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A SEMINAR REPORT ON

SOIL NAILING

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

Submitted by:Devesh Sharma


B.Tech(C.E)
131000078

Submitted to:Mr.Anand Prabhat Verma


Mr.Imran Khan
Acknowledgement

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I would like to thank respected prof. Mr. Basudhar Sir {HOD} (Department of Civil Engg.)
for giving me such a wonderful opportunity to expand my knowledge for my own branch and
giving me guidelines to present a seminar report. It helped me a lot to realize of what we study
for.
Secondly, I would like to thank my parents who patiently helped me as I went through my work
and helped to modify and eliminate some of the irrelevant or un-necessary stuffs.
Thirdly, I would like to thank my friends who helped me to make my work more organized and
well-stacked till the end.
Next, I would thank Microsoft for developing such a wonderful tool like MS Word. It helped my
work a lot to remain error-free.
Last but clearly not the least, I would thank The Almighty for giving me strength to complete my
report on time.

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Content

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Introduction
Hollow concrete block masonry
Fly ash bricks
Ferro-cement
Conclusion
References

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Introduction
Alternate building materials are those which can be used economically by replacing the
conventional building materials. Alternate building materials are made from waste products and
thus it even minimizes environmental pollutions. These alternate building materials can be used
when it meets the respective specifications in the code of practice. Here some new materials and
technology is discussed as well and a list many alternate materials for foundation, roof and walls
are presented with details of each.
Alternative natural materials have existed for quite some time but often in very basic forms or
only as ingredients to a particular material in the past. For example, earth used as a building
material for walls of houses has existed for thousands of years. Much more recently, in the
1920s, the United States government promoted rammed earth as a fireproof construction method
for building farmhouses. Another more common example is adobe. Adobe homes are prominent
in the south-western U.S. and several Spanish-speaking countries.

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HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY


Concrete blocks having core void area larger than 25% of the gross area is termed as hollow
concrete blocks. Concrete block is used as a building material in the construction of wall, and it
is also known as concrete masonry unit(CMU).A concrete block is one of the several precast
concrete product used in the construction(as shown in fig). The term precast refer to the fact that
the block are formed and hardened before they are brought to the job site. In use, concrete blocks
are stacked one at a time and held together with fresh concrete mortar to form the desired length
and height of the wall.
Some of the standard sizes of hollow concrete blocks are as follow.

Standard size hollow concrete block 39 cm * 19 cm * 30 cm

Hollow building tiles 39 cm * 19 cm * 20 cm

Hollow concrete blocks for partitions 39 cm * 19 cm * 10 cm

Face thickness of these blocks are normally kept 5 cm or more.

ADVANTAGES OF HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY


1. Rapid Execution of Work
Hollow concrete block is of uniform and regular size and it has less weight. This facilitates rapid
execution of work.
2. Increase in Floor Area
It is possible to construct thin walls using hollow blocks. Therefore, it helps to save space and
increase floor area.

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3. Reduces Construction Cost


Hollow block helps in saving construction materials and therefore use of hollow block reduces
construction cost.
Use of larger size concrete block reduces number of joints in work and hence helps in saving
mortar.
4. Better Insulation Properties
Hollow concrete block has good insulating properties against sound, heat and dampness.
5. More Durable
Hollow concrete block masonry can safely withstand the atmospheric action and it requires no
protective covering.
6. Employment of Unskilled Labour
Unskilled labour can also be employed in the construction of hollow concrete block masonry.
7. Good Bonding of Mortar & Plaster
Presence of rough surface on concrete blocks provides good bonding of mortar and plaster.

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Fly Ash Bricks


Fly ash brick (FAB) is a building material, specifically masonry units, containing class C fly ash
and water. Compressed at 28 MPa (272 atm) and cured for 24 hours in a 66 C steam bath, then
toughened with an air entrainment agent, the bricks last for more than 100 freeze-thaw cycles.
Owing to the high concentration of calcium oxide in class C fly ash, the brick is described as
"self-cementing". The manufacturing method saves energy, reduces mercury pollution, and costs
20% less than traditional clay brick manufacturing.
Fly ash brick (FAB) is a building material, specifically masonry units, containing class C fly ash
and water. Compressed at 28 MPa (272 atm) and cured for 24 hours in a 66 C steam bath, then
toughened with an air entrainment agent, the bricks last for more than 100 freeze-thaw cycles.
Owing to the high concentration of calcium oxide in class C fly ash, the brick is described as
"self-cementing". The manufacturing method saves energy, reduces mercury pollution, and costs
20% less than traditional clay brick manufacturing.
The raw materials
The raw materials for fly ash Acc Blocks are:
Material
Fly ash
Sand/stone dust
Lime sludge
Gypsum

Mass
45%
40%
10%
5%

Total formula of material

100%

Fly ash bricks are lighter than clay bricks.


