9 views

The need for the study is to choose and design reinforced concrete retaining wall that will facilitate easy drainage of runoff and
retain mass of earth between river bank bordering University of agriculture Makurdi water works and river Benue in Makurdi local
government area of Benue state. This design is carried out to retain top soil which is good for vegetation during river overflow

- Using Flac3d Numerical Simulation Method to Choose The
- Stabilization of Slope
- Reinforced Soil
- 1981_03_0140
- Design of Sheet Pile Walls - US Army Corps of Engineers_1994.pdf
- Anchored Sheet Pile
- RCC62 Retaining Wall
- 12995474459
- pdf_up_str_temp-shoring.pdf
- 09 Stabilization of Slope
- All Sheets Concrete
- Retaining Wall
- Sheet Piling
- Gabion Retaining wall
- Retaining Walls Lecture
- Lateral Earth Pressure - Curved Surface
- Comparison With Infinite Slope
- Modified Fixed Angle Strut and Tie Model
- Lot1-1 ne prolazi
- Cadd University Lab

You are on page 1of 6

928

ISSN 2321 3361 2016 IJESC

Research Article

Bordering University of Agriculture Makurdi Water Works

TIZA Michael

PG Scholar

Aff.M. ASCE, Career Point University, India

Abstract:

The need for the study is to choose and design reinforced concrete retaining wall that will facilitate easy drainage of runoff and

retain mass of earth between river bank bordering University of agriculture Makurdi water works and river Benue in Makurdi local

government area of Benue state. This design is carried out to retain top soil which is good for vegetation during river overflow.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The second largest river in Nigeria which is also a source of

income for many of those living around it through fishing posses

a major treath to structures,agricultural land and the lives around

during raining seasons .This study is projected at averting this

plague.

forward and down slope due to gravity. This creates lateral

earth pressure behind the wall which depends on the angle

of internal friction () and the cohesive strength (c) of the

retained material, as well as the direction and magnitude of

movement the retaining structure undergoes. (Terzaghi,

1934)

The aim and objectives of the study is to avert the effect of

erosion through flooding and over flow of small rivers by using a

properly accepted engineering standard through design a

reinforced concrete retaining wall to Engineering standard that

will be suitable for the type soil to be retained and be able to

drain sufficiently the amount of water that will flow into it after

rainfall or flood.

have proper drainage behind the wall in order to limit the

pressure to the walls design value. Drainage materials will

reduce or eliminate the hydrostatic pressure and improve the

stability of the materials behind the wall. Dry stone retaining

walls are normally self-drainage.

LOCATION

The river is found in Benue state of Nigeria, approximately 1,400

kilometers long. It is located latitude and longitude of 7.8003 N,

6.7748 E.

be designed to ensure stability against over-turning, sliding

excessive foundation pressure

And water up-lift; and that they be designed for a safety

factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning.

(International Building Code, 2006)

1.0

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

RETAINING WALL AND ITS INPORTANCE

A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to

resist the lateral pressure of soil when there is a desired

change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose

of the soil. (Ching, et al, 2006).

The most important consideration in proper design and

installation of retaining walls is to recognize and counteract

COHESIVE SOIL (CLAY)

Possible. Therefore it may be concluded that the slope may

be steeper than ' as long as the depth of the slope is less

than the critical depth.

4047

http://ijesc.org/

Fig. 2.1 Stability analysis of infinite slopes in cohesive soils (clay). (Murthy,2003)

The equation of the strength envelope is given by: S = C +

n tan

At failure, S = f = C + nf tan

But nf = Zc cos2

And f =Zc sin cos

Therefore Zc sin cos = C + Zc cos2 tan

Zc cos (sin cos tan) = C

Zc

=

(C/).

1

/[

cos2

tan)]2.1

(tan

particular values of and . From equation 2.2

C/

Zc

=

cos2

(tan

tan)2.2

The quantity C/ Zc is called the stability number Sn.

