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Building Geodatabases

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri


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Introduction
Introduction............................................................................................................ vii
Course goals ......................................................................................................... vii
Using the course workbook ................................................................................... vii
Additional resources ............................................................................................. viii
Installing the course data ..................................................................................... viii

What is a geodatabase?
Lesson introduction ............................................................................................. 1-1
Key terms ............................................................................................................ 1-2
Top reasons to use a geodatabase ..................................................................... 1-3
Geodatabase elements ....................................................................................... 1-4
Exercise 1: Work with geodatabase elements .................................................... 1-6
Explore geodatabase structure ..................................................................... 1-6
Examine geodatabase elements................................................................... 1-8
Explore feature classes in ArcMap ............................................................. 1-12
Explore a topology ...................................................................................... 1-17
Explore a geometric network ...................................................................... 1-20
Lesson review ................................................................................................... 1-23
Answers to Lesson 1 questions .................................................................. 1-24

Types of geodatabases
Lesson introduction ............................................................................................. 2-1
Key terms ............................................................................................................ 2-2
Single-user geodatabases................................................................................... 2-2
Multiuser geodatabases ...................................................................................... 2-3
ArcGIS Desktop licensing.................................................................................... 2-3
Lesson review ..................................................................................................... 2-4
Answers to Lesson 2 questions .................................................................... 2-6

Creating geodatabase schemas


Lesson introduction ............................................................................................. 3-1
Key terms ............................................................................................................ 3-2
Building geodatabase schema ............................................................................ 3-2
Schema scenarios ............................................................................................... 3-3
Getting started with geodatabase design ............................................................ 3-4
Field data types ................................................................................................... 3-6

Exercise 3: Create geodatabase schemas......................................................... 3-7


Create a new geodatabase.......................................................................... 3-7
Create a new feature dataset....................................................................... 3-7
Create a new feature class .......................................................................... 3-8
Create schema with a data model ............................................................. 3-12
Update geodatabase and spatial reference ............................................... 3-15
Create schema through advanced geoprocessing .................................... 3-17
Lesson review .................................................................................................. 3-19
Answers to Lesson 3 questions ................................................................. 3-20

Loading data into a geodatabase


Lesson introduction ............................................................................................ 4-1
Geodatabase data sources ................................................................................ 4-2
Raster data storage ............................................................................................ 4-4
Choose the best method for loading data .......................................................... 4-5
Tip: Storing data efficiently ................................................................................. 4-6
Exercise 4: Load data into a geodatabase ......................................................... 4-7
Load data into feature class......................................................................... 4-7
Load data from an XML recordset document............................................. 4-11
Use conversion tools to import and export data......................................... 4-12
Load raster data......................................................................................... 4-15
Use a raster as a field type ........................................................................ 4-17
Create a mosaic dataset ............................................................................ 4-19
Lesson review .................................................................................................. 4-25
Answers to Lesson 4 questions ................................................................. 4-26

Domains and subtypes


Lesson introduction ............................................................................................ 5-1
Key terms ........................................................................................................... 5-2
Applying domains ............................................................................................... 5-3
Domain examples............................................................................................... 5-5
Subtype examples .............................................................................................. 5-6
Using domains and subtypes ............................................................................. 5-7
Creating subtypes .............................................................................................. 5-7
Exercise 5: Explore subtypes and domains ....................................................... 5-9
Create subtypes........................................................................................... 5-9
Create a range domain .............................................................................. 5-13
Create coded value domains ..................................................................... 5-15

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Apply domains to fields and subtypes......................................................... 5-17


Use subtypes and domains in ArcMap ....................................................... 5-21
Lesson review ................................................................................................... 5-25
Answers to Lesson 5 questions .................................................................. 5-26

Relating spatial and attribute data


Lesson introduction ............................................................................................. 6-1
Joins and relates ................................................................................................. 6-2
Relationship classes............................................................................................ 6-3
Advantages of relationship classes ..................................................................... 6-4
Relationship rules ................................................................................................ 6-6
Exercise 6A: Relate spatial and attribute data .................................................... 6-7
Explore table cardinality................................................................................ 6-7
Create relationship classes........................................................................... 6-9
Use relationship classes in ArcMap ............................................................ 6-13
Exercise 6B: Work with relationship rules ......................................................... 6-20
Create relationship rules ............................................................................. 6-20
Use relationship rules in ArcMap ................................................................ 6-23
Lesson review ................................................................................................... 6-30
Answers to Lesson 6 questions .................................................................. 6-32

Editing using attribute validation rules


Lesson introduction ............................................................................................. 7-1
Streamlining your editing workflow ...................................................................... 7-2
Exercise 7: Edit using attribute validation rules ................................................... 7-4
Edit using coded value domains ................................................................... 7-4
Edit with range domains................................................................................ 7-8
Edit using subtypes....................................................................................... 7-9
Edit relationship classes ............................................................................. 7-13
Lesson review ................................................................................................... 7-22
Answers to Lesson 7 questions .................................................................. 7-24

Geodatabase annotation
Lesson introduction ............................................................................................. 8-1
Key terms ............................................................................................................ 8-2
Geodatabase annotation ..................................................................................... 8-3
Feature-linked annotation.................................................................................... 8-4
Labels and annotation ......................................................................................... 8-5

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Converting labels to annotation .......................................................................... 8-5


Labels or annotation? ......................................................................................... 8-6
Exercise 8: Work with geodatabase annotation ................................................. 8-7
Create annotation from labels...................................................................... 8-7
Explore annotation ..................................................................................... 8-12
Edit feature-linked annotation .................................................................... 8-15
Create an annotation feature class ............................................................ 8-20
Lesson review .................................................................................................. 8-24
Answers to Lesson 8 questions ................................................................. 8-26

Geodatabase topology
Lesson introduction ............................................................................................ 9-1
Key terms ........................................................................................................... 9-2
Identifying spatial relationships .......................................................................... 9-3
Why create a topology?...................................................................................... 9-4
Topology workflow.............................................................................................. 9-5
Dirty areas .......................................................................................................... 9-5
Validation symbology in ArcMap ........................................................................ 9-6
Create a topology ............................................................................................... 9-7
Exercise 9: Work with geodatabase topology .................................................... 9-8
Explore coincident geometry........................................................................ 9-8
Create a geodatabase topology................................................................. 9-11
Use a topology in ArcMap.......................................................................... 9-16
Step............................................................................................................ 9-20
Lesson review .................................................................................................. 9-21
Answers to Lesson 9 questions ................................................................. 9-22

10

Editing using geodatabase topology


Lesson introduction .......................................................................................... 10-1
Topology editing workflow ................................................................................ 10-2
Geometric elements of a topology.................................................................... 10-3
Advantages of editing using a geodatabase topology ...................................... 10-4
Exercise 10: Use topology editing tools ........................................................... 10-5
Create a topology....................................................................................... 10-5
Fix dangling lot lines .................................................................................. 10-6
Fix intersecting lot lines............................................................................ 10-12
Fix overlapping lots .................................................................................. 10-15
Fix an extra lot line................................................................................... 10-16

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Fix a missing lot line.................................................................................. 10-17


(Optional) Identify and correct remaining errors ....................................... 10-19
Lesson review ................................................................................................. 10-20
Answers to Lesson 10 questions .............................................................. 10-22

11

Geometric networks
Lesson introduction ........................................................................................... 11-1
Key terms .......................................................................................................... 11-2
Real world network examples ........................................................................... 11-3
Real-world network: Natural Gas ...................................................................... 11-4
What is a geometric network? ........................................................................... 11-6
Two views of a network ..................................................................................... 11-7
Components of a geometric network................................................................. 11-8
Advantages of a geometric network .................................................................. 11-9
Exercise 11: Work with geometric networks.................................................... 11-10
Explore a network ..................................................................................... 11-10
Edit network features ................................................................................ 11-14
Use network tracing operations ................................................................ 11-21
Lesson review ................................................................................................. 11-26
Answers to Lesson 11 questions .............................................................. 11-28

12

Geodatabase workflow
Lesson introduction ........................................................................................... 12-1
Geodatabase workflow ...................................................................................... 12-3
Exercise 12A: Project: Work with attribute behavior ......................................... 12-5
Add fields .................................................................................................... 12-5
Update fields using ArcMap ........................................................................ 12-6
Create subtypes.......................................................................................... 12-7
Create and apply domains for trail width..................................................... 12-8
Create coded value domains ...................................................................... 12-9
Create relationship classes....................................................................... 12-10
Edit in ArcMap........................................................................................... 12-12
Exercise 12B: Project: Work with geometric networks .................................... 12-16
Import data into the geodatabase ............................................................. 12-16
Prepare data for subtypes......................................................................... 12-17
Create subtypes........................................................................................ 12-21
Create domains......................................................................................... 12-22
Create a geometric network...................................................................... 12-25

Create network connectivity rules ............................................................ 12-26


Edit geometric networks........................................................................... 12-30
Exercise 12C: Project: Work with cadastral data ........................................... 12-35
Create schema and import data............................................................... 12-35
Create domains........................................................................................ 12-36
Create geodatabase topology.................................................................. 12-37
Work with a topology in ArcMap .............................................................. 12-38
Create annotation .................................................................................... 12-43
Add a feature class to a topology............................................................. 12-44
Lesson review ................................................................................................ 12-48
Answers to Lesson 12 questions ............................................................. 12-50
Exercise 12A solution: Exercise solution with steps ................................ 12-59
Exercise 12B solution .............................................................................. 12-78
Exercise 12C solution ............................................................................ 12-102

Appendixes
Appendix A: Esri data license agreement ......................................................... A-1
Appendix B: Additional geodatabase elements ................................................. B-1

vi

Introduction

Welcome to Building Geodatabases. This course provides an overview of the structure and
capabilities of the geodatabase. You'll learn how to create a geodatabase, migrate existing GIS
data to a geodatabase, and edit and maintain data stored in a geodatabase with a focus on the
file geodatabase.
This course is designed to work with ArcGIS 10 at the ArcInfo license level.

Course goals
In this course, you will learn how to:

Create geodatabase structure.


Describe advantages of geodatabase validation rules.
Create and apply spatial and attribute validation rules.
Edit data using spatial and attribute validation rules.
Create and edit geodatabase annotation.
Perform geometric network editing and tracing.
Load vector and raster data into a geodatabase.

Using the course workbook


The course workbook is an integral part of your learning experience. During class, you use the
workbook to complete activities and exercises that reinforce specific tasks and skills. After class,
the workbook is your personal reference to review activities or work through exercises again to
reinforce what you've learned.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

vii

Essential elements include:

Lessons: Objectives and key tasks and functions at the beginning of each lesson to help

you find the information you're looking for


Guided activities: Interactive activities that reinforce key topics
Exercises: Step-by-step instructions to accomplish essential tasks and skills
Review: Questions and answers that reinforce key concepts
Appendices: Your guide to additional resources
CD: Data necessary for completing the course exercises

Additional resources
Refer to the following resources to learn more about building geodatabases:

Geodatabase Resource Center


http://resources.esri.com/geodatabase
This site provides unified access to Web-based Help, online content, and technical support for
the Geodatabase.

Esri GIS Dictionary


www.esri.com/gisdictionary
This dictionary includes terms from GIS operations such as analysis, data management, and
geocomputation. This online GIS Dictionary also includes Esri software-specific terminology.

Installing the course data


To use the workbook exercises, you will need to install the data that will be used throughout this
course. The data is stored on a CD and will be copied to your hard drive by an automated install
program.

Install data from the data CD


Remove the training data CD from the back of your workbook and place it in the CD
drive.
Click Yes to accept the Esri license agreement.
Click Next on the welcome panel.
By default, the course data will be installed to the C:\Student folder.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Note: If for some reason you need to install the course data to a different location,
browse to that location. Select the folder where you want to store the course data,
then click OK. Be sure to note the location of the folder you've selected so that
you can easily access the data in the upcoming exercises.

Click Next.
Click Finish when the data installation is complete.
Remove the training data CD from your CD drive and return it to its sleeve in your
workbook.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

ix

What is a geodatabase?

Introduction
In this lesson, you will learn what the geodatabase is and become familiar with its structure and
the elements stored within it. Recognizing these elements will help provide a foundation for
learning about and effectively using geodatabases within your GIS workflows.

Topics covered

What is a geodatabase?
Reasons to use a geodatabase
Geodatabase elements
Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Explain the basic advantages of a geodatabase.


Describe the basic elements within a geodatabase.

1-1

What is a geodatabase?

Key terms

Term

Definition

Feature class A collection of geographic features with the same geometry type (such
as point, line, or polygon), the same attributes, and the same spatial
reference.
Feature
dataset

A collection of feature classes stored together that share the same


spatial reference; that is, they share a coordinate system, and their
features fall within a common geographic area

Table

A set of data elements arranged in rows and columns. Each row


represents a single record. Each column represents a field of the record.
Rows and columns intersect to form cells, which contain a specific value
for one field in a record.

Geodatabase A database or file structure used primarily to store, query, and


manipulate spatial data. Geodatabases store geometry, a spatial
reference system, attributes, and behavioral rules for data.

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Geometric
network

Edge and junction features that represent a linear network, such as a


utility or hydrologic system, in which the connectivity of features is based
on their geometric coincidence.

Raster
dataset

A raster spatial data model that is stored on disk or in a geodatabase.

Relationship
class

An item in the geodatabase that stores information about a relationship.

Topology

In geodatabases, the arrangement that constrains how point, line, and


polygon features share geometry. For example, street centerlines and
census blocks share geometry, and adjacent soil polygons share
geometry. Topology defines and enforces data integrity rules (for
example, there should be no gaps between polygons).

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 1

Top reasons to use a geodatabase


Structural

1. Improved versatility and usability


2. Optimized performance
3. Few size limitations

Performance

4. Easy data migration


5. Improved editing model
6. Storing rasters in the geodatabase

Data management 7. Customizable storage configuration


8. Allows updates to spatial indexes
9. Allows the use of data compression
For a full discussion of file geodatabase advantages, read the ArcUser article, The Top Nine
Reasons to Use a File Geodatabase. Visit www.esri.com/arcuser.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

1-3

What is a geodatabase?

Geodatabase elements
Feature class
A collection of geographic features with the same geometry typepoint, line,
or polygonthe same attributes, and the same spatial reference. Can also
store annotation and dimensions.

Feature dataset
A collection of feature classes stored together that share the same spatial
reference and their features fall within a common geographic area. Used to
help model spatial relationships between feature classes.
Raster
A data model that represents geographic features by dividing the world into
discrete square or rectangular cells laid out in a grid. Each cell has a value that
is used to represent some characteristic of that location. Commonly used for
representing and managing imagery, digital elevation models, and numerous
other phenomena.
See Lesson 4.
Raster Catalog
A collection of raster datasets in a table format in which each record defines an
individual raster dataset in the catalog.
See Lesson 4.
Mosaic dataset
A data model that is a hybrid of a raster catalog and raster dataset. Represents
an on-the-fly mosaic view of a raster catalog. Allows you to store, manage,
view, and query small to vast collections of raster and image data. Has
advanced raster querying capabilities and processing functions and can also
be used as a source for serving image services.
See Lesson 4.

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Lesson 1

Table
A set of data elements arranged in rows and columns. Each row represents a
single record. Each column represents a field of the record. Rows and columns
intersect to form cells, which contain a specific value for one field in a record.
Typically stores stand-alone attribute information or information associated with
a spatial location such as addresses.
See Lessons 5 and 6.
Relationship class
Manages the associations between objects in one class (e.g., table or feature
class) and objects in another. Objects at either end of the relationship can be
features with geometry or records in a table. See Lesson 6.
Geometric network
Edge and junction features that represent a directed-flow system network, such
as a utility or hydrologic system, in which the connectivity of features is based
on their geometric coincidence. Does not contain information about the
connectivity of features; this information is stored within a logical network. See
Lesson 11.
Topology
Describes how features share geometry within a geodatabase. For example,
street centerlines and census blocks share geometry, and adjacent soil
polygons share geometry. Defines and enforces data integrity rules, topological
relationship queries and navigation, and sophisticated editing tools. It also
allows feature construction from unstructured geometry.
See Lessons 9 and 10.
Annotation
A specialized feature class that stores text or graphics that provide information
about features or general areas of a map. An annotation feature class can be
linked to another feature class so that edits to the features are reflected in the
corresponding annotation (i.e., feature-linked annotation).
See Lesson 8.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

1-5

What is a geodatabase?

Exercise 1: Work with geodatabase elements


Estimated time: 35 minutes
In this exercise, you will explore geodatabase elements using ArcCatalog and ArcMap. You will
examine how they are stored, what properties they have, and how they are used. First, you will
use ArcCatalog to view a geodatabase and its contents, then you will use a prepared ArcMap
document to further explore geodatabase elements.
In this exercise, you will:

Use ArcCatalog and ArcMap to explore geodatabase elements.


Explore a topology.
Run a network tracing operation.
Step 1: Explore geodatabase structure
In this step, you will explore the structure of the geodatabase. Before you begin, you will create
two folder connections that you will use for the remainder of the class.
Start ArcCatalog.
On the Standard toolbar, click the Connect To Folder button

In the Connect To Folder dialog box, navigate to the ..\Student\BLDG\Database folder


and select the Database folder.
Click OK.
You have just created a folder connection that allows you to connect directly to the Database
folder for this course without having to navigate each time you open ArcCatalog. You will use
this folder connection to access geodatabases for all of the exercises in this course.
Make a second folder connection to the ..\Student\BLDG folder.
The BLDG folder contains folders for each exercise. This is where you will go to get map
documents and supplemental data.
From the Customize menu, choose ArcCatalog Options, and click the General tab.
Make sure Hide file extensions is unchecked.

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Lesson 1

Click OK.
Note: The Catalog tree is a window that you can set to auto hide by toggling the Auto
Hide push pin

in the title bar. When the push pin is pointing down, the

window stays open and you have the option to dock the window to another
location.

Click the plus sign next to the ..\Student\BLDG\Database folder connection to expand
it, then expand Manhattan.gdb and view its contents.
A plus sign next to an element indicates that there are additional elements stored within.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

1-7

What is a geodatabase?

Now, expand the CityData and SewerSystem feature datasets.

This file geodatabase contains many of the elements discussed earlier. Notice that each feature
dataset contains multiple feature classes as well as geodatabase behaviors. CityData also
contains relationship classes and a topology. SewerSystem contains a geometric network.
In the next step, you will explore some of the more common geodatabase elements.

Step 2: Examine geodatabase elements


In this step, you will explore properties for several common geodatabase elements. All
geodatabase elements have properties that are typically set when the element is created, but
some properties can be set or modified at any time. You can access an element's properties by
right-clicking the element in the Catalog tree and choosing Properties.
Right-click the CityData feature dataset and click Properties.
Click the XY Coordinate System tab.
This tab contains information about the coordinate system for the feature dataset. All feature
classes that are added to a feature dataset are projected to match the coordinate system of that
feature dataset.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 1

1. What is the map projection used for this feature dataset?


______________________________________________________________________________
Close the Feature Dataset Properties dialog box.
Open the Properties for the Zoning feature class.
2. What is its projection?
______________________________________________________________________________
Notice that the projection is identical to that of CityData. If a feature class resides in a feature
dataset, its map projection and related spatial properties will match the feature dataset's.
Close the Feature Class Properties dialog box.
In the Catalog tree, click the minus signs
them.

next to CityData and SewerSystem to collapse

Next, you will examine a raster dataset.


Click the ProposedNewSite raster dataset, then click the Preview tab.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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What is a geodatabase?

Use the Zoom In tool

to magnify the image.

This image is an aerial photo of a potential store location at the south end of Manhattan,
Kansas.
Open the properties for the raster dataset.
The Raster Dataset Properties dialog box displays information about the raster's data
composition, spatial extent, compression format, and spatial reference. You can edit these
attributes in this dialog box, allowing ArcCatalog to manage raster data in the geodatabase.
Close the Raster Dataset Properties dialog box.
You can add new elements to a geodatabase by using the tools on the Geoprocessing menu.
Many of these tools are also available by right-clicking on the geodatabase.
Right-click the Manhattan.gdb file geodatabase, then click New.

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Lesson 1

Choosing New opens a menu with options to create elements such as feature classes, feature
datasets, or raster catalogs. Wizards guide you through the process of entering basic properties
for these new elements. You can set additional properties after you finish creating the element.
The types of elements you can create depend on your license level for ArcGIS Desktop and the
extensions you have installed. For example, you must have an ArcEditor or ArcInfo license to
create new relationship classes.
Press the Esc key on your keyboard to close the menu.
Geodatabases can also store toolboxes.
Expand the PlanningTools toolbox and its Analysis toolset.

Toolboxes are containers for toolsets, which are groupings of tools with similar functionality,
and for geoprocessing tools. There are three different types of geoprocessing tools in
ArcToolbox: system tools, models, and scripts. In the Analysis toolset, there are three system
tools, Buffer, Near, and Union. The Planning Tools toolbox also contains one model. Models
are a great way to chain geoprocessing tools together and create a visual reference for a
workflow. Models are stored in toolboxes, which can be stored in geodatabases.
Next, you will look at two special elements in the geodatabase: a topology and a geometric
network.
Expand the CityData feature dataset, right-click CityData_Topology, and choose
Properties.
Click the Feature Classes tab.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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What is a geodatabase?

The four feature classes listed here all participate in this topology. Notice that each of these
feature classes is stored in the CityData feature dataset. Feature classes can participate in a
topology only if they are stored in the same feature dataset. In addition, feature classes can
participate in only one topology at a time.
Click Cancel on the Topology Properties dialog box.
In the Sewer System feature dataset, open the properties for SewerSystem_Net.
Click the General tab.

The three feature classes listed here all participate in this geometric network. Like a topology, all
feature classes that participate in a geometric network must be stored in the same feature
dataset.
Click Cancel to close the Geometric Network Properties dialog box.
Next, you will explore how geodatabase elements behave in ArcMap.

Step 3: Explore feature classes in ArcMap


In this step, you will explore a variety of feature classes in ArcMap. Using a prepared map
document, you will work with point, line, polygon, and annotation feature classes. While map
documents are usually opened from ArcMap directly, you can also open them from ArcCatalog.
In the Catalog tree, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise01 and double-click
Manhattan_Kansas.mxd to open it in ArcMap.
Close ArcCatalog.
Click the Auto Hide pin in the upper right corner of the table of contents window to set it
to auto hide.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 1

Best practice: Increase space for your map display by setting windows,
like the table of contents and the Catalog window, to auto hide. Windows
set to auto hide collapse and display as tabs when not in use. Hover your
mouse cursor over a tab to open the window.
Hover your mouse cursor over the table of contents tab to expand it.
The table of contents lists several data frames with names like Step 3 - Feature classes. These
group the various layers you will use in a certain step. You will be changing the active data
frame several times throughout the remainder of the exercise.

Expand the Step 3 - Feature classes data frame.


The active data frame contains layers for point, line, polygon, and annotation feature classes.
Notice that Bridges and Store Locations contain point features; Cityboundary and Streets
contain line features; and Buildings, Zoning, and Parcels contain polygon features.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

1-13

What is a geodatabase?

Feature classes from a geodatabase display as layers in ArcMap and have the same general
properties as a shapefile.
Next, you will take a look at annotation feature classes. Annotation feature classes contain
annotation, or specialized labels used for cartographic display.
Turn off all layers except Zoning and ZoningAnno.
Best practice: To turn all layers on or off at the same time, hold down the
Ctrl key and click the box next to one layer.
Notice that the ZoningAnno check box is grayed out, which indicates that this layer has a scale
range applied to it and that, at the current scale, this layer does not draw. To see the scale range
for this layer, you will open the layer properties.
Open the layer properties for ZoningAnno.
Click the General tab.
3. What is the minimum scale range?
______________________________________________________________________________
Click OK.
4. What is the current map scale?
______________________________________________________________________________
This layer will not draw unless the display scale is 1:5,000 or larger. A bookmark has been
created in the map for viewing annotation.
From the Bookmarks menu, choose Labels vs. Annotation.
Note: Depending on the size and settings of your monitor, the bookmark may not zoom
in far enough. If your display scale is smaller than 1:5,000, click the scale box and
type 5000, then press Enter on your keyboard.

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Lesson 1

The annotation features become visible, displaying the zoning codes for each polygon. Next,
you will turn on labels for the Zoning layer to compare behaviors between labels and
annotation. The labels will be for the zoning code as well.
Right-click the Zoning layer and choose Label Features.
Note: The labels are black and the annotation features are blue.

On the Tools toolbar, click the Pan button

Click and drag the map display to pan the map.


5. When you pan the map display, do the labels change positions with regard to the geographic
features they represent?
______________________________________________________________________________
6. When you pan the map display, do the annotation features change positions with regard to
the geographic features they represent?
______________________________________________________________________________
Labels will move in an attempt to remain visible as long as a part of their features are visible.
Annotation features remain in the same location.
On the Tools toolbar, click the Identify tool

and click the map.

For Identify from, click the drop-down arrow and choose ZoningAnno.
In the map, click a C-5 annotation feature.
In the Identify window, expand each level in the tree.
Click the number for the Zoning polygon you clicked.
The text for the Zoning polygons comes from the ZONING attribute. If a polygon's ZONING
attribute were changed, its annotation text would change as well.
Close the Identify window.
Hover your mouse cursor over the Catalog window tab to expand it.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

1-15

What is a geodatabase?

By default, the Catalog window and Search window are docked to the right and set to auto hide.
In the Catalog window, expand the ...\Database\Manhattan.gdb\CityData feature
dataset and open the properties for the Anno_6_16 relationship class.
7. What is the origin table/feature class?
______________________________________________________________________________
8. What is the destination table/feature class?
______________________________________________________________________________
9. Which type of relationship class is it?
______________________________________________________________________________
A composite relationship class exists between the Zoning and ZoningAnno feature classes,
which means that if a Zoning polygon is moved or deleted, the annotation will also be moved or
deleted.
Close the Relationship Class Properties dialog box.
Turn off the labels for the Zoning layer.
On the Standard toolbar, click the Editor toolbar button

to open the Editor toolbar.

From the Editor menu, choose Start Editing to start an edit session.
Click the Edit tool

, then click a Zoning polygon and drag it to a new location.

10. Does the annotation move with the feature?


______________________________________________________________________________
Right-click the selected Zoning polygon and choose Delete.

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Lesson 1

11. What happens to the annotation?


______________________________________________________________________________
From the Editor menu, choose Stop editing, and click No when prompted to save your
changes.
In the table of contents, collapse the Step 3 - Feature classes data frame.
You are finished exploring some of the general feature class types that are stored within a
geodatabase. Next, you will look at some of the behaviors that set the geodatabase apart from
other data models.

Step 4: Explore a topology


In this step, you will explore a topology, a geodatabase element that defines and enforces spatial
data integrity rules. Later in the class, you will create, manage, and edit data using a
geodatabase topology.
Right-click the Step 4 - Topology data frame and choose Activate, then expand it to view
the layers.
The CityData_Topology layer references a topology that is stored in the Manhattan
geodatabase. In the table of contents and the map display, notice that the topology has special
symbols that represent the point, line, and polygon errors you may encounter. Red is the default
color, but you can change this if you want.

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What is a geodatabase?

From the Bookmarks menu, choose Topology View.

Notice the areas in red; these represent the errors for this topology. These errors are violations in
the data that contradict the topology rules. It is up to you to correct each error or mark it as an
exception to the rule.
Open the properties for the CityData_Topology layer.
Click the Feature Classes tab.
You see a list of the various feature classes that participate in this topology.
Click the Rules tab.
There are four rules in this topology. To gain a better understanding of these rules, you will view
the rule descriptions.
12. Are these rules enforcing the spatial relationships between features in the same feature class
or across feature classes?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 1

Select the first topology rule and click Description.

The description states that all features in the Zoning feature class must be covered by features in
the Parcels feature class.
Click OK on both dialog boxes.
Turn on the Topology toolbar, if necessary.
Note: To turn the toolbar on, from the Customize menu, choose Toolbars > Topology.

From the Editor menu, choose Start Editing.


When you start an edit session, the Create Features window opens. Like all windows in
ArcMap, you can click the Auto Hide push pin to collapse the window when you're not using it.
On the Topology toolbar, click the Fix Topology Error tool

On the map, click any of the red polygon errors to select itonce selected, it changes to
black.
Hover your mouse cursor above the selected error, right-click, and choose Show Rule
Description.
Notice that the same rule description, Must Be Covered By Feature Class Of, displays. In this
example, all of the topology errors shown violate this one rule. Several polygons in the Zoning
layer are not covered by features in the Parcels layer. Next, you will verify this visually.
Click OK to close the Rule Description dialog box.

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What is a geodatabase?

Turn off the CityData_Topology layer.


Notice that Zoning polygons are present in the areas where there were topology errors.
Turn off the Zoning layer.
Notice the gaps between the parcels where the Zoning polygons displayed a moment ago. These
gaps are causing the topology errors.
You will create and edit a topology later in the course. For now, you will explore a geometric
network.
From the Editor menu, choose Stop Editing.
Collapse the Step 4 - Topology data frame.
Notice that the Create Features window is now closed.

Step 5: Explore a geometric network


In this step, you will explore a geometric network, which is a specialized form of topology that
enforces connectivity between points. In a geometric network, points are referred to as junctions
and lines are referred to as edges. Points and lines can come from multiple feature classes, but
they behave as one, integrated dataset.
You will explore the basics of a geometric network in this step. Later in this course, you will
create, edit, and manage a geometric network.
Activate and expand the Step 5 - Geometric networks data frame.
Notice that two point layers and one line layer make up this sewer network. Utility networks are
typically very complex, with many features mapped at high accuracy and close together. This
sewer network has been simplified for this exercise.
To perform analysis on this sewer network, you will need to turn on the Utility Network
Analyst toolbar.
Turn on the Utility Network Analyst toolbar.
Geometric networks are generally created to support tracing analyses. Your next task will be to
perform a shortest path trace from one corner of the network to the other. To do this, you will
add flags, which define the starting and ending points of a trace operation.
On the Utility Network Analyst toolbar, click the Add Edge Flag tool

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Lesson 1

If a different tool icon is displayed, click the drop-down arrow next to the tool being displayed.

