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GE1101E/GEK1001

The Geosphere: Landforms


@winstontlchow

Images from Wikimedia unless stated otherwise

A note on e-lectures

Watch and learn at your own pace!


Best to watch this video on one window, whilst have
open web browser on GE1101E/GEK1001 IVLE electure workbin
Email/ tweet or DM me if you have questions on the topic

Overview

What is the Earth made of?

Plate Tectonics

How the theory was developed, and associated landforms

Processes associated with the Geosphere

The Lithosphere & The Rock Cycle

Faulting, folding, weathering & mass movements

Death and Destruction

Hazards in the Geosphere!

What is the Lithosphere/Geosphere?

Greek rocky
sphere
Part of (and impacts)
the Earth system

Several major layers


of note
lithosphere crust
and uppermost
mantle

Note densities of
each layer relative
densities matter!
Christopherson 2006; Ritter 2012

How do we explore the interior?

Seismographs!
Analysis of Primary and
Secondary Waves from
seismic events

P = compressional
S = shear

P/S waves travel


differently

Difference between
seismic event types

Thetech.org; Christopherson 2006; Lawrence Livermore National Lab

How old is the Earth?

~4.6 billion years

Human ancestor1.8 mya; 11:59:58.8 pm

Absolute vs. geologic time scale


Theory of superposition

Relative time scale


Old below, young above

Ritter 2012

What is the Earth made of?

What do the Earth and Kueh


Lapis have in common?
Earths (layered) interior
structure

Crust
Upper & lower mantle
Core

What are their important


features?

Why is the Core important?

Inner (solid) & outer (liquid?)


core

Inner solid iron & nickel


Outer molten iron

Core is the source of Earths


magnetic field

Geomagnetic reversal

Revisit this when we talk plate


tectonics

IMDB.com

Why is the Mantle important?

80% of Earths total volume


Upper (less fluid) & lower
(more fluid) mantle

Fluid transition in mantle/crust


asthenosphere
Moho = Mohorovicic
discontinuity upper mantle

Sharp change in P and S waves


velocities here

Convection of molten
minerals (magma) occurs
here implications for plate
tectonics

Why is the Crust important?

Earths skin we inhabit on it!


Oceanic (basaltic, more dense)
& continental (granitic, less
dense) crust
Crust floats on
asthenosphere/mantle
What happens at the crust?

Numerous geosphere processes


at different scales

Denudation, weathering, erosion


etc.
Subduction, sea-floor spreading
Orogeny (mountain building)
Isostasy (rebounding)
Ritter 2012

What types of rocks are there?

Rocks! The rock cycle

Ritter 2012

What types of rocks are there?

Igneous rocks

Crystallized magma from cooling

Granite & basalt

Coarse/fine grained, light or dark


coloured

Igneous landforms

Intrusive crystallized
underground

Landforms called plutons


More crystals

Extrusive crystallized above


ground

Greater cooling = less crystals


NO crystals e.g. Obsidian
Don Peck, Collectors Corner

Examples of plutons?

Studyblue.com

What types of rocks are there?

Sedimentary Rocks

Process of sedimentation
(cementation, compaction &
hardening) of eroded
older rocks

E.g. Sandstone, shale, coal,


limestone

Clastic (i.e. particles) or


chemical (i.e. biological)
rocks

What types of rocks are there?

Metamorphic rocks

Physical or chemical
transformation of rocks
through pressure and/or
temperature
Gneiss, schist, slate, marble
More resistant to
weathering & erosion
Parent rocks (granite
gneiss) & foliation (minerals
align towards the same
plane)

Singapore geology?

Check out the detailed map in the E-lab!


Zhao et al., NTU 1995

Singapore geology?

More details in higher level GE courses! (e.g. Prof Nawaz & Kundu!)
Straits Times