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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No.

A Study of Public Sector Organizations with


Respect to Recruitment, Job Satisfaction
and Retention
Safdar Rehman
Director (HR), Super Solutions Consultancy, Canada
Abstract

In todays competitive environment Human Resource Management has become


a valuable part of each organization especially for public sector organizations
because HRM policies are directly linked with the overall job performance.
The main purpose of the paper is to study the recruitment, job satisfaction and
job retention policies implied by the public sector of Pakistan. By deep analysis
of problems and challenges study suggest the implementation of various HR
policies to enhance the job performance resultantly improved job satisfaction
and lower turnover. Previous studies on recruitment, job satisfaction and job
retention have been performed mainly in western context. The distinction of
this paper is that it studies recruitment, job satisfaction and retention practices
merely in public sector of Pakistan. The paper proposes a conceptual
framework linking various psychological factors and strategic HRM
perspectives, examining how various strategies adopted by organizations help
in recruiting and retaining talented employees. Hypotheses were developed
with the help of framework. The study was conducted in 15 public sector
organizations and a sample size of 568 was selected. Five point likert scales
were used to get the responses. Mean and standard deviation were calculated to
know the relationships of variables and at last bi -variate test was applied to
conclude.
Keywords: Recruitment, Job Satisfaction, Job Retention, Job Performance,
Public Sector Organizations
Paper type: Research Paper

Introduction
Purpose of this study was to analyze the major challenges in the area of
recruitment, job satisfaction and job retention faced by public sector
organizations of Pakistan, the impact of strategies have been adopted far to
overcome these issues on image of the organization. For this purpose public
sector regulatory authorities and organizations being regulated by these
authorities were selected. Various studies are available that address the
challenges of recruitment, job satisfaction and job retention, but many of them
are not directly related to problems and challenges faced by public sector to
recruit and retain the best employees to be an employer of choice. The closest
areas in which some amount of literature is available are: Employee retention
in relation to customer retention (Jamal & Adelowore, 2008; Yavas, et al..,
2003) and quality service (Redman & Mathews, 1998) and how training, erecruitment and development reduces turnover rate.

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Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012
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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
There is a well-developed best practice HRM literature which argues that employment
practices oriented to employee engagement deliver win-win returns in employee motivation,
commitment, retention and quality of work. The study highlights recruitment, job satisfaction
and retention efforts of Public sector of Pakistan to become an employer of choice in todays
competitive environment.
According to Rehman Safdar et al., (2010) Pakistan is an emerging economy in south Asia and
rapidly trying to meet challenges of modern world economy and maintaining the momentum of
economic constancy. The regulatory authorities claims to be an employer of choice due to its
heavy investment in its employees as it is offering a number of opportunities of personal and
professional growth i.e. Change Management Programs, Training of new staff and benefits like
excellent working conditions, job satisfaction, superior leadership, and conducive environment
for growth. Employees have an opportunity to excel their entire potential and overcome the
challenges in their career paths.
Literature Review
Recruitment, knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA)
Taylor & Collins, (2000) studied recruitment as one of the most critical Human Resource activity
which was vital for the organizational success. Boudreau & Rynes, (1985) studied that it was not
so easy for organizations to attract potential employee as the organizational attraction influenced
the effectiveness of successive selection. Barber, 1998; Chapman, Uggerslev, Carroll, Piasentin
& Jones, 2005 conducted an extensive research in the area of recruitment and candidate
attraction during the last 25 years.
Barber, (1998) discussed the recruitment function more closely related to the organizations
strategic human resource planning. From the organizations perspective, developing a
recruitment strategy involves three basic decisions, determining the target population,
determining the applicant source, and deciding how to attract applicants to the organization.
Recruiting is not just a game of human numbers anymore. For HR professionals, this means
going a step further than developing a recruitment plan. It means working closely with
management on shaping organization culture and looking closely at the job attribute preferences
of its current and future employees. One liability of the HR professional is to converse the
attributes of a particular job undoubtedly.
Rynes, Bretz, & Gerhart, 1991 discussed that HR professionals have to play a vital role in the
overall recruitment process as they have to communicate information about the job itself and the
organization. Barrick & Zimmerman, 2005 further studied that source of information about the
job and the organization influenced similar to perceived person-job fit and subsequent attraction
and job retention. Wanous, 1977, Breaugh, 1992; Breaugh & Starke, 2000 studied that the
fundamental assumption was that precise and pragmatic job information enables applicants to
think about the degree of similarity between their knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) and the
other job requirements.
Phillips, (1998) and Meglino, Ravlin, & De Nisi, (2000) studied that precise and pragmatic job
information during the recruitment and selection process was linked with positive work
outcomes like job satisfaction, low turnover and enhanced job performance. Applicants who felt
a better fit between their knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) and their job requirements were
likely to accept a job offer. Beadles et al. (2000) found a positive and significant correlation
between job performance and job retention. Campion (1991) found that inescapable turnover was
characteristically viewed as critical to an organization. Most of the researchers have supported
the notion that turnover decreases organizational performance.

