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SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT

ON
ENHANCING EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH HR INTERVENTION
IN
TATA DOCOMO

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF:

Ms. Smriti Srivastava

Ms. Shruti Mehta


(HR Assistant manager)TTL,LKO.

SUBMITTED BY:
AREEJ SHOEB
1305670018
2012-14

BBDNIIT

PREFACE
3

MBA program is one of the most professional courses in the field of management. This course
includes both theory and application content of curriculum.
Project work is an integral part of MBA program at BBDNIIT each student is required to do
project and has to prepare and submit report on the work conduct by the student.
This report is the continuation of above tradition. The topic of the project work was
ENHANCING EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH INTERVENTION IN TATA
DOCOMO.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

To complete the project is not a easy thing, you have to take the help of others. I would like to
add a few heartfelt words for the people who are the part of this project in numerous ways
people who gave unending support right from the stage the project data was conceived
My special thanks to MR. M.K. Rastogi (HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT) that provides
gentle encouragement and constant support.
I am extremely thankful to MS SHRUTI MEHTA(Hr assistant manager at TTL) for
providing me with sense of direction in building this methodical approach in this report,
continuous source of inspiration throughout the project.
I sincerely thank them for the constant cooperation, guidance and incessant
inspiration and their guidance without which this project would have been like a rudderless
boat. Well to put in a nutshell, without their guidance and support this project would have
been futile.
AREEJ SHOEB
M.B.A
2 year

TABLE OF CONTENTS
5

TITLE

PAGE NO.

Certificate from the College


Training Certificate
1. Preface
2. Acknowledgement
3. Table of contents
4. Executive Summary
a) Introduction to the topic
b) Companys profile
c) Research Methodology
d) Date Interpretation & Analysis
e) Findings
f) Conclusion
g) Suggestion & Recommendation
h) Limitation
i) Bibliography
Annexure

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Summer training Program is a vehicle, which introduces and exposes a management student to
the real life situation in a process of learning which would ordinarily have not been possible in
the class.
TATA DOCOMO gave me this opportunity to face the real life situation and learn essentials of
working in an organization. My project was enhancing employee productivity through hr
intervention

in TATA DOCOMO. I did a survey of 50 employee .For the first month I

concentrated on the recruitment of the employee under the guidance manger and my guide Ms
Shruti Mehta whose words of encouragement and regular instructions and feedback helped me in
giving my best performance.
The survey helped me in understanding the motivational needs of the employees. The survey
was also an enriching experience as I got to know the needs and the expectations of the
employees who are apparently the back bone of the telecom industry. Most of the employees
working here are motivated by the kind of money they can make in the business provided they
work hard. They realize that with some support from their management and their hard work they
will be able to earn good money, and also looks for a great career opportunity here.
Although they have a few issues which might need some attention for example the
requirement of soft skill and telephone etiquette development classes in the training module and
a more spontaneous and cooperative support from the camp shop. By and large the satisfaction
level of the employee is high and a majority of them are happy with their personal growth.

Introduction
To
The Topic
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INTRODUCTION
EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY
Productivity is a measure of output from a production process, per unit of input. For example,
labor productivity is typically measured as a ratio of output per labor-hour, an input. Productivity
may be conceived of as a metric of the technical or engineering efficiency of production. As
such, the emphasis is on quantitative metrics of input, and sometimes output. Productivity is
distinct from metrics of allocative efficiency, which take into account both the monetary value
(price) of what is produced and the cost of inputs used, and also distinct from metrics of
profitability, which address the difference between the revenues obtained from output and the
expense associated with consumption of inputs.
Employee productivity is the ratio of (the real value of) output to the input of Employee. Where
possible, hours worked, rather than the numbers of employees, is used as the measure of
Employee input. With an increase in part-time employment, hours worked provides the more
accurate measure of Employee input. Employee productivity should be interpreted very carefully
if used as a measure of efficiency. In particular, it reflects more than just the efficiency or
productivity of Employees. Employee productivity is the ratio of output to Employee input; and
output is influenced by many factors that are outside of Employees' influence, including the
nature and amount of capital equipment that is available, the introduction of new technologies,
and management practices.

MEANING OF EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY:Employee productivity is generally speaking held to be the same as the "average product of
labor" (average output per Employee or per Employee-hour, an output which could be measured
in physical terms or in price terms). It is not the same as the marginal product of labor, which
refers to the increase in output that result from a corresponding increase in labor input. The
qualitative aspects of labor productivity such as creativity, innovation, teamwork, improved
quality of work and the effects on other areas in a company are more difficult to measure.

EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY

Employee productivity levels in Europe.OECD, 2012

Employee productivity US, Japan,India

Employee productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time.
It is one of several types of productivity that economists measure. Employee productivity can be measured for
a firm, a process, an industry, or a country. It is often referred to as Employee productivity.

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The OECD defines it as "the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input". [1] Volume
measures of output are normally gross domestic product (GDP) or gross value added (GVA), expressed at
constant prices i.e. adjusted for inflation. The three most commonly used measures of input are:
1. hours worked;
2. Employee jobs; and
3. number of people in employment.

Measurement
Employee productivity can be measured in 2 ways, in physical terms or in price terms.

the intensity of Employee-effort, and the quality of Employee effort generally.

the creative activity involved in producing technical innovations.

the relative efficiency gains resulting from different systems of management, organization, coordination or engineering.

the productive effects of some forms of Employee on other forms of Employee.

These aspects of productivity refer to the qualitative dimensions of Employee input. If an organization is using
Employee much more intensely, one can assume it's due to greater Employee productivity, since the output per
Employee-effort may be the same. This insight becomes particularly important when a large part of what is
produced in an economy consists of services. Management may be very preoccupied with the productivity of
employees, but the productivity gains of management itself is very difficult to prove. While Employee
productivity growth has been seen as a useful barometer of the U.S. economys performance, recent research
has examined why U.S. Employee productivity rose during the recent downturn of 20082009, when U.S.
gross domestic product plummeted.[2]
The validity of international comparisons of Employee productivity can be limited by a number of
measurement issues. The comparability of output measures can be negatively affected by the use of different
valuations, which define the inclusion of taxes, margins, and costs, or different deflation indexes, which turn
current output into constant output. [3] Employee input can be biased by different methods used to estimate
average hours[4] or different methodologies used to estimate employed persons. [5] In addition, for level
comparisons of Employee productivity, output needs to be converted into a common currency. The preferred
conversion factors are Purchasing Power Parities, but their accuracy can be negatively influenced by the

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limited representativeness of the goods and services compared and different aggregation methods. [6] To
facilitate international comparisons of Employee productivity, a number of organizations, such as the OECD,
the Groningen Growth Centre, International Employee Comparisons Program, and The Conference Board,
prepare productivity data adjusted specifically to enhance the datas international comparability.

Factors affecting Employee productivity

U.S. productivity and average real earnings, 19472014

In a survey of manufacturing growth and performance in Britain, it was found that:


The factors affecting Employee productivity or the performance of individual work roles are of broadly the
same type as those that affect the performance of manufacturing firms as a whole. They include:
(1) physical-organic, location, and technological factors;
(2) cultural belief-value and individual attitudinal, motivational and behavioural factors;
(3) international influences e.g. levels of innovativeness and efficiency on the part of the owners and
managers of inward investing foreign companies;
(4) managerial-organizational and wider economic and political-legal environments;
(5) levels of flexibility in internal Employee markets and the organization of work activities e.g. the presence
or absence of traditional craft demarcation lines and barriers to occupational entry; and
(6) individual rewards and payment systems, and the effectiveness of personnel managers and others in
recruiting, training, communicating with, and performance-motivating employees on the basis of pay and other
incentives.
The 6th factor of motivating performance can further be explored under Psychological Aspects of Work
Productivity.
The emergence of computers has been noted as a significant factor in increasing Employee productivity in the
late 1990s, by some, and as an insignificant factor by others, such as R.J. Gordon. Although computers have
existed for most of the 20th century, some economic researchers have noted a lag in productivity growth
caused by computers that didn't come until the late 1990s.[7]

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Psychological factors of feedback on performance


Feedback in the workplace can be received in two different types of ways. Positive feedback is when an
employee is praised and told what he or she is doing right and negative feedback is when an employee is
corrected and told what he or she is doing wrong.

[8]

Positive and negative feedback in terms of work

productivity are very important in the field of Industrial-organizational psychology. Feedback in the work
place can be both formal and informal.

