   . For arbitrary 1-form . Plugging in x  1 shows that p  (1   )(1   2 ). so the inclusion (1   )OK    p is immediate. does not change if we change  LEMMA 1. ' . write (1   ) in OK . Secondly. and  x dxi (e j )  dxi  j  x x every point .. hence dx  cos  dr  r sin  d dy  sin  dr  r cos  d j be with some norm and trace computations..  . PROOF. we use the factorization at  ( x   )( x   2 ). so it has only the dx dt ' and As dx dt dx ' =  ( x(t (t ))).. Since (1   )OK   is an ideal of  containing p and p is a maximal ideal of  . Consider dx  ( x(t (t ' ))). we find that (1) x i j . We begin Issn 2250-3005(online) November| 2012 Page 579 . since  K is a ring we have that     OK . TrK /  ((1   ) )  p. TrK /  ( j )  p 1 By linearity of the trace. y  r sin  ... in a more conceptual way. In particular. and Substituting into 2  ( )  1 1  .. We give a proof without assuming unique factorization of ideals. Recall that K has degree  ( p)  p  1 over  . 1   is a unit in O K . That is.(1   p 1 ) Since the (1   ) are the conjugates of (1   ).( x   p 1 ). we see that this is again a 1-form.  n n . the integral TrK /  (1   )  TrK /  (1   2 )  . 7 A   ydx  xdy In the polar coordinates we will have x  r cos  . We wish to show p that OK    .

write this polynomial as  m 1 m 1  x  . This completes the proof. so a0   Next consider the algebraic integer (  a0 ) 1  a1  a2  . In argument as above shows that a1   . It is also now clear that p nOK . p . p and consider the ideal a  OK of OK . p .  p . Note that this ring  ( p) is not the ring  p of p -adic integers. p ) By the linearity of the trace and our above calculations we find that TrK /  ( (1   ))  pa0 We also have TrK /  ( (1   ))  p . since the residue class of   OK is also  /   OK . p / pOK . So let   K be a root of a polynomial with coefficients in OK .   OK With ai   . Then  (1   )  a0 (1   )  a1 (   2 )  . Let a be any proper ideal of OK ... p is integrally close in K . Thus   OK . p .. Furthermore. That is. p  pnbOK . Thus Since TrK /  ( (1   ))  (1   )OK Since the trace is use this fact to determine all of the ideals of OK .. p Since pOK . p 2 p Let Thus is an integral basis for OK .  a p2 p2 this Since bOK . since we have   p. p  OK . and particular. it is now abundantly clear that every nonzero prime ideal of OK . p ... Furthermore. also a rational integer. p . Example 1..... 1/   OK . 7 TrK /  ((1   ) )  1 ((1   ) )  . write it as j let K |  ( p ) be the p th cyclotomic field. so   a  OK . then the local ring  ( p) is simply the subring of  of rational numbers with denominator relatively prime to p . p .. p is a Dedekind domain. The usefulness of OK .. Thus every ideal of OK .   p 1 ((1   ) )  1 (1   )1 ( )  . Thus OK . as claimed.. p has the form p nOK .. Then we can write    /  where   OK and   p.. to get  p one must complete  ( p) . Set    0 1.4 Let p be a prime number and factorization of a  OK in O K .  /     OK .. 2 Issue. that a is generated by the elements of a in a  OK .   a (since  /   a and a is an ideal). We now find that a  (a  OK )OK . the inclusion OK  OK .4 Let K   . To an algebraic integer since p 1 continuing in this way we find that all of the a i are in  . this map surjection. relatively prime to p. p . p . Multiplying by xm  m  is the root of a monic polynomial with coefficients in O K . p .. p and write   a0  a1  . p  pnOK . We claim that a  (a  OK )OK . p is maximal.  (1   p 1 ) p 1 ( ) i are the complex embeddings of K (which we are really viewing as automorphisms of Where the clear from the definition of an ideal that a  (a  OK )OK . This is  1   . which makes sense since  is invertible (with and is. we find that November| 2012 Page 580 .com) Vol. it remains to show that it is integrally closed in K .We can a  OK  p n b For some n and some ideal b . The same in OK / p . it follows immediately that OK .  a p 2 ( p 2  p 1 implies that    /   (a  OK )OK .. To prove the other inclusion.   p 1 (1   ) p 1 ( )  (1   )1 ( )  . p is the unique non-zero prime ideal in OK .. p   p ) is the image of  1 in OK / p . K ) with the usual ordering. Then OK   [ p ]   [ x] / ( p ( x)).  0 With  i  OK and  m 1 0  i  OK  p . p is noetherian. m 1. Thus the map is an isomorphism. p comes from the fact that it has a particularly simple ideal structure. let  be any element of a . p and consider the ideal PROPOSITION 1. It is Issn 2250-3005(online) show that OK . so   OK and   p. p for some n. In particular.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. we claim first that bOK .  PROOF. Let a be any ideal of OK . p  OK  p. 1   is a multiple of 1   in OK for every j  0.  a p2 p3 . 1..