Using the following graphic as a guide, click the edge near the location marked 1 to add a
flag.

The flag appears as a green square.


Click an edge near the location marked 2 to add the second flag.
In this scenario, you want to trace, or find the path, from flag 1 to flag 2. Trace operations
follow the order in which flags are placed.
On the Utility Network Analyst toolbar, set Trace Task to Find Path.
Click the Solve button

The red line represents the computed path between the two flags.

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What is a geodatabase?

On the Utility Network Analyst toolbar, from the Analysis menu, choose Clear Results.
From the Analysis menu, choose Clear Flags.
Close ArcMap without saving.

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Lesson 1

Lesson review
1. List several advantages of using a geodatabase that might apply to your job.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What did you learn about the geodatabase that you didn't know before?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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What is a geodatabase?

Answers to Lesson 1 questions


Exercise 1: Work with geodatabase elements
1. What is the map projection used for this feature dataset?
Lambert Conformal Conic
2. What is its projection?
Lambert Conformal Conic
3. What is the minimum scale range?
1:5,000
4. What is the current map scale?
This will vary, but it should be much smaller than 1:5,000.
5. When you pan the map display, do the labels change positions with regard to the geographic
features they represent?
Yes
6. When you pan the map display, do the annotation features change positions with regard to
the geographic features they represent?
No
7. What is the origin table/feature class?
Zoning
8. What is the destination table/feature class?
ZoningAnno
9. Which type of relationship class is it?
Composite

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Lesson 1

10. Does the annotation move with the feature?


Yes
11. What happens to the annotation?
It gets deleted with the polygon.
12. Are these rules enforcing the spatial relationships between features in the same feature class
or across feature classes?
Across feature classes

Lesson review
1. List several advantages of using a geodatabase that might apply to your job.
Examples of advantages include:

All data stored in one database.


The ability to have more than one person editing in the database at one time.
The ability to create rules that help support data integrity including domains,

subtypes, relationship classes, connectivity rules, topology, etc.


The ability to scale from a smaller database to a large, enterprise database.
Geometric networks that store enhanced line topology.

2. What did you learn about the geodatabase that you didn't know before?
Answers may vary, but some common items may be:

The geodatabase is easier to work with than other data formats


All types of data can be migrated into a geodatabase
Better performance

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

1-25

Types of geodatabases

Introduction
In this lesson, you will learn about the different types of geodatabases. Although we will be
using a file geodatabase in this course, the skills and techniques you will learn can also be used
with workgroup and enterprise geodatabases.

Topics covered

Geodatabase types (single and multiuser)


Single-user geodatabases (personal and file)
Multiuser geodatabases
Desktop, workgroup, enterprise multiuser databases
Geodatabase functionality
Choosing a geodatabase type

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Describe the strengths of each geodatabase type.

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Types of geodatabases

Key terms

Term

Definition

Single-user When only one user is permitted to edit data in a geodatabase at any given
time.
Multi-user

When many people are permitted to edit data in a geodatabase at any


given time.

Single-user geodatabases
Personal (Access)
Functionality

Original desktop

File

Improved desktop format

format
Storage mechanism
and limits

Microsoft Access

Support platform

Windows

Any platform

Number of users

Single editor
Multiple readers

Single editor*
Multiple readers

database (.mdb)
2GB limit

File folder containing

many binary files


No database limit

* Can have more than one concurrent editor, provided they are editing in different tables,
feature classes, or feature datasets.

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Lesson 2

Multiuser geodatabases
Desktop
Functionality

Workgroup

Multiuser

Intranet/Internet

Intranet/Internet

multiuser editing

multiuser editing

editing
option
Storage
mechanism
and limits

SQL

Support
platform

Windows

Number of
users

Three

Server
Express
4GB per
database

Enterprise

SQL Server

Express
10GB limit

Windows

IBM, DB2,

Informix, Oracle,
SQL Server
No size limit

Windows, Linux,
Solaris

Ten concurrent

users and
one editor

Unlimited users,

users, all can be


editing

all can be editing

For detailed information about the functionality for the different geodatabase types, visit

www.esri.com/geodatabase
resources.esri.com/geodatabase

ArcGIS Desktop licensing


Geodatabase functionality based on license:
ArcView:

ArcGIS Desktop geodatabase creation and editing


Some behavior creation (default values, subtypes, domains)
ArcEditor/ArcInfo (includes all from ArcView):

ArcGIS Server Workgroup and Enterprise editing and managing


Create additional elements (topology, networks, relationship classes)
Additional behavior creation (connectivity rules, relationship rules)

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

2-3

Types of geodatabases

Lesson review
1. List and describe when you would want to use a multiuser geodatabase over a file
geodatabase.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

2-4

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Types of geodatabases

Answers to Lesson 2 questions


Lesson review
1. List and describe when you would want to use a multiuser geodatabase over a file
geodatabase.

Provide a central, scalable data storage and management system.


Utilize additional functionality such as multiuser editing.
Provide better data security (such as access permission control for individual

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datasets), backup, and recovery.


Maintain data integrity with features such as data backup and recovery, rollback,
and failover.
Monitor geodatabase performance.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Creating geodatabase schemas

Introduction
In this lesson, you'll learn how to create the basic structure that will organize data in your
geodatabase.

Topics covered

What is a schema?
Building geodatabase schema
Schema creation scenarios
Editing schema

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Create geodatabase schema.

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Creating geodatabase schemas

Key terms
Term

Definition

Schema The structure or design of a database or database object, such as a table,


view, index, stored procedure, or trigger. In a relational database, the schema
defines the tables, the fields in each table, the relationships between fields
and tables, and the grouping of objects within the database. Schemas are
generally documented in a data dictionary. A database schema provides a
logical classification of database objects.

Building geodatabase schema


There are several ways to build schema:

You can download industry-specific data models at http://resources.arcgis.com/content/


data-models.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 3

Schema scenarios
Here are the scenarios your instructor will go over with the class to determine the best way to
create schema:
1. Scenario #1: You are building a geodatabase for emergency management at the local
government level.
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Scenario #2: You have tons of schemas to create that are very repetitive.
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Scenario #3: You have to share schema with other offices in your organization.
______________________________________________________________________________
4. Scenario #4: You are building a forestry geodatabase. You have a feature class representing
forest stands. You want to use the schema from this feature class, but not the data.
______________________________________________________________________________
5. Scenario #5: You want to create a single feature class from scratch.
______________________________________________________________________________

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

3-3

Creating geodatabase schemas

Getting started with geodatabase design


Most geodatabases contain feature classes. You may want a simple geodatabase design that
contains just a collection of feature classes. However, you may also find the need to develop a
more comprehensive data model that adds advanced geodatabase elements.

Task 1: Design simple feature classes.


Start by defining the common properties of simple feature classes. You can add to this later as
needed, but focus on defining your basic design first.
When you decide on a proposed list of feature classes, try to define the following for each:

Pick a geometry type (also known as the feature class type) such as point, line, polygon,
or annotation.

Determine geometry properties.


Will you have z-coordinates, M-coordinates, for three-dimensional data?
Define the coordinate system for each feature class.
Specify the (XY) coordinate resolution.
Tolerance values reflect the accuracy of the coordinate data.
Specify the storage parameters.
The default key word specifies the default storage parameters.
Determine the attribute fields and data types.
It is important to evaluate the advantages of adding further GIS capabilities to the features in
your geodatabase. These additional capabilities can potentially make data use and maintenance
much easier in the long term.
Common reasons for extending your simple features data model:

Validate a dataset before you import and use it in your system (for example, to ensure
the dataset adheres to a series of spatial integrity rules).

Edit the data and maintain its spatial integrity.


Use the feature class for advanced GIS work, such as modeling and analysis.
Task 2: Organize related feature classes into feature datasets.

Use feature datasets to spatially or thematically integrate related feature classes.


Their primary purpose is for building a topology, a network dataset, a terrain dataset, or
a geometric network.

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Lesson 3

Task 3: Add geodatabase elements to facilitate data editing and to manage data
integrity.
The geodatabase includes some optional data modeling capabilities that add integrity rules and
editing behavior to your GIS. These capabilities help you automate much of your data
management work and integrity checks.

Manage the integrity of attribute values with domains.


Use subtypes to manage subsets of features in a feature class.
Use relationship classes to work with features in one table by selected features in related

tables.
Model spatial relationships between features within a feature class or with other feature
classes.

Task 4: Add capabilities for advanced data uses, analytical models (such as
network analysis and geocoding), and advanced cartography.
With each dataset, you may want to consider adding additional geodatabase capabilities that
help you to further leverage each dataset.
See Geodatabase design steps in the ArcGIS help system.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

3-5

Creating geodatabase schemas

Field data types


The geodatabase supports the following field types for user-defined attributes in feature class
tables and non-spatial tables.

Name

Specific Range,
Size
Applications
Length, or Format (bytes)

Short integer

-32,768 to 32,767

Numbers without fractions


within specific range, coded
values

Long integer

-2,147,483,648 to
2,147,483,647

Numbers without fractions


within specific range

Numbers with fractions within


specific range

Double-precision
floating point number
(Double)

Approx. -2.2E308 to 8
1.8E308

Numbers with fractions within


specific range

Text

Approximately 2.14
billion characters

Varies

Names or other textual


qualities

Date

mm/dd/yyyy
hh:mm:ss
AM/PM

Date and/or time

BLOB

Varies

Varies

Images or other multimedia

Raster

Varies

Varies

Images or pictures

GUID

36 characters
enclosed in curly
brackets

16 or
38

Customized applications
requiring global identifiers

Single-precision floating Approx. -3.4E38 to


point number (Float)
1.2E38

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 3

Exercise 3: Create geodatabase schemas


Estimated time: 35 minutes
In this exercise, you will use a variety of operations to create geodatabase schema.
In this exercise, you will:

Create a new geodatabase.


Create a feature dataset and feature a class.
Create schema using a data model.
Create schema using ModelBuilder.

Step 1: Create a new geodatabase


Before you can create the structure of feature classes and other geodatabase elements, you must
have a geodatabase in which to put everything. You will create a new file geodatabase to store
the schema you are about to create.
Start ArcCatalog.
Navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise03.
Right-click the Exercise03 folder and choose New > File Geodatabase.
Rename the new file geodatabase Riverside.
You have just created a file geodatabase. In the following steps, you will populate the new
geodatabase with schemas for a number of geodatabase elements.

Step 2: Create a new feature dataset


In this step, you will create a feature dataset. You aren't required to provide a lot of information
when you create a feature dataset, but the required information is very important. For example,
one of the required properties of a feature dataset is its spatial reference.
Right-click Riverside.gdb and choose New, then click Feature Dataset.
For Name, type Landbase, then click Next.
The next panel of the wizard prompts you to choose a coordinate system. You can choose from
a projected or geographic coordinate system.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Creating geodatabase schemas

Expand Projected Coordinate Systems.


Expand State Plane, then expand NAD 1983 (US Feet).
Scroll down and choose NAD 1983 StatePlane California VI FIPS 0406 (US Feet), then
click Next.
Click Next to accept the default, no vertical coordinate system.
Note: Vertical coordinate systems define the location of z-values, or elevation, relative
to a surface.

Accept the default value for XY Tolerance and uncheck the Accept default resolution and
domain extent check box, then click Next.
The XY tolerance is the minimum distance between coordinates before they are considered
coincident and is used when evaluating relationships between coordinates. The default XY
tolerance is the equivalent of 1 millimeter in the linear unit of the data's XY coordinate system.
In the case of the coordinate system you assigned (i.e., feet), the default value is .003281 feet, or
.03937 inches. In general, accepting the default tolerance is recommended.
In this panel, you can adjust the XY resolution and domain extents. XY resolution is the size of
the grid cell that coordinates are snapped to. All coordinates snap to an underlying grid. The
default resolution is 1/10 of the XY tolerance. Domain extents should only be modified if you
are creating a pre-9.2 geodatabase element, or if you have assigned an unknown coordinate
system. Otherwise, you should accept the default domain extents.
Click Finish.
You have just created a new feature dataset. Next, you will add a feature class to it.

Step 3: Create a new feature class


In this step, you will create a feature class using an ArcCatalog wizard and XML import.
Right-click Landbase, choose New > Feature Class.
For Name, type Parcels.
The default geometry type for all new feature classes is Polygon.
Click Next.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 3

Leave Configuration Keyword set to Default and click Next.


In the next panel you can add fields to the new feature class table. You can add the fields
manually or import them from another table or feature class. You will import them.
Click Import.
You will import the table schema from an existing shapefile to build the schema for your new
feature class table. You will be using data in the Exercise04 folder to create the schema. In the
next exercise, you will populate the schema with data from the Exercise04 folder.
Navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04 and click NEParcels.shp, then click Add.

Notice that several fields have been added to the schema for your new Parcels feature class.
These fields came directly from NEParcels.shp.
Click Finish.
1. Why do you think you didn't have to enter coordinate system information for the Parcels
feature class?
______________________________________________________________________________
You just added fields from another table into the schema for your new feature class. What if the
table schema you imported didn't have all of the fields you needed? You can always add fields
manually in ArcCatalog or ArcMap.
Expand the Landbase feature dataset, then open the properties for the Parcels feature class
and click the Fields tab.
Click the first empty row, under SHAPE_Area, and type Owner.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Creating geodatabase schemas

For Data Type, click the empty row and choose Text.
Click Apply to create the new field without closing the dialog box.
You can also delete any fields that you don't need. For example, there is no need for the AREA
field when the geodatabase adds its own SHAPE_Area field.
Click the gray box next to the AREA field, then press the Delete key on your keyboard.
Click Apply to commit the change to the table and verify that AREA has been deleted.
Click OK.
Importing tabular schema is a fast way to get many fields added to your tables or feature classes,
but you can always modify them as needed. If a field is defined incorrectly, you would have to
delete the field and create a new one with the correct data type.
Preview the table for Parcels.
2. How many features exist in the Parcels feature class?
______________________________________________________________________________
Preview the table for ..Student\BLDG\Exercise04\NEParcels.shp.
Notice this shapefile contains the same fields as the new Parcels feature class. You used this
shapefile as a schema template for your new feature class' table. In a later exercise, you will load
the features from this shapefile, and several others, into your new Parcels feature class.
So far you have created a geodatabase, feature dataset, and a feature class with ArcCatalog's
wizards. You can also create schema by importing an Extensible Markup Language (XML)
workspace document. Exporting geodatabase schema or features to an XML document is a fast
and efficient way of sharing geodatabase elements and behaviors.
In the Exercise03 folder, right-click Riverside.gdb and choose Import, then click XML
Workspace Document.
For What do you want to import, click Schema Only.
For Specify the XML source to import, click the Browse button.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 3

Navigate to the Exercise03 folder and click Streets.xml, then click Open.
Note: Notice there is also a Streets.shp.xml file. This is the metadata file for the Streets
shapefile located in the same folder. It contains information different from the
Streets.xml file you are using, so be sure to choose the correct file.

Click Next, then click Finish.


Refresh the Riverside.gdb geodatabase.
Notice a Streets feature class is now in the geodatabase.
Open the properties for Streets and click the Subtypes tab.

Notice that the schema you imported from XML contains subtypes. Using XML to import and
export geodatabase features or schema is very efficient. For example, if you had a geodatabase
that contained many feature classes, you could export one feature class, features and schema, or
just schema to an XML document, then send that to another user. They could then load it into a
geodatabase, as you just did, and have a single feature class and any schema (e.g., subtypes,
domains, relationship classes) added to the geodatabase.
You will load data into this imported schema in the next exercise.
Click Cancel to close the Feature Class Properties dialog box.
In this step, you created schema for feature classes. You will populate these elements with data
in the next exercise. For now, you will create some additional schemas.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

3-11

Creating geodatabase schemas

Step 4: Create schema with a data model


So far, you have created geodatabase schemas using ArcGIS tools. Another way to create a
schema is to use an Esri published data model.
The data model you're using for this exercise was downloaded from the Esri data model site.
Open Windows Explorer and navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise03.
Double-click the MDMFinal.zip file to open it.
Extract all the files to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise03\DataModels.
Close Windows Explorer and WinZip.
In ArcCatalog, navigate to the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise03\DataModels\MDMFinal
folder.
Notice that a new geodatabase named ArcMarine.mdb has been added, along with a text file
and an XML document.
3. What kind of geodatabase is this?
______________________________________________________________________________
Note: Currently, some data models download directly to a personal geodatabase for
Microsoft Access. XML is another common format to which you can download
data models.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 3

Expand ArcMarine.mdb.

Expand the MarineFeatures feature dataset.


Click Shoreline, then click the Preview tab.
4. Why are no features displayed in the preview panel?
______________________________________________________________________________
Preview the table.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

3-13

Creating geodatabase schemas

Table fields are part of geodatabase schema and are included in data models.
Right-click ArcMarine.mdb and choose Properties.
Click the Domains tab.

Many domains were also included in this schema. Once you load data into the feature classes,
you could apply them to fields or subtypes.
Click each of the domain names to view their properties and coded values. You'll learn
more about these in an upcoming lesson.
Click OK.
Aside from feature datasets, feature classes, tables, fields, and domains, the data model also
created schema for relationship classes.

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Lesson 3

Right-click the CruiseHasTracks relationship class and click Properties.


Notice that the properties for the relationship class have been included in the schema.
Close the Relationship Class Properties dialog box.

Step 5: Update geodatabase and spatial reference


Currently, most data models download into a legacy format of a personal for Microsoft Access
geodatabase, meaning it is not in the current version of ArcGIS 10. To take full advantage of the
new file geodatabase, you will need to transfer the personal geodatabase schema into a new file
geodatabase. Before you can do this, however, you need to upgrade the geodatabase to 10 and
then upgrade the spatial reference from the legacy format to the new high-precision format.
Geodatabase system tables are upgraded with every release of ArcGIS to support additional
capabilities. It is good practice to upgrade your geodatabases to the current version of the
software. Note, however, that when you do this, you have access to all of the functionality of
the newer version, but are not able to use the upgraded geodatabase in previous versions of
ArcGIS.
Open the properties for ArcMarine.mdb.
Click the General tab, then click Upgrade Geodatabase.
Click OK.
In the Upgrade Geodatabase window, click OK.
Your geodatabase is now upgraded to ArcGIS 10.
Another property you have to upgrade is the spatial reference. Remember that coordinate
storage in ArcGIS 10 is much more efficient and can be much higher precision and allow more
room for data expansion than in previous versions. For this reason, it is a good idea to upgrade
the spatial reference of your feature classes and feature datasets to high precision.
Close the properties dialog box.
Create a new file geodatabase in Exercise03 and name it Marine.gdb.
You will be loading data from the personal geodatabase for Access into this new file
geodatabase.

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Creating geodatabase schemas

Go back to the previously downloaded ArcMarine.mdb and open the properties for the
MarineFeatures feature dataset.
Click the Domain tab.

The coordinate extents are in a legacy format.


Close the Feature Dataset Properties dialog box.
Right-click MarineFeatures and click Upgrade Spatial Reference.
The Upgrade Spatial Reference dialog box appears.
Click OK to run the tool.
Click OK then close the progress window when the tool is finished processing.
Open the Properties dialog box for MarineFeatures and click the Domain tab.

Notice the difference in coordinate domains. You can see that there is a lot more storage space
in 10.
Close the Feature Dataset Properties dialog box.
Drag and drop MarineFeatures into Marine.gdb.
Click OK on the Data Transfer dialog box.

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Lesson 3

Click and drag the MeshFeatures feature dataset into Marine.gdb (without upgrading its
spatial reference).
When the transfer is complete, open the properties for the
..\Student\BLDG\Exercise03\Marine.gdb\MeshFeatures feature dataset.
Click the Domain tab.
5. Does this feature dataset have legacy or ArcGIS 10 coordinate domains?
______________________________________________________________________________
Close the Feature Dataset Properties dialog box.
A nice shortcut to running the upgrade spatial reference tool is to simply transfer the data to the
file geodatabase. ArcCatalog will automatically upgrade it for you. The only time you will see
the Upgrade Spatial Reference option enabled in a context menu is if you are in a personal
geodatabase for Access that is from an earlier version of the software. Updating the geodatabase
does not upgrade the spatial reference, so you must do these tasks separately.
Transferring these two feature datasets brings most of the geodatabase elements into the file
geodatabase. For now, you will not transfer anything else. If you were working on a project in
your office, you would want to make sure that you transferred all of the necessary elements.

Step 6: Create schema through advanced geoprocessing


Earlier in this exercise, you created a schema using the tools in ArcToolbox. Now, you will
create a schema using a prepared model. The model is complex in that it performs a lot of
operations to create schema, but the operations it performs are all ones you have already done
with other tools.
In ArcCatalog, collapse all expanded geodatabases.
In the Exercise03 folder, expand the GDBSchema toolbox.
Right-click the CreateSchema model and choose Edit.
This is a fairly large model with many processes. The first process creates a file geodatabase in
the Schema_Model folder, and then subsequent processes create feature datasets, feature classes,
domains, and fields.
Zoom in to the model and explore the operations it performs.

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Creating geodatabase schemas

From the Model menu, click Run Entire Model.


Click Close on the progress dialog box when the model has finished running.
Close ModelBuilder and click No when prompted to save your edits.
Expand Schema_Model.
Expand SanDiego.gdb and explore the contents.
Open the properties of SanDiego.gdb and click the Domains tab.
Close ArcCatalog.
ModelBuilder can be used to quickly create schema. You could use single geoprocessing tools,
the simple data loader, XML import, or other methods to populate the schema with data.

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Lesson 3

Lesson review
1. List and describe the methods that can be used to build a geodatabase schema.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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3-19

Creating geodatabase schemas

Answers to Lesson 3 questions


Schema scenarios
1. Scenario #1: You are building a geodatabase for emergency management at the local
government level.
Use Esri published data model
2. Scenario #2: You have tons of schemas to create that are very repetitive.
Use geoprocessing tools and automate the process
3. Scenario #3: You have to share schema with other offices in your organization.
Import existing schema from XML document
4. Scenario #4: You are building a forestry geodatabase. You have a feature class representing
forest stands. You want to use the schema from this feature class, but not the data.
Import the schema only
5. Scenario #5: You want to create a single feature class from scratch.
Use ArcCatalog wizard

Exercise 3: Create geodatabase schemas


1. Why do you think you didn't have to enter coordinate system information for the Parcels
feature class?
Because you are creating it within a feature dataset, ArcCatalog matches its coordinate
system to that of the feature dataset.
2. How many features exist in the Parcels feature class?
None, you have only created the schema.
3. What kind of geodatabase is this?
It is a personal geodatabase for Microsoft Access.

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Lesson 3

4. Why are no features displayed in the preview panel?


There are no features, just schema.
5. Does this feature dataset have legacy or ArcGIS 10 coordinate domains?
ArcGIS 10

Lesson review
1. List and describe the methods that can be used to build a geodatabase schema.
Answer should include the following: ArcCatalog wizards, importing data and schema,
Importing XML document, geoprocessing tools, and using an Esri published data model.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

3-21

Loading data into a geodatabase

Introduction
There are several ways to add datasets to a geodatabase. ArcGIS contain tools that import data
from a wide variety of formats into the geodatabase. In this lesson, you'll learn how to load the
most commonly imported data types into the geodatabase.

Topics covered

Geodatabase data sources


Data loading methods
Loading raster data
Storing data efficiently

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Populate your geodatabase using the most appropriate data-import method.

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Loading data into a geodatabase

Geodatabase data sources

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Lesson 4

Common icons
CAD

coverage

raster

shapefiles

feature classes (in a geodatabase)

XML recordset

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4-3

Loading data into a geodatabase

Raster data storage


When storing raster data in the geodatabase, there are two options for how it is stored. The
following graphic goes through these and lists characteristics and advantages and disadvantages.

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Lesson 4

Choose the best method for loading data


1. For each of the following scenarios, assign the most appropriate vector data-loading method
from the following list of choices:

Simple data loader


Object loader
XML workspace
Import/Export
Append
Copy and paste
Drag and drop
Mosaic
Add rasters

Scenario

Method

Add features from one source to a feature


class with 10,000 existing features.

___________________

Convert a shapefile to a feature class and


retain the existing schema.

______________

Import several feature classes from another


geodatabase.

_______________

Move data from a personal geodatabase to a


file geodatabase.

___________________________
___

Create a permanent raster from 10


overlapping GeoTIFF images.

_______

Create a virtual mosaic from 9 individual IMG


files.

____________

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

4-5

Loading data into a geodatabase

Tip: Storing data efficiently


Compaction
A process run on the entire database that rearranges and consolidates the data in a file so that it
occupies a single, contiguous space, allowing the data in each file to be accessed more
efficiently.
Best practice: Compact regularly to:

Maintain optimal database performance.


Improve performance after adding or deleting features or rows.
Compression
A process run on file geodatabases that removes unreferenced rows from geodatabase system
tables and user delta tables. A compressed dataset looks an uncompressed dataset and is a
direct-access format, so you do not have to uncompress it each time you access it; ArcGIS reads
it directly.
Compressed datasets are read only. To edit the data, you will need to uncompress the files.
Best practice: Compressed file geodatabase data

Improves data display and query performance.


Is suited to mature datasets that do not require further editing.
Can be run on the entire file geodatabase, feature classes, or non
spatial tables.

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Lesson 4

Exercise 4: Load data into a geodatabase


Estimated time: 40 minutes
Data comes in a variety of formats. In order to take full advantage of geodatabase behavior, you
have to load your existing data formats into a geodatabase. In this exercise, you will use these
methods to load vector and raster data into the Riverside geodatabase you created earlier in this
course.
In this exercise, you will:

Use conversion tools to load data into a geodatabase.


Load vector data into a geodatabase.
Load raster data into a geodatabase.
Step 1: Load data into feature class
In this step, you will use the Simple Data Loader to load data into a feature class you created in
the previous exercise.
Start ArcCatalog.
In the Catalog tree, expand the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise03 and ..\Exercise04 folders.
Copy Riverside.gdb from the Exercise03 folder and paste it into the Exercise04 folder.
Expand Riverside.gdb in the Exercise04 folder, then expand its Landbase feature dataset.
In the previous exercise, you created feature class schemas for the Parcels and Streets feature
classes within Landbase. Now, you will use the Simple Data Loader to populate them with
features.
Preview the Parcels feature class.
Remember, there are no features in Parcels, just a table with its schema defined.
In the Exercise04 folder, preview the table for NEParcels.shp.
This shapefile should have 1129 features in it. You will load these features into the Parcels
feature class.
In Riverside.gdb, right-click Parcels and choose Load > Load Data.
Click Next on the first panel of the wizard.

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Loading data into a geodatabase

The second panel is where you input the source data you are going to load. You can load
multiple data sources if their schemas match. For now, you will load just one to see the result of
loading.
For Input Data, click the Browse button and navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04.
Click NEParcels.shp then click Open.
Click Add to add the shapefile to the list of source data to load.

Click Next.
The next panel of the Simple Data Loader shows you what the target geodatabase and feature
class are and gives you the option to load data into a subtype if the input data has a subtype field
assigned. There are no subtypes in this feature class, so that choice is grayed out. If there were
subtypes, you could choose which subtype to load features into.
Click Next.

This wizard panel is for field mapping. Having the same schema is important, otherwise you
could lose attribute data if fields don't match. You want to make sure that the target fields
(feature class you are loading into) are mapped to the correct source fields (data you are
loading).

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Lesson 4

1. Why does the Owner field in the target not have a match in the source?
______________________________________________________________________________
You can still load this source into the target. The Owner field will be left blank.
Click Next, then click Next again to load all of the source data.
Note: To apply a query filter at this point, load only those features that meet a query and
then build an attribute query in the next panel of the wizard.

Verify that your summary matches the following graphic.

Click Finish.
Preview the geography for Parcels.
There are now features in the Parcels feature class.
Preview the table for Parcels.
Notice that the attributes have been loaded as well. The fields were matched properly and each
feature has the correct values assigned for each field. The owner field, which was not present in
the source data, is left blank; you could enter your own values in an edit session. The loading
operation loaded 1129 parcels into the empty table you created earlier. One benefit of using the
Simple Data Loader is the ability to load data into an existing feature class that already has data
in it. Next, you will load three more parcel shapefiles into the Parcels feature class.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

4-9

Loading data into a geodatabase

In the Exercise04 folder, preview each of the following shapefiles to get an idea of the
features they contain.

NWParcels.shp
SEParcels.shp
SWParcels.shp
Right-click Parcels and choose Load > Load Data.
Load the following shapefiles from the Exercise04 folder. Browse to each file individually,
and click Add for each file.

NWParcels.shp
SEParcels.shp
SWParcels.shp

Click Next on each panel to accept the defaults until you get to the Summary.
Verify that your summary matches the following graphic.

Click Finish to load all of the shapefiles.

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Lesson 4

Preview Parcels.

Preview the table.


There are now 2,850 features in the Parcels feature class, all with correct attributes.
Next, you will load streets into subtypes within the Streets feature class.

Step 2: Load data from an XML recordset document


In the previous exercise, you imported a schema-only XML workspace document to create an
empty streets feature class. In this step, you will load records into the streets feature class from
an XML recordset document.
Right-click the Streets feature class within Riverside.gdb and choose Load > Load XML
Recordset Document.
For Specify the XML source to load, navigate to your Exercise04 folder, select
RivStreets.xml, and click Open.
Click Next and then click Finish.
Preview the geography and table for Streets to verify that all of the 549 features have been
loaded.