Main ingredients include fly ash, water, quicklime or lime sludge, cement, aluminum powder and
gypsum. The block hardness is being achieved by cement strength, and instant curing mechanism
by autoclaving. Gypsum acts as a long term strength gainer. The chemical reaction due to the
aluminum paste provides AAC its distinct porous structure, lightness, and insulation properties,
completely different compared to other lightweight concrete materials. The finished product is a
lighter Block - less than 40% the weight of conventional Bricks, while providing the similar
strengths. The specific gravity stays around 0.6 to 0.65. This is one single most USP of the AAC
blocks, because by using these blocks in structural buildings, the builder saves around 30 to 35 %

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of structural steel, and concrete, as these blocks reduce the dead load on the building
significantly

Advantages
1. Same number of bricks will cover more area than clay bricks
2. High Fire Insulation
3. Due to high strength, practically no breakage during transport and use.
4. Due to uniform size of bricks mortar required for joints and plaster reduces almost by
50%.
5. Due to lower water penetration seepage of water through bricks is considerably reduced.
6. Gypsum plaster can be directly applied on these bricks without a backing coat of lime
plaster.
7. These bricks do not require soaking in water for 24 hours. Sprinkling of water before use
is enough.
Disadvantages
1. Mechanical strength is low. But this can be rectified by adding marble waste, or Mortar
between blocks.
2. Limitation of size. Only modular size can be produced. Large size will have more
breakages.

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Ferro-cement
Ferro-cement is a relatively new construction material consists of wire meshes and cement
mortar. It was developed by P.L. Nervi, an Italian architect in 1940. Ferro cement is widely used
due to the low self-weight, lack of skilled workers, no need of framework etc. Quality of Ferrocement works are assured because the components are manufactured on machinery set up and
execution time at work site is less. Maintenance cost of Ferro-cement is low. Ferro-cement
construction has come into widespread use only in the last two decades.
What is Ferro-cement?

Highly versatile form of reinforced concrete.

Its a type of thin reinforced concrete construction, in which large amount of small
diameter wire meshes uniformly throughout the cross section.

Mesh may be metal or suitable material.

Instead of concrete Portland cement mortar is used.

Strength depends on two factors quality of sand/cement mortar mix and quantity of reinforcing
materials used.
Constituent Materials: 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cement
Fine aggregate
Admixture
Water
Mortar mix
Reinforcing mix
Coating

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Advantages of Ferro-cement: 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Basic raw materials are readily available in most countries.


Fabricated into any desired shape.
Low labour skill required.
Ease of construction.
Low construction material cost.

Disadvantages of Ferro-cement: 1.
2.
3.
4.

Structure made of it can be punctured by collision with pointed objects.


Corrosion of reinforcing materials due to the incomplete coverage of metal by mortar.
It is difficult to fasten to Ferro cement with bolts, screws ,welding and nail etc.
Cost of semi-skilled and unskilled labour is high.

Process of Ferro-cement construction: 1.


2.
3.
4.

Fabricating the skeletal framing system.


Applying rods and meshes.
Plastering.
Curing.

Applications of Ferro-cement:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Housing
Marine
Agriculture
Rural energy
Anticorrosive membrane treatments

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Housing application

Marine application

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Agriculture application

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CHAPTER 9

Conclusion
In a transition to an ecological economy, awareness about materials is perhaps
more revolutionary than energy awareness because of how materials call attention to the
use of energy and the purpose of economic activities. We seem to be, as discussed more
thoroughly in Designing the Green Economy, in a historical transition from quantity to
quality requiring a fundamental redefinition of wealth. This puts particular emphasis on
questions of use and purpose, and such an emphasis is the essence of the ecological
service economy. For our previous stage of economic development, which was focused
on accumulation of money and matter, the linear river economy was somewhat
appropriate. It certainly churned out a lot of stuff and continually revolutionized
technology. Today, however, system limits make open-ended growth counterproductive;
quantitative growth not only increasingly erodes quality but paradoxically begins to
deepen, not alleviate, material scarcity. Whats more, with industrialization having
moved into the realm of culture, simply tapping the main productive potentials of our day
depends upon a more explicit concern with human psychological, cultural and
community development. Our survival depends on seeing materials as simply means to
more qualitative ends, thus allowing their radical conservation and recycling. Thus a
primary concern of this thesis has been to understand the role of building materials in an
industry geared to service and regeneration.

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References

Ackerman, F. (2002, November 14, 2002). Alternatives to PVC: An economic


analysis. Paper presented at
the Green Build 2002, Austin Texas.
Adams, C. (1998). Bamboo Architecture and Construction with Oscar Hidalgo.
DESIGNER/builder
magazine.
Adriane, A., Bringezu, S., & et al. (1997). Resource Flows: The material basis of
industrial economies.
Washington DC: World Resources Institute.
Alexander, C. (1979). The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University
Press.
Alexander, C., Iskikawa, S., Silverstein, M., & et al. (1977). A Pattern Language:
Towns, buildings,
construction. New York: Oxford University Press.

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