Positive feedback
Positive feedback has the most impact on creating higher quality work and more work productivity overall.
Positive feedback will also lead to a higher Job satisfaction level. When receiving positive feedback an
employee may be told that his or her work is being done correctly and that he or she should keep up the good
work. Positive feedback is used to reinforce good behavior and encourage the worked to keep working hard
and creating high quality work.
[9]

Negative feedback
Negative feedback has the ability to slow work production and create less quality work.

However, when

[10]

negative feedback is given in terms of corrective criticism then high quality work can be produced because it
allows for errors to be known and made available to correct. This type of feedback is calledCorrective
feedback.

General Feedback
Both formal and informal feedback is used in the workplace. When formal feedback is given in the workplace
it is usually called a Performance appraisal. This type of feedback can be very useful when informing an
employee what they do well and what they need to improve on.

[11]

Informal feedback does not have specific

name but may be demonstrated in terms of a pat on the back or suggestion that comes from another employee
or supervisor.

Employee morale
Employee morale, in human resources, is defined as the job satisfaction, outlook, and feelings of wellbeing an employee has within a workplace setting.[1] Proven to have a direct effect on productivity, it is one of
the corner stones of business.

History
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The happier the employee or worker, the higher the productivity. One of the corner stones of business and
recognized by employers to be as important as the business itself, employee morale plays a decisive part in any
business.[2] Business owners have always been aware of a direct correlation between the attitude, job
satisfaction and overall feeling of their employees and the productivity of the business. [3]

Importance and effects


Recognized as one of the major factors affecting productivity and overall financial stability of any business,
low morale may lead to reduced concentration, which in turn can cause mistakes, poorcustomer service and
missed deadlines. It also can contribute to a high turnover rate and absenteeism. Employee morale proves to be
detrimental to the business in these respects. Morale can drive anorganization forward or can lead to employee
discontent, poor job performance, and absenteeism (Ewton, 2007). With low morale comes a high price tag.
The Gallup Organization estimates that there are 22 million actively disengaged employees costing the
American economy as much as $350 billion dollars per year in lost productivity including absenteeism, illness,
and other problems that result when employees are unhappy at work. Failing to address this issue lead to
decreased productivity, increased rates of absenteeism and associated costs, increased conflicts in the work
environment, increased customer or consumer complaints, and increased employee turnover rates and costs
associated withselection and training replacement staff.[4]

Advantages and disadvantages


The relationship between employee morale and organizational performance is straightforward. Here are a list
of advantages and disadvantages:

When employees are satisfied with their jobs, they are motivated to work harder and contribute the
best of their abilities toward the achievement of organizational goals.

They feel appreciated, important and significant members of the organizational chain and as such, they
are ready to maintain a positive action with their colleagues, clients and anyone they come in contact with.

By putting their best face forward, not only they are more attractive, but they are also able to complete
their tasks more efficiently.

Compared to employees who are motivated, disengaged workers are less efficient, miss more
workdays and cost their employers thousands of dollars in lost productivity.

Keeping employee morale high is one of the best things you can do to instill loyalty and maintain a
productive workplace.

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Methods of raising
Employees tend to lack motivation to perform their jobs when morale is low. A lack of motivation can also be
circular in nature. Management and employees can help increase morale in the workplace by:[5]
1. Recognize employees[6]
2. Be a respectful manager[7]
3. Have one-on-one meetings with employees
4. Invest in your employees
5. Get to know your employees
While there are many more methods than what is listed above, each method is dependent on theworkplace.

Overall Employee Effectiveness


Overall Employee Effectiveness (OLE) is a key performance indicator (KPI) that measures the utilization,
performance, and quality of the Employee and its impact on productivity.
Similar to Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), OLE measures availability, performance, and quality.

Availability the percentage of time employees spend making effective contributions

Performance the amount of product delivered

Quality the percentage of perfect or saleable product produced

OLE allows manufacturers to make operational decisions by giving them the ability to analyze the cumulative
effect of these three Employee factors on productive output, while considering the impact of both direct and
indirect

Employee.

OLE supports Lean and Six Sigma methodologies and applies them to Employee processes, allowing
manufacturers to make Employee-related activities more efficient, repeatable and impactful. [1]

Measuring availability

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There are many factors that influence Employee availability and therefore the potential output of equipment
and the manufacturing plant. OLE can help manufacturers be sure that they have the person with the right
skills available at the right time by enabling manufacturers to locate areas where providing and scheduling the
right mix of employees can increase the number of productive hours. OLE also accounts for Employee
utilization. Understanding where downtime losses are coming from and the impact they have on production
can reveal root causes which can include machine downtime, material delays, orabsenteeism that delay a
line startup.
Calculation: Availability = Time operators are working productively / Time scheduled
Example:
Two employees (Employee) are scheduled to work 8 hour (480 minutes) shifts.
The normal shift includes a scheduled 30 minute break.
The employees experiences 60 minutes of unscheduled downtime.
Scheduled Time = 960 min 60 min break = 900 Min
Available Time = 900 min Scheduled 120 min Unscheduled Downtime = 780 Min
Availability = 780 Avail Min / 900 Scheduled Min = 86.67%

Measuring performance
When employees cannot perform their work within standard times, performance can suffer. Effective training
can increase performance by improving the skills that directly impact the quality of output. A skilled operator
knows how to measure work, understands the impacts of variability, and knows to stop production for
corrective actions when quality falls below specified limits. Accurately measuring this metric with OLE can
pinpoint performance improvement opportunities down to the individual level.
Calculation: Performance = Actual output of the operators / the expected output (or Employee standard)
Example:
Two employees (Employee) are scheduled to work an 8-hour (480 minute) shift with a 30-minute scheduled
break.
Available Time = 960 Min Sched 60 Min Unsched Downtime = 900 Minutes
The Standard Rate for the part being produced is 60 Units/Hour or 1 Minute/Unit
The Employee produces 700 Total Units during the shift.
Time to Produce Parts = 700 Units * 1 Minutes/Unit = 700 Minutes
Performance = 700 Minutes / 900 Minutes = 77.78%

Measuring quality

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A number of drivers contribute to quality, but the effort to improve quality can result in a lowering of
Employee performance. When making the correlation between the Employee and quality it is important to
consider factors such as the training and skills of employees, whether they have access to the right tools to
follow procedures, and their understanding of how their roles drive and impact quality. OLE can help
manufacturers analyze shift productivity down to a single-shift level, and determine which individual workers
are most productive, and then identify corrective actions to bring operations up to standards.
Calculation: Quality = Saleable parts / Total parts produced
Example:
Two employees (Employee) produce 670 Good Units during a shift.
700 Units were started in order to produce the 670 Good Units.
Quality = 670 Good Units / 700 Units Started = 95.71%

OLE calculation
Effective use of OLE uncovers the data that fuels root-cause analysis and points to corrective actions.
Likewise, OLE exposes trends that can be used to diagnose more subtle problems. It also helps managers
understand whether corrective actions did, in fact, solve problems and improve overall productivity.
Example:
Calculation: OLE = Availability x Performance x Quality
Example:
A Employee experiences...
Availability of 87%
The Work Center Performance is 78%.
Work Center Quality is 96%.
OLE = 86.67% Availability x 77.78% Performance x 95.71% Quality = 64.52%

Employee Information Tracked by OLE


The following table provides examples of the Employee information tracked by Overall Employee
Effectiveness organized by its major categories. Using this Employee information, manufacturers can make
operational decisions to improve the cumulative effect of Employee availability, performance, and quality.[2][3]

OLE Category

Major

Loss Example of Loss

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Category

Lack

of

training

and

experience
Unplanned
Breakdown
Availability

absenteeism

Maintenance

mechanics

delayed
Poorly scheduled breaks and
lunches

Availability is the ratio of time the operators are

Material handlers starved the

working productively divided by the amount of

machine

time the operators were scheduled.


Changeover

Set-up personnel shortages


or

delays

Lack of training, skills and


experience

Operator inefficiency due to


Performance

Reduced

lack of skills, experience or

Speed

training

Performance is the ratio of the actual output of


the operators divided by the expected output (or
Employee standard).

Poor operator technique due


Small stops

to lack of skills, experience


or taining

Quality
Quality has many definitions, but a common one

Scrap

or Operator

rework

Set-up

error
team

error

Maintenance mechanic error

is the ratio of saleable parts divided by the total


parts produced.

Set-up

team

error

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Yield or start- Maintenance mechanic error


up losses

Operator error

Productivity deals with the ways that people behave. Managers want Employees to work
efficiently and effectively, but the same nature of the work may be such that Employees dont
want to do at all.