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Loading data into a geodatabase

Notice that the streets display with different symbology. That's because both the XML
workspace document that the feature class was created from and the XML recordset document
that the street features were loaded from each contain subtypes. You are going to learn how to
create subtypes in the next lesson.

Step 3: Use conversion tools to import and export data


Now you will use conversion tools to convert data in multiple formats into geodatabase feature
classes. This method will transfer features, attributes, and schema all at once. If you don't have
an existing table or feature class and want to convert an entire data source into the geodatabase,
then converting may be the best option. Converting is also referred to as importing or exporting.
You will be converting the following data sources into geodatabase feature classes:

ElectricalSystem.dwg (CAD drawing)


riverside (Coverage storing city boundaries of Riverside, California)
Buildings.shp (Shapefile of building polygons)
2003CensusData.xls (Excel spreadsheet of census data)
house.jpg (picture of a house; raster data)

Right-click Riverside.gdb and choose Import to view the menu choices.

You can import one feature class at a time with the single option or choose multiple, and
convert many feature classes at one time. The Feature Class options refer to CAD, coverage,
geodatabase, and shapefile feature classes.
Click Feature Class (multiple).
For Input Features, click the Browse button and navigate to the Exercise04 folder.
Double-click ElectricalSystem.dwg and click Point, then hold down the Ctrl key on your
keyboard and click Polyline to select both.
Click Add.

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Lesson 4

Both CAD feature classes have been added to the list.


Click the Browse button again and add Buildings.shp to the list.
Click Browse one more time and navigate to the riverside coverage and double-click it.
Click polygon then click Add.
The Output Geodatabase is automatically populated because you right-clicked on the
geodatabase.
Verify that the feature classes in your dialog box match the ones in the following graphic.

You are about to create four new geodatabase feature classes by converting data from many
sources in one operation.
Click OK.
On the progress window, click the check box next to Close this dialog box when
completed successfully.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

4-13

Loading data into a geodatabase

Expand Riverside.gdb to view its contents.

The Buildings shapefile you converted is named Buildings, but the other ones have longer
names with multiple parts because they were originally stored within a coverage or a CAD
drawing. In these cases, the output naming convention will be <feature dataset name>_<feature
class name>.
Change the names of the new feature classes according to the following table.

Old Name

New Name

ElectricalSystem_dwg_Point

Electric_Points

ElectricalSystem_dwg_Polylines Electric_Lines
riverside_polygon

City_Limits

Preview each of the feature classes to verify the data was converted correctly.
You just performed an import operation. Next, you will export data to Riverside.gdb. This
operation technically uses the same tool, but you access it differently.
Right-click CityPlanningZones.shp and choose Export > To Geodatabase (single).
In this case, the tool knows the input features, but not the output location.
For Output Location, navigate to and click ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\Riverside.gdb.
For Output Feature Class, type PlanningZones and click OK.
Preview PlanningZones and verify that the features were exported successfully.
For the final conversion, you will convert an Excel spreadsheet to a geodatabase table.
Expand 2003CensusData.xls.

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Lesson 4

Right-click the Database worksheet and choose Export > To Geodatabase (single).
Choose ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\Riverside.gdb as the Output Location, name the
Output Table Census, and click OK.
Preview the new Census table.
You have successfully converted data from many sources into Riverside.gdb. The conversion
tools you can also be accessed as geoprocessing tools.

Step 4: Load raster data


Raster data is also an important part of any geodatabase. It can be used for backgrounds in map
making and for performing heads-up digitizing for vector features. In this step, you will import
raster data into your file geodatabase and work with raster datasets and raster catalogs.
Right-click Riverside.gdb, choose Import, then click Raster Datasets.
This option is similar to importing a feature class, except that it is specifically for raster data.
For Input Rasters, browse to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\WilsonCounty, click
1900_canal.bil and click Add.
Click OK.
Expand Riverside.gdb and rename the raster Canal.
Preview Canal.
The BIL image has been converted to an IMG format to be stored in the geodatabase.
Now, you will mosaic multiple rasters into one raster dataset. In order to do this, you will need
to create a new raster dataset.
Right-click Riverside.gdb and choose New, then click Raster Dataset.
Name the new raster dataset SubdivisionSW.
For Spatial Reference for Raster, click the Spatial References Properties button

Click Import, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\Riverside.gdb, and then click


Landbase.
Click Add, then click OK twice to create the raster dataset.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Loading data into a geodatabase

In ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\RasterSources\Aerial, preview the following TIFF


images.

t0901
t0902
t0903
t0904

There are two ways to mosaic. You can simply load multiple rasters into one raster dataset, or
you can use the Mosaic geoprocessing tool. Either method will open the same geoprocessing
tool.
Right-click ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\Riverside.gdb\SubdivisionSW and choose
Load > Load Data.
For Input Rasters, browse to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\RasterSources\Aerial and
select all of the images that start with t0 (901, 902, 903, 904), then click Add.
Accept the remaining defaults and click OK to run the tool.
Preview SubdivisionSW.

All four images are now combined as one mosaic within the SubdivisionSW raster dataset.

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Lesson 4

Close ArcCatalog.
In this step, you loaded multiple rasters into one raster dataset. Next, you will use the raster data
type in a feature class table.

Step 5: Use a raster as a field type


You can also use rasters as a field type in a geodatabase table.
Start ArcMap and open a blank map document. Set the Riverside.gdb as the default
geodatabase.
First, you will add a field that supports raster data to the Parcels feature class.
In the Catalog window, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\Riverside.gdb and
expand Landbase.
Open the properties for Parcels.
Click the Fields tab.
In the first empty cell under Field Name, type Image.
Click the Data Type cell and choose Raster.
In the Field Properties section, for Managed By GDB, click No.
Click OK.
Drag the Landbase feature class from the Catalog window onto the map display.
Notice that this also adds the feature class to the table of contents.
Start an edit session.
The Create Features window opens. You can auto hide this window like all windows in
ArcMap.
From the Selection menu, choose Select By Attributes.
Build the following expression "PARCELS_ID" = 699 and click OK.
In the table of contents, right-click the Parcels layer and choose Selection > Zoom To
Selected Features.

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Loading data into a geodatabase

On the Editor toolbar, click the Attributes button

to open the Attributes window.

For the value for Image field, click <NULL>, then click Load.
Navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04, select house.jpg, then click Add.
A picture of the house displays in the Attributes window.
Close the Attributes window.
Open the attribute table for Parcels.
Click the Show selected records button

Scroll to the Image field and click in the cell.


Click the small arrow that appears on the right to view the image.
Raster data types can be viewed from the Attributes window as well as the attribute table. In
addition to these, you can view the image in the Identify window.
Close the table.
Click the Identify tool, then click the selected parcel.

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Lesson 4

In the Identify window, click the picture icon on the right to view the image.

Close the Identify window.


Stop editing without saving your edits.
In this step, you used the raster data type in a feature class table. Next, you will work with a
mosaic dataset.

Step 6: Create a mosaic dataset


In this step, you will create a mosaic dataset for three 1:24000 DEMs. Mosaic datasets are used
to manage, display, serve, and distribute raster data.
In ArcMap, click the New Map File button

Create a blank map and set the default geodatabase to


..\BLDG\Exercise04\Riverside.gdb.
You will use three images in the RasterSources folder to create the geodatabase mosaic dataset.
Right-click Riverside.gdb in the Catalog window, choose New > Mosaic Dataset.
For Mosaic Dataset Name, type DEM.

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4-19

Loading data into a geodatabase

For Coordinate System, click the Coordinate System browse button.


Import the coordinate system from
..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\Riverside.gdb\Landbase and click OK.
Verify that your Create Mosaic Dataset dialog box matches the following graphic.

Click OK.
You have just created a new mosaic dataset which is simply an empty container in the
geodatabase with some default properties. Next, you will add six raster datasets.
In the Catalog window, right-click the new mosaic dataset and choose Add Rasters.
Verify that the Raster Type is set to Raster Dataset.
Click the Input drop-down arrow and click Workspace.
Click the browse button, navigate to your ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise04\RasterSources
folder and choose the DEM folder.
Click Add.

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Lesson 4

Check Update Overviews.

Expand Advanced Options and check Calculate Statistics and Build Thumbnails.

Click OK.
This adds all three IMG files (RiversideE, RiversideW, and CoronaN) to the mosaic dataset.
Click the Full Extent button

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Loading data into a geodatabase

.
Examine your table of contents.
The mosaic dataset appears as a group layer containing Boundary, Footprint, and Image layers.
Turn off the Footprint and Image layers.

The Boundary layer of the mosaic dataset shows the extent of all of the raster datasets as defined
by their footprints. By default, the boundary is displayed as a hollow pink polygon.
Turn off the Boundary layer and turn on the Footprints layer

The Footprint layer displays the footprints for each raster within the mosaic dataset. By default,
the footprints are displayed as hollow green polygons.

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Lesson 4

Turn off the footprints and turn on the Image layer.

From the group layer, you can apply functions that apply to the entire mosaic dataset. For
example, for a DEM you might want to use functions for creating slope aspect, or hillshade.
Now you'll add the Shaded relief function to the mosaic dataset.
In the Catalog window, right-click DEM and choose Properties.
Click the Functions tab.
Right-click Mosaic Function, choose Insert and click Shaded Relief Function.
Click OK to close the Raster Functions Properties dialog box.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Loading data into a geodatabase

Click OK to close the Mosaic Dataset Properties dialog box.

You now have an on-the-fly shaded relief mosaic view of a raster catalog.
Close ArcMap without saving.

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Lesson 4

Lesson review
1. Describe four ways to load data into the geodatabase.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

4-25

Loading data into a geodatabase

Answers to Lesson 4 questions


Choose the best method for loading data
1. For each of the following scenarios, assign the most appropriate vector data-loading method
from the following list of choices:

Simple data loader


Object loader
XML workspace
Import/Export
Append
Copy and paste
Drag and drop
Mosaic
Add rasters

Scenario

Method

Add features from one source to a feature


class with 10,000 existing features.

Simple data loader

Convert a shapefile to a feature class and


retain the existing schema.

Import/Export

Import several feature classes from another


geodatabase.

XML workspace

Move data from a personal geodatabase to a


file geodatabase.

Copy and paste, drag and drop

Create a permanent raster from 10


overlapping GeoTIFF images.

Mosaic

Create a virtual mosaic from 9 individual IMG Add rasters


files.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 4

Exercise 4: Load data into a geodatabase


1. Why does the Owner field in the target not have a match in the source?
You added a new field to the Parcels feature class that was not in the shapefile you are
loading.

Lesson review
1. Describe four ways to load data into the geodatabase.
Possible answers:

Simple data loader


Object loader
XML workspace
Import/Export
Append
Copy and paste
Drag and drop
Mosaic
Add rasters

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

4-27

Domains and subtypes

Introduction
In this lesson, you will learn techniques for creating domains and subtypes. Domains make it
easy for you to validate the attributes of your features and subtypes help you preserve the
integrity of your data.

Topics covered

Geodatabase behavior
Domains
Applying domains
Domain examples and advantages
Subtypes
Subtype examples and advantages
Is your data subtype ready?

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Validate attribute features using domains.


Maintain data integrity using subtypes.
Describe when it is advantageous to use domains and subtypes.

5-1

Domains and subtypes

Key terms

Term

Definition

Behavior

The actions or characteristics exhibited by an object in a database, as


defined by a set of rules.

Domain

A set of valid values for a particular attribute.

Subtype

A subset of features in a feature class or objects in a table that share the


same attributes

Relationship An item in the geodatabase that stores information about a relationship


class
between feature classes or tables.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

Applying domains
In this activity, you will use domains and subtypes in the context of building a geodatabase to
support customer pizza orders. While this is not a typical application for a geodatabase, this
activity provides practice and application of the concepts in this lesson.

Part 1
In ArcCatalog, open the PizzaTable.csv table from the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise05 folder.
Refer to the Pizza Order table along with the menu and order form to answer the following
question:
1. List and describe some of the inefficiencies that currently exist in the PizzaTable.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Domains and subtypes

Part 2
2. Using the pizza menu and order form, list and describe up to four domains that could be
created to help validate data entry.

Domain name
_________

Description
__________________
_______

Field type

Domain type

______________

______

Valid values

__________
__

______

______________

_____

____________

__________

______

______________

_____

____________

__________
______

__________

___________

_____

____________

__________
____________

Thinking about your current role or industry, how can domains help you?

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

Domain examples
Here are a few examples of range and coded value domains, as seen in the presentation.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Domains and subtypes

Subtype examples
Here are some examples of subtypes, as seen in the presentation.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

Using domains and subtypes


Use domains

To create a consistent coding scheme.


To apply attribute validation to fields.
When the values in one field do not affect the values in other fields.
Use subtypes

To display features differently by default.


To edit each category of features individually.
To set different default attribute values for each feature group.
When the value of one field determines the values of other fields.

Applying an attribute domain to a particular attribute in a subtype

To create an attribute rule.


To allow features to behave as they would in the real world.
For example, major roads (subtype) can have a speed limit (domain) of 45-, 55-, or 65-miles per
hour. Each subtype can have a different domain. For example, major roads (subtype) can have
different speed limits (domains) from minor roads (subtype).
For a more detailed discussion on using subtypes and domains together, see Attribute domains
and subtypes in the ArcGIS help system.

Creating subtypes
Subtypes require an integer field in the table in order to categorize or group various features
based on an attribute. it is possible that you may need to add an integer field and calculate it
prior to creating and using subtypes.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Domains and subtypes

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

Exercise 5: Explore subtypes and domains


Estimated time: 45 minutes
Domains and subtypes play an important role in attribute data validation in the geodatabase. In
this exercise, you will create domains and subtypes, apply domains to fields and subtypes, and
work with them in ArcMap.
In this exercise, you will:

Create domains and apply them to fields and subtypes.


Create subtypes and apply default attribute values.
Use domains and subtypes for editing in ArcMap.
Step 1: Create subtypes
In this step, you will create subtypes for the R2Trails feature class based on trail elevation. First,
you will explore the attribute table.
Start ArcCatalog.
Navigate to and expand the ..\Student\BLDG\Database folder.
Expand the Forestry.gdb file geodatabase.
Preview the table for the R2Trails feature class.
Scroll to the right and locate the Elev_Class field.
This field contains an integer value that you will use to categorize trails by their elevations.

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Domains and subtypes

1. How many elevation classes are present in this table?


______________________________________________________________________________
Examine the TR_Condition field. You will assign default attribute values for that field.
Open the properties for the R2Trails feature class.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

To further explore the field types for this table, click the Fields tab.

Notice that Elev_Class is a short integer field. Using a short integer field for subtypes is more
efficient than using a long integer field, because of the amount of bytes each data type takes up.
A short integer uses up to 2 bytes; a long integer uses up to 4 bytes. You probably will not need
a long integer to store codes.
Click the Subtypes tab.
For Subtype Field, click the drop-down arrow to see a list of the possible subtype fields.
Note: Subtypes must be created from either a long or short integer field, so only fields of
these types will display in the Subtype Field list.

2. Why is Elev_Class the only field available in the list?


______________________________________________________________________________
In the Subtypes section of the dialog box, you will enter the integer code in the Code column.
This code comes directly from the values in the Elev_Class field. You will assign a description
to each code in the table to create the subtypes (categories).
For Subtype Field, choose Elev_Class.
In the first empty cell under Code, type 1.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Domains and subtypes

In the first empty cell under Description, highlight New Subtype and type High Elevation
(8,800-12,000 ft).
Finish creating subtypes for the R2Trails feature class using the following table as a guide.

Code Description
2

Medium Elevation (7,300-8,800 ft)

Lower Elevation (Less than 7,300 ft)

Click Apply to create the three subtypes without closing the dialog box.
Notice that the Default Subtype was set to the first subtype you entered, but you can change it to
any subtype. The default subtype is used for editing and will be discussed in subsequent lessons.
An important benefit of using subtypes is the ability to assign default attribute values to each
group of features. For example, the high elevation trails can consist of dirt and loose rock. Once
this default value is assigned to the subtype, it will streamline the process of attribute editing. If
you digitize a new high elevation trail in ArcMap, the TR_Condition field will automatically be
set to Dirt, loose rock.
Click the small, gray box next to the first subtype to select High Elevation.
In the Default Values and Domains section at the bottom of the dialog box, scroll down
until you locate the TR_Condition field.
In the Default Value column for the TR_Condition field, type Dirt, loose rock, then click
Apply.
Set the default value for the remaining subtypes using the following table as a guide:

Subtype

Default Value

2: Medium Elevation Packed dirt, some loose rock


3: Lower Elevation

Gravel, loose rock

Click Apply to assign these default values and to keep the Feature Class Properties dialog
box open for the next step.
Next, you will create several domains and then bring the R2Trails feature class into ArcMap to
see subtypes and domains in action.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

Step 2: Create a range domain


Range domains allow you to set a numerical constraint on a field. For example, if the value is a
percentage, you can set the range domain to be between 0 and 100. Anything outside this range
would be considered an invalid attribute. In this step, you will create several range domains and
apply each one to different subtypes. First, you will take a closer look at the fields for the
R2Trails attribute table.
In the Feature Class Properties dialog box, click the Fields tab.
3. Which type of field is the Mileage field?
______________________________________________________________________________
Keep the answer to the last question in mind for an upcoming step.
Click OK to close the Feature Class Properties dialog box.
Preview the table for the R2Trails feature class.
Range domains can be created on all numeric fields, including date fields, so it is important to
make sure this table contains a field to which you can apply a numerical range.
Right-click the header for the Mileage field and choose Sort Descending.

4. What is the mileage for the longest trail?


______________________________________________________________________________

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Domains and subtypes

5. What is the mileage for the shortest trail?


______________________________________________________________________________
All of the mileage values fall within the range of 0.21 miles to roughly 23.4 miles. You will
create a range domain that will encompass those values and go a little higher to account for
future trails that could be over 23.3 miles long.
Open the properties for the Forestry geodatabase.
Click the Domains tab.
Scroll down to the first empty cell and, for Domain Name, type Mileage_Range.
For Description, type Range domain of 0 to 50 miles.

Best practice: Entering a description provides meaning to domain names


and codes that are often cryptic.
In the Domain Properties section, for Field Type, click the current value to see a list of
valid field types.
This is a list of all field types available for domains.
6. Which field type should be applied to this range domain and why?
______________________________________________________________________________
For Field Type, pick the type that matches the answer to the previous question.
Verify that Domain Type is set to Range.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

Verify that Minimum value is set to 0.


For Maximum value, type 50.
Note: The Coded Values section does not need to be filled out for range domains.

Click Apply.
The range domain you just created can be used on all elevation trails. An advantage of using
subtypes in the geodatabase is that you can apply different domains to different subtypes. For
example, higher elevation trails could have a mileage constraint that is different from the lower
elevation trails.
Create a second range domain and name it HighElevationMileage. Set its field type to
match the MileageRange domain you created earlier, but set its range to 10-25.
Click Apply.
You will apply these domains to subtypes later in this exercise.
Keep the Database Properties dialog box open for the next step.

Step 3: Create coded value domains


In this step, you will create two coded value domains and add them to the Forestry geodatabase.
Coded value domains restrict a field to the values you supply in a domain list. In ArcMap, if a
field has a coded value domain applied to it, you can only choose from the list of valid values.
This speeds up data entry and reduces data entry errors, creating consistent attribution within a
field.
Scroll down to the first empty cell and, for Domain Name, type R2Veg_Old_Growth.
For Description, type Yes or No value to indicate old growth.
In the Domain Properties section, change Field Type to Text and verify that Domain Type
is set to Coded Values.
Next, you have to set the values for the domain. Coded value domains require you to type codes
and attribute descriptions instead of a numeric range. Whatever you type into this list will
display in the ArcMap editing environment for the field to which it is applied.
In the first empty cell for Code, type Y and, for its description, type Yes.

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Domains and subtypes

In the next empty cell for Code, type N and, for its description, type No.
Click OK on the Database Properties dialog box.
This is a fairly simple yes or no domain. Now you will create a more complex coded values
domain. To do this, you will use a geoprocessing tool that converts a table into a coded values
domain.
Navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise05\OldGrowthSource.xls and expand it.
Preview the SourceInfo worksheet.
You will convert these codes and descriptions into a domain using the Table To Domain
geoprocessing tool.
From the Geoprocessing menu, choose Search For Tools.
If necessary, in the Search window, click Tools.
In the input box, type Table To Domain, then click the Search button

Click the Table To Domain (Data Management) tool to open the it.
Enter the parameters using the following graphic as a guide:

Click OK.

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Lesson 5

Open the properties for Forestry.gdb and verify that R2Veg_Oldgrowth_Source has been
added as a domain.
Close the Database Properties dialog box.
You just created two coded value domains, one by typing and another through geoprocessing.
Next, you will apply these domains and the range domain you created in the previous step to
attribute fields and subtypes.

Step 4: Apply domains to fields and subtypes


After you create the domains, you have to apply them to a field or subtype in a feature class or
table.
First, you will apply the R2Veg_Old_Growth domain to a non-spatial table.
Open the properties for the
..\Student\BLDG\Exercise05\Forestry.gdb\R2VEG_POLY_LOCAL table.
Click the Fields tab.
Click the OLD_GROWTH field to select it.
In the Field Properties section, click the empty cell next to Domain.
Because domains are a property of the geodatabase, all the text domains for the Forestry
geodatabase display in the list. You must choose the domain appropriate for the records in this
field.

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Domains and subtypes

Choose the R2Veg_Old_Growth domain from the list.


7. What is the benefit of assigning this domain to the entire attribute field?
______________________________________________________________________________
Click Apply.
Next, you will apply your second coded value domain to a different field.
On the Fields tab, click the OLD_GROWTH_SOURCE field name to select it.
In the Field Properties section, click the empty cell for Domain.

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Lesson 5

Scroll down and click R2Veg_Oldgrowth_Source to apply this domain to the selected
field.

Click OK to close the Table Properties dialog box.


Now you will apply the range domain you created earlier to subtypes in the R2Trails feature
class.
Open the properties for the ..\Student\BLDG\Database\Forestry.gdb\R2Trails feature
class.
Click the Subtypes tab.
Domains can be applied to entire fields or to each subtype in a field. Applying a domain to a
subtype offers powerful advantages because you can create valid values for a field within a
group of features. If each subtype has different values for a field, it would be appropriate to
apply a different domain to each subtype. In this example, you will apply the same domain to
each subtype.
Click the first subtype in the Subtypes list (High Elevation) to select it.
In the Default Values and Domains section at the bottom of the properties dialog box,
scroll down to the Mileage field.

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Domains and subtypes

For Domain, click the empty cell to view the available domains.

Note: Remember, the Mileage field is a Float field, so only domains of that type will
display in the list.

Click HighElevationMileage, then click Apply.


You just applied the range domain that is specific to higher elevation trails to that particular
subtype.
Repeat this process to apply the general Mileage_Range domain to the remaining two
subtypes.
Click OK when finished.
Close ArcCatalog.

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Lesson 5

Step 5: Use subtypes and domains in ArcMap


So far, you have created subtypes and three different domains (two coded values and one range)
and applied them to fields and subtypes. Now you will see the advantages of these various forms
of attribute validation in an edit session in ArcMap.
Start ArcMap.
Open a blank map document and set the default geodatabase to
..\Student\BLDG\Database\Forestry.gdb.
Note: If you forgot to set a default geodatabase at the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog
box, navigate to your geodatabase in the Catalog window, right-click, and choose
Make Default Geodatabase.

Click OK to open your new blank map.


In the Catalog window, click the Default Geodatabase button

From Forestry.gdb, drag and drop the following feature classes to the map display area:

\R2VegFD\R2VEG
R2Trails
The trails are symbolized based on their subtypes, but the vegetation polygons all draw in the
same color.
Open the properties for the R2Trails layer and click the Symbology tab.
Click Import.
Make sure the first option to import symbology definition from another layer or a layer file
is selected.
Click the Browse button and navigate to the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise05 folder.
Click the R2Trails.lyr file, then click Add.
Click OK on the Import Symbology dialog box.
Click OK on the Import Symbology Matching dialog box to verify that you do want to use
the Elev_Class field, which is the subtype field.
The symbology for the layer file has been applied to the R2Trails layer.

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Domains and subtypes

Click OK on the Layer Properties dialog box.


Note: Optionally, you could also add the layer file to the map document.

Each subtype now displays with a different color. Next, you will see how subtypes and domains
can be useful in an edit session.
If necessary, turn on the Editor toolbar.
Start an edit session.
Remember, you can click the Auto Hide push pin on the Create Features window to set it to
auto hide.
First you will explore the domains you created for the R2VEG layer's related tables. To make
this process easier, you will turn off the display of the R2Trails layer.
Turn off the R2Trails layer.
With the Edit tool, select a single vegetation polygon.
On the Editor toolbar, click the Attributes button

In the Attributes window, expand the feature listed under R2VEG to view the related
tables.
Once you expand the feature, the relationship classes for this feature class display. Relationship
classes will be discussed in more detail later. For now, you can use the two domains you created
by navigating to the ToSpec and ToPolyLocal relationships. ToSpec is a relationship class label
that represents an association between the R2VEG feature class and the R2VEG_SPECIES
table. ToPolyLocal is a relationship class label that represents an association between the
R2VEG feature class and the R2VEG_POLY_LOCAL table.

Expand ToPolyLocal, then click the record within it.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

Locate the OLD_GROWTH field at the bottom of the Attributes window.


Click the current value to reveal the domain list.

Notice that the only options are Yes and No, the same values you entered for the domain.
Remember, you gave Yes a code of Y and No a code of N. When using coded value domains in
ArcMap, the user will always see the meaningful description rather than the code.
Note: You can set the tables to show the codes rather than the descriptions. From the
Customize menu, click ArcMap Options, then click the Tables tab and uncheck
Display coded value domain and subtype descriptions. Click OK.

Locate the OLD_GROWTH_SOURCE field in the Attributes window.


Click its current value to display the domain list.

In this domain list, you see all the values you entered for the R2Veg_Oldgrowth_Source
domain. Even though domains restrict the list of valid values, it is still up to the you to choose
the correct value.
Close the Attributes window.
Next, you will look at the subtypes and range domain you applied to the R2Trails feature class.
Turn off the R2VEG layer and turn on the R2Trails layer.
Select the westernmost High Elevation trail in the display.

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Domains and subtypes

Open the Attributes window.

Notice the value for the Mileage field falls outside the high elevation range of 10 - 25.
Range domains do not have built-in validation like coded value domains. Therefore, you have
to manually validate in ArcMap using the Validate Features command on the Editor menu.
This command will only be enabled when you make a selection. It will leave any invalid
features selected and unselect all valid features.
For now, you will leave it as is. Later in this course, you will edit and validate range domain
values.
Close the Attributes window.
Notice that the Create Features window contains all the subtypes within the R2Trails layer. You
will do more subtype editing in a later exercise. At this point, you have seen some of their
immediate display benefits.
From the Editor menu, choose Stop Editing, then click Yes if prompted to save your edits.
Close ArcMap without saving.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 5

Lesson review
1. Explain when it is appropriate to use coded value domains and when it is appropriate to use
subtypes.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Domains and subtypes

Answers to Lesson 5 questions


Applying domains
1. List and describe some of the inefficiencies that currently exist in the PizzaTable.
Errors include: Inconsistency (Bar-b-cue, BBQ for Style), invalid values (141 for Size),
meaningless values (F for CrustType), and misspellings (checken for Topping1).
2. Using the pizza menu and order form, list and describe up to four domains that could be
created to help validate data entry.

Domain
name

Description

Field
type

Domain
type

Valid values

Quantity

Number of pizzas
ordered

Short
integer

Range

Minimum 1, Maximum 5

Crust

Type of crust

Text

Coded
value

Thin, Deep dish

Sauce

Type of sauce

Text

Coded
value

Alfredo, Barbecue, Tomato

Text

Coded
value

10-Small, 12-Medium,
14-Large, 16-Xlarge

PizzaSize Pizza Size

Exercise 5: Explore subtypes and domains


1. How many elevation classes are present in this table?
Three total: 1, 2, and 3
2. Why is Elev_Class the only field available in the list?
It is the only integer field in this table, so it is the only field available for creating
subtypes.
3. Which type of field is the Mileage field?
Float

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Lesson 5

4. What is the mileage for the longest trail?


23.3 miles
5. What is the mileage for the shortest trail?
0.21 miles
6. Which field type should be applied to this range domain and why?
Float, because it is the field type for the Mileage field.
7. What is the benefit of assigning this domain to the entire attribute field?
Applying the domain to the field makes the domain a global attribute rule for the entire
field.

Lesson review
1. Explain when it is appropriate to use coded value domains and when it is appropriate to use
subtypes.
Use domains when:

You want to create a consistent coding scheme.


You want to apply attribute validation to fields.
The values in one field do not affect the values in other fields.
Use subtypes when:

You want your features to display differently by default.


You want to be able to edit each category of features individually.
You want to set different default attribute values for each feature group.
The value of one field determines the values of other fields.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Introduction
This lesson shows you how to use relationship classes to help make your geodatabase more
accurately reflect the real world and facilitate data maintenance.

Topics covered

ArcMap joins and relates


Relationship classes
Advantages of relationship classes
Relationship rules

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Determine when to use relationship classes over joins and relates.