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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
Job satisfaction
One of the most used research definition of job satisfaction was narrated by Locke in 1976, who
defined it as a pleasant or optimistic arousing state consequential from the evaluation of ones
job or job experiences (p. 1304). Inherent in Lockes definition was the significance of both
affects, or emotion and cognition or thoughts. Whenever we imagine, we have belief about what
we consider. On the contrary, when we feel, we assume about what we believe. Cognition and
influence are thus inextricably related in psychology and even in biology. Thus, while evaluating
the jobs most important factor was both thinking and feeling involved.
Fried & Ferris, 1987; Parisi & Weiner, 1999; Weiner, 2000 studied that foremost job satisfaction
area was dependent on the nature of the job itself, which integrated job challenges, autonomy,
skill variety and job scope, best predicted overall job satisfaction, and other important outcomes
like job retention. Thus, to comprehend what made people to be satisfied with their jobs, nature
of job itself was one of the first places for researchers to spotlighting. There was an emerging
interest amongst the human resource researchers and professionals to find a degree to which
employees were satisfied with their jobs, and more usually in comfort at job. Marks, (2006)
discussed a positive linkage between employees happiness and productivity. Previously, Layard
in 2005 has studied this interest in employee happiness which reflected in other fields, especially
within the new economics of happiness literature
In order to explore the association between HR practices and job satisfaction, there has been
extensive debate in the literature over the sound effects of HR practices on job satisfaction.
Guest, (2002) identified that job satisfaction as a key variable mediating or intervening any
positive link between human resources ( HR ) practices and organizational performance. Green,
(2006) studied that in disparity, researchers suggested that in UK, the implementation of human
resources practices has been related with higher levels of job intensity resultantly lowered the
levels of job satisfaction. Appelbaum, (2002) noted that human resource practices adopted as
part of a high-performance work system were not mainly premeditated to increase job
satisfaction, in practice, they might or might not have such effect. It might be the case that
human resource practices impact on job satisfaction such as satisfaction with sense of
achievement or satisfaction with salary. Hence, future research is required to assess the actual
effects of human resource practices on individuals job satisfaction and overall job satisfaction.
Human resource practices were not the only factors influencing job satisfaction. Job effort, for
example, could be seen as one other important factor, hence, higher work intensity might be
expected to lower reported job satisfaction, other things being equal. Green, (2004) found that
higher work effort in Britain, in conjunction with decreasing task discretion, was a key factor
behind the fall in reported job satisfaction among British workers over the 1990s. In addition, job
security has been viewed as an important influence on satisfaction with work, with higher job
security positively related to higher satisfaction with work.
Job retention
Regular or permanent employees were investigated in the most of the literature on job retention.
Causes, effects and results of turnover were addressed in the majority of the studies. Employees
turnover has been defined as the total number of employees hired during six months to replace
those were dropped from the workforce. Employee retention was also defined as the tendency
to keep daily wager employees in service at a temporary housing facility beyond a one year
period. Several studies by Boles, Ross, & Johnson, 1995 and MacHatton Van Dyke, & Steiner,
1997 found that turnover rate was found related with employees personal characteristics and
demographic, by and large job satisfaction, work environment, motivation, external environment,
absenteeism and job performance.