Productivity may be defined as those forces that cause individuals to behave in a particular
ways. Productivity encompasses all those pressures and influences that trigger, channel and
sustain human behaviour. Managers, by definitions, are required to work with and through
people, so they must acquire at least some understanding to the forces that will motivate the
people they are to manage. Employees are complex, and they are uniquely different.

Assuming that a managers primary task is to motivate others to perform the task of the
employing organization at high levels, the managers must find the productivity factors that will
get subordinates to come to work regularly and on time, to work hard, and to make positive
contributions toward the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Vroom
has proposed that work performance depends on productivity as well as Employee ability and
environmental conditions.

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OBJECTIVE OF PRODUCTIVITY

To bring technological change


Efficiency
Cost Saving
Improving process
Living standard

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METHODS FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY


Through operations and management
Improve technology and facilities
Increase training
Increase research and development Spending
Increase employee participation
Adopt automated and robotic systems
Improve reward systems
Enhance speed
Enhance flexibility

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NEED FOR STUDYING EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

For growth of the company.


Make a balance between employee and Employees.
To earn profits.
Employee welfare
Enhance productivity
Personnel development

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TITLE JUSTIFICATION
The topic ENHANCING EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH INTERVENTION
IN TATA DOCOMO shows the productivity of Employees during their work time. The topic
suggest about the per unit wages of Employees means it defines their idle hour and working
hours. Time and motion study is one of the methods for study the productivity of Employees in
industry. This project helps Employees as well as employer to increase productivity in their
organizations. Hawthorne experiments also give methods to study productivity by its
experiments. The study of Employees productivity mainly depends upon the output which he
provides to the organization by his efforts.

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COMPANY PROFILE

Founded by JAMSET JI TATA in 1868


THE TATA GROUP is a GLOBAL business group
With products and services in over 150 countries
Over 540,000 employees and operations
In over 100 countries
Group revenue of $ 96.8 bn
With 63% generated in geographies other than India
Global leader in several sectors

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BUSINESS SECTORS OF TATA

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION

CONSUMER PRODUCTS

ENGINEERING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

MATERIALS

SERVICES

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ENERGY

CHEMICALS
FORMER CHAIRMEN
Profiles of the men who have led the Tata group in the last 100-plus
years

Jamset Ji Tata: The Founder of the Tata group began with a textile
mill in central India in the 1870s. His powerful vision inspired the steel
and power industries in India, set the foundation for technical
education, and helped the country leapfrog from backwardness to the ranks of industrial nations.

Sir Dorab Tata (Chairman, Tata Sons: 1904 1932): Through his
endeavors in setting up Tata Steel and Tata Power, this elder son of
Jamsetji Tata was instrumental in transforming his father's grand vision
into reality.

Sir Nowroji Saklatvala (Chairman, Tata Sons: 1932 1938): Sir


Nowroji Saklatvala became chairman of the Tata group in 1932,
succeeding Sir Dorabji Tata

JRD Tata (Chairman,


of the Tata group
1932 by launching the

Tata Sons: 1938 1991): The late chairman


pioneered civil aviation on the subcontinent in
airline now known as Air India.

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Ratan N Tata (Chairman, Tata Sons: 1991 2012): Ratan N Tata was the Chairman of Tata
Sons, the promoter holding company of the Tata group, from 1991 to
2012.

Cyrus P Mistry, 45, is the sixth Group Chairman. He was appointed as the Chairman of the Tata
Sons board in December 2012 and has been a director of the company since 2006.
In addition to being the Group Chairman, Mr Mistry is also the chairman of major Tata
companies including Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Power, Indian
Hotels Company, Tata Global Beverages and Tata Chemicals
Mr Mistry graduated with a degree in civil engineering from Imperial College London, UK, in
1990. In 1997, he received an MSc in management from the London Business School. He is a
recipient of the Alumni Achievement Award from the London Business School. He is also a
fellow of the Institution of Civil Engineers, London.

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TATA GROUP IN COMMUNICATION


Communication is among the Tata Groups larger investments, with over $7.5 billion already
committed. The Groups objective is to provide end-to-end telecommunications solutions for
business and residential customers across the nation and internationally. The Groups
communications activities are currently spread primarily over four companies- Tata Teleservices
Limited, its associate Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra) limited, Tata Communications (erstwhile
VSNL) and Tata Sky. Together, these companies cover the full range of communications
services, including:

Telephony Services: Fixed and Mobile

Media & Entertainment Services: Satellite TV

Data Services: Leased Lines, Managed Data Networks, IP/MPLS VPN, Dial-up Internet,
Wi-Fi and Broadband

Value-added Services: Mobile and Broadband Content/Applications, Calling Cards, Net


Telephony and Managed Services

Infrastructure Services: Submarine Cable Bandwidth, Terrestrial Fiber Network and


Satellite Earth Stations and VSAT Connectivity

TATA TELESERVICES LIMITED PROFILE


Tata Teleservices Limited spearheads the Tata Groups presence in the telecom sector. The Tata
Group includes over 100 companies, over 450,000 employees worldwide and more 3.8 million
shareholders. Incorporated in 1996, Tata Teleservices Limited was the pioneer of the CDMA 1x
technology platform in India, embarking on a growth path after the acquisition of Hughes
Tele.com (India) Ltd [renamed Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra) Limited] by the Tata Group in
2002. Over the last few years, the company has launched significant services CDMA mobile

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operations in January 2005 under the brand name Tata Indicom, market-defining wireless mobile
broadband services under the brand name Tata Photon in 2008 and 2G GSM services under the
name TATA DOCOMO in 2008.
Tata Teleservices Limited also has a significant presence in the 2G GSM space, through its joint
venture with NTT DOCOMO of Japan, and offers differentiated products and services. TATA
DOCOMO was born after the Tata Groups strategic alliance with Japenese telecom major NTT
DOCOMO in November 2008. TATA DOCOMO received a pan- India license to operate GSM
services in all the 18 telecom Circles where it received spectrum from the Government of India
in the quick span of just over a year.
One of the key milestones in October 2011 was the brand integration exercise at TTSL, which
saw the Companys many brands being consolidated under its single flagship brand, TATTA
DOCOMO. This helped TTSL leverage the benefits of brand syngeries and capitalize on its vast
retail and distribution network, which is the largest amongst all private telecom operators in the
country.
TATA DOCOMO marks a significant milestone in the Indian telecom landscape, and has already
redefined the very face of telecoms in India, being the first to pioneer the per-second tariff option
part of its Pay for What You Use pricing paradigm.
Tata Teleservices Limited also became the first Indian private telecom operator to launch 3G
services in India under with the launch of services in November 2010 in all nine telecom Circles
where the company bagged the 3G license. In association with its partner NTT DOCOMO, the
Company finds itself favorably positioned to leverage the first-mover advantage. With 3G, TATA
DOCOMO has begun to redefine the very face of telecoms in India. Tokyo-based NTT
DOCOMO is one of the worlds leading mobile operators in Japan, the company is the clear
market leader, used by nearly 55 per cent of the countrys mobile phone users.
TTSL entered into a strategic partnership agreement with Indian retail giant Future Group to
offer mobile telephony services under a new brand name T24, on the GSM platform. Tata
Teleservices also has a strategic tie up with Virgin Mobile that primarily caters to youth segment
offering mobility services on both CDMA and GSM platform.
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Tata Teleservices is the undisputed market leader in the fixed wireless telephony market amongst
private operators. In the wireless mobility space, the company in the past has been rated as the
Least Congested Network in India for eight consecutive quarters by the Telecom Regulatory
Authority of India through independent surveys.
Today, Tata Teleservices, along with Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra) Limited, has a reach in
more than 450,000 towns and village across the country, with a bouquet of telephony services
encompassing Mobile Services, Wireless Desktop Phones, Public Booth Telephony and Wireless
services.
In December 2008, Tata Teleservices announced a unique reverse equity swap strategic
agreement between its telecom tower subsidiary, Wireless TT Info-Services Limited and Quippo
Telecom Infrastructure Limited with the combined entity kicking off operations with 18,000
towers, thereby becoming the largest independent entity in this space and with the highest
tenancy ratios in the industry. Today, the combined entity which has been re-christened as VIOM
Networks has a portfolio of nearly 60,000 towers.
The company in the recent past has won many awards. TTSL was named The Best Emerging
Markets Carrier by Telecom Asia and received 8 awards at the World HRD Conference,
including 5th Best Employer in India. The Company has also received 3 awards at the Telecom
Operator Awards 2010 from Tele.net; Best Company, CEO of the Year and Best Quality of
Service, and Business Standard award for Most Innovative Brand of the Year. TATA
DOCOMO was recently recognized as the best Utility VAS Service Provider and Best Mobile
Broadband Service Provider for the year 2012 by Frost & Sullivan.