Manage associations between tables or feature classes.
Maintain valid relationships using relationship rules.
.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Joins and relates


There are many ways to connect tables in ArcGIS. Within ArcMap, you can use a join or a
relate. No additional licensing is required for these and they are stored in the map document
and as a property of the layer.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 6

Relationship classes
Relationship classes are a geodatabase element that allow you to create a persistent connection
between tables or feature classes. They are similar to ArcMap relates, only, they are stored in
the geodatabase, not a map document. Additionally, there are other advantages to them that
you will discuss shortly.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Advantages of relationship classes


The advantages of geodatabase relationship classes include many advanced capabilities not
found in ArcMap joins and relates:

Read-write access: You can edit the attributes in the related class.
All cardinalities: One-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many cardinalities are

6-4

supported, and may have attributes about the relationship itself (an attributed
relationship).
Relationship rules: You can create rules to refine the cardinality between classes based
on subtypes. That is, Parcels and Buildings have a one-to-many relationship, but rules
can state that a commercial property may only be related to warehouse or office
buildings.
Simple or composite: Relationships can be simple (peer-to-peer) or composite (parent-tochild), where the parent class controls the lifetime of the related child class objects. If two
feature classes are related with a composite relationship, the child features follow the
parent feature when it is moved or rotated.
Referential integrity: The relationship class manages the key fields that link the classes
and, in a composite relationship, performs a cascade delete to delete all the child class
objects when the related parent class object is deleted.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 6

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Relationship rules
Relationship rules are used to maintain data integrity within the geodatabase when objects are
created, modified, or deleted. They control which origin class subtypes can be related to
destination class subtypes, and set specific cardinality to the subtype relationships. Like all rules,
relationship rules are tested by the ArcMap Validate command.
Use relationship rules to:

Make cardinality between destination and source tables more specific.


Establish validation rules that ensure valid relationships and cardinality are maintained

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between features and records.


Further refine relationship classes using subtypes.
Locate invalid features using validation tools.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 6

Exercise 6A: Relate spatial and attribute data


Estimated time: 30 minutes
In a GIS, tabular data is often stored separately from its associated features. However, you can
access this additional information through a relationship class. Relationship classes help enforce
referential integrity by maintaining persistent connections between tables that are stored within
a geodatabase; they also allow for read/write table access.
In this exercise, you will:

Create geodatabase relationship classes.


Use relationship classes in ArcMap.
Step 1: Explore table cardinality
Before you create any relationship classes, you will explore some of the tables with which you
will work.
Start ArcMap with a blank map document and set
..\Student\BLDG\Database\Relationships.gdb as the default geodatabase.
Add the following data to the map from the Relationships.gdb:

\R2VegFD\R2VEG
R2VEG_GIS_CALCS
R2VEG_SPECIES
Open the attribute table for the R2VEG layer.
1. How many records are in this feature class?
______________________________________________________________________________
Open the R2VEG_GIS_CALCS table.
2. How many records are in this table?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Relating spatial and attribute data

3. Which kind of association (cardinality) do these tables likely have?


______________________________________________________________________________

Note: To view both tables at once, click the R2Veg tab and drag it onto the Table
window. Use the docking guide

to choose a location.

Notice that the VEG_LINK field is common between these tables.


In this case, the names of the common fields in these tables happen to be the same; they don't
have to be. Fields are common fields because they contain the same data.
Close R2VEG_GIS_CALCS table and leave the R2VEG table open.
Open the R2VEG_SPECIES table.

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Lesson 6

4. How many records are in this table?


______________________________________________________________________________
In this case, there is a one-to-many cardinality between the R2VEG layer table and the
R2VEG_SPECIES table.
Close both tables.
Now that you have a better understanding of these tables, you will create relationship classes
between them.

Step 2: Create relationship classes


In this step, you will create two relationship classes in the Relationships geodatabase. You will
then use these relationship classes to explore your data. First, you will create a one-to-one
relationship between the R2VEG feature class and the GIS_CALCS table.
In the Catalog window, right-click the Relationships geodatabase and choose New >
Relationship Class.
Note: You need an ArcEditor or ArcInfo license to create relationship classes.

For Name of the relationship class, type ToGISCalcs.


For Origin table/feature class, expand the R2VegFD feature dataset and select the
R2VEG feature class.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

For Destination table/feature class, select R2VEG_GIS_CALCS.

Click Next.
The next panel offers two choices for the relationship type: simple and composite. Because you
want to ensure that no species of vegetation exists without a polygon, you will create a
composite relationship.
Choose Composite relationship, then click Next.
The next panel of the wizard allows you to create labels for the new relationship class. Labels
express the navigational relationship between destination and origin tables participating in a
relationship class. Forward labels navigate from origin to destination; backward labels navigate
from destination to origin. Labels will display in the Attributes and Identify windows in
ArcMap, so you will want to make your label naming conventions meaningful.
In the first text box, type R2Veg To GisCalcs as the label for origin to destination.
In the second text box, type GISCalcs To R2Veg as the label for destination to origin.

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Lesson 6

Make sure Forward is chosen for message direction, then click Next.
Note: Forward messaging is the default for composite relationships and allows for
feature following and cascade deletes. When the parent (origin) is deleted, related
child records are also deleted.

For cardinality, choose 1-1 (one-to-one) and click Next.


Choose No when prompted to add attributes to the relationship, then click Next.
For the primary and foreign keys, choose the VEG_LINK field, then click Next.
Verify that your relationship class properties match the following graphic.

If the properties of your relationship class match the graphic, then click Finish. Otherwise,
go back and change any incorrect properties, then click Finish when you are done.
Your new relationship class is now added to the geodatabase. Next, you will explore the
properties.
In the Catalog window, right-click the new ToGISCalc relationship class and choose
Properties.
Click the General tab.
All the properties listed are the ones you just entered when you created the relationship class.
You will work with the Rules tab in exercise 6B.
Click OK to close the Relationship Class Properties dialog box.
Now that you've created the relationship class, you realize that you should have prefaced the
relationship class name with the origin table name.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Note: Once you create the relationship class, you can only change the name.

Right-click the relationship class and choose Rename.


Type R2Veg_ToGISCalcs and press Enter.
Now the relationship class name is prefaced with the origin table name.
Next, you will create a one-to-many relationship between the R2VEG feature class and the
R2VEG_SPECIES table.
Using what you have learned about relationship classes and the R2Veg data, complete the
following table.

Relationship property

Your input

Relationship name

R2Veg_ToSpecies

Origin feature class/table


Destination feature class/table
Relationship type
Forward path label

R2Veg To Species

Backward path label

Species To R2Veg

Messaging
Cardinality
Add attributes to this relationship? No
Primary key
Foreign key
Right-click the Relationships geodatabase and choose New > Relationship Class.
For the inputs, refer to the table you just completed.

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Lesson 6

When finished, verify that your summary matches the following graphic.

Click Finish.
Notice all of these relationship classes were created as composite. This means that there is a
dependent relationship between the vegetation polygons and the species records or records in
any other table. A species cannot exist without a vegetation polygon, just as in the real world.
Relationship classes are mainly used in ArcMap for editing operations, but you can also access
the related data by using the Identify tool.
Click the Identify tool, then click a feature.
In the Identify window, expand the feature to view the relationship classes available for
this feature class.
Expand the R2Veg To Species label to reveal the related records.
Spend a moment exploring the related records, then close the Identify window when you
are finished.

Step 3: Use relationship classes in ArcMap


Next, you will use the two relationship classes you created to explore your data and to see how
they can be used for editing.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Zoom in to the western tip of the vegetation polygons.

Using the Identify tool, click the polygon indicated in the following graphic.

Note: The VEG_LINK number should be DEVLXX 1086.

The attributes that display are the ones stored in the R2VEG layer. Relationship classes provide
you with access to additional attributes when using the Identify tool.

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Lesson 6

Expand the identified feature to reveal the two related tables.

Note: These are the forward labels because you are navigating from the origin feature
class (R2VEG) to the destination tables.

Notice that this represents the two relationship classes you just created. An advantage of
relationship classes is that they can be accessed in a variety of ways, such as using the Identify
tool.
Expand each of the related tables in the Identify window.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Click the related record under R2VEG_GIS_CALCS.

The bottom section of the Identify window now displays the attributes for the related record in
the R2VEG_GIS_CALCS table.
Click several of the related species records to view their attributes.
When finished, close the Identify window.
Next, you will access the relationship classes through the attribute tables.
With the Select by rectangle tool
Identify tool.

, select the same polygon you just explored with the

Open the attribute table for the R2VEG layer.


In the Table window, click the Show selected records button
corresponding record.
Click the Related Table button

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to view the

and choose R2Veg_ToGISCalcs : R2Veg To GISCalcs.

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Lesson 6

The related table opens with the related record selected. Because this is a one-to-one relationship
class, there will only be one related record selected.

Notice the VEG_LINK value is the same for both records. This is the primary and foreign key
in the relationship class that connects the two tables.
Refer to the two open tables to answer the following questions.
5. When was this polygon entered into the geodatabase?
______________________________________________________________________________
6. How many acres are in this watershed?
______________________________________________________________________________
The information you acquire from both tables pertains to the same polygon.
Close the R2VEG_GIS_CALCS attribute table.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Next, you will explore the other relationship class you created.
Click the Selected records in a related table button and choose R2Veg_ToSpecies : R2Veg
To Species.
Click the Show selected records button to view the related records.
7. How many selected records are in the R2VEG_SPECIES table?
______________________________________________________________________________
8. With the answer to the previous question in mind, what is the cardinality of the relationship
class between the R2VEG layer and the R2VEG_SPECIES table?
______________________________________________________________________________
In this case, there are nine selected records in the R2VEG_SPECIES table for the DEVLXX
1086 polygon. With a relationship class, you can easily access the various species of vegetation
within this particular area of the forest.
Take a moment to examine the various species listed for these nine records.
Next, you will explore how relationship classes will assist you during editing.
Close both attribute tables by closing the Table window.
Start an edit session.
Click the Attributes button

Expand the selected polygon (DEVLXX 1086) to reveal the relationship classes.
The same two relationship classes that were available in the Identify window are available here
as well. The benefit is that you can edit the related records from the Attributes window. The
next lesson will focus on editing geodatabase behaviors.
Expand the R2VEG_SPECIES relationship class.
Click the first related record to view its attributes.
Click the current value for COVER_PCT.

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Lesson 6

9. Are you able to edit this attribute from here?


______________________________________________________________________________
10. Why do relationship classes have to be created between tables or feature classes that are in
the same geodatabase?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Click the current value for PARTITION_TYPE.
This exposes the list of coded value domain descriptions for you to choose from when editing
the data.
Close the Attributes window.
Open the R2VEG attribute table.
Click the Selected records in a related table button and choose R2Veg_ToSpecies : R2Veg
To SPECIES.
Click the Show selected records button to view the related records.
In the PARTITION_TYPE field, click the current value to reveal the domain list.
As long as there are domains applied to any related fields, you can access them through the
Attributes window or the attribute table.
Close all tables and stop editing without saving.
Close ArcMap without saving.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Exercise 6B: Work with relationship rules


Estimated time: 25 minutes
Relationship rules are geodatabase validation rules that can help maintain the integrity of your
data by ensuring the proper cardinality between origin/parent features and destination/child
features.
In this exercise, you will:

Create relationship rules.


Edit and validate related features in ArcMap.
Step 1: Create relationship rules
In this step, you will create relationship rules between subtypes of buildings and parcels to
ensure proper zoning. This will enable the Validate Features command in ArcMap to locate
invalid relationships between buildings and parcels (e.g., a commercial building on a parcel
zoned residential).
A one-to-many relationship class, named ParcelToBuilding, has already been created in the
ValidationRules geodatabase for use in this exercise. Because this is a one-to-many relationship
class, the rules you create will tell ArcGIS exactly how many of each type of building are
associated with each type of parcel.
Start ArcMap with a blank map document, and set
..\Student\BLDG\Database\ValidationRules.gdb as the default geodatabase.
In the Catalog window, navigate to the ..\Student\BLDG\Database folder and expand
ValidationRules.gdb.
Expand the LandBase feature dataset.
Right-click the ParcelToBuilding relationship class, then click Properties.
Click the Rules tab.
For Origin Table/Feature Class subtypes, select Commercial.
For Destination Table/Feature Class subtypes, check the box next to Office.

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Lesson 6

Select Office to enable the Cardinality panels on the right side of the dialog box.

Check the box for Specify the range of associated destination objects.
Leave Min set to 0 and type 2 for Max.
Note: The order in which you enter the min and max values is important. The value for
Min cannot be higher than the value for Max, so you must always set the Max
value first.

The first rule states that each parcel zoned Commercial can have between zero and two office
buildings associated with it.

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Click OK.
Using the skills you just learned, create the remaining relationship rules using the
following table as a guide. Be sure to click Apply after each rule has been entered. Do not
uncheck any previously created relationship rules.

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Parcel subtype

Building subtype Destination Cardinality

Commercial

Commercial

0..4

Miscellaneous

Park

0..1

Single Family Residential

Residence

0..2

Multiple Family Residential Residence

0..5

Office

Public Facility

0..1

Office

Commercial

0..3

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Lesson 6

Click OK after entering the last rule.


Now that you have created the rules, you will test some of them.

Step 2: Use relationship rules in ArcMap


In this step, you will test some of the relationship rules you created for the ParcelToBuilding
relationship class.
In the Catalog window, navigate to your ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise06 folder and open
TestRel.mxd.
Because you did not create a rule between Single Family Residence parcels and Commercial
buildings, the geodatabase will consider this association invalid. To test this association: you
will create a scenario in which a commercial building falls within the boundary of a residential
parcel. You will use the Validate Features command to test the association between these two
features. You used the same Validate Features command earlier in the course to validate range
domains.
From the Bookmarks menu, choose Buildings.
Start an edit session.
In the map display, using the Edit tool
, select the Single Family Residential parcel
with only one building labeled Residence on it.
From the Editor menu, choose Validate Features.
Because this is a residential building, the feature is valid.
Close the Validate Features message and reselect the same residential building.
On the Editor toolbar, click the Attributes button.
In the Attributes window, change the BuildingType attribute from Residence to
Commercial.
Click Yes in the message box that asks you if want to change the default attributes for the
feature to those defined by the new subtype.
1. Are these domain or subtype values that appear in the drop-down list?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Close the Attributes window.


You will now test the association between residential parcels and commercial buildings.
Validate the selected building and read the Validate Features message.
Click OK to close the Validate Features message.
Because there is no association, the feature is invalid. You could leave the feature as is, or
change it back to residence.
Click the Undo button

to restore the Residence value to the building.

Next, you will test the number of associated records. In the relationship rules, you set a
maximum value of two residences for single-family parcels. There are several single-family
parcels that contain more than two buildings.
Locate and select the parcel and the three buildings inside it shown in the following
graphic.

From the Editor menu, choose Validate Features and read the Validate Features message.
The message clearly states that there is an association between these subtypes, but you set a
maximum of two buildings and there are three on this parcel. Perhaps this is an actual case
where there are more than two residences on a parcel. You can keep the invalid association, or
make the necessary edits to correct the problem. Relationship rules don't stop you from creating
invalid associations, they only locate such associations after they have already been made.
Click OK to close the message.

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Lesson 6

Next, you will create an invalid association.


In the Create Features window, select the Park template.
Under Construction Tools, select Rectangle.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Digitize a new park in the location shown in the following graphic.

Double-click to finish the sketch.


The park you just created should be selected.
You have successfully created an invalid association. Parks have no association to commercial
parcels, but you were still able to create this new feature inside a commercial parcel. Next, you
will validate the new feature.
Click Edit tool, hold down the Shift key, then select the commercial parcel the park is in.
Now the new park you just created and the commercial parcel should be selected.
From the Editor menu, click Validate Features and read the message.

Click OK.

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Lesson 6

From the Editor toolbar, click the Attributes button.


In the map display, reselect the parcel the park falls within, while making sure your new
park parcel remains selected.
In the Attributes dialog box, expand Building until you reach Parcel.
Note: This is the relationship class backward path label.

This feature is not a child yet, because it does not have a foreign key value. You can copy the
key value from the selected parcel in the Attributes window.
Right-click Parcel and choose Add Selected.

Now the new park is a child of the commercial parcel it falls within.

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Expand Parcel, then right-click the feature under it and choose Unselect.

Close the Attributes window.


From the Editor menu, choose Validate Features.
Now the new feature is a child to a parent feature, but the association is still invalid.
Open the Attributes window again, making sure the park is the only selected feature.
Change the BldgType to Commercial.
Check Yes to change the default properties.
Close the Attributes window.
Validate the features again. All features should be valid.
Close the Validate Features dialog box.
From the Editor menu, choose Stop Editing and click Yes to save your edits.

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Lesson 6

Close ArcMap without saving the map.

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Lesson review
1. Explain the benefits of using relationship rules.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What is the cardinality for each relationship?

Relationship

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Cardinality

A parcel with any number of buildings:

____________

An electric meter is associated with billing info:

___________

A given property may have many owners and a given owner may
own many properties:

_____________

Parcels within a neighborhood are served by a single post office:

____________

One parcel can be located in many administrative districts, e.g.,


fire, police, school. Conversely, one administrative district is
composed of many parcels.

_____________

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Relating spatial and attribute data

Answers to Lesson 6 questions


Exercise 6A: Relate spatial and attribute data
1. How many records are in this feature class?
6188
2. How many records are in this table?
6188
3. Which kind of association (cardinality) do these tables likely have?
Because they have the same number of records, the cardinality is likely one-to-one;
however, you have to know your data to be sure.
4. How many records are in this table?
36977
5. When was this polygon entered into the geodatabase?
9/4/2003
6. How many acres are in this watershed?
28.165445 acres
7. How many selected records are in the R2VEG_SPECIES table?
9
8. With the answer to the previous question in mind, what is the cardinality of the relationship
class between the R2VEG layer and the R2VEG_SPECIES table?
One-to-many
9. Are you able to edit this attribute from here?
Yes, relationship classes are Read/Write.

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Lesson 6

10. Why do relationship classes have to be created between tables or feature classes that are in
the same geodatabase?
Because relationship classes are read/write and ArcMap can only edit within one
geodatabase at a time. Therefore, you cannot build relationship classes in multiple
geodatabases, because you would not be able to edit the data.

Exercise 6B: Work with relationship rules


1. Are these domain or subtype values that appear in the drop-down list?
Subtypes

Lesson review
1. Explain the benefits of using relationship rules.

Validation of parent/child associations


Cardinality validation; validate features to make sure they have the correct

number of associated features


Feature validation while editing
Maintain data integrity

2. What is the cardinality for each relationship?

Relationship

Cardinality

A parcel with any number of buildings:

One-to-many

An electric meter is associated with billing info:

One-to-one

A given property may have many owners and a given owner may own
many properties:

Many-to-many

Parcels within a neighborhood are served by a single post office:

Many-to-one

One parcel can be located in many administrative districts, e.g., fire,


police, school. Conversely, one administrative district is composed of
many parcels.

Many-to-many

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Introduction
In this lesson, you will apply the concepts covered in lessons 5 and 6 to a variety of editing
scenarios.

Topics covered

Using range domains, coded value domains, and relationship classes in the editing
process

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Use domains, subtypes, and relationship classes to streamline your editing workflow.

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Streamlining your editing workflow


Scenario: The local utility company is replacing its aging primary and secondary utility poles
within a residential development with new stronger poles.
The new poles must meet the following specifications:

The height of a utility pole co-location must be at least 30 feet in height, and cannot be

greater than 50 feet in height in residential zones.


Power poles can be made of wood, concrete, or steel depending upon the pole type.
Primary utility poles can contain up to four transformers. Secondary utility poles do not
contain transformers.
Transformers can have a rating between 15 and 75 kVA depending upon transformer
type.

In preparation for updating the power pole and transformer feature classes, you want to
implement some attribute validation rules to make editing efficient and prevent errors. Describe
how subtypes, domains, and a relationship class can help you accomplish this task.
Specific information about the Power pole and transformers feature classes are provided in the
following tables.

Feature class: PowerPoles


Fields

Notes

PoleID

Unique identifier

Primary distribution poles can be wood,

PoleType

PrimaryDistribution
SecondaryDistribution

Primary distribution poles can be 40,

Material

Height

7-2

Values

Wood
Concrete
Steel

30
35
40
45
50

concrete or steel

45, or 50 ft in height (default 40 ft)


Secondary distribution poles can only
be wood
Secondary distribution poles can be 30
or 35 ft in height (default 30 ft)

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Lesson 7

Feature class: Transformers


Fields

Values

TransformerID

Unique identifier

PoleID

Unique identifier

TransformerClass

OverheadDistribution
PadMountedDistribution

kVA

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

15
25
37.5
50
75

Notes

Overhead distribution

transformers can have a


rating of 15, 25, or 37.5 kVA
(default 25 kVA)
Pad mounted distribution
transformers can have a
rating of 25, 50, or 75 kVA
(default 25 kVA)

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Exercise 7: Edit using attribute validation rules


Estimated time: 30 minutes
In this exercise, you will learn more about editing data to which domains, subtypes, and
relationship classes have been applied. Facilitated editing is one of the main benefits of applying
geodatabase validation rules.
In this exercise, you will:

Edit and validate using range domains.


Edit using coded value domains.
Edit using subtypes.
Edit data in a relationship class.

Step 1: Edit using coded value domains


In this step, you will edit attribute data using coded value domains in ArcMap. Coded value
domains help minimize typographical errors because they create a list of valid values from
which to choose. You will begin this exercise with an examination of attribute tables in
ArcMap.
Start ArcMap with a blank map document.
Set ..\Student\BLDG\Database\Editing.gdb as the default geodatabase.
Add the following data to the map:

..\Student\BLDG\Database\Editing.gdb\R2VegFD\R2VEG
..\Student\BLDG\Database\Editing.gdb\R2VEG_GIS_CALCS
..\Student\BLDG\Exercise07\R2Trails.lyr
Open the R2VEG attribute table.
In the Table window, click the Select By Attributes button

In the Select by Attributes dialog box, for Method, make sure Create a new selection is
selected.
Double-click "VEG_LINK" to add it to the expression window.
Click the equal button

Click Get Unique Values

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Lesson 7

From the list, double-click 'DEVLXX

1086'.

Your expression should read as follows:

Click Apply, then close the Select by Attributes dialog box.


At the bottom of the attribute table, click the Show Selected Records button
the record.

to view

From the Table window, click Related Table, then choose the R2VEG_CovToCalc :
ToGISCalc relationship class.
This will open the R2VEG_GIS_CALCS table. You will use this table to answer the following
questions.
1. What is the value for PARTITION_TYPE?
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What is the ASPECT_CLASS value for the selected record?
______________________________________________________________________________
Close the Table window.
Now that you have explored the attributes for the selected polygon, you will edit some of these
attributes using coded value domains. For the purpose of this exercise, you will assume that the
GIS analyst who originally edited this polygon data entered several incorrect values.
Start an edit session.

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Editing using attribute validation rules

In the table of contents, right-click R2VEG and choose Selection > Zoom To Selected
Features.
This is the same polygon you worked with in the previous exercise, DEVLXX 1086.
Open the Attributes window.
Expand DEVLXX 1086 to view the available relationship class labels.
Expand R2VEG_GIS_CALCS relationship class to view the related record.
Click the record for DEVLXX 1086 to view its attributes.
For the PARTITION_TYPE, click the current value of Watershed to view the domain list.
The PARTITION_TYPE field has a coded value domain applied to it. You will only be able to
choose from values that are in the domain list.
Note: Coded value domains ensure that the user chooses from a list that contains only
valid values, but it is still up to the user to choose the correct value.

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Lesson 7

Choose Forest from the list.

Change the ASPECT_CLASS value to North West.


Close the Attributes window.
Open the R2VEG attribute table and access the R2VEG_GIS_CALCS table using the
relationship class again.
View only the selected record.
Notice that the changes that you made using the coded value domains have been updated in the
R2VEG_GIS_CALCS table.
Attribute editing can take place in the Attributes window and the Attribute table.
Close the Table window and clear the selection.
From the Editor menu, choose Save Edits to save your changes.

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Next, you will edit using range domains.

Step 2: Edit with range domains


In this step, you will edit and validate features using range domains.
Turn off the R2VEG layer.
Right-click R2Trails and choose Zoom to Layer.
Earlier in this course, you created a range domain of 0 to 50 miles for trail mileage. Now you
will edit the trail mileage values based on this range domain.
First you will select a specific trail to edit using the Select By Attributes window.
From the Selection menu, choose Select By Attributes.
Build the following expression: "TRAIL_NAME" = 'LITTLE SAND', then click OK.
Open the Attributes window.
For the Mileage value, click the current value of 10.65086 and type -99, then press Enter.
Remember, the mileage range domain is 0 to 50, so -99 should be flagged as invalid.
Close the Attributes window.
To locate invalid data in a range domain, you will use the Validate Features operation.
Validation works only on selected features. After validation, only invalid features will remain
selected; valid features will be unselected.
In the table of contents, right-click the R2Trails layer, choose Selection > Select All.
From the Editor menu, choose Validate Features.
You get a message that the value -99 is not within the range domain of 0 to 50. Notice that the
only feature with an invalid value remains selected. At this point, you could save the invalid
mileage value, or you could set it to a value within the range.
Click OK to close the message.
You can enter invalid values into range domain fields, because some invalid numerical data
could be correct. For example, a common workflow practice is to use invalid range values to
help keep track of features that need to be updated.

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Lesson 7

Imagine that a new trail has been added to the R2Trails feature class, but its mileage is not yet
known. You could give it a mileage value of -99 to flag it as an unknown value. When the
mileage is known, you could select and validate all trails to easily locate the trail with an
unknown mileage and make the necessary revisions. Think of range domains as a method for
locating attribute errors, but not for preventing them.
Open the Attributes window.
Change the mileage value back to 10.65086 and press Enter.
Close the Attributes window.
Validate the features again.
All features are now valid.
Click OK on the Validate Features message and save your edits.

Step 3: Edit using subtypes


Before you begin editing with subtypes, you will take a moment to review the R2Trails and
R2Veg layers in the table of contents.
Notice that while the R2Trails layer has additional categories listed, the R2Veg layer does not.
Remember that earlier in this course you created three subtype categories for the R2Trails layer
using the Elev_Class field.

In the Catalog window, expand the Editing geodatabase and open the feature class
properties for the R2Trails feature class.
Click the Subtypes tab.
Select the High Elevation subtype.
In the Default Values and Domains section, scroll down to the TR_Condition field.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Editing using attribute validation rules

3. What is the default value for the High Elevation subtype?


______________________________________________________________________________
Using the same method, locate the default values for the TR_Condition field for the
remaining two subtypes.
4. What is the default value for the Medium Elevation subtype?
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What is the default value for the Low Elevation subtype?
______________________________________________________________________________
These are the default values you set for each subtype in a previous exercise. Now, you will
digitize a new feature into each of the subtypes to view the affect of setting default values.
Close the Feature Class Properties dialog box.
In the Create Features window, select the High Elevation subtype and set the Construction
Tool to Line.

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Lesson 7

Digitize a new trail and double-click to finish the sketch.


The new trail is automatically selected, indicating that it is a new feature. Now would be a good
time to update its attributes.
Open the Attributes window.
Notice the TR_Condition field is automatically set to the default value Dirt, loose rock.

If necessary, dock and auto hide the Attributes window so you can see the feature on the
map.
Click the Edit Tool

and click in any empty area to unselect the new trail.

The new trail is now the color of the high elevation subtype.
With the Edit tool, select the new trail again.
In the Attributes window, locate the ELEV_CLASS field and click the value High
Elevation (8,800-12,000 ft).
The values that appear are not coded value domains. Although they look very similar, they are
actually subtypes.

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Click the Medium Elevation subtype and click OK.


Click Yes when asked if you want to change the default attributes for the feature.
6. What is the value for TR_Condition now?
______________________________________________________________________________
Now the trail displays in green for medium elevation.
Clear the selection.
Close the Attributes window.
When you change a feature's subtype, any default values associated with that subtype are also
changed. Getting into the habit of setting default values can save you time and reduce your
editing workload. Next, you will look at an option that allows you to change the way domains
and subtypes display in the attribute table.
Open the attribute table for the R2Trails layer.
Examine the values for the Elev_Class field.
7. What is displayed in this field?
______________________________________________________________________________
From the Table Options menu

, choose Appearance.

Uncheck Display coded value domain and subtype descriptions, and click Apply.

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Lesson 7

8. What is displayed in the field now?


______________________________________________________________________________
Notice that the Elev_Class field now only shows 1, 2, or 3, the original integer values for this
field. Remember that a subtype field must be defined as an integer field. Once you create
subtypes within a feature class, the user sees the description, not the code. You can use either
method, but sometimes it makes more sense to see the description.
Check Display coded value domain and subtype descriptions and click OK.
Close the table.
From the Editor menu, choose Save Edits.

Step 4: Edit relationship classes


Next, you will edit datasets that are participating in geodatabase relationship classes.
Turn off the R2Trails layer and turn on the R2Veg layer.
You will start editing relationship classes by adding a new vegetation polygon.
In the Create Features window, select the R2Veg template.
There should not be any gaps between polygons in this feature class, so you need to make sure
that the polygon you digitize is adjacent to others.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Zoom in to the area shown in the following graphic.

Zoom in a little more to the area shown in the following graphic.

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Lesson 7

Change the Construction Tool to Auto Complete Polygon.

From the Editor menu, choose Snapping > Snapping toolbar.

On the Snapping toolbar, click the point


only edge snapping.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

, end

, and vertex

buttons to enable

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Digitize a new polygon similar to the one in the following graphic, snapping to the edge of
an existing polygon anywhere in the zoomed area.

Double-click to finish the sketch, or press F2 on your keyboard.


The new polygon is added adjacent to the existing polygons and is selected.
Open the Attributes window and expand the selected feature.
Note: The ID number for your feature may differ from the one in the following graphic.

Notice that there are no plus signs next to the relationship class labels. At this point, there are no
related records, only the new polygon you just added to the R2VEG layer. When you add new

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Lesson 7

features to a feature class that participates in a relationship class, you have to manually add
records to the related tables.
Remember, the relationship classes in the Editing geodatabase are all composite and are
one-to-one except ToSpec, which is one-to-many.
Right-click the R2VEG_GIS_CALCS label and choose Add New.
An error should appear.
9. Why do you think an error occurred and what is the solution?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Click OK on the error message.
Before adding records to a relationship, there has to be a valid primary key value in the parent
table. Next, you will update the VEG_LINK field with a generic value so you can add related
records.
Change the VEG_LINK value for the new polygon to 99999 and press Enter.
Try to add a new record to the R2VEG_GIS_CALCS relationship class again.
This time the operation is successful.
After you add a new record, you can begin editing its values using the Attributes window or the
table. You also have access to the coded value and range domains of the new records.