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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
Beadles et al. (2000) found a positive and significant correlation between job retention and
organizational performance. Campion (1991) found that inescapable turnover was
characteristically viewed as critical to an organization. The notion that turnover decreases
organizational performance was supported by the most of researchers. Mobley (1982) suggested
that turnover might interrupt job performance when an employee who intended to leave became
less efficient and effective. Shaw, Gupta, & Delery, 2002 found empirically that voluntary
turnover was associated with the inferior organizational performance. Other researchers
suggested that turnover could improve performance. One probable advantage of turnover was the
exclusion of poor performing employees (Price, 1989). Furthermore, Staw et al; (1986) proposed
that turnover might enhance performance if most of the turnover was by employees with longer
or very short tenure.
Price, 1989 and Abbasi & Hollman, 2000 discussed that turnover was an importunate dilemma in
the organizations. Abbasi & Hollman, 2000; Beadles, Lowery, Petty, & Ezell, 2000 noticed this
in every type and size of organization and at every organizational level. Abbasi and Hollman
(2000) stated that turnover was one of the most significant causes of declining productivity and
slumped morale in both the public and private sectors (p. 333). Turnover was also very
expensive for the organizations. It was estimated in a study by Abbasi & Hollman in 2000 that
American industries incurred $11 billion annually as a result of voluntary and involuntary
turnover. This cost was due to termination, advertising, recruitment, selection and hiring.
Turnover also produced ethereal costs, such as declining morale, and the interruption of social
and communication patterns as noticed by Mobley, in 1982. Beadles et al., (2000) stressed the
study of turnover as a well-researched area which was one of the major interests in
organizational behaviour
Job Satisfaction and Job retention relationship
Cohen 1993; Hom and Griffeth 1995 and Allen, Shore & Griffeth 2003 discussed the evidences
from theoretical as well as empirical studies which indicated that turnover intentions represented
a reliable indicator of actual voluntary turnover and were heavily influenced by job satisfaction.
For instance, Hom and Griffeth (1995) noted that employees decided to leave their organization
when they become dissatisfied with their Jobs. Likewise, Meyer and Herschovitch (2001) argued
that when employees were dissatisfied with their jobs, their desire to remain in their organization
started to erode. In fact, initial consequences of these negative affects, in the form of low job
satisfaction were turnover cognitions.
Research by Allen and Griffeth (2001), Allen et al. (2003), and Chiu and Francesco (2003)
described that job satisfaction was a strong predictor of turnover intentions. Elangovans (2001)
extensive research reflected that job satisfaction predicts both turnover intentions and
commitment and in return commitment predicts only turnover intentions. It was enlightening to
note that, according to Jaros et al. (1993) and Wasti (2003), organizational commitment depicted
the strongest negative relationship with turnover intentions.
Van Breukelen, Van der Vlist, and Steensma 2004 , Abbott, White, and Charles 2005; suggested
through extensive review of literature that organizational tenure influenced job attitudes and
turnover intentions. For instance, Steers (1977) strongly agued that tenure was the single best
predictor of turnover because it represented an employees past behaviour and summarized his or
her relationship with the organization. The attraction selection attrition hypothesis presented by
Schneider and Reichers, (1983) suggested that employees were attracted and selected by
organizations that satisfied their needs and desires and long term and short term goals. In such
cases where there was a good fit, it was expected low levels of attrition and longer tenure. In
cases of mismatches, however, it should be expected that high attrition rates and shorter tenure
provided that other job opportunities were readily available. Thus, tenure was expected to

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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
correlate with climate perceptions, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover
intentions.
Recruitment and job retention relationship
Recruitment and retention of knowledgeable employees has become a global issue. In an
increasingly competitive global economy, the success of an organization is dependent on its
ability to attract, retain, and engage high-value employees having skills, performance, and
motivation helpful in achieving organizations strategic objectives (Schweitzer & Lyons, 2008).
The required skills to be effective both in terms of profitability and performance varied time by
time. Organizations need grow fast, efficient, profitable, flexible, adaptable, and future-ready and
without these qualities, it is almost impossible (Schuler & Jackson, 2001). The public sector is
somehow different, according to Zheng, (2009); Budhwar et al., (2009), services come only
from people and for success of service organizations attracting and retaining high quality
employees has become a key problem. Recruitment is one of the major functions of HRM. It
helps the manger to attract and select best candidates for the organization. Parry & Wilson,
(2009), stated that recruitment includes those practices and activities carried out by the
organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees. As
success of service sector is depending upon the human capital so selecting and recruiting the
right people into the service business is crucial to achieve business success (Zheng, 2009).
Theoretical Frame Work and Research Hypothesis
The preceding literature review suggests the research model which reflects the association of HR
practices with the dependent variable job performance with an intervening role of the recruitment
and than employs psychological factors i.e. Job satisfaction and job retention. The demographic
variables are gender, age, and tenure in the organization, job level, Education, and designation.
H1. Each psychological factor (i.e. Job satisfaction and job retention ) has a positive relationship
with each other.
H2. Each psychological factor (i.e. Job satisfaction and job retention) has a positive relationship
with the recruitment process.
H3. Each psychological factor (i.e. Job satisfaction and job retention) has a positive relationship
with job performance
Independent
variable

