You are on page 1of 21

21/3/2016

Wateristheessenceoflife

GEEKYSTUFF
Formula: H2O
Molar mass: 18.0153 g/mol
Density: 1,000.00 kg/m
Boiling point: 99.98 C
Melting point: 0.0 C

http://dark.pozadia.org/images/wallpapers/24835556/Fantasy/Litle%20Mermaid%20in%20Ocean.jpg

Watercovers~70%of
ourworld'ssurface.

Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, covering about 70


percent of the planet. In nature, water exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states.

Ifyoucollectedallof
Earthswaterintoa
sphere,howbig
woulditbe?
Got your answer?

Our water sphere would have a diameter of 1,385 kilometers (about 860 miles),
and span the distance from Salt Lake City, Utah to Topeka, Kansas. A sphere this
far across would have a volume equal to about 1,386 million cubic kilometres
(roughly 332,500,000 cubic miles).
Mostwater
Isintheocean

http://io9.com/5908108/ifyoucollectedallofearthswaterintoaspherehowbigwoulditbe

21/3/2016

2.2%inIce(Cryosphere)

70%oftheEarthiscoveredinwater.
Table1:WheretheFreshWaterIs
VolumeinThousands
ofCubicKilometers

Percentageof
TotalWateronEarth

Oceans

1,310,302

97.3

Thisissaltyseawater.

Ice

29,492

2.2

Muchofthisiceisinthe
Antarctic

Groundwater

6,733

0.5

Undergroundaquifers,
deepwells

Lakes

242

0.02

Providedrinkingwater,
irrigationwater,fishand
recreation

SoilMoisture

74

0.005

Thisisbeingusedbyour
crops,trees,andsurface
vegetation

WaterVaporinthe
Atmosphere

14

0.001

Clouds,fog,anddew

Rivers

1.3

0.0001

Providewaterfor
drinking,irrigation,and
recreation

Remarks

Adaptedfrom:EnvironmentCanada
http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/SyedQadri.shtml

Groundwater(0.05%)

Lakes(0.02%)

21/3/2016

Atmosphericwater(0.001%)

Rivers(0.0001%)

Cannotdrinkthis.

Ocean(97.3%)

http://www.salinityremotesensing.ifremer.fr/seasurfacesalinity/definitionandunits

21/3/2016

21/3/2016

UncleDanChallenge

3Volunteers+supportteam

21/3/2016

Windpatterns

21/3/2016

21/3/2016

Monsoon

MONSOON

21/3/2016

Climate of Singapore Seasons

Climate of Singapore - Seasons

North-East Monsoon
(November to March)
north-easterly winds prevail
December and January
characterised by rainy
afternoons
February until early-March often
drier
Annual average wind speeds
reach a peak in January and
February

South-West Monsoon
(May to October)
south-easterly to south-westerly
winds prevail
Sumatra Squalls are common
Hazy periods

North-East Monsoon
(November to March)
north-easterly winds prevail
December and January
characterised by rainy
afternoons
February until early-March often
drier
Annual average wind speeds
reach a peak in January and
February

South-West Monsoon
(May to October)
south-easterly to south-westerly
winds prevail
Sumatra Squalls are common
Hazy periods

Inter-Monsoon
(March to May)
light, variable winds
afternoon and early evening
thunderstorms

Inter-Monsoon
(October to November)
light, variable winds
afternoon and early evening
thunderstorms

Inter-Monsoon
(March to May)
light, variable winds
afternoon and early evening
thunderstorms

Inter-Monsoon
(October to November)
light, variable winds
afternoon and early evening
thunderstorms

33

Proprietary & Confidential

Climate of Singapore - Seasons

34

Proprietary & Confidential

Climate of Singapore - Seasons

North-East Monsoon
(November to March)
north-easterly winds prevail
December and January
characterised by rainy
afternoons
February until early-March often
drier
Annual average wind speeds
reach a peak in January and
February

South-West Monsoon
(May to October)
south-easterly to south-westerly
winds prevail
Sumatra Squalls are common
Hazy periods

North-East Monsoon
(November to March)
north-easterly winds prevail
December and January
characterised by rainy
afternoons
February until early-March often
drier
Annual average wind speeds
reach a peak in January and
February

South-West Monsoon
(May to October)
south-easterly to south-westerly
winds prevail
Sumatra Squalls are common
Hazy periods

Inter-Monsoon
(March to May)
light, variable winds
afternoon and early evening
thunderstorms

Inter-Monsoon
(October to November)
light, variable winds
afternoon and early evening
thunderstorms

