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DOI 10.4010/2016.

928
ISSN 2321 3361 2016 IJESC

Research Article

Volume 6 Issue No. 4

Control of Flooding at Banks of Rivers Case Study of River Benue


Bordering University of Agriculture Makurdi Water Works
TIZA Michael
PG Scholar
Aff.M. ASCE, Career Point University, India
Abstract:
The need for the study is to choose and design reinforced concrete retaining wall that will facilitate easy drainage of runoff and
retain mass of earth between river bank bordering University of agriculture Makurdi water works and river Benue in Makurdi local
government area of Benue state. This design is carried out to retain top soil which is good for vegetation during river overflow.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
The second largest river in Nigeria which is also a source of
income for many of those living around it through fishing posses
a major treath to structures,agricultural land and the lives around
during raining seasons .This study is projected at averting this
plague.

the fact that the retained material is attempting to move


forward and down slope due to gravity. This creates lateral
earth pressure behind the wall which depends on the angle
of internal friction () and the cohesive strength (c) of the
retained material, as well as the direction and magnitude of
movement the retaining structure undergoes. (Terzaghi,
1934)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


The aim and objectives of the study is to avert the effect of
erosion through flooding and over flow of small rivers by using a
properly accepted engineering standard through design a
reinforced concrete retaining wall to Engineering standard that
will be suitable for the type soil to be retained and be able to
drain sufficiently the amount of water that will flow into it after
rainfall or flood.

Unless the wall is designed to retain water, it is important to


have proper drainage behind the wall in order to limit the
pressure to the walls design value. Drainage materials will
reduce or eliminate the hydrostatic pressure and improve the
stability of the materials behind the wall. Dry stone retaining
walls are normally self-drainage.

LOCATION
The river is found in Benue state of Nigeria, approximately 1,400
kilometers long. It is located latitude and longitude of 7.8003 N,
6.7748 E.

The international building code requires retaining walls to


be designed to ensure stability against over-turning, sliding
excessive foundation pressure
And water up-lift; and that they be designed for a safety
factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning.
(International Building Code, 2006)

1.0
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
RETAINING WALL AND ITS INPORTANCE
A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to
resist the lateral pressure of soil when there is a desired
change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose
of the soil. (Ching, et al, 2006).
The most important consideration in proper design and
installation of retaining walls is to recognize and counteract

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2016

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF INFINITE SLOPES IN


COHESIVE SOIL (CLAY)
Possible. Therefore it may be concluded that the slope may
be steeper than ' as long as the depth of the slope is less
than the critical depth.

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Fig. 2.1 Stability analysis of infinite slopes in cohesive soils (clay). (Murthy,2003)
The equation of the strength envelope is given by: S = C +
n tan
At failure, S = f = C + nf tan
But nf = Zc cos2
And f =Zc sin cos
Therefore Zc sin cos = C + Zc cos2 tan
Zc cos (sin cos tan) = C
Zc
=
(C/).
1
/[
cos2
tan)]2.1

(tan

Thus the critical depth is proportional to cohesion, for


particular values of and . From equation 2.2
C/
Zc
=
cos2
(tan

tan)2.2
The quantity C/ Zc is called the stability number Sn.
For any depth Z less than Zc, the factor of safety
F = shear strength/shear stress
F = c + z cos2 tan/ z cos
2.3

sin

Since the factor of safety Fc with respect to cohesion,


Fc = c/cm, where cm = mobilized cohesion, at depth z,

Sn = c/zc = cm/z = c/Fc z = cos2 (tan


tan)..2.4
From equations 2.3 and 2.5,
Fc =
This is based on the assumption that the frictional resistance
of the soil is fully developed. The actual factor of safety
should be based on the simultaneous development of
cohesion and friction.
If there is seepage parallel to the ground surface throughout
the entire mass of soil, it can be shown that:
c/z
=
cos2
(tan
'/
tan)2.5
Since effective stress alone is capable of mobilizing shearing
strength. (Venkatramaiah, 2006)
RANKINES THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
A soil element at any depth z is subjected to a vertical stress
z and a horizontal stress x and, since there can be no
lateral transfer of weight if the surface is horizontal, no shear
stresses exist on horizontal and vertical planes. The vertical
and horizontal stresses, therefore, are principal stresses.
(Craig, 2004).

Fig. 2.3 State of plastic equilibrium.

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Rankines original derivation assumed a value of zero for


the shear strength parameter c but a general derivation with
c greater than zero is given below to cover the cases in
which undrained parameter cu or tangent parameter c' is
used.
Referring to Fig. 2.3,

Pa =
=
..... 2.11a
=
(H

.2.11b

Z0)2

Sin =
Therefore 3(1 + sin ) = 1(1 sin ) 2c cos
3 = 1

2c

3=1
..2.6
Alternatively, tan2

can be substituted for

As stated, 1 is the over burden pressure at depth z, i.e.