Intervening
variable

Dependent
variable

Job
Performance

KSA
(Knowledge, Skills,
Abilities)

HR practices

Recruitment

Job
Satisfaction

Job
Retention

Figure 1: Theoretical Framework


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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
Sample and Data Collection
This research employed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire to measure all items. The study was
conducted in Rawalpindi / Islamabad, the one of the largest twin cities in Pakistan. Before
sending the questionnaires to the fifteen ( 15 ) targeted organizations a pilot survey was
conducted in three organizations from the selected sectors so that validity of the formulated
questions could be checked. The employees were asked to rate statements about questions in a
likert scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means, strongly disagree; and 5 indicates the strongly agreement
with the statement. The questionnaire for the pilot survey included 45 questions and 10
background questions; the respondents were also asked to evaluate the language and the
understanding of the statements and the length and the depth of the questionnaire.
A pilot study was carried out among 45 employees from Pakistan Telecom Authority, National
Electric Power Regulatory Authority and Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan to
test the questionnaire. A number of employees highlighted the importance of the questionnaire,
as it is capable to confine many diverse sides of being an employee. After having composed
results from the questionnaire, a through interview was held with these employees. As a result,
the wording and spirit of some questions were altered. The pilot study helped to revise the
questionnaire and prepare it for the final survey. In addition seven more questions were added to
capture the diverse aspects in which perceived recruitment process reveals.
Results and Discussion
Respondents average age was 47 % (25 to 35 years), and 74 % were men. Their average tenure
in present organization was 26.1% (1 to 2 years) and 32.9% (3 to 5 years). The education level of
the respondents was 1.2 % (PhD), 66.4 % (Masters degree), 5.6% (Engineering), 18.3%
(Graduations) and 6.9% (Intermediate). The job status of the respondents was 64.4 %
(Permanent), 31 % (Contractual), 2.8% (Deputation), and 1.6 % (Daily wagers), job category of
the respondents was 28.7 % (Technical), 47.5 % (managerial), 23.8% (others). The job level of
the respondents was 4.9 % (Top management), 44.9 % (Middle management), 23.2%
(Supervisors) and 26.9 were non-managerial. Mode of the appointment of respondents was 67.4
% (Direct recruitment), 28.2 % (promoted) and 4.2 % were on deputation.
Variable measures by principal component analysis
In an attempt to determine if the variables measuring instrument contained any underlying factors, a
principal components analysis with an Obliman rotation was conducted. The factor, labelled
Recruitment KSA accounted for 3.40% of the variance. It consisted of knowledge, skills and
abilities and matching of job demand with the level of eligibility. The second factor, labelled
Job performance accounted for 3.20% of the variance. It consisted of six performance items
that measured an individuals ability to achieve the organizational goals and objectives,
enhancement of performance on job, monetary and non-monetary performance awards and
objectivity of the performance evaluation system. The third factor, labelled job satisfaction
accounted for 2.92% of the variance. It consisted of six items that measured an individuals
satisfaction upon sense of fulfilment, internal satisfaction, peers support, referral to the others
and organization support. The forth factor, labelled job retention, accounted for 2.77% of the
variance. It consisted of six items that measured an individuals ability to retain his or her job on
the basis of pay, expectations, monotony of the job, other job options and changing of the job.
Constructs
Job performance
In this study, job performance was measured in two dimensions i.e., working performance and
monetary performance. Working performance was defined in terms of employee retention,
achievement of the goals of organization, employee productivity and objectivity of performance