Inter-Monsoon
(March to May)
light, variable winds
afternoon and early evening
thunderstorms

Inter-Monsoon
(October to November)
light, variable winds
afternoon and early evening
thunderstorms

Proprietary & Confidential

35

Proprietary & Confidential

36

21/3/2016

EXTREMES

1998ElNino

http://mbojo.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/elnino19971998.jpg

1998wasdryintheregion
LotsofburninginIndonesia

http://time2transcend.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/img_73653.jpg

10

21/3/2016

WillHazeReturnin2016?

http://www.somamedicalnews.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/06/hazemapmalaysiasingapore25june20131.jpg
http://www.todayonline.com/sites/default/files/styles/photo_gallery_image_lightbox/public/15391230_0.JPG?itok=WcZognyB

11

21/3/2016

Whatistheconnection
betweenElNinoand
weather?

Whenonthingchangesthe
weathergoesnuts.
ItsnatureBro!

ElNino

12

21/3/2016

science.kennesaw.edu
science.kennesaw.edu

13

21/3/2016

http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/droughtexactstolloncropsinregion

14

21/3/2016

2014
Singapore
Dry
Spell

FEB2014

http://www.todayonline.com/sites/default/files/styles/photo_gallery_image_lightbox/public/14369403_0.JPG?itok=E6iZhAlm

OfficialswererationingwaterinsomepartsofMalaysia duringthe
2014dryspell
http://www.bbc.com/news/business26445373

15

21/3/2016

Cloudseeding

Workersunloadtrucksofharvestedoilpalmfruitataplantationandproductionfactoryin
Kertajaya,Indonesia.Palmoilmaydeclinetoaverage3,078ringgitinthefourthquarter
becauseaprojectedsurplusforthecropwontbeentirelyerasedbyshortagesofsoybeanoil.
Photographer:Dadang Tri/Bloomberg
https://climateviewer.com/2014/01/15/photoindonesianairforceinstallsweathermodificationequipmenttopreventheavyrains/#prettyPhoto/0/

http://www.businessweek.com/news/20120416/droughtdrainingstocksofoilsamidrecorddemandcommodities

2014

1962WaterRationing
http://goodmorningyesterday.blogspot.sg/2009/10/waterrationingbyfreddyneo.html

16

21/3/2016

Groundwater(0.05%)

Singaporescommitmentto

http://coralgeographics.blogspot.sg/

17

21/3/2016

WaterpipedfromMalaysia

water

40%

Manytaps
Keytoresilience

Reservoirsdrainingcatchments

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/SingaporeJohor_Causeway.jpg

20%

desalinization

10%

LowerSeletar Reservoir
Dryconditions2014
http://www.pub.gov.sg/LongTermWaterPlans/wfall/images/wfall_sea_pic.jpg

http://www.todayonline.com/sites/default/files/styles/photo_gallery_image_lightbox/public/18213522.JPG?itok=l9nm_mEi

18

21/3/2016

yuckfactor

Drinkingreclaimedwater?

Whatdoyouthinkabout

30%

http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/wpcontent/uploads/2011/01/singaporegreen1000.jpg

Resilience

Are4tapssufficientinchanging
landscapeofSingapore?
6.9millionpeopleby2030
Watercontractends2061(Tap2)

http://sin.stb.smsn.com/i/BE/1B3914F051CF5B8EC8B431F198B915.jpg

Planning for the Future Water demand in Singapore is currently about 400 million
gallons a day (mgd), with homes consuming 45% and the nondomestic sector
taking up the rest. By 2060, total demand could almost double, with the non
domestic sector accounting for about 70%. On the supply side, we are on track to
more than triple our NEWater capacity and ramp up desalination. Together, these
will be able to meet up to 80% of water demand in 2060.

19

21/3/2016

importedcatchmentrunoff

Cangroundwaterbethe5th tap?

0%

20%

goalforthefuture

30%

50%
http://water.usgs.gov/edu/pictures/gwaquiferflow.gif

desalinizationrecycledwater

20

21/3/2016

5th tap

links

BillNyi:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6rIoQ_cmkB4
WatercycleRap:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3NeMVBcXXU
Watercyclejump:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evH2r5dOq5Q
Sam:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T05djitkEFI&hl=enGB&gl=SG
ElNino:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hpg4ekustvc

Exam
HowwillElNinoPotentiallyAffectSingapore?
WhatisENSO?Whatisthedifference
betweenElNinoandLaNina?
DescribeSingaporesstrategyfordrought
resilienceinthefuture.

21