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PROJECT OPTIMUS
With the increasing penetration of telecom in rural areas and the weak utility power situation in
the hinterland, a clear demand-supply gap for power exists in most of these locations and states.
Going forward, the dependence on alternate sources of power will only increase-thus raising both
the cost of power, as also the attendant emissions, particularly if conventional back-up solutions
of using diesel-powered generators are employes. At TTSL, we are very concerned of the
problem of power; industry is facing and therefore the need of it to be attacked on different
fronts. Promoting the use of alternative resources of energy and reducing the use of fuel is one of
the important areas of work for conservation of energy and promoting the responsible use of
resources.
There are limited options that any operator can turn to, but as a company known for its
innovation and environment-consciousness, Tata Teleservices Limited has a already identified
initiatives that are reducing our emission count and helping us develop and implement cleaner
and greener technologies. To comprehensively address the issue of energy. TTSL formed an
Applied Research team with a mandate to obtain good quality continuous power independent
of grid reliability and thus becoming the lowest cost telecom operator.
The name of the project was christened as Project Optimus. This department was responsible
for developing customized solutions working closely with vendors, carrying out proof of concept
implementations (prototype and pilot project) and developing models for rollouts and monitoring
implementation.
Indoor to outdoor Conversion:
TTSL technology team initiated a special project for optimizing Energy Costs called Project
Optimus and above said various solutions depending on site category and feasibility were
implemented. One of the major initiative- Outdoor Capsule for Indoor Base Station started
fetching good amount of savings. Also, at these sites TTSL executed the complete deployment of
Outdoor Cabinet including platform/civil works for foundation to install the Outdoor cabinet.

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TTSL has a fixed cost power and fuel tariff model with the Infrastructure provider and outdoor
tariff is 20% less than indoor tariff card. The tower site of mobile telephone network consists of
Base station equipment (electronics), tower to install the antennae and Diesel generator with
power interface uniy including battery backup for standby backup power. The tower sites are of
indoor and outdoor category where in indoor Base station is installed inside the shelter with air
condition equipment to maintain the temperature up to deg C. the Base station (indoor and
outdoor type) are capable to withstand higher temperatures till 55deg C and hence indoor Base
station can be housed in Outdoor cabinet which is equipped with Heat exchange/natural cooling
systems and are installed outside the shelter without air-conditioning requirements. Also, in case
of power failure, the DG starting can be delayed till the battery backup can sustain power to the
Base station cum heat exchanger. The Outdoor Cabinet is been used to house the Indoor Base
station which are IP 55 / IP 27 in the environment with heat exchanger/natural cooling systems
thereby eliminating the requirement of air-conditioning.
With implementing Outdoor cabinet, existing Indoor Base station gets converted to Outdoor
Base station eliminating the air conditioning requirement which benefits the environmental in
two ways:
Due to the reduced CO2e emissions by lesser energy consumption for the same Base
station on a account of reduction of power consumption as well as Diesel Consumption.
Elimination/reduction of ozone depleting refrigeration gases by reduction of Air
conditioners in operation

32

BOARD OF DIRECTOR

Mr. Cyrus P. Mistry


Designation: Chairman

Mr. Srinath Narasimhan


Designation: Managing Director

Mr. N. Chandrasekaran
Designation: Director

Mr. Hajime Kii


Designation: Director

Mr. Kazuto Tsubouchi


Designation: Director

Mr. Ishaat Hussain

Mr. Kishor Chaukar


Designation: Director

Mr. Ravi Lambah

33

Designation: Director

Designation: Director

CAREERS @ TTSL
To actualize the organizational Vision of Providing Trusted Service to Our
Customers, acquiring and retaining high-quality talent is the key to the
organizations success. With this in mind, Tata Teleservices Limited offers
high-caliber people the opportunity to build a career in one of the worlds
most challenging and fast-moving business environments. Tp be a part of
Team TTSL, one needs to be able to imbibe and live by TATA values and
ethical standards, and have the skills and motivation to play a major role in
TTSLs journey to success. At TTSL, we consider people to be our greatest
asset.

Professional,

self-motivated

individuals

in

every

part

of

the

organization are the key to achieving excellent customer service and


continued growth of our organization. TTSL takes care of your carrer while
you give your best to the organization through a well-structured career
progression scheme. Besides providing immense opportunities to learn and
develop, th organization takes care that you progress at a desired pace in
your career. Carrer paths have been designed in order to help employees
understand the requirements of upward mobility and growth in the
organization. At TTSL. We use competency evaluation and performance as a
criteria for growth. Adequate cross-functional exposure and developmental
opportunities are provided to all employees, which over a period of time,
enhance individual capability.
TATA DOCOMO
Tata DOCOMO is Tata Teleservices Limited's telecom service on the GSM platformarising out
of the Tata Group's strategic alliance with Japanese telecom major NTT DOCOMO in November
2008. Tata Teleservices has received a license to operate GSM telecom services in 19 of India's
22 telecom Circlesand has also been allotted spectrum in 18 telecom Circles. Of these, it has

34

already rolled out services in all the 18 Circles that it received spectrum in from the Government
of IndiaTamil Nadu, Kerala, Orissa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mumbai,
Madhya Pradesh-Chhattisgarh, Haryana-Punjab, Kolkata, Rest of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar,
UP (East), UP (West), Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Tata DOCOMO has also become the first Indian private operator to launch 3G services in India,
with its recent launch in all the nine telecom Circles where it bagged the 3G license. In
association with its partner NTT DOCOMO, the Company finds itself suitably positioned to
leverage this first-mover advantage. With 3G, Tata DOCOMO stands to redefine the very face of
telecoms in India. Tokyo-based NTT DOCOMO is one of the world's leading mobile operators
in Japan, the company is the clear market leader, used by nearly 55 per cent of the country's
mobile phone users.
NTT DOCOMO has played a major role in the evolution of mobile telecommunications through
its development of cutting-edge technologies and services. Over the years, technologists at
DOCOMO have defined industry benchmarks like 3G technology, as also products and services
like i-Mode, e-wallet and a plethora of lifestyle-enhancing applications. Last year itself, while
most of the rest of the industry was only beginning to talk of 4G technology and its possible
applications, DOCOMO had already concluded conducting 4G trials in physical geographies, not
just inside laboratories!
DOCOMO is a global leader in the VAS space, both in terms of services and handset designs,
particularly integrating services at the platform stage. The Tata Group-NTT DOCOMO
partnership will see offerings such as these being introduced in the Indian market through the
Tata DOCOMO brand.
Tata DOCOMO has also set up a 'Business and Technology Coordination Council', comprising of
senior personnel from both companies. The council is responsible for the identification of key
areas where the two companies will work together. DOCOMO, the world's leading mobile
operator, will work closely with the Tata Teleservices Limited management and provide knowhow to help the company develop its GSM business.

35

On the CDMA platform, despite being the latest entrant, Tata Indicom has already established its
presence and is the fastest-growing pan-India operator. Incorporated in 1996, Tata Teleservices is
the pioneer of the CDMA 1x technology platform in India. Today, Tata Teleservices Ltd, along
with Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra) Ltd, serves over 84 million customers in more than 450,000
towns and villages across the country, with a bouquet of telephony services encompassing
Mobile Services, Wireless Desktop Phones, Public Booth Telephony and Wireline Services.

OBJECTIVE OF THE REPORT

To know the area, that helps in enhancement of productivity.


To familiar with the fundamentals of productivity.
Understand the Time & Motion Study and Hawthorne experiment.
To understand the impact of Employees productivity in TATA DOCOMO.
To learn the ground reality of Employees productivity in TATA DOCOMO.

36

SCOPE OF THE REPORT


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Enhancement of productivity of TATA DOCOMOs Employees.


Establishment of new ways to increase Employees productivity.
Profit & wealth maximization.
Quality improvement process of Employees.
Performance Appraisal.

37

PRODUCTIVITY IS THE KEY TO PERFORMANCE


IMPROVEMENT

There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink; it will
drink only if it's thirsty - so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise
motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the 'ivory tower' they must be
motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus. Are they born with
the self-productivity or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated, for productivity is a skill
which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed.