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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
evaluation system. Monetary performance was measured in terms of monetary and non-monetary
benefits of the employees (Figure 1).
Job performance was measured with 6 items on a 5-point likert scale, respondents were asked to
respond to the different aspects of their jobs like performance enhancement on job, objective
achievement and consistency with the goals of the organization, objectivity of the performance
evaluation system, monetary and non-monetary benefits. The measure has good reliability
properties. Cronbachs alpha value was 0.77
Recruitment, knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA)
Recruitment KSA was measured with 5 items on a 5-point likert scale, respondents were asked
to respond to the different aspects of their skills, knowledge and abilities. The Appendix-A
provides detail of items which has been used to measure Recruitment. The measure has good
reliability properties. Cronbachs alpha value was 0.73
Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction was assessed Respondents indicated the degree to which they were satisfied with
the six factors inner satisfaction, respect, sense of fulfilment, peer support, cared by the
organization. Five point likert scale was used. 1 (strongly disagree), 2(disagree), 3 (neither agree
nor disagree), 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly agree). Cronbachs alpha was calculated to test the
reliability of the data and was found to be 0.72
Job Retention
Retention was measured with 6 items, respondents were asked to respond, on a 5-point likert
scale, 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (neither agree nor disagree), 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly
agree). The Appendix- A provides detail of items which has been used to measure job retention.
The measure has moderate reliability properties. Cronbachs alpha value was 0.57
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of all variables
Recruitm
ent
4.06

Job
Performance
3.68

Job
Satisfaction
3.71

Job
Retention
3.17

Std.
Error
of
Mean

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.03

Median

4.00

3.83

3.83

3.00

Mode

4.00

4.00

4.00

3.00

Std.
Dev.

0.52

0.65

0.57

0.60

Sum

2306.20

2092.83

2105.17

1799.67

Count

568

568

568

568

Mean

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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1

Table 2: Number of items and means and standard Deviations of the variables N= 568
S. No.
Variable
Number of
Mean
Standard
Items
Deviation
Recruitment KSA
1.
5
4.06
0.52
( Knowledge, skills and Abilities)
2.

Job Performance

3.68

0.65

3.

Job Satisfaction

3.71

0.57

4.

Job Retention

3.17

0.60

Table 3: Association between distinct variables by using Pearson Correlation Coefficient in all
organizations
1

1 HR Practices

1.00

2 Recruitment

0.218(**)

1.00

0.193(**)

0.47(**)

1.00

0.217(**)

0.19(**)

0.52(**)

1.00

-0.043

0.08(**)

0.23(**)

0.34(**)

3
4

Job Performance
Job Satisfaction

1.00
5 Job Retention

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level
As indicated above in table 3, positive correlations of recruitment, KSA was found with job
performance r=0.47 (p<=0.01) within high effect size, job satisfaction r=0.19 (p<=0.01) within
low effect size and job retention r=0.08 (p<=0.01) within low effect size. There was no negative
correlation. The positive correlations of job performance was found with job satisfaction r=0.52
(p<=0.01) within high effect size and job retention r=0.23 (p<=0.01) within low effect size. There
was no negative correlation. The positive correlations of job satisfaction was found with job
retention r=0.34 (p<=0.01) within medium effect size. Correlation between job retention and job
performance was r=0.23 (p<=0.01) which was moderate statistically significant. Correlation
between job satisfaction and job retention was r=0.34 (p<=0.01) which was moderate statistically
significant.
This shows that job satisfaction although affect the other independent variables but its impact on
Job Performance, dependent variable is much greater. This also means that if employee is more
satisfied with their jobs they will be more committed with the organization ultimately their
chance of leaving the organization will be low. If the employee is not leaving the organization
and also he is committed with the organization, he will produce high quality material will
increase the job performance of employees. Job satisfaction is also positively correlated with job
retention (0.340). This result indicates that these practices can improve their productivity and
will improve their performance.