let L be the Galois closure of K and set [ L : K ]  m. However. Such remote signal inputs will obviously require a more flexible communication mesh network. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ancillary service regulations do allow third-party AGC but a new communication-computation-control scheme needs to be developed before this can occur in any large scale. we have Since NK' /  ( NK /  ( )OK )  NK' /  (OK )n N K /  ( ) is a rational integer and OK is a free  module of rank n. the conceptual functionality of these local controls will remain the same. The more complex communication scheme required is also not a problem.com) Vol. feasibility of control is not a problem. Ancillary markets for regulation capacity have developed to handle this service. This would be analogous to the AGC control by introducing a secondary control scheme that would periodically adjust the setpoints of the local PSS controllers as the system changes. like frequency control. probably minutes. this areawide AGC control has become more decentralized. The wide-area controls presented here will often take care of the local controllers but the main objective is to improve the overall stability of the power system. C. even a small one. which are today done off-line but will have to be done on-line in this case. Let NK' /  ( ( )OK )  NK' /  (OK ) . The primary control is continuous whereas the secondary control is discrete usually using 2-4 second sampling. Phasor measurements have already been shown to be very helpful in tracking the oscillation modes and their damping in near real time. although Europe and China are trying some regional control schemes. also implying that the ones presented first would be easier to implement. The challenge here is that the calculation of PSS setpoints requires large analytical calculations. Thus this challenge is a classical one of developing a practical robust controller. D. The primary governor control at the generators is local while the secondary AGC control that adjusts the governor setpoints is area-wide. OK / N K /  ( )OK Will have order NK /  ( )n . excites a natural oscillatory mode of the power system. such a network introduces other modes of failures like signal delays and the control have to be robust enough to handle them. this shows that Galois. Assume first that K /  is  be an element of Gal ( K /  ). New controllers need to be developed that can use system-wide inputs (not necessarily more inputs per controller but input signals from further away). is relatively slow and so the feasibility of the control and communication is not an issue. the bandwidth requirement remains modest. These oscillations are slow. Regional Voltage Control Voltage control in North America has always been local. Voltage stability control Voltage instability occurs when a change in the power system causes an operating condition that November| 2012 Page 581 . Small signal stability control Small signal instability occurs when a system perturbation. The speed of calculation is not a major concern as changing the setpoints can be done quite infrequently. These PSS are local controllers on the generators. In the general case. The main hurdle has been the selection of input and output variables of the controller that can handle all the varied operating conditions that the power system endures. usually under 1Hz. B. clear that since  (OK )  OK . Although local controls continue to be improved using newer technologies. 2 Issue. The concepts are presented in the order of increasing complexity. Frequency Control Frequency is controlled by balancing load with generation. It is  (OK ) /  ( )  OK / .International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. As this control is quite slow (2-4 second sampling). although a meshed Issn 2250-3005(online) communication network is required rather than the present star network. We assume a bit more Galois theory than usual for this proof. The main method used today to guard against small signal instability is the off-line tuning of power system stabilizers (PSS). 7 COROLLARY 1. FERC recognizes voltage-VAR control as an ancillary service but it has been difficult to develop any auction markets for this service. therefore NK' /  ( NK /  ( )OK )  NK /  (OK )n This completes the proof. Let K be a number field of degree n and let  be in OK then N K' /  ( OK )  N K /  ( ) PROOF. WIDEAREA CONTROL The proposed control concepts described here are all widearea controls. IV.2. This type of control. Thus local controllers are used to mitigate system oscillation modes. Given that all generators in a region are no longer owned by the same organization. Control schemes for regional voltage control would be useful in North America as voltage collapse has played a prominent part in all recent blackouts. Taking the product over all   Gal ( K /  ). a procedure that works well for local oscillation modes but not interarea modes. A. Another control concept is to adaptively change the PSS setpoints according to the power system operating conditions.