Performance is considered to be a function of ability and productivity, thus:

Job performance =f(ability)(productivity)


Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and
long process. On the other hand productivity can be improved quickly. There are many options
and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly
seven strategies for productivity.

Positive reinforcement / high expectations

Effective discipline and punishment

Treating people fairly

38

Satisfying employees needs

Setting work related goals

Restructuring jobs

Base rewards on job performance

These are the basic strategies, though the mix in the final 'recipe' will vary from workplace
situation to situation. Essentially, there is a gap between an individuals actual state and some
desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap.
Productivity is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. It is inducing others in a
specific way towards goals specifically stated by the motivator. Naturally, these goals as also the
productivity system must conform to the corporate policy of the organization. The productivityal
system must be tailored to the situation and to the organization.
In one of the most elaborate studies on employee productivity, involving 31,000 men and 13,000
women, the Minneapolis Gas Company sought to determine what their potential employees
desire most from a job. This study was carried out during a 20 year period from 1945 to 1965
and was quite revealing. The ratings for the various factors differed only slightly between men
and women, but both groups considered security as the highest rated factor.
The next three factors were;

advancement

type of work

39

company - proud to work for

Surprisingly, factors such as pay, benefits and working conditions were given a low rating by
both groups. So after all, and contrary to common belief, money is not the prime motivator.
(Though this should not be regarded as a signal to reward employees poorly or unfairly.)
EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY: A CRITICAL EXAMINATION
Since the age of the Industrial Revolution, psychologist and social scientists have been trying to
decode this extremely complicated specimen called the 'employee'. What makes the employee
motivated to work hard? Is it money? Is it social status? Till today, there is no clear consensus on
what motivates employees. This subject continues to baffle analysts as more and more data is
generated on employee productivity.
There have been several studies done to understand productivity. Some of the leading
productivity theories focus on employees as a social being with a complex set of needs. Some of
these needs are tangible material needs. But most other needs are intangible, abstract, or
illusionary. Does that mean we can ignore the intangibles and focus only on material benefits?

Role of Money In employee Productivity

It is said that money makes the mare go. Some researchers believe that money solves most
employee needs as it meets tangible and intangible requirements.
Money meets basic physiological needs and other needs such as social status, recognition, power,
and lifestyle. The fatter the paycheck, the higher are the levels of productivity

40

Other experts deny the influence of money on productivity levels. After a certain level, money
and all material benefits fail to motivate individuals. Employees seek job satisfaction, personal
growth, self worth, recognition, and excellence, in addition to money.
What we need to understand is the underlying principle behind employee productivity. It is clear
from the productivity theories that intrinsically the employee is capable of competent work.
People may have generic needs or specific needs, but they definitely have needs. While the basic
employee needs remain the same in every organization, specific employee needs vary from
company to company. It is therefore important for organizations to recognize the nature of
employee needs in their organization and work towards fulfillment of these needs.

EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN THE WORKPLACE

The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. To do this the
manager should be able to motivate employees. But that's easier said than done! Productivity
practice and theory are difficult subjects, touching on several disciplines.
In spite of enormous research, basic as well as applied, the subject of productivity is not clearly
understood and more often than not poorly practiced. To understand productivity one must
understand human nature itself. And there lies the problem!
PRODUCTIVITYAL THEORIES

Douglas McGregor

41

Theory X and Theory Y


Douglas McGregor in his book, "The Human Side of Enterprise" published in 1960 has
examined theories on behavior of individuals at work, and he has formulated two models which
he calls Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X Assumptions

The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can.

Because of their dislike for work, most people must be controlled and threatened before
they will work hard enough.

The average human prefers to be directed, dislikes responsibility, is unambiguous, and


desires security above everything.

These assumptions lie behind most organizational principles today, and give rise both to
"tough" management with punishments and tight controls, and "soft" management which
aims at harmony at work.

Both these are "wrong" because man needs more than financial rewards at work; he also
needs some deeper higher order productivity - the opportunity to fulfill himself.

Theory X managers do not give their staff this opportunity so that the employees behave
in the expected fashion.

Theory Y Assumptions

The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work, man will direct himself if
he is committed to the aims of the organization.

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If a job is satisfying, then the result will be commitment to the organization.

The average man learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.

Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to solve work problems by a large number of
employees.

Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average man
are only partially utilized.

Comments on Theory X and Theory Y Assumptions


These assumptions are based on social science research which has been carried out, and
demonstrate the potential which is present in man and which organizations should recognize in
order to become more effective. McGregor sees these two theories as two quite separate
attitudes. Theory Y is difficult to put into practice on the shop floor in large mass production
operations, but it can be used initially in the managing of managers and professionals.
In "The Human Side of Enterprise" McGregor shows how Theory Y affects the management of
promotions and salaries and the development of effective managers. McGregor also sees Theory
Y as conducive to participative problem solving.
It is part of the manager's job to exercise authority, and there are cases in which this is the only
method of achieving the desired results because subordinates do not agree that the ends are
desirable.
However, in situations where it is possible to obtain commitment to objectives, it is better to
explain the matter fully so that employees grasp the purpose of an action. They will then exert
self-direction and control to do better work - quite

43

possibly by better methods - than if they had simply been carrying out an order which the y did
not fully understand.
The situation in which employees can be consulted is one where the individuals are emotionally
mature, and positively motivated towards their work; where the work is sufficiently responsible
to allow for flexibility and where the employee can see his own position in the management
hierarchy. If these conditions are present, managers will find that the participative approach to
problem solving leads to much improved results compared with the alternative approach of
handing out authoritarian orders.
Once management becomes persuaded that it is under estimating the potential of its human
resources, and accepts the knowledge given by social science researchers and displayed in
Theory Y assumptions, then it can invest time, money and effort in developing improved
applications of the theory.
One of the many interesting things Maslow noticed while he worked with monkeys early in his
career was that some needs take precedence over others. For example, if you are hungry and
thirsty, you will tend to try to take care of the thirst first. After all, you can do without food for
weeks, but you can only do without water for a couple of days! Thirst is a stronger need than
hunger. Likewise, if you are very thirsty, but someone has put a choke hold on you and you cant
breathe, which is more important? The need to breathe, of course. On the other hand, sex is less
powerful than any of these. Lets face it; you wont die if you dont get it!

44

Maslow took this idea and created his now famous hierarchy of needs. Beyond the details of air,
water, food, and sex, he laid out five broader layers: the physiological needs, the needs for safety
and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for esteem, and the need to actualize the
self, in that order.

45

1. The physiological needs.


These include the needs we have for oxygen, water, protein, salt, sugar, calcium, and other
minerals and vitamins. They also include the need to maintain a pH balance (getting too acidic
or base will kill you) and temperature (98.6 or near to it). Also, theres the needs to be active, to
rest, to sleep, to get rid of wastes (CO2, sweat, urine, and feces), to avoid pain, and to have sex.
Quite a collection!
Maslow believed, and research supports him, that these are in fact individual needs, and that a
lack of, say, vitamin C, will lead to a very specific hunger for things which have in the past
provided that vitamin C -- e.g. orange juice. I guess the cravings that some pregnant women
have, and the way in which babies eat the most foul tasting baby food, support the idea
anecdotally.

2. The safety and security needs.


When the physiological needs are largely taken care of, this second layer of needs comes into
play. You will become increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, and
protection. You might develop a need for structure, for order, some limits.
Looking at it negatively, you become concerned, not with needs like hunger and thirst, but with
your fears and anxieties. In the ordinary American adult, this set of needs manifest themselves in
the form of our urges to have a home in a safe neighborhood, a little job security and a nest egg,
a good retirement plan and a bit of insurance, and so on.

46

3. The love and belonging needs.


When physiological needs and safety needs are, by and large, taken care of, a third layer starts to
show up. You begin to feel the need for friends, a sweetheart, children; affectionate relationships
in general, even a sense of community. Looked at negatively, you become increasing susceptible
to loneliness and social anxieties.
In our day-to-day life, we exhibit these needs in our desires to marry, have a family, be a part of a
community, a member of a church, a brother in the fraternity, a part of a gang or a bowling club.
It is also a part of what we look for in a career.