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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
Bi-Variate Analysis
Chi-square value (11.47) shows a significant association between age of the respondents and
outcome variables (i.e. job satisfaction, recruitment and retention) with public sector
organizations opportunities as per table 3. The Gamma value also shows a strong positive
relationship between the variables. Its mean higher the age of the respondents, higher will be the
satisfaction with public sector organizations opportunities. Chi-square value (7.36) indicates a
significant association between gender and outcome variables (i.e. job satisfaction, recruitment
and retention) with public sector organizations opportunities. The Gamma value shows a strong
positive relationship between the variables. Its mean male employees were more satisfied as
compare to female employees.
Chi-square value (17.22) indicates a significant association between tenure in present
organization and outcome variables (i.e. job satisfaction, recruitment and retention) with public
sector organizations opportunities. The Gamma value also shows a strong positive relationship
between the variables. Its mean higher the tenure, higher the satisfaction with public sector
organizations opportunities. Chi-square value (45.40) shows a highly significant association
between education and outcome variables (i.e. job satisfaction, recruitment and retention) with
public sector organizations opportunities. The Gamma value shows a strong positive relationship
between the variables. Its mean higher the education of the respondents, higher will be the
satisfaction.
Table 4: Association between demographic and outcome variables (i.e. Job satisfaction,
recruitment and job retention)

Variables
Association between age and outcome
variables (i.e. job satisfaction, recruitment
and job retention) with public sector
organizations opportunities.
Association between gender and outcome
variables (i.e. i.e. job satisfaction,
recruitment and job retention) with public
sector organizations opportunities
Association between tenure in
organization and outcome variables (i.e.
job satisfaction,
recruitment and job retention) with public
sector organizations opportunities
Association between education and
outcome
variables (i.e. job satisfaction, recruitment
and job retention) with public sector
organizations opportunities
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level

Chisquare
value

D.F.

Pvalue

Gamma

11.47

.02*

.329

7.36

.02*

.643

17.22

.00*

.345

45.40

14

.00*

.404

Conclusions
This study reveals a diverse aspect of a practical operation of human resource management in
Pakistan. It shows that human resource planning, the most critical element of personnel function
is emerging. The task of acquiring sound and credible employees belongs to the Human

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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
Resources Management (HRM). Since, HRM is a known field under the concept of
management, it is expected that several theories, models and tools have been developed to
promote its manifestations.
In an increasingly competitive and turbulent market, organizations are largely dependent on their
employees for success. The challenge of identifying the right man for the right job, individuals to
fill public sector positions is to be met. A large number of potential workforce is available in the
employment market but the challenge for organizations is to identify and select those candidates
who could perform effectively and efficiently. The research highlighted that the starting point in
any recruitment process is an accurate analysis of the job. This important aspect of human
resource management was being ignored particularly in public sector jobs. Selection and the
assessments chosen for the selection process should be done on the basis of the requirements of
the job. Knowledge is essential on part of the organization in terms of what constitutes good job
performance; what kind of knowledge, skills and abilities are required and what measures would
be effective in assessing these.
Various psychological factors like Job satisfaction and job retention has a positive and extensive
contribution in making a public sector organization, the employer of choice, recruitment and
retention policies. Statistical analysis reflects that all hypothesis H1, H2, H3 developed in study
were proved. The employees who perceived the public sector organizations as a place with less
opportunities to move ahead and have a poor governance system with poor level of
professionalism were more intended to leave the organization and are reluctant to get a job there
in todays competitive market as compare to satisfied respondents. The study has proved that
more psychologically satisfied employees will retain in organization and will help to attract new
talent pool and will develop the image of organization as an employer of choice. The study was
in Pakistani context and it proved that Pakistani public sector organization can become an
employer of choice for all intellectual candidates by providing psychological satisfaction to its
current employee, and more able to retain them. Moreover, this will also ease the recruitment
process.
Generally, the findings of this study were found reliable with the studies conducted in western
countries on the contribution of human resource practices related to the job performance.
Consequently, the worth of present study lies in the reality that it offers a requisite rationale of
theoretical models built on the basis of studies conducted in the western organizations. The
present study illustrates the efforts looking for establishing a linkage by developing a specific
theoretical framework to demonstrate the progression by which the HR practices, job
performance and outcome variables (i.e. job satisfaction, recruitment and job retention might be
correlated and by testing it with empirical data from a non-western country. It should be
emphasized that the likelihood of HR practices- job Performance relationship has not been
expansively explored in the South-Asia or even in the western context.
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Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (2012) . Vol. 4, No. 1
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Corresponding Author
Safdar Rehman can be contacted at: msafdarrehman@gmail.com

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