For any depth Z less than Zc, the factor of safety

F = shear strength/shear stress

F = c + z cos2 tan/ z cos

2.3

sin

Fc = c/cm, where cm = mobilized cohesion, at depth z,

tan)..2.4

From equations 2.3 and 2.5,

Fc =

This is based on the assumption that the frictional resistance

of the soil is fully developed. The actual factor of safety

should be based on the simultaneous development of

cohesion and friction.

If there is seepage parallel to the ground surface throughout

the entire mass of soil, it can be shown that:

c/z

=

cos2

(tan

'/

tan)2.5

Since effective stress alone is capable of mobilizing shearing

strength. (Venkatramaiah, 2006)

RANKINES THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE

A soil element at any depth z is subjected to a vertical stress

z and a horizontal stress x and, since there can be no

lateral transfer of weight if the surface is horizontal, no shear

stresses exist on horizontal and vertical planes. The vertical

and horizontal stresses, therefore, are principal stresses.

(Craig, 2004).

4048

http://ijesc.org/

the shear strength parameter c but a general derivation with

c greater than zero is given below to cover the cases in

which undrained parameter cu or tangent parameter c' is

used.

Referring to Fig. 2.3,

Pa =

=

..... 2.11a

=

(H

.2.11b

Z0)2

Sin =

Therefore 3(1 + sin ) = 1(1 sin ) 2c cos

3 = 1

2c

3=1

..2.6

Alternatively, tan2

1 = z

The horizontal stress for the above condition is defined as

the active pressure (pa) being due directly to the self-weight

of the soil. If

Ka =

Is defined as the active pressure coefficient, then equation

2.6 can be written as

Pa

=

kaz

2c

...2.7

When the horizontal stress becomes equal to the active

pressure the soil is said to be in the active Rankine state,

there being two sets of failure planes each inclined at

/2 to the horizontal. (Craig, 2004)

The maximum value 1 is reached when the Mohr circle

through the point representing the fixed value 3 touches the

failure envelope for the soil. In this case, the horizontal

stress is defined as the passive pressure ( pp) representing the

maximum inherent resistance of the soil to lateral

compression.

Rearranging equation 2.7

1

above the

bottom of the wall surface.

The force due to the passive pressure distribution is referred

to as the total passive resistance (Pp). For a vertical wall

surface of height H: Pp =

=

H2

.2.12

2c

respectively, above the bottom of the wall surface.

If a uniformly distributed surcharge pressure of q per unit

area acts over the entire surface of the soil mass, the vertical

stress z at any depth is increased to z + q, resulting in an

additional pressure of kaq in the active case or kpq in the

passive case. The corresponding forces on a vertical wall

surface of height H are kaqH and KpqH, respectively, each

acting at mid-height.

If the water table is at the surface and if no seepage is taking

place, the active pressure at depth z is given by

Pa = kaz 2c'

Where

Ka =

For the undrained condition in a fully saturated clay, the

active and passive pressures are calculated using the

parameter cu (u being zero) and the total unit weight sat (i.e.

the water in the soil pores is not considered separately). The

effect of the tension zone must be considered for this

condition. Thus the clay would be supported by the water

filling the crack to the depth (z0w) at which the active

pressure equals the hydrostatic pressure. Thus, assuming no

surface surcharge: satz0w 2cuwz0w = 0

Therefore, z0w =

(Craig, 2004).

2.8

If

Kp =

Pp = kpz + 2c

2.9

When c is greater than zero, the value of pa is zero at a

particular depth z0. From Equation 2.8, with pa = 0,

Z0

=

2.10

The force per unit length of wall due to the active pressure

distribution is referred to as the total active thrust (Pa). For a

vertical wall surface of height H:

In the active case, the vertical stress at depth z on a plane

inclined at angle _ to the horizontal is given by

z = z cos

Therefore,

Ka

2.13

Thus, the active pressure acting parallel to the slope is given

by

Pa

=

kaz

cos

.2.14

And the total active thrust on a vertical wall surface of

height H is

4049

http://ijesc.org/

Pa

=

kaH2

cos

2.15

In the passive case, the vertical stress z is represented by a

distance.