4. The esteem needs- Next, we begin to look for a little self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions
of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of
others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity,
even dominance. The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feelings as
confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, and freedom. Note that this is the
higher form because, unlike the respect of others, once you have self-respect, its a lot harder
to lose!
The negative version of these needs is low self-esteem and inferiority complexes. Maslow felt
that Adler was really onto something when he proposed that these were at the roots of many, if
not most, of our psychological problems. In modern countries, most of us have what we need in
regard to our physiological and safety needs. We, more often than not, have quite a bit of love
and belonging, too. Its a little respect that often seems so very hard to get!
All of the preceding four levels he calls deficit needs, or D-needs. If you dont have enough of
something -- i.e. you have a deficit -- you feel the need. But if you get all you need, you feel

47

nothing at all! In other words, they cease to be motivating. As the old blues song goes, you
dont miss your water till your well runs dry!

He also talks about these levels in terms of homeostasis. Homeostasis is the principle by which
your furnace thermostat operates: When it gets too cold, it switches the heat on; when it gets too
hot, it switches the heat off. In the same way, your body, when it lacks a certain substance,
develops a hunger for it; when it gets enough of it, then the hunger stops. Maslow simply
extends the homeostatic principle to needs, such as safety, belonging, and esteem, which we
dont ordinarily think of in these terms.
Maslow sees all these needs as essentially survival needs. Even love and esteem are needed for
the maintenance of health. He says we all have these needs built in to us genetically, like
instincts. In fact, he calls them instinctual -- instinct-like -- needs.
In terms of overall development, we move through these levels a bit like stages. As newborns,
our focus (if not our entire set of needs) is on the physiological. Soon, we begin to recognize
that we need to be safe. Soon after that, we crave attention and affection. A bit later, we look for
self-esteem. Mind you, this is in the first couple of years!

48

Under stressful conditions, or when survival is threatened, we can regress to a lower need
level. When you great career falls flat, you might seek out a little attention. When your family
ups and leaves you, it seems that love is again all you ever wanted. When you face chapter
eleven after a long and happy life, you suddenly cant think of anything except money.
These things can occur on a society-wide basis as well: When society suddenly flounders,
people start clamoring for a strong leader to take over and make things right. When the bombs
start falling, they look for safety. When the food stops coming into the stores, their needs
become even more basic.
Maslow suggested that we can ask people for their philosophy of the future -- what would their
ideal life or world be like -- and get significant information as to what needs they do or do not
have covered.
If you have significant problems along your development -- a period of extreme insecurity or
hunger as a child, or the loss of a family member through death or divorce, or significant neglect
or abuse -- you may fixate on that set of needs for the rest of your life.

This is Mallows understanding of neurosis. Perhaps you went through a war as a kid. Now you
have everything your heart needs -- yet you still find yourself obsessing over having enough
money and keeping the pantry well-stocked. Or perhaps your parents divorced when you were

49

young. Now you have a wonderful spouse -- yet you get insanely jealous or worry constantly
that they are going to leave you because you are not good enough for them. You get the
picture.
5. Self-actualization
The last level is a bit different. Maslow has used a variety of terms to refer to this level: He has
called it growth productivity (in contrast to deficit productivity), being needs (or B-needs, in
contrast to D-needs), and self-actualization.
These are needs that do not involve balance or homeostasis. Once engaged, they continue to be
felt. In fact, they are likely to become stronger as we feed them! They involve the continuous
desire to fulfill potentials, to be all that you can be. They are a matter of becoming the most
complete, the fullest, you -- hence the term, self-actualization.
Now, in keeping with his theory up to this point, if you want to be truly self-actualizing, you
need to have your lower needs taken care of, at least to a considerable extent. This makes sense:
If you are hungry, you are scrambling to get food; If you are unsafe, you have to be continuously
on guard; If you are isolated and unloved, you have to satisfy that need; If you have a low sense
of self-esteem, you have to be defensive or compensate. When lower needs are unmet, you cant
fully devote yourself to fulfilling your potentials.
It isnt surprising, then, the world being as difficult as it is, that only a small percentage of the
worlds population is truly, predominantly, self-actualizing. Maslow at one point suggested only
about two percent!
The question becomes, of course, what exactly Maslow means by self-actualization. To answer
that, we need to look at the kind of people he called self-actualizers. Fortunately, he did this for
us, using a qualitative method called biographical analysis.

50

He began by picking out a group of people, some historical figures, some people he knew, whom
he felt clearly met the standard of self-actualization. Included in this august group were
Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, Jane Adams, William
James, Albert Schweitzer, Benedict Spinoza, and Alduous Huxley, plus 12 unnamed people who
were alive at the time Maslow did his research. He then looked at their biographies, writings, the
acts and words of those he knew personally, and so on. From these sources, he developed a list
of qualities that seemed characteristic of these people, as opposed to the great mass of us.
These people were reality-centered, which means they could differentiate what is fake and
dishonest from what is real and genuine. They were problem-centered, meaning they treated
lifes difficulties as problems demanding solutions, not as personal troubles to be railed at or
surrendered to. And they had a different perception of means and ends. They felt that the ends
dont necessarily justify the means, that the means could be ends themselves, and that the means
-- the journey -- was often more important than the ends.

The self-actualizers also had a different way of relating to others. First, they enjoyed solitude,
and were comfortable being alone. And they enjoyed deeper personal relations with a few close
friends and family members, rather than more shallow relationships with many people.
They enjoyed autonomy, a relative independence from physical and social needs. And they
resisted enculturation, that is, they were not susceptible to social pressure to be "well adjusted" or
to "fit in" -- they were, in fact, nonconformists in the best sense.
They had an unchastely sense of humor -- preferring to joke at their own expense, or at the
human condition, and never directing their humor at others. They had a quality he called
acceptance of self and others, by which he meant that these people would be more likely to take

51

you as you are than try to change you into what they thought you should be. This same
acceptance applied to their attitudes towards themselves: If some quality of theirs wasnt
harmful, they let it be, even enjoying it as a personal quirk. On the other hand, they were often
strongly motivated to change negative qualities in themselves that could be changed. Along with
this comes spontaneity and simplicity: They preferred being themselves rather than being
pretentious or artificial. In fact, for all their nonconformity, he found that they tended to be
conventional on the surface, just where less self-actualizing nonconformists tend to be the most
dramatic.
Further, they had a sense of humility and respect towards others -- something Maslow also called
democratic values -- meaning that they were open to ethnic and individual variety, even
treasuring it. They had a quality Maslow called human kinship or Gemeinschaftsgefhl -- social
interest, compassion, humanity. And this was accompanied by a strong ethics, which was
spiritual but seldom conventionally religious in nature.
And these people had a certain freshness of appreciation, an ability to see things, even ordinary
things, with wonder. Along with this comes their ability to be creative, inventive, and original.
And, finally, these people tended to have more

peak experiences than the average person. A peak experience is one that takes you out of
yourself, that makes you feel very tiny, or very large, to some extent one with life or nature or
God. It gives you a feeling of being a part of the infinite and the eternal. These experiences tend
to leave their mark on a person, change them for the better, and many people actively seek them
out. They are also called mystical experiences, and are an important part of many religious and
philosophical traditions.

52

Maslow doesnt think that self-actualizers are perfect, of course. There were several flaws or
imperfections he discovered along the way as well: First, they often suffered considerable
anxiety and guilt -- but realistic anxiety and guilt, rather than misplaced or neurotic versions.
Some of them were absentminded and overly kind. And finally, some of them had unexpected
moments of ruthlessness, surgical coldness, and loss of humor.
Two other points he makes about these self-actualizers: Their values were "natural" and seemed
to flow effortlessly from their personalities. And they appeared to transcend many of the
dichotomies others accept as being undeniable, such as the differences between the spiritual and
the physical, the selfish and the unselfish, and the masculine and the feminine

Supervisors Role and Productivityal Models


Supervisor and management for that purpose have the responsibility to assess the motives and
needs of the Employees to decide that how best they can be fulfilled. Each individual must be
analyzed separately to discover his motives. Observation, written attitude, interviews, assessment
of previous goals and other possible sources of need information may be reviewed. However, it
is very difficult to answer the question What motivate people? Many factors may be listed like
money, good working environment, challenging work, responsibility, praise for good work, the
communication system and an opportunity for growth & advancement. There may be several
other factors but probably the means for meeting these needs can be used to motivate the
employees. However, productivity may be weak or strong depending upon the incentive offered
by the employer, which releases Employees ability and potential in relation to his needs.
Rules for Using Positive Reinforcement

53

To effectively use PR on the job certain rules or procedure must be followed. Using reward to
modify the behavior of the people would seem to follow the logic of common sense.
Nevertheless, it is a specialized procedure requiring systematic approach. Typically, a behavioral
consultant is called to design a behavior mod program and train supervisor on how to do the
program. Despite these procedure statements if you have a genuine interest in the welfare of the
People you can learn to make a productive use of PR from the standpoint of the person being
motivated.