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Click the new record in the R2VEG_GIS_CALCS relationship to view the attributes.

Notice that every value is set to <Null> except ObjectID and VEG_LINK, which is set to the
same value you entered for the new polygon.
Update several of the attributes according to the following table.

Field

Value

PARTITION_TYPE Watershed
PARTITION

PASPXX

ENTERED_BY

<enter your name>

ENTERED_DATE

<enter today's date>

ASPECT_CLASS

South West

SLOPE_PERCENT 43

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As you edited the value of the related record, you used coded value domains, range domains,
and typed into fields that had no domains. Remember, you can perform the same edits in the
attribute table.
Close the Attributes window.
With your new polygon still selected, open the attribute table for the R2VEG layer and
view only the selected record.
Open the ToPolyLocal relationship class label.
Because you have not added any records to this relationship, there should be no related (i.e.,
selected) records in this table. You can still create a new related record.
Scroll to the bottom of the table.
In the first empty row, for VEG_LINK, type 99999.
The ObjectID automatically updates because it is managed by the software.
Close the Attributes of R2VEG_POLY_LOCAL table.
Open the ToPolyLocal relationship class again.
This time, the R2VEG_POLY_LOCAL table opens with one record selected. This record is the
new one you just added.
Update several fields for your new record using the following table as a guide.

Field

Value

CHANGE_COVER_TYPE

Aspen

OLD_GROWTH

No

OLD_GROWTH_SOURCE Walk Through


Close both tables and save your edits.
Next, you will delete a polygon in the R2VEG layer and see how the relationship class manages
the related records. First, you will explore the cardinality between the polygon and the related
species records.
Select the DEVLXX 1086 polygon you used earlier.

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Open the Attributes window and navigate to the ToSpec relationship class label.
Expand ToSpec to view the related records.

Notice that there are nine related records in the R2VEG_SPECIES table.
10. Is the relationship class between R2VEG and the R2VEG_SPECIES table simple or
composite?
______________________________________________________________________________
11. What is one of the main characteristics of this kind of relationship?
______________________________________________________________________________
Can a species of tree exist where there is no vegetation polygon? Not in the real world and, with
the help of relationship classes, not in your geodatabase either.
Close the Attributes window.
Open the R2VEG layer's attribute table and open the ToSpec relationship label.
12. How many total records are in the R2VEG_SPECIES table?
______________________________________________________________________________
Close the attribute tables.

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Lesson 7

With the polygon still selected, click the Delete button

The polygon has been deleted from the map display, and behind the scenes, the relationship
class was at work maintaining referential integrity between your records.
Open the attribute table for R2VEG.
From the Table Options menu, choose Related Tables, then click R2VegCOVToSpecies :
ToSpec.
13. How many records are now in the R2VEG_SPECIES table?
______________________________________________________________________________
The R2VEG_SPECIES table now contains nine fewer records than before, because of the
cascade delete operation initiated by the relationship class. This functionality can help to
preserve the integrity of your data.
If this were a simple relationship and you deleted the polygon, all the related records would
remain in their respective tables, which would not be an efficient way to manage the data. On
the other hand, if there were parcels and a table of owners involved in a relationship class, a
simple relationship would work better. For example, when a single parcel gets deleted, the
owner remains in the table because the owner could own several other parcels. In such a case, a
composite relationship would not be beneficial because you would actually lose data.
The relationship with the R2VEG_SPECIES table is a one-to-many relationship. The other
relationship classes in the Editing geodatabase are all one-to-one.
14. Do you think deleting the polygon affected those tables as well?
______________________________________________________________________________
Relationship classes are very efficient editing tools that can help keep your database tables clean.
By deleting the parent record, all associated child records are also removed. Without the
composite relationship class, you would have had to manually delete all the records.
Close all attribute tables.
From the Editor menu, choose Stop Editing, then click Yes to save your edits.
Close ArcMap without saving the map.

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Lesson review
1. How would you use attribute validation rules within your own data and workflows?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Editing using attribute validation rules

Answers to Lesson 7 questions


Exercise 7: Edit using attribute validation rules
1. What is the value for PARTITION_TYPE?
Watershed
2. What is the ASPECT_CLASS value for the selected record?
West
3. What is the default value for the High Elevation subtype?
Dirt, loose rock
4. What is the default value for the Medium Elevation subtype?
Packed dirt, some loose rock
5. What is the default value for the Low Elevation subtype?
Gravel, loose rock
6. What is the value for TR_Condition now?
Packed dirt, some loose rock.
7. What is displayed in this field?
The subtype description.
8. What is displayed in the field now?
The integer code for each subtype.
9. Why do you think an error occurred and what is the solution?
The VEG_LINK field is the primary key and is currently set to null. A VEG_LINK value
will have to be entered before adding records to the relationship.

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Lesson 7

10. Is the relationship class between R2VEG and the R2VEG_SPECIES table simple or
composite?
Composite
11. What is one of the main characteristics of this kind of relationship?
In a composite relationship, if the parent records are moved or deleted, the related child
records are also deleted.
12. How many total records are in the R2VEG_SPECIES table?
36977
13. How many records are now in the R2VEG_SPECIES table?
36968
14. Do you think deleting the polygon affected those tables as well?
Yes, one record from each was deleted.

Lesson review
1. How would you use attribute validation rules within your own data and workflows?
Answers will vary, but here are a few options:

Domains may be used to create lists of valid values for attributes.


Subtypes may be used to group features within the same feature class into

categories and then edited.


Relationship rules may be used to enforce valid associations between features.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

7-25

Geodatabase annotation

Introduction
In this lesson, you will learn how to create and edit annotation feature classes.

Topics covered

Geodatabase annotation
Labels and annotation
Converting labels to annotation
When to use labels or annotation

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Decide when to use annotation instead of labels.


Create and edit geodatabase annotation.

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Geodatabase annotation

Key terms
Term

Definition

Labels

A dynamic text property of a layer. Labels are stored in a map


document or as a layer property if the layer is saved to a .lyr file. Labels
cannot be edited or moved individually.

Annotation

In ArcGIS, text or graphics that can be individually selected, positioned,


and modified. Annotation may be manually entered or generated from
labels. Annotation can be stored as features in a geodatabase or as
map annotation in a data frame.

Standard
annotation

Text stored in the geodatabase that can be edited or individually moved.


This type of annotation is not linked to a feature.

Feature-linked Text stored in the geodatabase that is linked to a feature through a


annotation
relationship class. This type of annotation can be edited and individually
moved and if the feature it is linked to is edited or moved, the annotation
is as well.

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Geodatabase annotation
What is geodatabase annotation?

A feature class that contains specialized text properties that is stored in the geodatabase
as opposed to in the map document, like labels.
Geodatabase annotation:

Has properties for reference scale and symbology.


Can be edited just like features.
Can be two types - standard and feature linked.
Standard annotation is stand-alone text that is not related to features while feature-linked
annotation is directly related to a feature using a relationship class. When a feature is moved or
edited, then the annotation is as well.

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Geodatabase annotation

Feature-linked annotation
Feature-linked annotation is associated with features in another feature class.

A feature-linked annotation feature class is updated every time the linked feature class is
updated.

When a new feature is created, a new annotation feature is automatically created.


If you move a feature, the annotation feature moves with it.
If you change the attribute of a feature that the annotation text is based on, the

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annotation text changes.


If you delete a feature, the annotation feature is also deleted.

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Lesson 8

Labels and annotation


Here are some characteristics of labels and annotation.

Labels

Annotation

Dynamically placed

Static: Manually positioned

Managed as a group

Managed individually

Stored in map document or layer file Stored in map document or geodatabase


Always linked to feature

May or may not be linked to feature

Scale dependent

Not scale dependent

Converting labels to annotation


Workflow for converting labels to annotation:
1. Set up feature symbology in your map.
2. Turn on your labels and set up their initial appearance: font, color, size, formatting,
etc.
3. Zoom to your specified map scale, or, if you are not creating a particular map, zoom to
the scale to which you want your annotation to scale.
4. Set your data frame reference scale.
5. Finalize the appearance of your labels and set label placement options.
6. Zoom to the scale at which you want to convert your labels.
7. Convert your labels to annotation.
8. Optionally, add overflow labels to your map.
For a detailed discussion of storing annotation within ArcGIS, see Annotation in the geodatabase
in the ArcGIS help system.
Converting labels to annotation is one way to create geodatabase annotation. Other ways are:

Create a new empty annotation feature class in ArcCatalog (schema)


Import existing annotation into geodatabase annotation

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Geodatabase annotation

Labels or annotation?
Below are some tips on when to use each option for placing text on a map.

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Lesson 8

Exercise 8: Work with geodatabase annotation


Estimated time: 50 minutes
In this exercise, you will work with geodatabase annotation, a specialized feature class stored in
a geodatabase. You will create annotation in two ways: first by converting labels in ArcMap;
second, by creating a new annotation feature class. Once you create the annotation feature class,
you can edit and create annotation using the standard ArcMap editing environment.
In this exercise, you will:

Convert labels to geodatabase annotation.


Create a new annotation feature class.
Edit and create annotation in ArcMap.
Step 1: Create annotation from labels
In this step, you will convert labels to annotation.
Start ArcMap and open ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise08\Annotation.mxd as an existing
map and set ..\Student\BLDG\Database\RiversideAnno.gdb as the default geodatabase.
Labels have already been created for the roads in Riverside, California. Several label classes,
which allow you to label a group of features a certain way, have been created in the Roads
layer. Each label class is defined by an SQL query. You will examine the properties of these
labels, including their SQL queries, before you convert them to annotation. You could do this
through the Layer Properties dialog box, but for this exercise you will use the Label Manager.
Right-click the Layers data frame, choose Labeling > Label Manager.
The Label Manager allows you to view label properties for all layers in the active data frame at
the same time. In the Layer Properties dialog box, you can only few properties for one layer at a
time. For this reason, the Label Manager is a more efficient method for working with labels in
ArcMap.
You can create label classes like these to label subsets of features in a layer. For each label class,
you can specify a different label field, symbol, scale range, label placement options, and an SQL
query that defines which features go into the class.
In the Label Manger dialog box, you see four label classes in the Roads feature class.

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Geodatabase annotation

Click the Interstate label class.


When you click a label class, the properties for that class display on the right side of the dialog
box.
Click SQL Query.
1. Which SQL query defines the Interstate labeling class?
______________________________________________________________________________
Close the SQL Query dialog box.
Click the Major Road label class, then click SQL Query.
2. Which expression defines the Major Road label class?
______________________________________________________________________________
Close the SQL Query dialog box.
Click each label class and notice that Interstate and US Highway use a highway shield
symbol.
Click OK to close the Label Manager.
Use the Pan tool
to position the interchange between Interstate 91 and US Highway
60 in the center of the map display.
ArcMap dynamically adjusts the labels to fit the display as you pan and zoom around the map.
You can, however, lock labels in place, which will keep all the labels in the same locations
relative to their associated features.

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Lesson 8

You can only control label placement from the Layer Properties or the Label Manager. You
cannot click and drag individual labels on the map. After converting these labels to annotation,
you will be able to edit each piece of text individually.
Notice the size of the label text relative to the current map display. You want your annotation
features to draw at this size when drawn at the current map scale so, before you convert these
labels to annotation, you will set the reference scale. The reference scale is the scale at which
symbols will appear on the page at their true size, specified in page units. It also controls the size
of the text when you zoom in and out of the map. As the extent changes, the text and symbols
change scale along with the display. Without a reference scale, the symbols remain the same
size at all map scales.
Right-click the Layers data frame and choose Properties.
Click the General tab.
For Reference Scale, click the drop-down arrow.
Notice that there are many pre-set scales you can choose from. In this exercise, you will choose
to use the current map scale as the reference scale.
From the drop-down list, click <Use Current Scale>, then click Apply.

The current map scale is entered in the Reference Scale input box.
Note: Your current scale may differ from the example shown in the following graphic.

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Geodatabase annotation

Click OK on the Data Frame Properties dialog box.


Now, you will convert the labels to geodatabase annotation.
Right-click the Roads layer and click Convert Labels to Annotation.
In the Convert Labels to Annotation dialog box, make sure the following parameters are
set:

For Store Annotation, choose In a database.


For Create Annotation For, choose All features.
Feature Linked is checked.
Convert unplaced labels to unplaced annotation is checked.
Annotation Feature Name is RoadsAnno.

Notice that the RiversideAnno.gdb geodatabase is where the new annotation feature class will
be stored (i.e., destination). When creating feature-linked annotation, the annotation feature
class must be stored in the same geodatabase as the features. If you were creating standard
annotation, you could choose to store it in any geodatabase.

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Lesson 8

Verify that your dialog box matches the following graphic (however, the reference scale
may be different).

Click Convert.
The labels have been converted to annotation and the RoadsAnno layer has been added to the
table of contents. The conversion process automatically turns off the labels in the Roads layer,
so the text you see on the map comes from the RoadsAnno layer. Notice that the RoadsAnno
layer has four annotation classes listed under it. These are the label classes you explored earlier
in this step.

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Geodatabase annotation

You will edit the annotation later in this exercise, but for now, you are going to explore the
RoadsAnno annotation feature class.

Step 2: Explore annotation


Annotation classes are similar to subtypes. Subtypes are a way to categorize a feature class
based on a value in the table and are a property of the feature class. Next, you will explore the
properties of the new RoadsAnno annotation feature class.
In the Catalog window, navigate to the ..\Student\BLDG\Database\RiversideAnno.gdb
file geodatabase and expand it.
Open the properties for RoadsAnno.
Click the Subtypes tab.

Notice that the structure of the annotation classes within RoadsAnno is similar to the R2Trails
subtypes you created earlier. There is a subtype field, AnnotationClassID, which is the integer
field used to categorize the features within RoadsAnno. The Subtypes section lists integer codes

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Lesson 8

and descriptions, which are the names of the label classes that existed prior to converting the
labels to annotation. All label classes become annotation subtypes when you convert the labels
to annotation. Further, you can enter default values and apply domains for fields in each
annotation class subtype. The concept is very similar to what you have already done. In this
case, ArcCatalog created the subtypes for you.
Click OK to close the Feature Class Properties dialog box.
Next, you will look at the relationship class created automatically when you created
feature-linked annotation.
Open the properties for Anno_9_#.
Note: The name of your relationship class may differ slightly from the one in the
following graphic.

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Geodatabase annotation

Click the General tab.

3. The type of relationship is listed as composite. How does this affect the features involved in
this relationship class?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Notice the name of the relationship class has been entered by the software as Anno_9_#. All
relationship classes for annotation will be prefaced with Anno and followed by a series of two
numbers. The first number, 9 in this case, is the internal ID of the feature class Roads. The
second number is the internal ID for the annotation feature class, RoadsAnno. If you were to
continue to create and delete this relationship class, the name would always contain a 9, but the
second number would increment by one each time. This is the default naming convention for all

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composite relationship classes created through feature-linked annotation. You can change this
name without affecting the behavior or the relationship class.
Click OK to close the Relationship Class Properties dialog box.
Right-click Anno_9_# (your numeric value may differ) and choose Rename.
Type RoadsToRoadsAnno and press Enter.
Now the relationship class has a more meaningful name. Next, you will edit annotation features
in ArcMap.

Step 3: Edit feature-linked annotation


Now that you have converted the labels into annotation, you can edit individual annotation
pieces of text in ArcMap. Annotation can be manipulated and created with the tools on the
editor toolbar.
If necessary, turn on the Editor toolbar.
Because geodatabase annotation is stored as a feature class, you have to be in an edit session to
create new or modify existing annotation.
Start an edit session.
Next, you will create new annotation using the appropriate Annotation Construction Tools.
From the Bookmarks menu, choose Create Annotation.
In the Create Features window, select the Minor Road Annotation template.
In the Annotation Construction window, enter Pearl St.
In the Construction Tools pane, change the construction to Horizontal.

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Geodatabase annotation

The Construction Tools pane allows you to choose the shape or direction your annotation text
will take. In this case, you are labeling a minor road that is horizontal on the map, so you chose
Horizontal.
Move your mouse cursor onto the display.
Note that the cursor contains the text string Pearl St.

Click anywhere near the small street that runs perpendicular to Iowa Av to add the text.

You have just added an annotation feature. Next, you will add annotation using Follow Feature
construction.
In the Construction Tools pane, set the construction to Follow Feature.
The Follow Feature option allows you to create geodatabase annotation while constraining its
placement relative to the feature for which it is being created. You can still move the annotation,
but you can only move it along the feature.
Zoom to the Follow Feature bookmark.

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Lesson 8

Click the street shown in the following graphic.

When you click the street, it flashes momentarily. This tells ArcMap that you want to use the
value in the annotation fields to create annotation for this feature. Also, Pearl St still displays
because this is typed into the Text box on the Annotation toolbar. You don't want to use Pearl
St; you want the name of the street you clicked on to be placed as annotation.
Hover your mouse cursor over the street and press W on the keyboard.
This pulls the attributes from the annotation fields for that feature and displays them near the
cursor. Notice the annotation follows the direct path of the feature you clicked. This is a
property of follow-feature annotation.
Click anywhere along Colgate Way to add the new annotation.
Using the skills you just learned, add annotation for a few more streets that currently have
no annotation.
After adding new annotation, you can always modify it. You will start by modifying the Pearl St
annotation you created earlier.
Zoom to the Create Annotation bookmark.
From the Editor toolbar, click the Edit Annotation tool

Click Pearl St to select it.

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Geodatabase annotation

Notice there are three shapes within the selected piece of annotation. The triangle in the top
center allows you to resize the annotation by clicking and dragging in or out. The two angles at
each lower corner allow you to rotate the annotation.
Using the Edit Annotation tool, click the triangle and drag it out and in to see the change
in font size.
Release the mouse cursor when you reach a desirable annotation size.
Experiment with rotating the annotation by clicking the angles at the lower corners of the
selected annotation.
Next, you will edit the annotation in the Attributes window.
On the Editor toolbar, click the Attributes button

The window contains two tabs: Annotation and Attributes. The Annotation tab is where you
edit the properties of the annotation, such as font, color, and size. The Attributes tab allows you
to edit the attribute table for the annotation feature class.
If necessary, click the Annotation tab.
Change the color to red and the font style to bold Comic Sans MS, then click Apply.
If necessary, move or dock the Attributes window so you can see Pearl St in the map with
the new font displayed.

Click the Attributes tab.

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For now, you will not change any of the attributes, but you will explore some of the options.
Click the value for the HorizontalAlignment field.

These are domains. You learned about domains earlier in this course. The software created
domains for you when you created the annotation.
4. Is this a coded value or a range domain?
______________________________________________________________________________
Click off of the domain list to close it, then close the Attributes window.
There are many ways to add new annotation in ArcMap. You can enter new attributes in the
attribute table or Attributes window, or you can use the operations on the Annotation toolbar.
Another way to add annotation is through the Unplaced Annotation window. Unplaced
annotation could not be added to the map when the annotation was created because of the label
placement rules. You can always go back and add annotation that was not placed using the
Unplaced Annotation window.
Zoom to the Freeway Intersection bookmark.
From the Editor menu, choose Editing Windows > Unplaced Annotation.
In the Unplaced Annotation window, for Show, choose RoadsAnno.
Click Search Now.
ArcMap will search within the visible extent for unplaced annotation in the RoadsAnno feature
class.
In the Unplaced Annotation window, click the first piece of unplaced annotation. It will
flash in the map.
Right-click the first piece of unplaced annotation and choose click Zoom to Feature.

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Geodatabase annotation

Right-click the annotation again and choose Place Annotation.


You can place all unplaced annotation this way. All unplaced annotation are stored in the
geodatabase and can be placed at any time.
Close the Unplaced Annotation window.
Zoom out and use the Edit Annotation tool to adjust the placement of the new annotation.
Next, you will see what happens to feature-linked annotation if you delete a feature.
With the Edit tool, select the street you just created annotation for.
Press the Delete key on the keyboard.
When the road is deleted, the annotation is also deleted, because this is a composite relationship
class.
On the Standard toolbar, click the Undo button

Select the road feature again.


On the Editor toolbar, click the Rotate tool

Click and drag the selected road to rotate it.


The annotation rotates with the road.
Click the Undo button again to return the feature and its annotation to their original
positions.
Annotation that moves and gets deleted with the feature is a product of feature-linked
annotation. Standard annotation does not behave in this manner.
Stop Editing, then click Yes to save your edits.

Step 4: Create an annotation feature class


Now you know that annotation can be created by converting labels into annotation, but it can
also be created as a new feature class in Catalog. In this step, you will create a new annotation
feature class in the geodatabase.
Click the New Map File button and choose Yes to save your changes to the current map
document.

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Lesson 8

In the Catalog window, navigate to RiversideAnno.gdb and expand it if necessary.


Right-click LandBase and choose New > Feature Class.
On the first panel of the New Feature Class wizard, for Name, type ParksAnno.
For Type, click the drop-down menu and choose Annotation Features.

Check the check box for Link the annotation to the following feature class.
When you click this check box, an additional drop-down list displays. This list contains all the
feature classes in the LandBase feature dataset. By clicking this check box, you are creating
feature-linked annotation. Next, you have to tell Catalog which feature class you want to link
the annotation to.
From the drop-down list, choose Parks, then click Next.
Click Next.
For Reference Scale, type 12,000.
Notice that in the Editing behavior section, new annotation will be created when a new feature
is added and that annotation will be updated when a feature's shape is modified.
Click Next.
The next wizard panel allows you to create annotation classes and set symbology. For now, you
will not create annotation classes, but you will set default symbology.
Change the font to size 10 and the style to bold.

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Geodatabase annotation

Verify that the Label Field is PARK_NAME, then click Next.


Click Next on the configuration keyword panel to get to the final panel.
The final panel shows you the fields that will be in the new annotation feature class. You could
set default values and apply domains from here, just like regular feature classes, but for now,
you will accept the defaults.
Click Finish.
ParksAnno, as well as another relationship class, is added to the LandBase feature dataset. The
relationship class is named according to the convention you learned about earlier: feature class
IDs.
Rename the new relationship class ParksToParksAnno and press Enter.
Next, you will add some annotation to the new annotation feature class in ArcMap.
Add the following layers from the
..\Student\BLDG\Database\RiversideAnno.gdb\LandBase feature dataset:

Parks
ParksAnno
In the table of contents, right-click Parks and choose Zoom to Layer.

Start an edit session.

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Lesson 8

In the Create Features window, select the Default template under ParksAnno.
In the Construction Tools pane, change the construction to Horizontal.
Hover your mouse cursor over the park in the upper-left corner of the map display and
press the W key on the keyboard.
5. What does pressing the W key on your keyboard do when you are adding annotation?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Click the feature to add Nichols Park annotation to the map.
Hover the Sketch tool over the park to the right of Nichols Park and press the W key on
your keyboard.
Click to add Mt. View Park annotation.
Continue in this manner until annotation for all parks has been created.
If necessary, use the Edit Annotation tool to adjust the placement of the text you added.
You just added annotation to an empty annotation feature class you created.
Stop Editing, then click Yes to save your edits.
Close ArcMap without saving the map document.

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Geodatabase annotation

Lesson review
1. Explain the benefits of using feature-linked annotation and why you would choose this over
standard annotation. Also, list some real-world examples of feature-linked annotation.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Geodatabase annotation

Answers to Lesson 8 questions


Exercise 8: Work with geodatabase annotation
1. Which SQL query defines the Interstate labeling class?
"Name" = '91'
2. Which expression defines the Major Road label class?
"CLASS" = 3
3. The type of relationship is listed as composite. How does this affect the features involved in
this relationship class?
Features in the destination table will be deleted if a feature in the origin table is deleted.
Further, if you move an origin feature in an ArcMap editing session, the destination
feature will also move.
4. Is this a coded value or a range domain?
Coded value
5. What does pressing the W key on your keyboard do when you are adding annotation?
It pulls the text from the annotation field for the feature you are hovering the cursor
over. This text will be added when you click the feature on the map.

Lesson review
1. Explain the benefits of using feature-linked annotation and why you would choose this over
standard annotation. Also, list some real-world examples of feature-linked annotation.

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Feature-linked annotation links the annotation to the features.


If a feature is deleted, its annotation is also deleted.
If a feature is moved, its annotation is also moved.
ArcCatalog builds a composite relationship automatically to manage the
relationship between the annotation and features.
Feature-linked annotation is stored in the same database as the features, making it
easier to manage.

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Geodatabase topology

Introduction
In this lesson, you will create a topology. This process consists of adding a topology object to a
feature dataset, setting its properties, choosing the feature classes that will participate in the
topology, and identifying the appropriate rules.

Topics covered

Identifying spatial relationships


Spatial relationships
Why create a topology?
Topology workflow
Dirty areas
Validation results

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Create a topology.
Choose the appropriate topology rules.
Apply a topology.

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Geodatabase topology

Key terms
Term

Definition

Topology

In geodatabases, the arrangement that constrains how point, line, and


polygon features share geometry. For example, street centerlines and
census blocks share geometry, and adjacent soil polygons share geometry.
Topology defines and enforces data integrity rules (for example, there
should be no gaps between polygons). It supports topological relationship
queries and navigation (for example, navigating feature adjacency or
connectivity), supports sophisticated editing tools, and allows feature
construction from unstructured geometry (for example, constructing
polygons from lines).

Coincident In a geodatabase, how the coordinates of coincident features are stored.


geometry For example, if two lines are coincident, they will both be drawn in ArcMap,
with one line lying precisely on top of the other. For two adjacent polygons,
the coordinates for the shared boundary will be stored with each polygon
and the boundary will be drawn twice.

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Cluster
tolerance

The minimum tolerated distance between vertices in a topology. Vertices


that fall within the set cluster tolerance are snapped together during the
topology validation process.

Dirty
areas

A part of the topology that has yet to be validated.

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Lesson 9

Identifying spatial relationships


In the context of maps and cartography, topology is mostly concerned with the positions of
geographic features relative to one another, like roads that are connected, or a city that is contained
within a county, or two adjacent parcels of land.
Map users intuitively work with topology as they read a map. For example, a driver can follow
the highways and roads that connect the origin to the destination on a map.

Using the map of New York City above, list some examples for each of the following spatial
relationships.
1.

Adjacency
Coincidence

_________________________________
____________________________________________________
____

Connectivity

_____________________________________

Containment

___________________________________________________

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Geodatabase topology

Why create a topology?


Here are some reasons for creating a geodatabase topology.

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Lesson 9

Topology workflow
This is a commonly used workflow when working with a geodatabase topology.

Dirty areas
Dirty areas are parts of the topology that have yet to be validated. These are important because
there may be features within these dirty areas that are breaking a topology rule. Once you
validate, the dirty area will go away and either the data will be clean or there will be errors.
Anytime you make an edit in a topology, you create a dirty area.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Geodatabase topology

Validation symbology in ArcMap


Not Validated
You have create a new topology, but you decide not to validate it right
away. Areas in the topology that have not been validated are called
dirty areas and are symbolized with hatched rectangles.

Validated Errors Exist


When you validate a topology and discover one or more of the topology
rules are being violated by the participating features. In this case, the
errors are symbolized in red.

Not Validated
You edit any of the features that participate in a topology, or change
the properties of the topology by adding or deleting feature classes or
rules. Again dirty errors are symbolized with hatched rectangles.

Validated No Errors
When you validate a topology and discover none of the participating
features violate any of the topology rules. The preview of an error-free
topology is blank. In other words, nothing is symbolized.

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Lesson 9

Create a topology
Here is a numbered list of the steps used to create a topology. You can use this to follow along
during the demo and take notes on the right if you want to.

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Geodatabase topology

Exercise 9: Work with geodatabase topology


Estimated time: 30 minutes
In this exercise, you will work with coincident geometry. Coincident geometry is necessary to
maintain adjacency and connectivity between map features. Once you understand how the
geodatabase stores this geometry, you will create a geodatabase topology and explore its
properties in ArcMap.
In this exercise, you will:

Explore coincident geometry.


Create a geodatabase topology.
Examine the properties of a geodatabase topology.
Work with a topology in ArcMap.

Step 1: Explore coincident geometry


In this step, you will explore coincident geometry. Coincidence occurs when features overlap.
For example, the boundary between two parcels is actually two linesone for each parcel.
Geodatabase topology is based on coincident geometry.
Start ArcMap and open Assessor.mxd from your ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise09 folder
and set ..\Student\BLDG\Database\Topology.gdb as the default geodatabase.
This map document contains assessor data.
In the Catalog window, navigate to and expand
..\Student\BLDG\Database\Topology.gdb, then expand the Assessor feature dataset.

This is a portion of an assessor's database that contains some simple, built-in topology errors.
The three feature classes displayed in the Catalog tree represent lot lines, lots, and survey
monuments. All of these feature classes are within the Assessor feature dataset to ensure they all
have the same spatial reference.
Next, you will create a topology that contains these three feature classes. For now, you will
examine their coincident geometry.

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Lesson 9

Zoom to the lower-left corner of the map.


One of the simplest ways to explore coincident geometry is to toggle layers off and on. When
you do this, you can see which features from different layers share coordinates.
Notice that each lot is divided by a black lot line on the map.
Turn off the Lot Lines layer.
1. Are there still black lines separating each lot?
______________________________________________________________________________
Turn off the Lots layer.
Only the SurveyMonuments draw now.
Turn all layers back on.
Notice that the blue line that represents a right of way in the Lot Lines layer is coincident with
the red boundary of the right of way in the Lots layer. Also, notice that the black lot lines are
coincident with the black boundaries of the lots. Another way to see coincidence is to change
symbology.
In the table of contents, in the Lot Lines layer, click the black line next to Lot Line.
Change its Outline Width to 2 and click OK.
Toggle the Lot Lines layer off and on again to see the difference.
With different symbology, it is more obvious that there is coincident geometry between the lots
and the lot lines. Next, you will perform some simple edits to see coincident geometry.
Turn off the Lot Lines layer.
If necessary, turn on the Editor Toolbar

Start an edit session.