When c = 0 the passive pressure coefficient is given by

Kp

DESIGN)

.2.16

Then the passive pressure, acting parallel to the slope is

given by

Pp

=

kpz

cos

.2.17

METHODOLOGY

Any engineering structure must be designed satisfactorily

and economically to ensure that under the worst loading

condition, the structure is safe and during normal working

condition, the deformation of any member does not detract

from the aesthetic, durability and performance of the

structure.

height H is

Pp

=

kpH2

cos

..2.18

(Craig, 2004)

10kN/m2

19kN/m2

24kN/m3

20o

Cohesion of soil

20kN/m3

1.5

4050

http://ijesc.org/

CONCLUSION

According to the limit state design, cantilever retaining wall

must not collapse, suffer major damage or be subject to

unacceptable deformations in relation to its location and

function, suffer minor damage which would necessitate

excessive maintenance and tender it unsightly or reduce its

anticipated life.

The proper construction of the wall following the design

procedure will satisfactorily serve for the intended period.

Construction of retaining walls should be given to a wellqualified contractor, and should be well supervised to ensure

that the wall is constructed to standard. If appropriate

measures are taken and considered by professionals then a

well designed retaining wall could check erosion of soil,and

important nutrients meant for Agricultural production and

other residential, commercial ,highway structures.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

During the design of the retaining wall, the following

recommendation can be made.

1. Further studies are recommended to compare erodibility

from different land uses; to know which land use can

ameliorate land degradation most.

2. Due design and construction of retaining Walls be

effected in flood prone area as appropriate to avert

erosion.

3.

4.

using computer languages like FORTRAN, PASCAL,

BASIC, and some other current languages.

Computer aided courses should be taken as a course

particularly in the civil engineering profession so as to

remove the complete ignorance of the computer

literacy.

REFERENCES

1. Cernica, J. N. (1995): Geotechnical engineering: Soil

mechanics, John Wiley

and Sons Inc. New York.

2. Chin, F. D., Faial, R. S. and Winchell, P. (2006):

Building Codes Illustrated: A guide to understanding

the 2006 International Building Code, NY: Wiley,

New York.

3. Craig R. F. (2004): Craigs Soil Mechanics, Seventh

Edition, Spon Press, London and New York.

International Building Code (2006): Section 1806.1.

Wikipedia.

4.

Agric. Eng. Vol. 25: 131-136. And 181-182

Cohesive Sediment Deposits. J. hydr Eng. ASCE,

111(10): 1308-1326.

6. Henan, W.C. and Monnier L.D, (1984): Susceptibility of

Agricultural Soils to interrill erosion. Soil science

society of America Journal 48, 1152-1157.

7. Julian, P. and Torres, R. 2006: Hydraulic Erosion of

Cohesive River Bank. Geomorphology. 76:193206[Doi]

8. Kukal, S and M. Kaur. (2003): Effect on land use on soil

aggregation as an index of soil Erosion in Submontane

Pansab. Indian journal of Soil Conservation 31: 310312

4051

http://ijesc.org/

relationships in soil, journal ASCE, 108(GT6), 85172.

10. Murthy, V. N. S. (2003): Geotechnical Engineering:

Principles and practices of soil mechanics and

foundation engineering, Marcel Dekker, Inc.

New

York.

11. Ram C. and Virendra G. (2004): Elements of limit

state design of concrete structures, Pawan Kumar

Scientific Publishers, India.

12. Sinha, S. N. (2002): Reinforced concrete design, Tata

McGraw-Hill Publishing

Company, New York.

13. Terzaghi, K. (1943): Theoretical soil mechanics, John

Wiley and Sons Inc. New

York.

14. Venkatramaiah, C. (2006): Geotechnical Engineering

Revised Third

15. Sharma, B and K. S. Bhatia. (2003): correlation of soil

physical properties with soil erodibility. Indian Journal

of Soil Conservation 31: 313-314.