1 = z
The horizontal stress for the above condition is defined as
the active pressure (pa) being due directly to the self-weight
of the soil. If
Ka =
Is defined as the active pressure coefficient, then equation
2.6 can be written as
Pa
=
kaz
2c
...2.7
When the horizontal stress becomes equal to the active
pressure the soil is said to be in the active Rankine state,
there being two sets of failure planes each inclined at
/2 to the horizontal. (Craig, 2004)
The maximum value 1 is reached when the Mohr circle
through the point representing the fixed value 3 touches the
failure envelope for the soil. In this case, the horizontal
stress is defined as the passive pressure ( pp) representing the
maximum inherent resistance of the soil to lateral
compression.
Rearranging equation 2.7
1

The force pa acts at a distance of


above the
bottom of the wall surface.
The force due to the passive pressure distribution is referred
to as the total passive resistance (Pp). For a vertical wall
surface of height H: Pp =
=
H2
.2.12

2c

The two components of Pp act at distances of 13H and 12H,


respectively, above the bottom of the wall surface.
If a uniformly distributed surcharge pressure of q per unit
area acts over the entire surface of the soil mass, the vertical
stress z at any depth is increased to z + q, resulting in an
additional pressure of kaq in the active case or kpq in the
passive case. The corresponding forces on a vertical wall
surface of height H are kaqH and KpqH, respectively, each
acting at mid-height.
If the water table is at the surface and if no seepage is taking
place, the active pressure at depth z is given by
Pa = kaz 2c'
Where
Ka =
For the undrained condition in a fully saturated clay, the
active and passive pressures are calculated using the
parameter cu (u being zero) and the total unit weight sat (i.e.
the water in the soil pores is not considered separately). The
effect of the tension zone must be considered for this
condition. Thus the clay would be supported by the water
filling the crack to the depth (z0w) at which the active
pressure equals the hydrostatic pressure. Thus, assuming no
surface surcharge: satz0w 2cuwz0w = 0
Therefore, z0w =

(Craig, 2004).

2.8
If
Kp =

is defined as the passive pressure coefficient,

then equation 2.8 can be written as


Pp = kpz + 2c
2.9
When c is greater than zero, the value of pa is zero at a
particular depth z0. From Equation 2.8, with pa = 0,
Z0
=
2.10
The force per unit length of wall due to the active pressure
distribution is referred to as the total active thrust (Pa). For a
vertical wall surface of height H:

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2016

SLOPING SOIL SURFACE


In the active case, the vertical stress at depth z on a plane
inclined at angle _ to the horizontal is given by
z = z cos
Therefore,
Ka

2.13
Thus, the active pressure acting parallel to the slope is given
by
Pa
=
kaz
cos

.2.14
And the total active thrust on a vertical wall surface of
height H is

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Pa
=
kaH2
cos

2.15
In the passive case, the vertical stress z is represented by a
distance.
When c = 0 the passive pressure coefficient is given by
Kp

MATERIAL PROPERTIES (DATA STRUCTURAL


DESIGN)

.2.16
Then the passive pressure, acting parallel to the slope is
given by
Pp
=
kpz
cos
.2.17

METHODOLOGY
Any engineering structure must be designed satisfactorily
and economically to ensure that under the worst loading
condition, the structure is safe and during normal working
condition, the deformation of any member does not detract
from the aesthetic, durability and performance of the
structure.

And the total passive resistance on a vertical wall surface of


height H is
Pp
=
kpH2
cos

..2.18
(Craig, 2004)

Maximum surcharge load required

10kN/m2

Weight of soil at the backfill

19kN/m2

Unit weight of concrete

24kN/m3

Angle of internal friction

20o

Cohesion of soil

20kN/m3

Factor of safety against sliding

1.5

Factor of safety against overturning 1.5

Fig. 3 Detailed Cross-section of a Cantilever Retaining wall.

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Fig.4 Pressure diagram beneath the base of the Cantilever wall.


CONCLUSION
According to the limit state design, cantilever retaining wall
must not collapse, suffer major damage or be subject to
unacceptable deformations in relation to its location and
function, suffer minor damage which would necessitate
excessive maintenance and tender it unsightly or reduce its
anticipated life.
The proper construction of the wall following the design
procedure will satisfactorily serve for the intended period.
Construction of retaining walls should be given to a wellqualified contractor, and should be well supervised to ensure
that the wall is constructed to standard. If appropriate
measures are taken and considered by professionals then a
well designed retaining wall could check erosion of soil,and
important nutrients meant for Agricultural production and
other residential, commercial ,highway structures.
5.2 RECOMMENDATION
During the design of the retaining wall, the following
recommendation can be made.
1. Further studies are recommended to compare erodibility
from different land uses; to know which land use can
ameliorate land degradation most.
2. Due design and construction of retaining Walls be
effected in flood prone area as appropriate to avert
erosion.
3.

4.

Further studies should also be carried out on this project


using computer languages like FORTRAN, PASCAL,
BASIC, and some other current languages.
Computer aided courses should be taken as a course
particularly in the civil engineering profession so as to
remove the complete ignorance of the computer
literacy.

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2016

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