You will perform some edits in order to view coincident geometry.
On the Editor toolbar, click the Edit tool

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Geodatabase topology

Select the polygon in the lower-left corner of the map as shown in the following graphic.

Click the selected polygon and drag it slightly to the left.


Click anywhere in the white area of the map to clear the selection.

Notice that each feature is a complete feature. The two lots do not share lines, as would be the
case in the coverage data format. The lot you moved has a boundary on its right side and the lot

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Lesson 9

adjacent to it has its own boundary on the left side. This is an example of coincident geometry.
Topologies in the geodatabase are based on coincidence between features, not sharing. Next,
you will create a topology between these three feature classes.
From the Editor menu, choose Stop Editing without saving your edits.

Step 2: Create a geodatabase topology


In this step, you will create a topology for the three feature classes in the Assessor feature
dataset.
In the Catalog window; if necessary, expand ..\Student\BLDG\Database\Topology.gdb.
Right-click the Assessor feature dataset and choose New > Topology.
Click Next on the New Topology wizard.
The name of the topology defaults to <feature dataset name>_Topology. You can accept the
default name or change it.

The cluster tolerance controls how coordinates are moved during topology validation. Cluster
tolerance is not a limit on how far coordinates can move. It simply guarantees that, after
validation, no two coordinates will be closer than the specified tolerance without being
coincident.
Click Next to accept the default cluster tolerance.
In this panel of the wizard, you can choose which feature classes will participate in the topology
you are creating. A topology can only be created within a feature dataset, so only feature classes
that are within a feature dataset will be available for use in a topology.

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Geodatabase topology

2. Why are LotLines, SurveyMonuments, and Lots the only three feature classes in the list?
______________________________________________________________________________
You want all three of these feature classes to be in this new topology.
Click Select All, then click Next.
The next panel has three settings for relative importance, or rank, of the feature classes. The
coordinates of features in a lower-ranked feature class are moved to the coordinates of features
in higher-ranked feature classes. You can specify up to 50 ranks (somewhat unusual), then
assign a rank for each of the feature classes.
For Enter the number of ranks (1-50), type 3.
Next to LotLines, click the rank value of 1 to expand the list of ranks.

Notice the rank values range from 1 to 3. If you were to enter 5 ranks, then you would see
values ranging from 1-5 in this drop-down list.
Click 2 for LotLines, then change the rank for Lots to 3.
The ranks should be as follows:

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These ranks imply that features in SurveyMonuments have data of the highest accuracy,
followed by LotLines, then Lots.
Click Next.
This panel of the New Topology wizard allows you to choose topology rules. There are 25 rules
you can choose from to define spatial relationships between the feature classes in your topology.
Setting topology rules will make it easier to locate errors, or violations of the rules, within your
data.
The first rule you will set states that a survey monument must be spatially coincident with the
end point of a lot line of the subtype Subdivision boundary.
Click Add Rule.
From the Features of feature class drop-down list, choose SurveyMonuments.
From the Rule drop-down list, click Must Be Covered By Endpoint Of.
From the Feature class drop-down list, expand LotLines, then click Subdivision boundary.

This illustrates that you can set topology rules between subtypes of feature classes.

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Geodatabase topology

Click OK.
Using the skills you just learned, add the following two rules:

LotLines Must Not Have Dangles


Lots Must Not Have Gaps
Click Next.
Verify that the summary of your topology matches the following graphic. If it does not, go
back and make any necessary changes.

Click Finish to build the topology.


Validating a topology applies the cluster tolerance according to the set ranks and checks for
violations of topology rules.
Click Yes when asked to validate the topology.
Note: You can validate the entire topology in ArcMap or ArcCatalog. If you validate in
ArcMap, you have three options for validation extent and you can undo the
operation. If you validate in ArcCatalog, you can only validate the entire topology
and there is no undo.

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Lesson 9

In the Catalog window, in the Topology.gdb, expand Assessor to view the new topology.

Like all geodatabase elements, topologies have properties.


Right-click Assessor_Topology and click Properties.
Click the General tab.
These are general properties of the topology, such as name and cluster tolerance. Notice you can
change both at this point. It also tells you that the topology has been validated and that errors
exist.
Click the Feature Classes tab.
This tab lists the feature classes in the topology and their current ranks. From here, you can add
another feature class to the topology or modify the ranks.
Click the Rules tab.
The Rules tab lists the current topology rules. You can add and remove rules at any point. You
can also save the current rules to a file or load other rule files.
Click the Errors tab.
The Errors tab allows you to create a report of the rule violations and rule exceptions.
Validation must precede generating a summary.
Click the Generate Summary button.
The error summary describes how many errors are present and which rules have been violated.
Close the Topology Properties dialog box.
Next, you will display the topology in the table of contents. Remember, errors or topology rule
violations, are symbolized in red. Errors are stored inside the topology and are most useful
when displayed in ArcMap.

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Geodatabase topology

Step 3: Use a topology in ArcMap


In this step, you will explore topology display properties in ArcMap.
Click the New Map File button.
Create a blank map document, specifying ..\Student\BLDG\Database\Topology.gdb as
its default geodatabase.
Click No when asked if you want to save changes to Assessor.mxd
In the Catalog window, drag and drop Assessor_Topology onto the map display.
Click Yes when asked if you want to add all of the participating feature classes to the map.
All the feature classes that participate in the topology are added to the map and symbolized
based on subtypes. In addition to these layers, there is a group layer named Assessor_Topology
that represents the topology. By default, the error symbols for points, lines, and polygons are
displayed in the table of contents. You can change which properties of the topology display in
the map. For example, you may want to see all dirty areas and exceptions. Next, you will
modify the display of the topology.
In the table of contents, right-click Assessor_Topology and click Properties.
Click the Symbology tab.
Topologies have symbology properties just like other layers. Notice that exceptions and dirty
areas do not display by default.

There are currently no exceptions in this topology so you don't need to display them. You will,
however, choose to display dirty areas.

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Lesson 9

Check the check box for Dirty Areas and click OK.

Dirty areas now display in the table of contents with their default blue-hatched rectangle.
Next, you will make an edit to create a dirty area.
Zoom in to the lower-left corner of the map.
Start an edit session.
From the Editor menu, choose More Editing Tools > Topology.
The Topology toolbar contains topology-specific editing tools. You will use some of the
validation tools in this exercise and then use the remaining tools later in this course.
From the Editor toolbar, click the Edit tool
of the map to select it.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

, then click the lot in the lower-left corner

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Geodatabase topology

Press the Delete key on your keyboard.

Once you make an edit, ArcMap creates a dirty area to show you areas that have yet to be
validated. Validating dirty areas will clear the dirty areas, but may reveal topology errors.
From the Topology toolbar, click Validate Topology In Current Extent

The dirty area is removed.

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Lesson 9

3. Which topology rule is being violated?


______________________________________________________________________________
Notice the external boundary of the data is considered to be a gap error. It is only considered to
be an error because there is a huge gap (the white space) adjacent to the external polygons. You
can mark errors, such as these, as exceptions. You will do that in a moment.
Click the Undo button once to undo the validate.
From the Topology toolbar, click the Validate Topology In Specified Area button

Click and drag a box that covers only half of the dirty area.
4. What is the result of this operation?
______________________________________________________________________________
From the Topology toolbar, click the Validate Topology In Current Extent button

This will clear the remaining dirty area.


Notice there are three ways to validate in ArcMap. You can validate the entire topology, in a
specified area, or in the current display extent. At times, topologies can be very complex with
thousands of features and complicated relationships. In these situations, you may want to
validate the entire topology first and then only validate in a specified area or within a zoomed in
extent in ArcMap as edit the data..
Now it is time to mark that exception.
From the Topology toolbar, click the Fix Topology Error tool

You will use this tool later in this course to fix topology errors, but for now, you will use it to
mark an error as an exception.
Click the external boundary of the data to select it.
Note: Errors turn black when selected.

Right-click the selected error, then click Mark as Exception.

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Geodatabase topology

It is good to know where the exceptions are in the map. In the Topology Properties dialog box,
you can choose to display the exceptions.
In the table of contents, right-click Assessor_Topology and click Properties.
Click the Symbology tab.
Check the check box for Line Exceptions.
Click Line Exceptions to select it and view its symbology on the right.
Click the large symbol button beneath Single Symbol.
In the Symbol Selector dialog box, click the Major Road line symbol.
Click OK on each dialog box.
In the map, notice the black line on the external boundary of the data, which represents the
exception. Also, in the table of contents, notice that Line Exceptions has been added.
Stop editing and close ArcMap without saving any changes.

Step 4: Step

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Lesson 9

Lesson review
1. List and describe some advantages of using a geodatabase topology.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Geodatabase topology

Answers to Lesson 9 questions


Identifying spatial relationships
1.

Adjacency

Hudson River is adjacent to land

Coincidence New Jersey and New York state boundaries are coincident
Connectivity W 72nd St. connects to West End Ave.
Containment Central Park contains Jacqueline Onassis Reservoir

Exercise 9: Work with geodatabase topology


1. Are there still black lines separating each lot?
Yes
2. Why are LotLines, SurveyMonuments, and Lots the only three feature classes in the list?
They are the only feature classes inside the Assessor feature dataset.
3. Which topology rule is being violated?
Lots Must Not Have Gaps.
4. What is the result of this operation?
Only the covered half of the box was validated and cleared of the dirty area.

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Lesson 9

Lesson review
1. List and describe some advantages of using a geodatabase topology.

Model spatial relationships between features.


Geodatabase topologies store rules, errors, and exceptions.
Provides a mechanism for spatially validating features.
Creates a more accurate real-world model of Earth.
You can choose from up to 24 rules that determine spatial relationships between
features.
You pick rules that are specific to relationships in your data.
Once you create the topology, you can use tools in ArcMap to locate and fix
errors.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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10

Editing using geodatabase topology

Introduction
In this lesson, you will use a topology and ArcMap's specialized topology editing tools to
improve the quality of your data. Editing using a topology can greatly increase the quality of
your data because you are able to locate errors and then fix them all with the same application.

Topics covered

Topology editing workflow


Geometric elements of a topology
Advantages of editing using a geodatabase topology
Editing using a geodatabase topology

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Apply a topology to fix common data errors.

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Editing using geodatabase topology

Topology editing workflow


This is the same workflow you saw in the last lesson regarding a topology, but in this case, the
right side is highlighted as it contains the editing workflow.

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Lesson 10

Geometric elements of a topology


Topologic features are made up of edges and nodes. You can see below how edges and nodes
can be used to construct any type of geometry.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

10-3

Editing using geodatabase topology

Advantages of editing using a geodatabase topology


Below are some advantages of editing using a geodatabase topology. You will see all of these in
the demo and in the exercise.

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Lesson 10

Exercise 10: Use topology editing tools


Estimated time: 60 minutes
Building on the knowledge gained in the previous exercise, you will further explore how a
topology can be used to locate and quickly fix errors. In this exercise, you will create a topology
that makes use of seven topology rules to define valid spatial relationships between your feature
classes. You will create and validate the topology and then you will locate and fix the error
types introduced by your rules using ArcMap's topology editing tools.
In this exercise, you will:

Create a topology.
Use the Error Inspector to locate and fix errors.
Use the Topology Edit tool to fix errors.
Step 1: Create a topology
First, you will create a topology using the skills you learned in the previous lesson.
Start ArcMap with a blank map document and set ..\Student\BLDG\Database\City.gdb
as the default geodatabase.
In the Catalog window, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Database\City.gdb and expand it.
Right-click the Assessor feature dataset and choose New > Topology.
Complete the New Topology wizard based on the following settings:

Name: Accept the default Assessor_Topology


Cluster tolerance: Accept the default
Participating feature classes: Select All
Number of ranks: 4
Monuments: 1
LotLines: 2
Lots: 3
Zoning: 4

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Editing using geodatabase topology

Rules:

Monuments...Must be covered by endpoint of...LotLines


LotLines...Must not have dangles
LotLines...Must not intersect or touch interior
LotLines...Must be covered by boundary of...Lots
Lots...Must not overlap
Lots...Must not have gaps
Lots...Boundary must be covered by...LotLines

Click Next to review the summary page.


Click Finish, then click Yes to validate the topology.
In the Catalog window, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Database\City.gdb\Assessor and
drag the Assessor_Topology into the map display to view the topology.
Click Yes to add all feature classes.
In the table of contents, right-click Assessor_Topology, then click Properties.
Click the Errors tab.
Click Generate Summary.
Note that there are 25 errors in the topology.
Close the properties dialog box.
For the remainder of this exercise, you will use a prepared map document and topology editing
tools to fix these errors.
In the Catalog window, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise10\TopologyEditing.mxd
and double-click.
Click No when asked to save the current map document.
The new map document references the data in City.gdb. You created a topology in the Assessor
feature dataset at the beginning of this exercise.

Step 2: Fix dangling lot lines


In this step, you will fix five dangling lot lines. A dangle is a topology error that occurs at a line
end. Dangles are the result of either overshooting or undershooting the intended connection

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Lesson 10

point due to an improper snapping configuration or not using snapping at all. In this example,
the top four errors in the following graphic are undershoots and the last one is an overshoot.
You will use the Error Inspector to quickly zoom to and fix these errors.

Start an edit session and turn on the Topology toolbar.


Open the Error Inspector

Dock the Error Inspector window at the bottom of the ArcMap display.
In the Error Inspector, set Show to LotLines - Must Not Have Dangles, then click Search
Now.
The search returns five errors.
Select all five errors.
Note: You can press and hold the Shift key on your keyboard and click each
error.

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Editing using geodatabase topology

When selected, they will draw in black.


In the Error Inspector window, you can apply standard fixes to a group of selected errors at one
time.
Right-click the group of selected errors in the Error Inspector.
Notice the built-in fixes for dangles: Snap, Extend, and Trim.
Click Zoom To.
You should be zoomed in on the five dangle errors in the map. You will apply the same fix to
the four undershoots, but first you must remove the overshoot from the selection because the fix
you are going to apply a different fix to that error.
In the Error Inspector, press and hold down the Ctrl key on your keyboard, and click the
first Must Not Have Dangles error in the list.
This will unselect the overshoot in the Error Inspector and in the map.

Right-click the selected errors and choose Snap.


In the Snap Tolerance dialog box, type 25 and press Enter.
Note: The Snap Tolerance units you set are in map units, which, in this case, are feet.
When working with your own datasets, you could use the measure tool to
determine the most appropriate value to be entered for the Snap Tolerance.

The four selected dangles have been snapped to the ends of the lot lines that follow the polygon
edges. To verify this, you will toggle the topology layer, then validate and search for the errors.
In the table of contents, turn off Assessor_Topology.

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Lesson 10

You should notice the red topology errors disappear and, under them, the black lot lines have
been extended.
Turn on Assessor_Topology.
From the Topology toolbar, click the Validate Topology In Current Extent button

The errors disappear.


In the Error Inspector, make sure that Visible Extent only is checked and set Show to
<Errors from all rules>, then click Search Now.
The Error Inspector shows only the errors in the visible extent. All of them are caused by the
remaining dangle (overshoot).

The Must Not Intersect Or Touch Interior errors are caused by the overshoot crossing the lot
lines along the right of way of the parcels. The Must Be Covered By Boundary Of error exists
because the portion of the dangle that extends into the street does not have a covering lot
polygon edge. Finally, the dangling lot line end is not connected.
You could fix these errors from the Error Inspector, but you will use the Fix Topology Error
tool instead.
On the Topology toolbar, click the Fix Topology Error tool

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Editing using geodatabase topology

In the map, drag a box around the overshoot to select it.

The dangling node is selected, but so is the connected line. Also, notice the Error Inspector error
list has been updated to show only the selected errors. You could hold down the Ctrl key and
click to unselect one of the errors, but you will use a different method.
Note: When multiple errors are selected that stem from different rule violations, (i.e.,
Must not have dangles, Must be covered by boundary of), the context menu you
see when you right-click the selected errors, with either the Fix Topology Error
tool or in the Error Inspector, will not display any built-in fixes.

You cannot constrain the selection for this tool with the N and E keys as you could with the
Topology Edit tool. However, you can set a property for the topology layer to control the
selection.
Click anywhere on the map to clear the selection.
In the table of contents, right-click Assessor_Topology and click Properties.

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Lesson 10

On the Selection tab, click Clear All and then select only the two rules shown in the
graphic below.

Click OK to close the Layer Properties dialog box.


In the map, drag a box over the remaining dangle to select it.
Only the line is selected because of the selection constraint you just set.
Right-click the selected line.
Now that you have selected an error caused by a single rule violation, the context menu offers
you a fix for that error.
Choose Subtract.
This subtracts, or deletes, the overshoot portion of the line, fixing the error. You also could have
fixed this error by selecting the dangle and using Trim.
Validate the topology in the current extent.
In the Error Inspector, uncheck Visible Extent only and click Search Now to list the
remaining errors.
Open the layer properties dialog box for Assessor_Topology and click the Selection tab.
Click Select All, then click OK.

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Editing using geodatabase topology

Zoom to the full extent of the map.


You are now familiar with the basic functionality of the topology editing tools. You will use
them in subsequent steps to fix the remaining errors.

Step 3: Fix intersecting lot lines


In this step, you will fix the intersecting lot lines. An intersection is caused by two lines that
cross without sharing a node at a common point. This error was located by the Must Not
Intersect Or Touch Interior rule that was set for the lot lines. In the following graphic, you can
see that line 1 and line 2 cross each other, but are not split at the intersection. This is causing the
topology error.

In the Error Inspector, search for errors from all rules.


Right-click the Must Not Intersect Or Touch Interior error and click Zoom To.

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Lesson 10

On the Tools toolbar, click the Fixed Zoom Out button until you can see the four lines
that are involved in this error.

First you will verify that the vertical and horizontal lines actually cross one another.
Make LotLines the only selectable layer.
Note: In the table of contents, click the List by Selection button

. From this view,

you can toggle a layer selectable or unselectable, by clicking the selection icon
next to each layer.

Click the Edit tool and select the vertical line.


1. Does it intersect the horizontal line?
______________________________________________________________________________
In the Error Inspector, right-click the Must Not Intersect Or Touch Interior error and
choose Split.
There are now two vertical lines and two horizontal lines. Typically, you would edit the
attributes of the new lines at this point; in the interest of time, you will skip that in this exercise.

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Editing using geodatabase topology

Select the lower vertical line to verify there are two lines.

Zoom to the full extent.


Validate the current extent of the topology and search for errors from all rules.
You have successfully fixed that topology error.

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Lesson 10

Step 4: Fix overlapping lots


The topology error shown here is caused by two overlapping polygons. This error violates the
Must Not Overlap topology rule you set for the lots.

As with the dangle, this single overlap is causing multiple errors. The overlap is the obvious
error, but it causes an additional error because it lacks a coincident boundary. The Boundary
Must Be Covered By - LotLines rule has been violated in this case.
In the Error Inspector, right-click the Must Not Overlap error and choose Zoom To.
If necessary, click the Fixed Zoom Out button until you can see the two polygons involved
in the overlap.
In the Error Inspector, right-click the Must Not Overlap error and choose Merge.
The Merge dialog box opens, listing the two polygons involved in the overlap. By choosing a
feature to merge the overlap with, you are also controlling which attributes to keep for the new
feature. In this case, you will choose Lot 127, so its attributes will be copied to the new feature.

Note: When you click a feature in the Merge dialog box, it flashes on the map.

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Editing using geodatabase topology

In the Merge dialog box, click Lots - 127, then click OK.
You merged the overlapping portion with the Lot 127 polygon, creating one polygon.
Validate the current extent of the topology.
Zoom to the full extent.
In the Error Inspector, click Search Now to refresh the error list.
The overlap error has been successfully fixed by using a standard ArcMap editing operation.

Step 5: Fix an extra lot line


In this step, you will fix the extra lot line. This error is a result of the LotLines Must Be Covered
By Boundary Of Lots topology rule you set earlier.
In the Error Inspector, zoom to the Must Be Covered By Boundary Of error.

The line is supposed to be coincident with a Lots polygon edge. There are a couple of
possibilities for this error: the line might be incorrect and needs to be deleted, or the line might
be correct and the underlying polygon needs to be split. You will fix the error based on the first
scenario

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Lesson 10

In the Error Inspector, right-click the error and choose Subtract.

Subtracting quickly fixes the problem by removing the lot line in question.
Validate the current extent of the topology.
You have just created two new polygons in the Lots layer using the selected LotLines.
Zoom to the full extent
In the Error Inspector, click Search Now to refresh the error list.

Step 6: Fix a missing lot line


The problem shown here is a missing lot line that should be coincident with the polygon edge
between polygons A and B. This error violates the Lots - Boundary Must Be Covered By LotLines topology rule.

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Editing using geodatabase topology

This missing line has caused both of these errors; polygons A and B should have a lot line
covering their edges. The standard fix is to create a line.
In the Error Inspector, select one of the Boundary Must Be Covered By errors and zoom
to it.
Zoom out until you can see both polygons.
To verify that there is no line, you will toggle layers off and on.
Turn off Assessor_Topology and Lots.
Notice there is no black lot line between polygons A and B. This is the cause of the error.
Turn all layers back on.
In the Error Inspector, right-click one of the errors and choose Create Feature.
A new lot line has been constructed from the geometry of the polygon edge. Normally, you
would set attributes for the new line, but, in the interest of time, you will skip that in this
exercise.
Zoom to the full extent.
Validate the topology in the current extent.
In the Error Inspector, click Search Now to refresh the error list.
The last remaining error is the Must Not Have Gaps error of the external boundary.
Right-click the Must Not Have Gaps error in the Error Inspector and choose Mark As
Exception.

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Lesson 10

Validate the topology.


You have successfully fixed all of the topology errors with the help of the Error Inspector and
ArcMap's topology and standard editing tools.
Save your edits.
If you are doing the following challenge step, leave your map open. If not, save and close
your map.

Step 7: (Optional) Identify and correct remaining errors


There are two uncorrected topology errors remaining.
Zoom to the area of the errors.
Identify the cause of the errors by examining the features in the LotLines and Lots Layers.
Using conventional editing tools fix the geometry.
Any editing tools can be used to edit geometries that participate in a geodatabase topology. You
are not constrained to using just topology edit tools.
Hint: This requires a single edit involving one vertex.
Validate your topology for the current extent. The topology errors should no longer be
present.
If the errors are still present, undo your edits and consider a new strategy.
When the errors are corrected, save your edits.
Save your map and close ArcMap.

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Editing using geodatabase topology

Lesson review
1. List some advantages of editing using a topology.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How can you use geodatabase topology in your current editing workflow?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Editing using geodatabase topology

Answers to Lesson 10 questions


Exercise 10: Use topology editing tools
1. Does it intersect the horizontal line?
Yes

Lesson review
1. List some advantages of editing using a topology.
Editing using a topology offers you the ability to search for errors that a particular rule
that you set up and also offers standard fixes for each type of error.
2. How can you use geodatabase topology in your current editing workflow?

Data relationships designed by user


Choose from topology rules
Validation locates features with errors
Flexibility
Adaptable to changes in data relationships
Change ranks, add/remove feature classes, modify rules
Tools help locate errors for specified rules
Offers standard fixes
Individual feature or bulk fixes available

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

11

Geometric networks

Introduction
In this lesson, you'll learn how to model real-world networks within the geodatabase using
geometric networks. Geometric networks are a way to store connectivity between points and
lines, called junctions and edges within a network. These can be applied to many real-world
scenarios, such as gas, electric or water applications.

Topics covered

Real-world networks
What is a geometric network?
Two views of a network
Components of a network
Why use a geometric network?

Learning objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Maintain the integrity of network data in the database.


Perform network tracing operations.

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Geometric networks

Key terms
Term

Definition

Geometric
network

Edge and junction features that represent a linear network, such as a


utility or hydrologic system, in which the connectivity of features is based
on their geometric coincidence. A geometric network does not contain
information about the connectivity of features; this information is stored
within a logical network. Geometric networks are typically used to model
directed flow systems.

Logical
network

An abstract representation of a network, implemented as a collection of


hidden tables. A logical network contains edge, junction, and turn
elements, the connectivity between them, and the weights necessary for
traversing the network. It does not contain information about the geometry
or location of its elements; this information is one of the components of a
network system.

Edge

In a network system, a line feature through which a substance, resource,


or traffic flows. Examples include a street in a transportation network and
a pipeline in a sewer system.

Simple
edge

A simple edge is always connected to exactly two junction features, one at


each end.

Complex
edge

A complex edge is always connected to at least two junction features at its


endpoints, but it can also be connected to additional junction features
along its length.

Junction

A point at which two or more edges meet

Orphan
junction

Junctions created by ArcGIS to ensure that all edges have a junction at its
end.

Connectivity Rules that constrain the type and number of network features that can be
rules
connected to one another. There are two types of connectivity rules:
edge-edge and edge-junction.
Edge to
A connectivity rule that defines how one edge may connect to another
edge
edge through a junction.
connectivity
rule

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Lesson 11

Term

Definition

Edge to
A connectivity rule that defines how an edge may connect to a junction.
junction
connectivity
rule

Real world network examples


Here is a list of real-world applications for using networks in ArcGIS.

Energy (gas, electric)


Communications (telecommunications, cable)
Pipeline (oil and gas)
Water supply and wastewater
Natural (rivers and streams)

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Geometric networks

Real-world network: Natural Gas


Real-world

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Lesson 11

Geometric network

See What are geometric networks in the ArcGIS help system.

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Geometric networks

What is a geometric network?


A geometric network is a geodatabase element that provides:

Coincidence-based linear network topology


One-way flow network
Data model with simple and/or complex features
Connectivity rules and weights

Additional information on geometric networks:

Geometric network: Edge and junction features that represent a linear network, such as a

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utility or hydrologic system, in which the connectivity of features is based on their


geometric coincidence. A geometric network does not contain information about the
connectivity of features; this information is stored within a logical network. Geometric
networks are typically used to model directed (one way) flow systems.
Edge - A line between two points that forms a boundary. In a geometric shape, an edge
forms the boundary between two faces. In an image, edges separate areas of different
tones or colors. In topology, an edge defines lines or polygon boundaries.
Node - In a geodatabase, the point representing the beginning or ending point of an edge,
topologically linked to all the edges that meet there.
Geometric networks are best for one way directed flow, such as electricity, water, gas,
cable, streams, etc. There are other tools you can use to model two way flow, such as
traffic - Network Analyst.

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Lesson 11

Two views of a network


Below are the two views of a network within ArcGIS. The geometric network, you can see and
edit and analyze, while the logical network is there for internal software use only and cannot be
used by the user.

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Geometric networks

Components of a geometric network


Here is a diagram of a simple geometric network and its components.

Edges within a geometric network can be simple or complex. A simple edge is split when other
edges connect to it while a complex edge isn't. You specify this when you create the network.

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Lesson 11

Advantages of a geometric network


There are many reasons to use a geometric network, below are a few of them.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

11-9

Geometric networks

Exercise 11: Work with geometric networks


Estimated time: 40 minutes
A geometric network is a connectivity relationship between a collection of feature classes in a
feature dataset. Each feature has a role in the geometric network of either an edge or a junction.
Some common applications of geometric networks are utility networks (e.g. gas, water, and
sewer) and natural resource networks (e.g. streams). Connectivity rules serve to enforce valid
edge-to-junction and edge-to-edge connections within geometric networks.
In this exercise, you will:

Explore a geometric network.


Edit network features in ArcMap.
Use connectivity rules during editing.
Use network trace operations.

Step 1: Explore a network


Start ArcMap.
Open a blank map and set the default geodatabase to
..\Student\BLDG\Database\Wilson.gdb.
In the Catalog window, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Database\Wilson.gdb and expand
it.
Expand the NaturalGas feature dataset.
Open the properties for GasNetwork.
Click the General tab.
GasNetwork is a geometric network that has been created for this exercise. The General tab lists
the feature classes that participate in this network. Because the network is being stored in the
NaturalGas feature dataset, only feature classes in this feature dataset can be used in the
network.

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Lesson 11

Notice that each feature class has an edge or junction role in the network, either simple or
complex. This network contains simple and complex edges. Simple edges are established only at
the ends of edge features, and complex edges are established at the ends and midpoints of
features.
Click the Connectivity tab.
The Connectivity tab lists the various connectivity rules that have been set for feature classes
and subtypes in this network. Connectivity rules control which network features can connect to
others and specify the number of connections that can be made (i.e., cardinality). For example,
each service line going from the distribution mains to each individual property has one, and
only one, meter connecting to it. Subsequently each property has only a single meter on its
services line. Connectivity rules allow you to control feature associations to best mirror their real
world counterparts.
From the Connectivity rules for (feature class) drop-down list, verify the Distribution
Mains is selected.

For Subtypes in this feature class, choose 2"PE.

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Geometric networks

For Subtypes in the Network, expand Services.

Notice Services has a 1"PE line subtype.


Click on 1"PE (not the check box).
When you click this, the Junction subtypes area on the right becomes enabled.
Expand Fittings under Junction Subtypes.

This connectivity rule controls which type of fitting connects a 2"PE distribution main with a
1"PE service line. The blue "D" next to it indicates that it is the default. There are currently no
other valid connections, but you could always check on additional fitting types if necessary.
In ArcMap, if you were to digitize a 1"PE service line and connect it to a 2"PE distribution
main, a 2" x 1" tapping tee would be added automatically. This rule determines how edges
connect to other edges and is known as an edge-to-edge rule.
In the drop-down menu on top, change the feature class from DistributionMains to
Services.