16. Sheikh, A., Ruff S F, and Abt S.R. (1988): Erosion

Rate of Compacted Namontmorillonite soils. J

Geotech Eng. ASCE, 114(3): 296 -305

17. Singh, G. and Khera K.L. (2008): Effect of Land Use

on Soil Aggregation as

an Index of Soil Erosion

on Submontane Punjab. Indian journal of soil

conservation 31:310 -312

18. Singer, P.F. Blackard R.A and Janisky Y.B. (1998):

Aggregate Stability in the

Palouse

Region

of

Washington Effect of Landscape position, soil Sc. Soc.

Am J. 47, 1407-1412.

19. Swanson, N.P and Dedrick, P.A. (1965): A Rainfall

Simulator and Erodibility of Some Iowa Soils. Iowa St.

Coll J. Sci. 31: 347 - 348

4052

http://ijesc.org/

- Using Flac3d Numerical Simulation Method to Choose TheUploaded bySeif15
- Stabilization of SlopeUploaded byPageduesca Rouel
- Reinforced SoilUploaded byMahmoud Moustafa Elnegihi
- 1981_03_0140Uploaded byharyantoadit
- Design of Sheet Pile Walls - US Army Corps of Engineers_1994.pdfUploaded byPieter Meulendijks
- Anchored Sheet PileUploaded byNitish Ramdawor
- RCC62 Retaining WallUploaded byMochammad Surya
- 12995474459Uploaded byBashdar M. Tahir
- pdf_up_str_temp-shoring.pdfUploaded bysatyavijet3631
- 09 Stabilization of SlopeUploaded byNurali Mamen
- All Sheets ConcreteUploaded bySulaiman Mohsin AbdulAziz
- Retaining WallUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Sheet PilingUploaded byniyati
- Gabion Retaining wallUploaded byprinceazzu
- Retaining Walls LectureUploaded byWan Sya
- Lateral Earth Pressure - Curved SurfaceUploaded byNikkei Pfeiffer Tadili
- Comparison With Infinite SlopeUploaded bybajajajaja
- Modified Fixed Angle Strut and Tie ModelUploaded byTiago Gonçalves
- Lot1-1 ne prolaziUploaded bydeluja
- Cadd University LabUploaded bysanthosh27189
- soil testUploaded byzul
- Lodhama-II Design CivilUploaded bynira365
- Concrete Crib WallUploaded byrenishkavukatt
- Abangan, Shara JaneUploaded byNickCanabe
- 1279-1-1245-1-10-20150713Uploaded byHadi Iz'aan
- ColumbUploaded byPrimusEng
- mtech-geotechnical-engineering-2016-10-48 (1)Uploaded bydasari sreelakshmi
- Field Instrumentation _ the Link Between Theory and Practice in GUploaded byKTMO
- B.E - 2013Uploaded byShantanu Ambre
- Soil and Foundation Reference v1Uploaded byKha Phuc