the system values and statuses monitored and the breakers controlled cannot be modified. In that case a mini state estimator can be run within each substation to estimate all complex voltages and all currents out at each substation. The BA SCADA gets the real time data from the RTUs and uses that for its SE. Transient stability control The development of such a control scheme is by far the most difficult because a disturbance that can cause instability can only be controlled if a significant amount of computation (analysis) and communication can be accomplished very rapidly. On-line setting of special protection schemes A step forward will be to develop methods to control transient stability but with less dependence on offline studies and more use of on-line computation. ‘Soft-wired’ special protection schemes A step advance in this direction will be to generalize special protection schemes (SPS) to control transient stability. Real time control of transient stability The objective here is to develop a global control for transient stability (with no off-line assists). There are two levels of SEs running today – at the Balancing Authorities (BA) level and at the Reliability Coordinators (RC) level. can be identified and corrected right at the substation. the computation needed to determine the disturbance scenario and then computing the necessary controls for stabilization. Because this data includes voltage angles. some have referred to this as state measurement (precluding the need for a state estimator altogether). to process the realtime data to decide the best control action. 7 is deficient in reactive power support. In addition. This processed data would be very different in character than the raw measurement data that is fed to the control center SE today. including switch statuses. Real Time Modeling (State Estimation) The state estimator (SE) today runs at the control center EMS using the data from the SCADA real time data and the static database. has to be in the same time-frame as today‘s protection schemes (milliseconds). etc. What is proposed here is the development of a generalized communication system that can enable the implementation of new SPS by software modification. This concept is approached in three increasingly difficult levels: -the first is to use off-line studies to manually adjust protective schemes which would operate only if the disturbance occurs. I. This calculation requires good contingency analysis which in turn requires a good real time model (state estimator) as discussed in the next section. E. (It should be noted that many papers assume that the control centers exchange state estimated data for this purpose but this is not the case. However. the computation requirements will be modest as the control schemes are largely defined off-line. it also passes on the same real time data to the ISO level for its SE. Thus. -the third and final would be to directly operate the control actions after the disturbance occurs. Often the BAs also have communications between themselves to exchange real time data so that each BA SE can construct its own external model. To achieve this the BA control centers have to have communication connections to the RC control center. Because there are enough redundant measurements within a substation these voltages and currents can be very accurate. The main idea here is to use more real-time data to determine what control is needed.) It is expected that the availability of large amounts of phasor measurements will significantly change the nature of state estimators. H. For this to be feasible. neuralnetworks. this data is usually not timestamped. Guarding against such instability requires the anticipation of such contingencies that can cause voltage instability and taking preventive action.com) Vol. G. These SPS today are developed from the results of voluminous offline studies and are implemented with a ‗hard-wired‘ communication system. New preventive control schemes are needed that can also include special protection schemes that could isolate those areas with var deficiencies. This is an action plan to ensure that the system operating condition does not stray into an area where a perturbation can cause voltage instability. Although many phasor measurements and a comprehensive communication scheme will be required in this type of control. the goal here would be to determine what kind of communication-computation structure will be needed to make this feasible. the state estimate for the network will have to be more than just a collection of the complex voltages from the substations. bad data. Let us assume that enough phasor measurements will be available at all substations that voltage angles at all substations will be measured. This is not a stability control in the traditional sense that responds to a disturbance. In reality. The RC may also exchange such data with neighboring RCs. -the second is to automatically adjust these protective schemes with on-line calculations. What is proposed here is the development of soft-computing techniques using pattern-recognition. F. Because there are always some noise November| 2012 Page 582 . much off-line training of the software may still be required off-line but the expectation is that the control action would be much more efficient than those purely decided off-line. only SCADA data is exchanged and moreover. So far. 2 Issue. Whether this is indeed possible with today‘s technology is not known.International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline. expert systems. Of Issn 2250-3005(online) course.

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