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Lesson 11

For Subtypes in the Network, expand Meters.

1. Which types of meters can connect to a service line?


______________________________________________________________________________
2. Which type of meter will be added when you digitize a new service line?
______________________________________________________________________________
Notice that both RES and COM meter subtypes are allowed to be connected to a service line.
Click RES.
In the upper right corner of the dialog box, notice the cardinality.

This states that each meter can connect to one, and only one, service line. Connectivity rules are
very similar to relationship rules in the sense that you can assign cardinality associations
between features. They are also another form of geodatabase validation rules that help maintain
the integrity of your data.
Click Cancel to close the Geometric Network Properties dialog box.

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Geometric networks

Step 2: Edit network features


In this step, you will edit using network connectivity rules in ArcMap.
In the Catalog window, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise11\GasUtility.mxd and
double-click it to open the map document.
The map shows a utility network in a neighborhood of Wilson, North Carolina.
Navigate to the Service Lines bookmark.
The bookmark zooms to an area of Wilson that needs some service lines added. Notice the three
parcels that do not have service lines extending from the main line.

You will add new service lines and let the network connectivity rules do the rest of the work.
Remember from the previous step that service lines can have one meter, RES or COM,
connected to them and that a 1"PE service line connects to a 2"PE distribution main with a 2" x
1" tapping tee.
Start an edit session.
From the Editor menu, choose Snapping > Options.
If necessary, click the check boxes next to Show Tips, Layer Name, and Snap Type.

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Lesson 11

Click OK.
Note: Hover your mouse cursor over any of the map features and you will see that
SnapTips are now displayed on screen in the format Layer Name: Snap Type.

On the Snapping toolbar, turn on Edge snapping.


In the Create Features window, click the 1" PE Services feature template.
The Line construction tool becomes available for the selected template.
Hover your mouse cursor over the blue distribution main until you see the Snap Tip
display DistributionMains: Edge.
Click one time then move the mouse cursor into the parcel, as shown in the following
graphic.

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Geometric networks

Double-click to finish the sketch.

Clear the selected features.


Because there are connectivity rules set on these feature classes, the meter and fitting are
automatically added when you digitize a 1"PE service line and connect it to a 2"PE distribution
main.
Make Meters the only selectable layer.
Select the new meter (the box within the parcel at the end of the service line) with the Edit
tool.
On the Editor toolbar, click the Attributes button.
3. Which type of meter is it?
______________________________________________________________________________
4. Why is it this type of meter?
______________________________________________________________________________
The two valid meters were RES and COM. Remember that IND was not a valid meter type to
connect to service lines. Now you'll see what happens if you change this RES meter to an IND
meter.
In the Attributes window, change the MeterType attribute to IND.

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Lesson 11

Click Yes to change the default attributes.


From the Editor menu, choose Validate Features.

As with range domains and relationship class rules, you can use the Validate Features command
to make sure that features you create follow the rules that you set.
Click OK.
Click Undo to change the meter back to RES.
In the Attributes window, change the MeterType attribute to COM and validate the
feature.
All features should be valid. Setting the meter to COM is in compliance with the connectivity
rules you explored earlier.
Click OK and close the Attributes window.
Digitize the remaining two service lines into the parcels to the right of the one you were
just working in.
Make Fittings the only selectable layer.

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Geometric networks

With the Edit tool, select the fitting that connects a service line to the main, as shown in
the following graphic.

Open the Attributes window.


5. What is the fitting type?
______________________________________________________________________________
This should be no surprise; it was set in the network connectivity rules you explored earlier.
Recall that this type of fitting is the only valid connector for these types of lines.
Change the FittingType attribute to be anything other than 2" x 1" Tapping Tee, then
validate the features.
6. Are any other fittings valid in this instance?
______________________________________________________________________________
Change the type back to a 2" x 1" Tapping Tee and close the Attributes window.
Stop Editing, then click Yes to save your edits.
Next, you will remove a connectivity rule and make edits to see the difference.
In the Catalog window, open the properties for
..\Student\BLDG\Database\Wilson.gdb\NaturalGas\GasNetwork.

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Lesson 11

On the Connectivity tab, choose Services from the first drop-down list.
For Subtypes in this Network, uncheck Meters and click OK.
Now you will experiment with network editing without a connectivity rule for services and
meters.
Start an edit session.
In the Create Features window, click the 1" PE Services feature template.
The Line construction tool becomes available.
Digitize a new service line from the blue distribution main into any parcel you want.
A new junction is added, but it is not a meter (note the symbology). Because you just removed
the connectivity rules for meters, ArcMap adds a default junction in place of a meter. When you
create a geometric network, ArcCatalog creates a default junctions feature class named
<network name>_Junctions. In this case, the default junctions feature class is named
GasNetwork_Junctions. This feature class ensures that every edge begins and ends and connects
to other edges with a junction. Notice the feature you just added does not have a meter at its end
when you do not use connectivity rules.
Another benefit of geometric networks is stored topology. Connectivity between network
features is inherent and maintained while editing.
On the Editor toolbar, click the Edit tool.
In the table of contents, verify Fittings is the only selectable layer.

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Geometric networks

Drag a box over the fitting in the following graphic to select it.

Hover your mouse cursor over the selected fitting, then click and drag it to a different
location.

Notice how the fitting, as well as any network features that are connected to it, are moved.
When editing geometric networks, connectivity is always maintained while using standard
editing tools.
Click Undo, then save your edits.
Keep the edit session open for the next step.

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Lesson 11

Step 3: Use network tracing operations


In this step, you will use the Utility Network Analyst toolbar to perform analysis on the gas
network you have been working with.
If necessary, turn on the Utility Network Analyst toolbar.
Zoom to the Find Path bookmark.
Find Path is a network tracing operation that allows you to trace along a geometric network.
This tracing operation will find the path from one flag to the next.
The area you are zoomed in to shows the vault in the upper left corner. The vault plays a special
role in this network.
Make Vaults the only selectable layer.
Select the vault in the upper-left corner of the map.

Click the Attributes button.


Notice the AncillaryRole attribute is set to Source. Source indicates that the gas in this network
originates in this vault.
Close the Attributes window.
Next, you will calculate flow for the network from the vault you just explored.
From the Utility Network Analyst toolbar, click the Set Flow Direction button

From the Flow menu, click Display Arrows.


Flow for the network should now be shown with arrows going from the vault (i.e., source) to the
rest of the network.

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Geometric networks

From the Flow menu, click Display Arrows again to turn off the flow arrows.
On the Utility Network Analyst toolbar, click the Add Junction Flag tool

Flags designate starting and stopping points, as well as intersection points for a trace operation.
You will start by placing two flags, but you can always place more than two. Flags are traversed
in the order in which they are placed.
With the Add Junction Flag tool selected, click the vault.
A green square is displayed on the vault.
Click a meter in the Pineview Ave area, using the following graphic as a guide.

Now that you've placed two flags, you can run the tracing operation to find out how resources
flow from the vault to the meter.

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Lesson 11

On the Utility Network Analyst toolbar, for Trace Task, choose Find Path, then click the
Solve button
.
The red line represents the path from the vault to the meter.
From the Analysis menu, choose Clear Results.
From the Analysis menu, choose Options.
Click the Results tab.
For Results format, click Selection, then click OK.
Make DistributionMains the only selectable layer.
Click Solve.
Notice that the path is returned as a selected set as opposed to a graphic. This is useful if you
want to export the selection to its own layer.
Another advantage of a geometric network is the ability to disable features if necessary. In the
real-world, gas lines can rupture, water mains can break, and roads can be under construction.
With these possibilities in mind, it is good to know that you can work scenarios like that into
your geometric networks.
Clear the selected features.
Using the Edit tool, select the main right below Raleigh Rd.

Click the Attributes button.


For the Enabled attribute, click True.

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Geometric networks

A list appears with True, False, and Null.


7. What is this list of valid values called in the geodatabase?
______________________________________________________________________________
All network features have the ability to be enabled or disabled. If you change the enabled value
to False, you are essentially telling ArcMap that this network feature is not available for tracing.
All features in a network are enabled by default, so it is up to you to change this value when
necessary. For example, if there was a main break in the network, you could disable the feature
in your geodatabase for as long as the main was out of commission. This would disable it for all
tracing operations. Once the main is fixed, you can enable it again so that it will be available for
tracing.
Change the Enabled value to False and close the Attributes window.
Click Solve.
8. Does anything happen when you click Solve?
______________________________________________________________________________
9. Why doesn't ArcMap display the path from the vault to the meter?
______________________________________________________________________________
You can disable features as needed and then enable them when they are available again within a
geometric network. This will help you mimic real-world scenarios within your data. Disabling
features is a database change. All features will remain disabled until you change the value back
to True. There is also a temporary way to disable features in a network. You can set barriers on
either a junction or an edge to mimic a temporary, real-world problem.
Set the enabled value back to True for the main.
Next, you will add a barrier.

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Lesson 11

Click the drop-down arrow next to Add Junction Flag.

Notice the additional tools in this menu: two for adding flags to edges or junctions, and two for
adding barriers to edges or junctions.
Click the Add Edge Barrier tool and add a barrier to the same main.
Click Solve.
Nothing should come back. In this instance, there is not another route for resources to travel
upon. If this distribution main will be out of commission for a while, it may be best to set its
enabled value to false, but if it's being turned off temporarily and then turned back on again, a
barrier may work.
From the Editor menu, click Stop Editing, then click Yes to save your edits.
Close ArcMap and click Yes to save the map document.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Geometric networks

Lesson review
1. Explain the benefits of setting network connectivity rules.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. List some benefits of using geometric networks.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Geometric networks

Answers to Lesson 11 questions


Exercise 11: Work with geometric networks
1. Which types of meters can connect to a service line?
COM (Commercial) or RES (Residential)
2. Which type of meter will be added when you digitize a new service line?
RES (Residential)
3. Which type of meter is it?
RES
4. Why is it this type of meter?
RES is the default meter.
5. What is the fitting type?
2" x 1" Tapping Tee
6. Are any other fittings valid in this instance?
No
7. What is this list of valid values called in the geodatabase?
Coded value domain
8. Does anything happen when you click Solve?
No
9. Why doesn't ArcMap display the path from the vault to the meter?
The main line from the source is disabled so it cannot be traced.

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Lesson 11

Lesson review
1. Explain the benefits of setting network connectivity rules.
Setting network connectivity rules:

Creates real-world feature relationships in the geodatabase.


Maintains data integrity by not allowing invalid associations.
Allows you to create cardinality associations to maintain feature validity.
Makes editing easier by adding features automatically when you create new edges
or junctions.

2. List some benefits of using geometric networks.

They allow you to create and store point and line topology between feature
classes.

All network features are connected and cannot be disconnected with standard

editing tools.
They offer you the ability to create connectivity rules that determine how features
connect to each other.
With connectivity rules, you can digitize a feature and have additional features
added automatically.
You can perform a variety of network tracing operations with a geometric
network.
You can use flags to indicate where you would like to trace.
You can disable or barricade features so they cannot be traced upon.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

11-29

12

Geodatabase workflow

Introduction
In this lesson, you will reinforce the skills you've developed by completing one of three,
self-directed projects. Unlike prior exercises, you will be provided with limited instruction. You
can work independently or in groups and ask your instructor for help if you encounter problems
you cannot solve. Detailed solutions for each project are provided at the end of this lesson.
The three projects are described as follows:

Project 12A: Work with attribute behavior


Create, manage, and edit domains, subtypes, and relationship classes.

Project 12B: Work with geometric networks


Work with utilities data to create a geometric network.

Project 12C: Work with Cadastral data


Work with parcel data to create a geodatabase topology and other behavior rules.

Topics covered

Geodatabase workflow
Project: Work with attribute behavior
Project: Work with geometric networks
Project: Work with cadastral data

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Geodatabase workflow

Learning objectives

Using the skills covered in this course, complete one of three projects independently.

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Lesson 12

Geodatabase workflow
Here is a common workflow for working with the geodatabase.

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Geodatabase workflow

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Lesson 12

Exercise 12A: Project: Work with attribute behavior


Estimated time: 60 minutes
In this self-directed project, you will pull together the skills and knowledge you have gained so
far in this course to create, manage, and edit domains, subtypes, and relationship classes.

Project scenario
As a GIS Analyst for the San Juan National Forest, you have been asked to make the Forestry
Department's geodatabase more efficient for data editing. Because you are a seasoned ArcGIS
and geodatabase user, you know the steps you must follow in order to accomplish this task. You
understand how domains (range and coded value) can be used for data validation, how subtypes
offer display and editing benefits, and how to use relationship classes to create persistent read/
write connections between tables in a geodatabase. You will need to use all of these, but keep in
mind that in some cases the data may not be ready to accept these validation rules. For
example, a table might be missing a key field for creating subtypes, or you might have to import
the domains from a separate table into the geodatabase.
In this exercise, you will:

Independently apply the skills you have learned throughout this course.
Import data into the geodatabase.
Organize data in geodatabase.
Create geodatabase elements (e.g., geometric networks, subtypes, domains, annotation).
Use elements you create in ArcMap for editing and analysis.

Step 1: Add fields


Occasionally you may need to add fields to existing feature class tables. In this exercise, one of
the tasks you've been assigned is to add a field to store the width of trails throughout the San
Juan National Forest.
You will use ..\Student\BLDG\Database\Behavior.gdb for this exercise.
Open a blank map document in ArcMap and set the default geodatabase to Behavior.gdb.
1. Which type of field should the trail width field be if you want to be able to store decimal
places?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Geodatabase workflow

In Behavior.gdb, add a field named Trail_Width to the R2Trails feature class to store the
trail width. Use the answer to the previous question for the field type.
You would like to categorize the trails into groups based on their width.
2. Which type of geodatabase behavior will accomplish this?
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Which type of field must the table contain if you want to create subtypes?
______________________________________________________________________________
View the field properties for the R2Trails feature class and answer the following question.
4. Is there a field that you can use to create a width subtype and, if so, which field?
______________________________________________________________________________
If you want to create subtypes for trail width, you will have to create a new integer field to store
the codes.
Click the Fields tab and create a new short integer field named Width_Class.
You have now created two new fields within the R2Trails feature class. One of them will store
the actual width of each trail (in feet), and the other will store an integer code that you will use
for creating subtypes.
Prior to creating subtypes, you must calculate the Width_Class field to integer codes in ArcMap.
This will be your next task.

Step 2: Update fields using ArcMap


Before you create subtypes, you will take a look at the table for the R2Trails layer and then
calculate the Width_Class field to integer codes in ArcMap.
Add the R2Trails layer to ArcMap and open the attribute table.

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Lesson 12

5. What is the current value of the Width_Class field?


______________________________________________________________________________
The following table will assist you during this entire exercise:

R2Trails
Elevation Width

Width_Class Default Width Width Range

High

Narrow

0-4

Medium

Medium 2

5-7

Low

Wide

10

8-12

You will now perform a simple field calculation to set values for the Width_Class field. After
you do this, you can create subtypes.
In the attribute table, select all of the trails that have an Elevation value of High.
Right-click the Width_Class field and choose Field Calculator.
Calculate the Width_Class field value as 1 for the selected features, then click OK.
Using the same procedure, select all of the Medium elevation trails and calculate their
Width_Class value as 2.
Using the same procedure, select all Low elevation trails and calculate their Width_Class
value as 3.
The Width_Class field should now be updated and contain values 1, 2, and 3. Now this field
can be used to create subtypes.

Step 3: Create subtypes


Now that you have created an integer field and calculated it in ArcMap, you are able to create
subtypes for trail width.
Open the properties for R2Trails.
Create subtypes in this feature class using the Width_Class field as the subtype field. Hint:
1 is high elevation, 2 is medium, and 3 is low.

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Geodatabase workflow

Make sure the codes match those in the table and enter a description of your choice.
For each subtype, set the following default values for Trail_Width. Default values for
subtypes are located in the bottom of the dialog box. Select a subtype from the list, then
locate the Trail_Width field down below, and enter the default value based on the
following list:

2 for narrow (high elevation trails)


6 for medium (medium elevation trails)
10 for wide (lower elevation trails)
Step 4: Create and apply domains for trail width
Earlier, you added a field to store the trail width. Next, you will create validation for the trail
width field so you can locate invalid attribute values.
In the R2Trails feature class, there are three subtypes of features based on the Width_Class field.
You need to create trail width domains for each elevation of trail. Lower elevation trails are
generally wider than trails that are located at an elevation of 10,000 feet or more. At higher
elevations, the trails can be very narrow or cross rocky terrain. The domains you create will help
assign the correct trail width to each kind of trail.
6. Which kind of domain should be created?
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Which type of field should you apply this domain to?
______________________________________________________________________________
Create three domains for trail width, using the following table as a guide.

Trail type

Width for trails

High elevation trails

0-4

Medium elevation trails 5-7


Low elevation trails

8-12

The next thing you want to do is apply the domains you just created. You learned two methods
for applying domains earlier in this course.

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Lesson 12

8. What are the two methods for applying domains?


______________________________________________________________________________
9. In this situation, which method would be most appropriate?
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question, apply the domains you created for trail width.

Step 5: Create coded value domains


Earlier in this course, you created coded value domains by typing them. Imagine having a large
number of codes and long descriptions to enter. This could make creating domains a lengthy
process. There are other ways to create domains that allow you to input a table of codes and
descriptions to generate the domains.
Preview the AttributeSource table.

These codes will become the coded value domain and the descriptions will be what the user sees
when editing in ArcMap.

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Geodatabase workflow

10. Which type of domain do you think should be created from this table?
______________________________________________________________________________
11. Which field type should this domain be?
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question and the Table to Domain tool, convert this table
into the appropriate type of domain in the Behavior geodatabase.
Apply the new domain to the ATTRIB_SOURCE field in the R2VEG_POLY table.

Step 6: Create relationship classes


In this step, you will create two relationship classes. One will be between R2VEG and
R2VEG_POLY and the other will be between R2VEG and R2VEG_POLY_LOCAL.

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Lesson 12

Using the skills you learned in the previous lessons, create a relationship class between the
R2VEG feature class and the R2VEG_POLY table, entering all of the appropriate
parameters. Complete the following table and use it as a guide when creating the
relationship class.

Property

Value

Name

R2VegToR2VegPoly

Origin Table
Destination Table
Type

Composite

Forward label

R2Veg To Poly

Backward label

Poly To R2Veg

Messaging direction
Cardinality

1 to

Attributes

No

Primary key
Foreign key
Click Finish to create the relationship class.

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Geodatabase workflow

Create another relationship class between the R2VEG feature class and the
R2VEG_POLY_LOCAL table, entering all of the appropriate parameters.

Property

Value

Name

R2VegToR2VegPolyLocal

Origin Table
Destination Table
Type

Composite

Forward label

R2Veg To PolyLocal

Backward label

PolyLocal To R2Veg

Messaging direction
Cardinality

1 to

Attributes

No

Primary key
Foreign key
Next, you will use these relationship classes in ArcMap for editing.

Step 7: Edit in ArcMap


After you create domains, subtypes, and relationship classes, you can use them in ArcMap for
editing. In this step, you will use the various behaviors you created to perform data edits.
Add the following layers from Behavior.gdb to the table of contents:

R2Trails
R2VEG
Turn off the R2VEG layer.
Adjust the line symbols for the R2Trails layer so you can easily tell which one is which.
Next, you will digitize new trails and experiment with the Trail_Width values.
Digitize a new high elevation trail. Notice that the default values were updated.

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Lesson 12

Update several of the attributes, including the name.


The new trail will automatically be added to the default subtype with the Trail_Width field set
to 2.
Change the Trail_Width value to a number that falls outside of the 0-4 range, then validate
the selected feature.
Experiment with setting the Trail_Width value outside of the range for each of the
remaining subtypes, then validate the features.
Setting different domains for different subtypes can give you increased confidence in the data
values being entered. For example, if you were to apply a range domain of 0-12 to the entire
Trail_Width field, there would be a lot more room for error than when you apply a more limited
range to each subtype.
Next, you will work with the relationship classes you created in the previous step.
Turn off the R2Trails layer and turn on the R2VEG layer.
12. Which edit task is used for digitizing polygons that are coincident with existing polygons?
______________________________________________________________________________
Use the answer to the previous question, in conjunction with the Sketch tool, to digitize a
new polygon that is adjacent to neighboring polygons.
Remember that gaps are not permitted within the R2VEG layer, so you have to use the proper
tools to digitize.
Once the new feature is added, open the Attributes window.
13. What do you need to do to this new feature's VEG_LINK value before you can access any
of its related records?
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question, perform the necessary step that will make this
new feature available for relationship classes.
After the above step has been completed, you need to add a new record to each relationship.

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Geodatabase workflow

Perform the appropriate steps to allow this new feature to be accessed through each
relationship class.
Edit some of the related table values. Be sure to navigate to the ToVegPoly relationship
class and update the ATTRIB_SOURCE field, using the domain you imported from the
table.
It was recently brought to your attention that the AttributeSource table of codes and descriptions
was not complete. There was supposed to be one more code and description added to it. In
addition, one of the codes that has been used to update many of the features has been removed.
Remember, you can update the domain at any point.
In the Search window, search for the Add Coded Value To Domain tool.
Using the following table as a guide, fill in the parameters for the tool to add a new
domain code:

Parameter

Value

Input Workspace Behavior.gdb


Domain Name

Attribute Source

Code Value

WM

Description

Wetland/Riparian Data

Run the tool to add a code to the domain.


Next, you will remove a domain code using a geoprocessing tool.
Use the Search window to locate and the open the Delete Coded Value From Domain
tool.
In Behavior.gdb, delete the CF domain code and description from the AttributeSource
domain.
In ArcMap, verify that your new polygon is selected and that the Attributes window is
open.
Expand the selected feature and the R2Veg to Poly relationship class.

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Lesson 12

Verify that the code/description you added is visible and the one you deleted is gone.

Whenever you change or remove a domain, you risk making some features invalid. For
example, you just removed the CF domain, so if there were any features assigned a value of CF
for the ATTRIB_SOURCE field, they would now be invalid. For this reason, it is good practice
to first locate these records through a selection operation, and then change their domain values
to the correct values.
Stop editing and save your edits.
Close ArcMap.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Geodatabase workflow

Exercise 12B: Project: Work with geometric networks


Estimated time: 60 minutes
In this self-directed project, you will work with utilities data to create a geometric network.
Portions of this exercise are similar to the geometric networks exercise you completed earlier in
this course. This project, however, will not provide you with detailed instructions for how to
perform each step. If necessary, you can refer to previous exercises. Detailed instructions are
provided at the end of the exercise.
Before you create the network, you must create a geodatabase, import shapefile data into it, and
organize it properly into feature datasets. After you create the network, you will add
connectivity rules and work with them in ArcMap.
In this exercise, you will:

Independently apply the skills you have learned throughout this course.
Import data into the geodatabase.
Organize data in geodatabase.
Create geodatabase elements (e.g., geometric networks, subtypes, domains, annotation).
Use elements you create in ArcMap for editing and analysis.

Step 1: Import data into the geodatabase


In this step, you need to create a geodatabase and a schema so you can load data and create a
geometric network. For this exercise, you will create a file geodatabase, but remember that the
same techniques work with Enterprise, Workgroup, or Desktop geodatabases.
Create a file geodatabase in the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks folder and name
it Corvallis.
1. Which geodatabase element is required to create a geometric network?
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question, create the geodatabase element required for
networks. It should have the following properties:

Name: Water
Import coordinate system from:
..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks\Corvallis_WaterMains.shp

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Lesson 12

Now you have the schema you need to create a geometric network. Next, you will load data
into the feature dataset.
2. If the source data you want to load is in shapefile format and you have no existing feature
class schema to load it into, which method would allow you to transfer the data into the
geodatabase?
______________________________________________________________________________
Import the following shapefiles from ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks into the
Water feature dataset:

Corvallis_Fittings.shp
Corvallis_Hydrants.shp
Corvallis_Laterals.shp
Corvallis_Valves.shp
Corvallis_WaterMains.shp
Corvallis_Watermeters.shp
TreatmentPlant

Rename each feature class so that Corvallis_ is not in the name.


Your geodatabase should match the following graphic:

Now that you have imported data into the geodatabase, you can add geodatabase behavior.

Step 2: Prepare data for subtypes


The goal with this imported data is to create geodatabase behavior.
Explore the fields for WaterMains and Laterals.

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Geodatabase workflow

3. Is there a calculated short integer field in WaterMains that you can use to create subtypes?
______________________________________________________________________________
4. Is there a calculated short integer field in Laterals that you can use to create subtypes?
______________________________________________________________________________
Sometimes imported data contains everything you need to add additional behaviors; other times
it does not.
Explore the fields for Fittings.
5. Does Fittings contain a calculated short integer field that you can use to create subtypes?
______________________________________________________________________________
6. Would it be more effective to create domains or subtypes based on this field?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Subtypes will categorize the fittings based on type. After subtypes are created, you can use them
for display, editing, and creating additional behavior.
7. Which type of field is FittingTyp?
______________________________________________________________________________
8. Which field types can be used to create subtypes?
______________________________________________________________________________
In order to create subtypes for this feature class, you first need to add an integer field to this
table, then calculate it according to values in the FittingTyp field.
Add a field of the appropriate type to the Fittings table and name it FittingClass.

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Lesson 12

9. Which application is used for attribute data editing?


______________________________________________________________________________
Start ArcMap and add Fittings to a new, empty map.
To prepare this new field for subtypes, you will select a certain type of fitting, then calculate the
integer field for the selected fittings to set the subtype code. First, you must summarize the
FittingTyp field to see how many types of fittings are available in this feature class. You will
perform the summary and all calculation operations in ArcMap.
Summarize the FittingTyp field and create a new table named FittingTypes in
Corvallis.gdb.
Explore the values in FittingTypes.

Summary tables are a quick way to determine how many different values you have for a certain
field. They can be used for additional analysis or to simply get a count of features and codes.
Notice there are six different types of fittings in this table.

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Geodatabase workflow

Using the following table as a guide, make your selection queries then calculate the
FittingClass field.

FittingTyp

FittingClass

12 x 12 Tapping Tee 1
12 x 4 Tapping Tee

12 x 6 Tapping Tee

4 x 4 Tapping Tee

6 x 4 Tapping Tee

6 x 6 Tapping Tee

Now the Fittings feature class is ready to have subtypes created for it. Before you create
subtypes, you will prepare another feature class by adding and calculating a field in ArcMap.
You will now prepare WaterMeters as you did the previous feature class.
Add WaterMeters to the map.
The CUSTTYPE field tells you which type of customer is receiving water: P for private or
residential, and C for commercial. Because subtypes require an integer field, you will add one
and then perform a simple calculation.
Add a short integer field called MeterType.
Use the following table to create integer codes for each type of meter based on the
CUSTTYPE field:

CUSTTYPE MeterType
C

With the addition and calculation of a short integer field, your feature classes are now ready for
subtypes.
Open a new blank map document and set the default geodatabase to Corvallis.gdb. Do no
save changes to the current map.

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Lesson 12

Step 3: Create subtypes


In this step, you will create subtypes for several feature classes.
10. Subtypes are a property of which geodatabase element?
______________________________________________________________________________
Open the Catalog window.

It helps to have the layers you are working on in ArcMap so you can open
their table and view the attributes.

Create subtypes for Fittings using the following items for guidance:

FittingTypes summary table


FittingClass field values
FittingTyp field
Table preview

The default subtype will automatically be set to the first subtype you enter, but you can always
change it. You want to have the default subtype set to the most common type of feature, so that
when you digitize a new feature, it goes into this subtype.
The most common type of fitting in this table is a 6" x 4" Tapping Tee.
Set this to the Default Subtype.
Next, you will create subtypes in the WaterMeters feature class.
Use the attribute table of WaterMeters to find out which code goes with each meter type.
11. Which field did you create and calculate for subtypes in the WaterMeters feature class?
______________________________________________________________________________
Create subtypes in the WaterMeters feature class, using the answer to the previous
question as the Subtype Field.
Use the attribute table of WaterMeters to find out which code goes with each meter type.

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

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Geodatabase workflow

Connectivity rules are important in any geometric network. In order for them to be as specific as
possible, it is good practice to create them using subtypes. In the previous step, you discovered
that Laterals and WaterMains already contained fields you can use for creating subtypes.
Use the attribute table for Laterals to find out which code goes with each lateral size.
Create subtypes in the Laterals feature class using the appropriate field and values.
Use the attribute table of WaterMains to find out which code goes with each main size.
Create subtypes in the WaterMains feature class using the appropriate field and values.
You have just created subtypes for several feature classes. You will use subtypes later in this
project to display, edit, and create connectivity rules.

Step 4: Create domains


In this step, you will create range and coded value domains to facilitate data entry.
12. What are domains a property of?
______________________________________________________________________________
13. If you want to apply a domain to a text field, which field type should the domain be set to?
Why?
______________________________________________________________________________
14. In WaterMains, which field type is NOM_DIAM?
______________________________________________________________________________
Create a new domain named WaterMainDiameter with a description of Water Main
Diameter.
Assign the domain the proper field type.
You will now create a list of valid values for main diameter.

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Lesson 12

15. Which kind of domain should this be, range or coded values?
______________________________________________________________________________
For this domain, enter the following information for the codes and descriptions.

Code Description
4

4"

6"

12

12"

Next, you will create a domain for water meter size. To do this, you will import an XML
document that someone in a nearby county has already created for water meters. You have
already discussed the values in your attribute tables and they match perfectly. You can use a
domain they have already created. Because exporting to XML can single out a schema you
want to share, they did not have to send you the entire geodatabase, and you won't have to deal
with additional geodatabase elements you don't need.
Right-click Corvallis.gdb and Import XML Workspace Document.
Import schema only using ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\WaterMetersDomain.xml into
Corvallis.gdb.
The import brought across the original schema for the WaterMeters feature class in addition to
the domain you need.
16. In this case, do you need WaterMeters_1?
______________________________________________________________________________
In some cases, you keep all schema that has been imported through the XML document. In this
case, you already have a schema for meters that you will use, so you will use the domain.
Explore the new domain (i.e., MeterSize) that has been added to Corvallis.gdb.
Next, you will create a domain for water main material type.
In the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12 folder, view the Material$ worksheet within
WaterMains.xls.