1. An Appropriate Reward Must be Used


Most productivityal theory point to the idea, that the way to motivate the people is to use
a reward that is meaningful to each particular person. If you were a status hungry
technician you might work hard just for the opportunity to have a parking space just near
the engineering chiefs parking space. People display individual difference with respect
to which reward will satisfy which basic need. For example money may not be a right
reward for the person with a large family inheritance. Despite this individual difference, a
couple of illustrative general statements are in order. The need for self-fulfillment or selfactualization receiving a favorable performance appraisal challenging work assignment
or promotion.

54

2.Reward should Vary With The Size Of The Contribution


Your boss is unlikely to do an effective job of motivating you, if all your co-Employees
have received a same size of reward. If you have made a substantial progress in reducing
the production of defective parts, you should receive more recognition than somebody
else.

2. Beginners Should Be Rewarded for Nay Effort They Make In The Right Direction
You have begun somewhere for making improvement. Assume that your desk is so messy that
you lose some important files. Your boss is not obsessed with the orderliness, but he recognizes
that you sloppy work habits interfering with your productivity, using PR approach, your boss
should reward you whenever he comes across your clean and orderly desk. For example if you
boss notices that you no longer keep old coffee cups on your desk, he might comment I can
already see an improvement in your work area, keep up the progress Although this process
sounds elementary, shaping of behavior towards a planned objective increases the probability
that you will make bigger changes in near future.

3. You Should Be Rewarded Occasionally When You Do The Right Thing


Intermittent reinforcement is more important than continuous reinforcement for
sustaining the right behavior. If you worked as a shoe store manager it might be
rewarding to you if on an occasional visit to store your boss told you everything looked
just fine keep this up and you will a difference in your salary.
If you boss gives, the same pep talk every week the reward would lose its impact. Of
worse consequences, you might come to depend on the reward to perform good work.

55

4.

You Should Get You Reward Quickly After Doing The Right Thing
Assuming that money motivated you, you would be more likely to work hard if hard
work led to quick cash. If were selling financial investments you would tend to keep on
prospecting much more readily if you receive your commission every month rather than
after every six months.

5. You Have To Know What Has To Be Done To Get Rewarded

You need some kind of feedback device in your work to set. You knew when you have
done a good job. If you were a good quality control technician, it would be helpful for
your boss to tell you I will see to it that are promoted to senior technician provided
you decrease customer returns on a product say X by 15 percent over the next four
months. One of the many reason that a basketball game so productivityal is that the path
to a reward is clear-cut. A player can readily see that pitting the ball through the hoop, a
reward will be forthcoming. Feedback is immediate in these circumstances.

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6. You Have To Know When You Are Going Wrong


If your boss patiently tells you what you are doing wrong, you will know what needs to
be done to get rewarded. Suppose a secretary is filing too many documents under the
miscellaneous file. The secretary must be told that this act would result in to time
wastage if a particular file needs to be searched. Your system needs to be more efficient.
The purpose of a filing system is to be able to find information quickly when you need
it.

7. You Should Receive A Realist Reward


An effective reward tends to commensurate with the constructive behavior. Suppose
your boss is trying to get you to be more assertive with the customers. When you do
behave more assertively, you should

be rewarded with encouragement of a reasonable sort. Your boss would be overdoing


praise if he or she says that he think that could become a great sales representative in
the region. Such encouragement would lose their importance because the praise is not
genuine.

57

FACILITIES FOR EMPLOYEES


The company has provided for its Employees various facilities for their welfare:1. Canteen Facilities
The company has its own canteen, situated near the entrance gate. The canteen is opened for 24
hours. The Employees in their break time take their meal in the canteen and are quite satisfied
with the canteen facilities.
2. Dispensary/ First-aid center
The company has the facilities of giving quick first aid and it also runs a small dispensary.
Employees avail this facility during the time of any injury or seasonal sickness. The medicines
given to the Employees here are free of cost.
3. Transport facilities for local staff
The Employees are given the facility of transport who are living in nearby area. Work force
especially of night shift is given bus facility and scooters are also available for them.
4.

Staff quarters

The staff members who are living out of station, the company has given them quarters to live
with the family. They are provided electricity facility at free of cost in the staff quarters. At the
company residential area the company has also provided a badminton court for the recreation of
their work

58

THE CONCEPT OF EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY


The concept of employee productivity is not at all a new idea. It has been around
as long as there have been employees and employers. While the concept itself is not new, new
research and awareness have made new aspects of employee productivity not only a possibility,
but a reality in the world today.
It was not at all uncommon in the past for an employer to offer some system of rewards and
privileges as a means of employee productivity. Recent thinking however has given way to the
fact that this process may actually alienate other Employees who, for whatever reason, may not
be as capable in a particular field or endeavor. Ultimately, the belief was that this was actually
contrary to effective employee productivity and in reality, decreased employee productivity.
Since the main idea behind employee productivity is to increase Employee productivity, this was
seen as very limited in scope and detrimental in the long run regarding employer-employee
relations.
Recent beliefs and ideas have introduced new concepts to the field of employee productivity.
One of the most common new areas of growth in the area of employee productivity is through
the use of work teams.
This concept of employee productivity had its major start in the aerospace industry. It allowed a
group of dedicated employees to focus together as a team on any given project. This idea of
employee productivity worked especially well since it

allowed for creative input from a number of employees without restricting the thought of any
single person or alienating any one employee in particular. When the projects went well, the

59

employees were celebrated as a group or as a team, offering employee productivity to the whole
group instead of to any one individual.
This concept of employee productivity has since evolved and become common in many fields of
study. There are a number of seminars offered which are specifically designed and promoted as a
means to offer not only employee productivity, but to create an atmosphere of team work that is
surprisingly beneficial to Employee productivity.

60

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH PROBLEM
The main limitation of the study is the collection of information.
Company is not having any official website so all the information is gathered through
Power point presentations, Documents etc.

Most of the information was confidential, so they dont want to disclose them.
WHY IS THIS PROBLEM SIGNIFICANT / NEED FOR THE STUDY
2.3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design:
To know whether the employee are satisfied in the job of TATA TELCOM SERVICES LTD.
Sample Technique:
Sampling Technique used for this research is Questionnaire
Population:
Sampler are the only employee of TATA TELCOM SERVICES LTD.
Sample Area:
Office of TATA TELCOM SERVICES LTD.
A. Type of Research:
To study the Employee Retention process, the descriptive research type is adopted.
B. Data Sources:
I.
Primary Data:
The primary data was collected from the different departments of employees of TATA DOCOMO
through structured questionnaires followed by personal interview.
II. Secondary Data:

61

The secondary data was collected through manuals, journals and Internet. Data about the
company profile and other details collected from company records, websites and through
personal discussion with various executives and other employees of the company.
C. Type of sampling:
Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling:
A. Sample Size:
The study was conducted by taking sample of 50 employees.
B. Sample Unit:
The sample unit is the different departments of employees of TATA DOCOMO.
F. Types of Research:
There are four types of research:
1. Exploratory Research:
Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulated research studies. The main
purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation of
developing

the

working

hypothesis

from

an

operational

point

of

view.

2.Descriptive Research:
Descriptive research studies, which are concerned with describing the characteristics of
particulars individual, or of a group. The main characteristics of this method are researcher
has no control over the variable, he can only report what has happened or what is happening.
The methods of research utilized in described research are survey methods of all kinds,
including comparative and correction method.

3.Experimental Research:
The most scientifically valid research is experimental research. The purpose of experimental
research is to capture cause-and-effective relationships by eliminating competing
explanations of the observed findings.

62

4.Panel Research:
Longitudinal studies are based on panel data methods. A panel is a sample of respondents
who are interviewed and then reinter viewed from time to time. Generally, panel data relate
to the repeated measurements of the same variables. Each family included in the panel,
records its purchases of a number of products at regular intervals, say, weekly, or quarterly.
Over a period of time, such data will reflect change in the buying behavior of families.
Research Instrument:
The data collected from questionnaire is utilized for having interaction with the respondents.
The free interaction which took 15-20 min with every respondent facilitated a better
understanding of the issues and also helps verify the responses by the respondents.
G. Questionnaire:
The data was collected with the help of a questionnaire which contains 20 questions. The time
given for filling the questionnaire is approximately 10-15 minutes.