- A REVIEW OF SOIL ERODIBILITY Case Study of UGBOJU Settlement of OTURKPO Local Government Area of Benue State NigeriaUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- An Assesment Of Foundation Design Of Buildings In LagosUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- Engineering Impact Of Mango Nut Ash (MNA) on Black Cotton Soil as Highway MaterialUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- Effect of Poor Pavemement Condition on Students’ Academic ActivitiesUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- Impact of Horizontal Alignment on Traffic Flow Characteristics of National Highway NH-76Uploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- CHALLENGES AND EFFECTS OF UPGRADING EXISTING HIGHWAYS;A CASE STUDY OF NH-12 KOTA -JHALAWAR SECTION) RAJASTHAN INDIAUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- FLOOD CONTROL IN URBAN SETTLEMENTS Owners’ Occupier Estate in Makurdi: A Case StudyUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- EXPANSIVE SOIL STABILIZATION USING INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES A REVIEWUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- Pavement Condition Survey; A Compendium Of Distresses On NH 12 - Kota -Jhalawar IndiaUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- Road Pavement Condition and its Effect on Tertiary Institutions’ Academic staffUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- A Survey of Literature on Automated Transport Systems (ATS).Uploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- STABILIZATION OF MAKURDI SHALE USING LIME-GROUNDNUT SHELL ASHUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- Effect of Poor Pavememnt Condition on Students’ Academic ActivitiesUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MANGO SHELL ASH (MSA) ON BLACK COTTON SOIL AS PAVEMENT MATERIALUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MANGO SHELL ASH (MSA) ON BLACK COTTON SOIL AS PAVEMENT MATERIALUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- COMPARISON OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH VALUES OF PALM KERNEL SHELL CONCRETE MEASURED BY DIRECT AND INDIRECT METHODSUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- A Survey of Literature on Impact of Silica Fume (SF) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA) On Expansive SoilUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- SOLVING ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING POWER SERIESUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- THE EFFECTS OF POOR DRAINAGE SYSTEM ON ROAD PAVEMENT: A REVIEWUploaded byEditor IJIRMF
- PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE ROOFING TILES USING RICE HUSK ASH (RHA) IN PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENTUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH CORN COB ASHUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- IMPACT OF INDUCTIVE BIBLE STUDY METHOD ON CHRISTIANS; A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA FELLOWSHIP OF EVANGELICAL STUDENTS (NIFES), UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE MAKURDIUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- A REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL SOLID WASTES ON STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOILUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- STABILIZATION OF MAKURDI SHALE USING LIME-GROUNDNUT SHELL ASHUploaded byTIZA MICHAEL B.Engr., BBS, MBA, Aff. M. ASCE, ASS.M. UACSE, M. IAENG. M.ITE.
- RESPONSE SURFACE OPTIMIZATION OF TREATED TURBID WATER USING BANANA STEM JUICEUploaded byEditor IJIRMF

- Campa Coney 83Uploaded byJaime Plata
- 10 Beach Well Intakes for Small Seawater Reverse Osmosis PlantsUploaded byAnonymous tqG0TJSAap
- k Reservoir.typesUploaded byMuhamad Azuhairi
- Igneous Rock Associations 8Uploaded byraj_h1980
- The Real Geometrical Structure of EarthUploaded byAnil Thanvi
- Management of Ash DisposalUploaded byAhsan Rabbani
- Underground space use in Ancient Anatolia: the Cappadocia exampleUploaded bykwstikos
- Ground Motion for Earthquake SimulatorUploaded byRani Hendrikus
- Topographic Map of Salter CreekUploaded byHistoricalMaps
- Bp1 Undrained SlsUploaded bynishan_ravin
- Iriarte_Cope Et Al. Sacred Landscapes Southern Je_JAnthrArchUploaded byJoao Saldanha
- Salt Basin Project - Contract with Department of EnergyUploaded byThe Salt Basin Project
- Magmatic and Structural Controls on Epithermal Gold MineralizationUploaded byahmad_reza08
- Lithological and Structural Controls on Gold Mineralizaton in Buhweju. UgandaUploaded byAlvaro Madrid
- Big Gossan Structure and GroundwaterUploaded byDian Hari Saputra
- Timothy Morton - Hyperobjects [2013][a]Uploaded byMatt Laszewski
- Acid Sulphate GuideUploaded byZac Francis Daymond
- (Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry'', 54) Patricia M. Dove, James J. de Yoreo, Steve Weiner-Biomineralization-Mineralogical Society of America (2003)Uploaded byKarlii Basilio
- VALDES ET AL.2006Uploaded byDavid Sergio Valdés Lozano
- landforms lesson plan -1Uploaded byapi-212401080
- GlobalTectonics_KearyAndVine.pdfUploaded byRafael Almeida
- Abhilasha SinghUploaded byromy322
- Influence of Curing Age and Mix Composition on the Compressive Strength of Volcanic Ash Blended Cement Laterized ConcreteUploaded byBabatunde Olawuyi
- 20111013143027_PAPR305 (1).PDFUploaded byZahid Masood
- 1995 the Structural Design of Tianjin Goldin Finance 117 TowerUploaded byNadya Pricilia
- KISS Notes Life on EarthUploaded byJenniferBackhus
- 120978284Uploaded byRaj Bakhtani
- Earthquake JournalUploaded byRian Wibisono
- Well drilling method.pdfUploaded byISP
- 19 Biodet. Stone in Trop.Uploaded byFrancis Guillen