1. TOOLS / TECHNIQUES TO BE USED FOR DATA ANALYSIS


I. Tools of Analysis:
Simple percentage method: Percentage method is used to calculate the opinions of the
respondents on Employee Retention process.
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
FORMULA

__________________________

* 100

TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS

63

DATA ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION


STAFF PROFILES
Data of Number of Employees of different ages
Sr.No.

Age of Employee & Staff

No. of Employees & Staff

1
2

18-23
24-29

83
48

30-35

110

4
5

36-41
42-47

69
55

48-53

27

53 and above

18

Total

410

SHIFT-WISE WORK FORCE

64

The Company production is continuous for 24 hours therefore the work force has been divided in
to three shifts. Each shift Consists of 8 hours:-

Sr.No.

Shift

Time

Number of staff

5 am-1 pm

140

1 pm-9 pm

157

9 pm-5 am

113

EMPLOYEES EDUCATION
The education category of the Employees has been categorized in to three parts:-

65

I. Less Qualified
This category includes those Employees who are X and XII pass. This category also
includes those Employees who are not educated.
II. Medium Qualified
This category includes those staff and Employees who have attained graduate level education.
This group generally forms clerical staff.

III. Highly Qualified


This category includes those staff and Employees who are postgraduate or hold some special
degrees or knowledge. This category also includes technically qualified people. In this category
most of the person are experience holder like production manager, accountant.

EDUCATION-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES

66

Sr.No.

Category

No. Of Employees

Less qualified

220

Medium qualified

150

Highly qualified

40

Education-wise Distribution

LQ
MQ
HQ

1. Is there any training programme to promote productivity?


2.

67

Yes
27

No
23

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Interpretation:Out of 50 respondents 27 people said that there is training programme to promote productivity
and rest 23 people said that there is no programme to promote productivity in this company.

2.Do you satisfied with your own performance?


1.
Satisfied

Dissatisfied

68

38

12

38
40
35
30
25
12

20
15
10
5
0
Satisfied

Dissatisfied

Interpretation:When I ask question to workers of TATA DOCOMO that they are satisfied with their
performance, then 38 people said that they were satisfied with their own performance and 12
people said that they were not satisfied with their own performance.

3.Does the award system which is practiced by TATA DOCOMO is beneficial for
the workers productivity?
Yes
23

No
27
69

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Interpretation:out of 50 peoples 27 people said that there is no award system for better productivity and 23
people said that there is award system for better productivity.

4.Is there any non-productive person in this company?


Yes
15

No
35

70

30%

70%

Interpretation:Out of 50 people 15 people said that there are some non-productive persons in this company and
35 people said that there are no non-productive persons in this company.

5.Do you satisfied with the task (job post) which has assigned to you?
Yes
42

No
8

71

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Interpretation:Out of 50 people 42 were satisfied with given post and 8 people were not satisfied with the given
post.

6.Do you have infrastructure facilities ( Laptop, Seating arrangements etc.)?.


Yes
28

No
22

72

22

Yes
28

No

Interpretation:Out of 50 people 28 were satisfied with infrastructure facilities and 22 people were not satisfied
infrastructure facilities.

7.Do you get ample support from your co-worker & cross functional team?.
Yes
27

No
23

73

28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
Yes

No

Interpretation:Out of 50 people 27 were satisfied with support from your co-worker & cross functional team
and 23 people were not satisfied support from your co-worker & cross functional team.

8.Are your comfortable with current assigned location?.

Yes
35

No
15

74

No

Yes

10

15

20

25

30

35

Interpretation:Out of 50 people 35 were satisfied with current assigned location and 15 people were not
satisfied with the current assigned location.

9.Are you open with your colleagues ( Seniors & juniors)?.

Yes
40

No
10

75

10

Yes
No

40

Interpretation:Out of 50 people 40 were free interacting with Seniors & juniors and 10 people were not
interacting with the Seniors & juniors.

10.State 3 areas of improvement & the support you need from the qrganizatio,
1. Staff Welfare
2.Communication
3.Appraisal System

35
10
5

76

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Interpretation:Out of 50 people 35 suggested for improvement in staff welfare, 10 for communication & only 5
for appraisal system.

FINDINGS
First table shows out of 50 respondents 27 people said that there is training programme to
promote productivity and rest 23 people said that there is no programme to promote productivity
in this company.

77

Second table shows when I ask question to workers of TATA DOCOMO that they are satisfied
with their performance, then 38 people said that they were satisfied with their own performance
and 12 people said that they were not satisfied with their own performance.
Third table shows out of 50 peoples 27 people said that there is no award system for better
productivity and 23 people said that there is award system for better productivity.
Fourth table shows out of 50 people 15 people said that there are some non-productive persons
in this company and 35 people said that there are no non-productive persons in this company.

Fifth table shows out of 50 people 42 were satisfied with given post and 8 people were not
satisfied with the given post.
Sixth table shows out of 50 people 28 were satisfied with infrastructure facilities and 22 people
were not satisfied infrastructure facilities.

Seventh table shows out of 50 people 27 were satisfied with support from your co-worker &
cross functional team and 23 people were not satisfied support from your co-worker & cross
functional team.

Eighth table shows out of 50 people 35 were satisfied with current assigned location and 15
people were not satisfied with the current assigned location.

78

Ninth table shows out of 50 people 40 were free interacting with Seniors & juniors and 10
people were not interacting with the Seniors & juniors.

Tenth table shows out of 50 people 35 suggested for improvement in staff welfare, 10 for
communication & only 5 for appraisal system.

CONCLUSION

79

The organization is very well established with sound policies. My visit to the company was
educative and informative. I found that HRD department is complete in all senses and is working
reasonably well.

The general impression from the study and discussion with the staff & Employee of the company
regarding Employees participation was average though the level was not found to be very high.
Reason to this may be attributed to the problem of status between staff and Employees.

SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

80

After gathering a wide variety of information on the various aspects of

productivity

approach in the company, few recommendations are worth attention.


1. Responsibility without authority can be destructive. Management should not order, but should
inspire. It should not impose but influence.
2. Management should make every employee of the organization give their hearts not just heads to the
goals.
3. A timely presentation of the work done should be there to the top management
4. Teamwork in all operational process must be encouraged. Equip people with the skills necessary to
perform their duties.
5. Allow the voice of the Employees to be heard.
6. The management should let his people know that it consider them valuable capable individual.
7.

Provide the employee enough work.

8.

Dress code should be there.

9. Employee should be informed in advance about the changes, which are planned in the organization.
10. Suggestion system can be a strong employee productivity because the employees are given the
opportunity to say something. This will increase the sense of belonging.
11. The fear productivity should be completely abolished though it works well in the short run but is an
ineffective long term strategy.

LIMITATIONS

There were few limitations, which were uncommitted while conducting this project but these
limitations could not restrict the progress and completion of the present study.
Some of the inevitable limitation that crept in the study are as under:-

81

1. Some of the respondents were not genuinely helpful, cooperative and responsive. They
were hesitant to fully disclose the information with the research.
2.

Most of the employees were busy, due to some work of the organization.

3. There was much difficulty in approaching the higher management employees.


4. Latest data of the company and books concerned were not easily available.
5. The options offered in the questionnaire were at time, not correctly interpreted by the
employees of lower level management.
6. Most of the employees other than that of personnel department wee not at all cooperative.
7. Employees of lower level did not take the questionnaire seriously.
8. A certain degree of fear and devotion towards the organization was a hurdle while
conducting the research.
9. For certain Employees at lower questionnaire were a source of showing their frustration.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Web Sites:
www.tatadocomo.com
www.google.com

82

Books:
Human Resource Management
By: - Dr. C.B. Gupta
Human Resource & Personnel Management
By: - K Aswathappa

Annexure
Questionnaire for Employees
Name .

83

Tick the followings questions as per your choice and experience.


1. Is there any training programme to promote productivity?
Yes
No
2.Do you satisfied with your own performance?
Satisfied
Dissatisfied
3.Does the award system which is practiced by TATA DOCOMO is beneficial
for the workers productivity?
Yes
No
4.Is there any non-productive person in this company?
Yes
No
5.Do you satisfied with the task (job post) which has assigned to you?
Yes
No
6.Do you have infrastructure facilities ( Laptop, Seating arrangements etc.)?.
Yes
No

7.Do you get ample support from your co-worker & cross functional team?.
Yes

No

8.Are your comfortable with current assigned location?.

84

Yes

No

9.Are you open with your colleagues ( Seniors & juniors)?.


Yes

No

10.Sate 3 areas of improvement & the support you need from the organization,
1. Staff Welfare
2.Communication
3.Appraisal System

85