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Geodatabase workflow

Create a coded values text domain based on this table and the following properties:

Name: MainMaterial
Description: Water Main Material
Finally, you will create a domain for length. In this case, it will be a range domain that can be
applied to many feature classes in the Corvallis file geodatabase. All domains can be applied to
multiple feature classes, but it may not be applicable in the case where a domain matches
attribute values in only one table.
17. Which field type is applied to LENGTH in WaterMains?
______________________________________________________________________________
Create a domain called LengthDomain with a description of General length domain.
Make sure the field type for this domain matches the field type from LENGTH.
You want to apply a constraint with this domain, rather than having users choose from a list of
all possible length values.
18. Which type of domain should you create?
______________________________________________________________________________
Constrain the values to between 0 and 2000.
Now that you have created the domains, you will apply them to fields in various feature class
tables.
In the WaterMains feature class properties (Fields tab), apply the following domains:

WaterMainDiameter domain to NOM_DIAM


MainMaterial domain MATERIAL
LengthDomain to LENGTH
Apply the METER_SIZE domain to the appropriate field in WaterMeters.
You have created four domains in the Corvallis.gdb geodatabase. There are other domains you
could create in this geodatabase, but for now, you will only create these four. While these
domains have been applied to various feature classes, they can also be applied to additional ones
in the future. These domains can be used in ArcMap to facilitate attribute editing and will help
maintain consistency in data entry.

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Lesson 12

Step 5: Create a geometric network


In this step, you will create a geometric network for water features. You will use the
TreatmentPlant feature class as a source, i.e., where the water originates within this network.
19. Are geometric networks created directly in the geodatabase or in a feature dataset?
______________________________________________________________________________
Create a new geometric network in the proper location using the following properties:

Use existing features.


Keep the default name of Water_Net.
Choose Yes to snap features within specified tolerance.
Include all feature classes and then uncheck Hydrants and Valves so they are not in
the network. (they are not all connected to the laterals and mains so you will get
errors if you include them)
Make the TreatmentPlant feature class a source by choose Yes under Sources & Sinks
and make WaterMains a Complex Edge by choose Yes under Role.
Do not apply weights.

In the Water feature dataset, a geometric network and default junctions feature class have been
created.

You have just created a geometric network to store connectivity between water features. The
next step is to create connectivity rules that determine valid connections between features in the
network. In the next step, you will create network connectivity rules for the new Water_Net
network.

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Geodatabase workflow

Step 6: Create network connectivity rules


Network connectivity rules are a form of geodatabase behavior. You learned about connectivity
rules earlier in the course. These rules determine how features in a network connect to other
features. All water features in this network connect with a tapping tee. The tapping tee is a
different size based on the size of the lines that are connecting. You will set connectivity rules to
ensure the correct size of tapping tee exists where a main and a lateral connect.
20. What are connectivity rules a property of?
______________________________________________________________________________
Open the properties for Water_Net.

Notice that the subtypes for the Fittings feature class are displayed. You can create connectivity
rules between feature classes or between subtypes. Creating them between subtypes allows you
to create rules that determine how groups of features connect to other groups of features.
There are two types of connectivity rules: edge-edge and edge-junction.

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Lesson 12

Edge-junction connectivity rules: Specify the legal types of junctions that may connect to an
edge as well as how many of each type (i.e., cardinality) can be connected. For example, only
one meter can be attached to a lateral.
Edge-edge connectivity rules: More of an edge-junction-edge rule because edges can only
connect to junctions (i.e., you cannot connect two pipes together without a fitting).This type of
rule will automatically create a junction of the correct type where two edges connect.
21. If you want to specify that one water meter can be connected to a lateral, should you create
an edge-edge or edge-junction rule?
______________________________________________________________________________
For the Laterals feature class, create a connectivity rule that will connect one commercial
or private water meter to both the 4" and 6" lateral.
22. What can you set if you know that one type of meter will be more common than another for
newly added features?
______________________________________________________________________________
Change your settings to reflect that the Private meter type is the most common for both 4"
and 6" laterals.
A private meter will be added automatically when you add a new lateral in ArcMap.
The connectivity rules for 4" and 6" laterals should match the following graphic.

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Geodatabase workflow

Next, you will create connectivity rules that specify how laterals and mains will connect to each
other.
Set a connectivity rule that connects a 12" water main to a 4" lateral with a 12" x 4"
tapping tee.
Verify that the blue "D" for default appears, and that your dialog box matches the following
graphic.

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Lesson 12

You have just set a connectivity rule for connecting a 12" main to a 4" lateral. There are two
lateral sizes in this network so you have to set a rule for the 12" to 6" connection.
Set another rule that connects a 12" water main to a 6" lateral with a 12" x 6" tapping tee.
You have successfully set connectivity rules for a 12" main as it connects to the two lateral sizes
(4" and 6"). Next, you will set connectivity rules for 4" and 6" water mains.
Set a rule that connects a 4" main to a 4" lateral with a 4" x 4" tapping tee.
Set a rule that connects a 4" main to a 6" lateral with a 6" x 4" tapping tee.
Finally, you will set a connectivity rule for a 6" main to the two lateral sizes.
Set a rule that connects a 6" main to a 4" lateral with a 6" x 4" Tapping Tee.
Set a rule that connects a 6" main to a 6" lateral with a 6" x 6" Tapping Tee.

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Geodatabase workflow

You have successfully created several connectivity rules. These rules are stored as a property of
the network and are used during editing in ArcMap. Now when you digitize new network
features in ArcMap, they will be properly connected to other network features.
Next, you will edit this geometric network.

Step 7: Edit geometric networks


In this step, you will edit a geometric network in ArcMap using connectivity rules you set in the
previous step.
Open Networks.mxd from the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks folder.
Set Corvallis.gdb as the default geodatabase for this exercise.
This map contains symbolized water network and parcel data for an area in Corvallis, Oregon.
There are several bookmarks in this map document that zoom to areas that need to be edited.
Each bookmark is named according to the type of feature or edit you will be making.
Navigate to the bookmark named 4" x 4" Tapping Tee.
This bookmark zooms to an area of Corvallis where a 4" lateral needs to be digitized.

23. Which type of snapping should be set, considering you are digitizing a lateral and want to
connect it to a main?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Turn on the proper type of snapping to ensure connectivity between laterals and mains.
The main to which you are connecting the 4" lateral is 4" in diameter. You can verify this using
the Identify tool or by opening the Attributes window.
24. With the lateral size in mind, what should you set the Editor template to?
______________________________________________________________________________
Snap your mouse cursor to the water main and click to add a vertex.

Digitize a new 4" lateral extending into the parcel, as shown in the previous graphic.
Notice that a fitting and a meter were added when you finished the sketch.
25. Why were a fitting and meter added when you digitized a lateral?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
26. Which type of fitting was created?
______________________________________________________________________________

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27. Which type of meter was created?


______________________________________________________________________________
28. Why is the MeterType value set to Private and not Commercial?
______________________________________________________________________________
Navigate to the 12" x 6" Tapping Tee and COM meter bookmark.
29. How could you verify that the large parcel shown in this bookmark is zoned for commercial
use?
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question, verify that this parcel is zoned for commercial
use.
You want to add a 6" lateral for this large commercial parcel.
30. What should the Target be set to?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Lesson 12

Digitize a lateral as shown in the following graphic.

Verify that the fitting is a 12" x 6" Tapping Tee and the meter type is Private.
31. Why is the meter type set to Private and not Commercial, given the fact that the parcel is
zoned COM?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Change this meter type to Commercial.

Click Yes on the message about changing the subtype.


Notice that the symbology changed for the meter.
Connectivity rules help you keep your data relationships and connections consistent, but it is
good practice to validate any new features you add to ensure they are following the rules you
have set.
There are two more edits that need to be made. For each of those edits, there is a bookmark.
The bookmarks are titled: 12" x 4" Tapping Tee and 6" x 6" Tapping Tee.
Using the skills you just learned, navigate to the remaining two bookmarks, digitize a
lateral, and verify the fitting type and meter type are correct. Make sure you set the
template to the proper subtype of Laterals.
Save your edits when you are finished.
You have just edited geometric network data that you built from shapefiles using connectivity
rules. Connectivity rules are not available outside a geodatabase.

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Lesson 12

Exercise 12C: Project: Work with cadastral data


Estimated time: 60 minutes
In this self-directed project, you will work with parcel data to create a geodatabase topology and
other behavior rules. This project will not provide you with detailed instructions. If necessary,
you can refer to previous exercises. Detailed instructions are also provided at the end of the
exercise.
In this exercise, you will:

Independently apply the skills you have learned throughout this course.
Create geodatabase schema.
Import data into geodatabase schema.
Create a topology.
Use the topology in ArcMap.

Step 1: Create schema and import data


In this step, you will create geodatabase schemas and import data from a shapefile into the
geodatabase.
Start ArcMap and open a blank map document.
In the Catalog window, navigate to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Cadastral.
Make a new file geodatabase in the Cadastral folder and name it Corvallis.
Make Corvallis.gdb the default geodatabase.
1. Which geodatabase element is necessary to create a topology?
______________________________________________________________________________
Create the appropriate geodatabase element in Corvallis.gdb, using the coordinate system
for Corvallis_Parcels.shp.
2. How would you set this property if you didn't have data from which you could import a
coordinate system?
______________________________________________________________________________

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You want to transfer the data from Corvallis_Parcels.shp into your feature dataset.
3. Will you use the Simple Data Loader or an import operation?
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question, transfer Corvallis_Parcels.shp into the
Cadastral feature dataset and name it Parcels.

You have successfully created a parcels feature class in your new file geodatabase from a
shapefile data source.

Step 2: Create domains


In this step, you will create domains for the Parcels feature class.
4. What are domains a property of?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Explore the data to determine which type of field ZONE_CD is in the Parcels feature
class.
5. Which type of field is ZONE_CD?
______________________________________________________________________________
Note: Domains are created to be assigned to certain field types, so it is important to
know how your fields are defined before you create your domains.

Create a new domain named ZoneCode and give it a description of Domain for zone
codes.
Choose the appropriate field type for this domain.
6. Based on the contents of the ZONE_CD field, should this be a range or coded values
domain?
______________________________________________________________________________
In the Coded Values section, add two coded values and descriptions: one for COM and
one for RES, assigning them appropriate descriptions.
After domains are created, they are available for all feature classes and subtypes in the
geodatabase. Next, you will apply this domain to the Parcels feature class.
7. In which dialog box do you apply domains to fields?
______________________________________________________________________________
Open the proper dialog box and apply the new domain to the ZONE_CD field.
A new domain has been added to the geodatabase and applied to the ZONE_CD field in the
Parcels feature class.

Step 3: Create geodatabase topology


In this step, you will create a geodatabase topology.

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Create a new topology in Cadastral using only the Parcels feature class.
8. Which topology rules are applicable for this one polygon feature class?
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question, set the necessary topology rules.
Finish creating the topology, but do not validate it right now.
You will validate the topology when you add it to ArcMap in the next step.

Step 4: Work with a topology in ArcMap


In this step, you will display and edit your topology in ArcMap.
In ArcMap, create a blank map and do not save the current map.
Add your topology to the new map document; include all participating feature classes.
Modify the symbology properties of Cadastral_Topology to show dirty areas.
9. Why is the entire extent of the topology considered to be a dirty area?
______________________________________________________________________________
Validate the full extent of the topology.
10. Which dialog box do you need to open to view a summary of the errors discovered during
validation?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Open the correct dialog box and generate an error summary.

There are 13 errors in the topology. Notice that most of them are from the Must Not Have Gaps
rule you set. Earlier in the class, you learned that gaps are not always an error.
There are several sections of parcels in this area of Oregon. Anywhere there is a gap between
parcels, it is marked as an error. It is up to you to know your data and be able to make the
necessary distinctions between actual and perceived errors. If it is not an error in the real world,
you can set it as an exception.
11. Which tool will you use to manually fix individual errors?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
12. If ArcMap views something as an error when it isn't, what can you do to solve this problem?
______________________________________________________________________________
With the appropriate tool, click the westernmost group of parcels considered to be a gap
error and mark it as an exception.
13. After you validate the entire topology, is it necessary to validate the entire topology again
after editing?
______________________________________________________________________________
14. Why wouldn't you just validate the entire topology again?
______________________________________________________________________________

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The topology no longer views this gap as an error. Exceptions are stored in the geodatabase.
Generate another error summary to see the change.
Notice that there are now 10 errors and one exception for this rule.

Some of the gaps, like the one you just marked as an exception, are not really errors. For
example, they might be the edge of a number of polygons along a street or the outer edge of a
polygon that marks the extent of the data.
Using the skills you have learned, mark the remaining occurrences of this type of gap error
as exceptions.
Note: The gaps that you are looking for are those that occur along streets or at the edges
of the data extent.

15. Which tool allows you to search for errors in the topology?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question, open the proper tool and search for all errors in
the topology.
Right-click the first Must Not Overlap error and choose Zoom To.
16. What is a typical fix for an overlap error?
______________________________________________________________________________
In the Error Inspector, right-click the error and choose the appropriate fix for this overlap.

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17. Which parcel should this error be merged with?


______________________________________________________________________________
18. How can you get rid of this dirty area and make sure your edit did not create additional
errors?
______________________________________________________________________________
Validate the topology.
19. What should you do with the parcel in the middle of the road?
______________________________________________________________________________

Using the answer to the previous question, perform the necessary operation on this parcel.
Validate the topology.

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Geodatabase workflow

Locate the other Must Not Overlap error and fix it.

20. If you are going to be moving feature vertices around, what should you turn on or enable
first?
______________________________________________________________________________
21. Which type of snapping do you think is needed in this type of edit?
______________________________________________________________________________
Turn on the appropriate snapping.
22. Which tool allows you to modify features in ArcMap?
______________________________________________________________________________
Using the answer to the previous question, select the appropriate tool and fix this gap.
Search for topology errors in this extent.
Use the appropriate fix to correct the overlap.

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Lesson 12

23. Which parcel should you merge it with and why?


______________________________________________________________________________
Validate the current topology.
If any external boundaries are viewed as errors, fix them as you did before.
Stop editing and save your edits.
Close the Error Inspector window.
Keep ArcMap open to create annotation for your parcels.

Step 5: Create annotation


Next, you will create feature-linked annotation for your parcels.
Label the Parcels with the ACRES field.
24. How do you create annotation from labels?
______________________________________________________________________________
Create annotation from the labels and verify that feature-linked annotation is being created
for all features and is being stored in the database as ParcelsAnno.
Verify that ParcelsAnno has been created.
25. Why is there a relationship class when you did not explicitly create one?
______________________________________________________________________________
Now you have annotation created for Parcels. If you were to add any new parcels, annotation
would automatically be created for them.
Start an edit session.

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26. Which tool should you use to digitize a new parcel?


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Select the appropriate tool and digitize a new parcel in the southwestern section of the
map.
View the ACRES field when you are finished.
Notice this field is <Null>. Once you set a value for it, the annotation will be created and
displayed automatically.
27. Why is ACRES null?
______________________________________________________________________________
Right-click the ACRES field and choose Calculate Geometry to calculate this field.
Modify the annotation so that only three decimal places are visible.
Stop editing and save your edits.
You have just created feature-linked annotation from labels and edited a value in the Parcels
table to create new annotation. Next, you will add a new feature class to an existing topology.

Step 6: Add a feature class to a topology


Sometimes you have to modify the schema for a geodatabase element after it has been created.
For example, adding a field to an existing table, adding a code to a domain, or altering a
subtype. You may also have to add a feature class to an existing topology.
A topology can be created and used just to get the features within it corrected prior to involving
them in more complex relationships with features in other feature classes. So far in this exercise,
you have created a topology for parcels with two rules and then you fixed some errors in
ArcMap. Now that the errors are corrected, you can include more feature classes in this
topology.
An important part of a cadastral dataset is parcel lines, which store the bearings and distances of
the parcels, as taken from a plat or deed. One of the tools in ArcToolbox will create lines from
polygons so you don't have to manually create them.

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Lesson 12

Search for the proper tool for converting a polygon feature class to a line feature class.
28. Which tool in the Features toolset can be used to create parcel lines from the existing
parcels?
______________________________________________________________________________
29. Which feature class should be used as the input?
______________________________________________________________________________
Based on the answer to the previous question, fill in the tool's parameters.
For Output Features, verify the output is being created in the
..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Cadastral\Corvallis.gdb\Cadastral feature dataset and
name it ParcelLines.

Using a geoprocessing tool, you have created parcel lines from existing parcel polygons and
saved yourself a lot of digitizing.

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30. Are you able to add a feature class to a topology once it has been created?
______________________________________________________________________________
31. Where will you add this new feature class to the topology?
______________________________________________________________________________
32. Which tab has the functionality to add feature classes to this topology?
______________________________________________________________________________
Add ParcelLines to this topology.

Change the Number of Ranks to incorporate the additional feature class.


Make the rank for ParcelLines higher, which marks it as more accurate than the rank for
Parcels.
Now that there is an additional feature class in this topology, you can create more complex
rules.
33. What other spatial relationships are now present with the addition of lines?
______________________________________________________________________________

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Lesson 12

Add the following rules to the topology:

Parcels: Boundary Must Be Covered By - ParcelLines


ParcelLines Must Not Intersect Or Touch Interior
ParcelLines: Must Not Have Dangles
ParcelLines: Must Be Covered By Boundary Of - Parcels

Validate the topology when you are finished.


Generate an error summary of the topology.
Notice that there are nine gap errors present. These are the same errors you marked as
exceptions in the last step. Because a feature class was added to the topology and additional
rules were added, these exceptions are seen as errors. You learned a fast way to fix them in the
last step. For now, you will leave them as is. The topology workflow is usually a looping cycle.
Close ArcMap.
A new feature class has been added and other properties have been updated to reflect this
addition. It would be good practice to validate this topology to locate and fix any errors. In the
interest of time, this exercise will end now.

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Lesson review
1. Explain the geodatabase workflow you used to complete the project.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Answers to Lesson 12 questions


Exercise 12A: Project: Work with attribute behavior
1. Which type of field should the trail width field be if you want to be able to store decimal
places?
Float
2. Which type of geodatabase behavior will accomplish this?
Subtypes
3. Which type of field must the table contain if you want to create subtypes?
An integer field
4. Is there a field that you can use to create a width subtype and, if so, which field?
No. However, there is an integer field available for subtypes based on elevation.
5. What is the current value of the Width_Class field?
There are no values in this field yet.
6. Which kind of domain should be created?
Range
7. Which type of field should you apply this domain to?
Float
8. What are the two methods for applying domains?
Apply them to a field or to a subtype.
9. In this situation, which method would be most appropriate?
Apply it to a subtype.

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10. Which type of domain do you think should be created from this table?
Coded values
11. Which field type should this domain be?
Text
12. Which edit task is used for digitizing polygons that are coincident with existing polygons?
Auto-Complete Polygon task
13. What do you need to do to this new feature's VEG_LINK value before you can access any
of its related records?
Update it

Exercise 12B: Project: Work with geometric networks


1. Which geodatabase element is required to create a geometric network?
Feature dataset
2. If the source data you want to load is in shapefile format and you have no existing feature
class schema to load it into, which method would allow you to transfer the data into the
geodatabase?
Import the data; this will transfer schema and all features.
3. Is there a calculated short integer field in WaterMains that you can use to create subtypes?
Yes; the MainSize field is a short integer field.
4. Is there a calculated short integer field in Laterals that you can use to create subtypes?
Yes; LateralSiz
5. Does Fittings contain a calculated short integer field that you can use to create subtypes?
No; the Id field is an integer field, but it is not calculated according to values in
FittingTyp.

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6. Would it be more effective to create domains or subtypes based on this field?


It would be more effective to create subtypes. Fitting types will then display differently in
ArcMap and, because you can edit each subtype independently, you can use them to
create connectivity rules.
7. Which type of field is FittingTyp?
Text
8. Which field types can be used to create subtypes?
Short or long integer
9. Which application is used for attribute data editing?
ArcMap
10. Subtypes are a property of which geodatabase element?
Subtypes are a property of a feature class.
11. Which field did you create and calculate for subtypes in the WaterMeters feature class?
MeterType
12. What are domains a property of?
Domains are a property of the geodatabase.
13. If you want to apply a domain to a text field, which field type should the domain be set to?
Why?
Text; a domain can only be applied to fields of the same type as the domain.
14. In WaterMains, which field type is NOM_DIAM?
Double
15. Which kind of domain should this be, range or coded values?
Coded values

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Lesson 12

16. In this case, do you need WaterMeters_1?


No, you can delete it.
17. Which field type is applied to LENGTH in WaterMains?
Double
18. Which type of domain should you create?
Range
19. Are geometric networks created directly in the geodatabase or in a feature dataset?
Geometric networks are created in the feature dataset.
20. What are connectivity rules a property of?
Geometric networks
21. If you want to specify that one water meter can be connected to a lateral, should you create
an edge-edge or edge-junction rule?
Edge-junction
22. What can you set if you know that one type of meter will be more common than another for
newly added features?
You can set the most common type of meter to the default.
23. Which type of snapping should be set, considering you are digitizing a lateral and want to
connect it to a main?
Edges of water mains
24. With the lateral size in mind, what should you set the Editor template to?
Laterals: 4"
25. Why were a fitting and meter added when you digitized a lateral?
Because of the edge-edge connectivity rules, a fitting is added at the connection point
and, due to edge-to-junction rules, a meter is added at the end of the lateral.

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26. Which type of fitting was created?


4" x 4" Tapping Tee
27. Which type of meter was created?
Private
28. Why is the MeterType value set to Private and not Commercial?
When setting the edge-junction connectivity rule for Laterals and WaterMeters, you set a
Private meter as the default.
29. How could you verify that the large parcel shown in this bookmark is zoned for commercial
use?
Use the Identify tool or open the attribute table.
30. What should the Target be set to?
Laterals 6"
31. Why is the meter type set to Private and not Commercial, given the fact that the parcel is
zoned COM?
The connectivity rule default is Private, but Commercial is still a valid choice.

Exercise 12C: Project: Work with cadastral data


1. Which geodatabase element is necessary to create a topology?
Feature dataset
2. How would you set this property if you didn't have data from which you could import a
coordinate system?
Select one from the list of existing coordinate systems, provided you know which one to
pick.
3. Will you use the Simple Data Loader or an import operation?
Import

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Lesson 12

4. What are domains a property of?


Domains are a property of the geodatabase.
5. Which type of field is ZONE_CD?
Text
6. Based on the contents of the ZONE_CD field, should this be a range or coded values
domain?
Coded values
7. In which dialog box do you apply domains to fields?
Feature class properties
8. Which topology rules are applicable for this one polygon feature class?
Must not overlap and Must not have gaps
9. Why is the entire extent of the topology considered to be a dirty area?
It has yet to be validated.
10. Which dialog box do you need to open to view a summary of the errors discovered during
validation?
Topology layer properties
11. Which tool will you use to manually fix individual errors?
Fix Topology Error tool
12. If ArcMap views something as an error when it isn't, what can you do to solve this problem?
Mark it as an exception.
13. After you validate the entire topology, is it necessary to validate the entire topology again
after editing?
No, validating only checks dirty areas for errors.

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14. Why wouldn't you just validate the entire topology again?
Because you edited only this area, there is no point in validating the entire extent.
Validating a smaller area also takes less time.
15. Which tool allows you to search for errors in the topology?
Topology Error Inspector

16. What is a typical fix for an overlap error?


Merge
17. Which parcel should this error be merged with?
The parcel should be merged with Parcel 253.
18. How can you get rid of this dirty area and make sure your edit did not create additional
errors?
Validate, in this case, just the current extent of the topology.
19. What should you do with the parcel in the middle of the road?
Delete it, because it is clearly a digitizing error.
20. If you are going to be moving feature vertices around, what should you turn on or enable
first?
You should turn on snapping before you move features around.
21. Which type of snapping do you think is needed in this type of edit?
Vertex and edge snapping for parcels
22. Which tool allows you to modify features in ArcMap?
The Edit tool
23. Which parcel should you merge it with and why?
Parcel 244 - if you merge it with the other parcel, its area will be affected. If you merge
with 244, it will not be.

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24. How do you create annotation from labels?


Right-click Parcels and choose Convert Labels to Annotation
25. Why is there a relationship class when you did not explicitly create one?
It gets created automatically with feature-linked annotation.
26. Which tool should you use to digitize a new parcel?
The Sketch tool
27. Why is ACRES null?
It is a user-added field and does not get automatically updated like ShapeArea or
ShapeLength.
28. Which tool in the Features toolset can be used to create parcel lines from the existing
parcels?
Polygon To Line
29. Which feature class should be used as the input?
Parcels
30. Are you able to add a feature class to a topology once it has been created?
Yes
31. Where will you add this new feature class to the topology?
Topology properties
32. Which tab has the functionality to add feature classes to this topology?
The Feature Classes tab
33. What other spatial relationships are now present with the addition of lines?
Lines and polygon boundaries should cover each other, lines should not dangle or
intersect.

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Geodatabase workflow

Lesson review
1. Explain the geodatabase workflow you used to complete the project.
Will vary, but here is a sample for project 12A:

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First you added and calculate a field that was required for creating subtypes.
Next, you created subtypes based on this new field.
Then you created and applied domains to various fields.
Created a relationship class.
And finally edited data with these behaviors in ArcMap.

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Lesson 12

Exercise 12A solution: Exercise solution with steps


This exercise provides the step-by-step solution for the self-directed project introduced in
exercise 12A. Throughout this exercise, you will work with geodatabase behaviors such as
domains, subtypes, and relationship classes.

Solution step 1: Add fields


A common GIS task is to add new fields to existing feature class tables. In this exercise, you will
perform this common task and others while you update the San Juan National Forest database.
Start ArcMap with a blank map and set ..\Student\BLDG\Database\Behavior.gdb as the
default geodatabase.
You will use the Behavior.gdb throughout this exercise.
In the Catalog window, navigate to the Behavior.gdb and open the properties for R2Trails.
Click the Fields tab.
Scroll to the first empty row and type Trail_Width for Field Name.
Because you want to be able to store decimal places in your trail widths, this field should be a
Float field.
For Data Type, click in the cell and choose Float from the list.

Click Apply.
In addition to storing the width for the trails, you would also like to categorize the trails into
groups based on their width.
If you want to create subtypes for trail width, you will have to create a new integer field to store
the codes.

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Create a new field named Width_Class with a data type of Short Integer and click OK.
You have now created two new fields within the R2Trails feature class. One of them will store
the actual width of each trail (in feet), and the other will store an integer code that you will use
for creating subtypes.
The Width_Class field contains no values yet. Prior to creating subtypes, you must calculate the
Width_Class field to integer codes in ArcMap. This will be your next task.

Solution step 2: Update fields using ArcMap


Before you create subtypes, you will take a look at the table for the R2Trails layer and then
calculate the Width_Class field to integer codes in ArcMap.
In the Catalog window, drag and drop the R2Trails feature class onto the map display.
Refer to the following table during this exercise:

R2Trails
Elevation Width

Width_Class Default Width Width Range

High

Narrow

0-4

Medium

Medium 2

5-7

Low

Wide

10

8-12

Open the attribute table for R2Trails.


Scroll to the far right and locate the two fields you just added.

In the table window, click the Select By Attributes button

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In the Select By Attributes dialog box, build the following expression: "Elevation" =
'High'.
Click Apply.
Right-click the Width_Class field and choose Field Calculator.
In the Expression field, type 1.

Click OK.
In the table, notice the selected records have been calculated as 1 for the Width_Class field.

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In the Select By Attributes dialog box, alter the query to read "Elevation" = 'Medium'
and click Apply.
All of the medium elevation trails are now selected.
Open the Field Calculator for the Width_Class field and calculate all selected records to a
value of 2 and click OK.
Now, all of the High and Medium elevation trails are calculated with integer codes. The null
values are the remaining Low elevation trails.
In the Select By Attributes dialog box, alter the query to read "Elevation" = 'Low', then
click Apply.
Open the Field Calculator on the Width_Class field and calculate all Low elevation trails
as a value of 3 and click OK.
Now all the records have been calculated with an integer code. For now, you will leave the
Trail_Width field as is. It is there for you when you are ready to enter width values. Often,
schema is created and then data is loaded or entered when it becomes available.
Clear the selected features.
Close the Table window.
Close the Select by Attributes dialog box.
Now, you are ready to create subtypes using the values you just calculated.

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Solution step 3: Create subtypes


Now that you have created an integer field and calculated it in ArcMap, you are able to create
subtypes for trail width.
In the Catalog window, open the properties for R2Trails and click the Subtypes tab.
For Subtype Field, choose Width_Class.
While creating subtypes, it is important to match the subtype codes you create with the integer
codes you calculated in the table.
In the Subtypes section, type 1 for Code and type Narrow for Description.

The table in the previous step indicates that a Width_Class value of 1 is for a narrow trail, 2 is
for medium, and 3 is for wide.
In the next empty row, type a code of 2 and Description of Medium.
In the next empty row, enter the final code of 3 and Description of Wide.
Click Apply.
Next, you will apply different default attribute values for the Trail_Width field for each subtype
of trail. You can use the table from the previous step to assist you in this next task.
In the Subtypes section, click the gray box to the left of code 1 to select the first subtype.
In the Default Values and Domains section on the bottom, scroll down and locate the
Trail_Width field.
Type a default value of 2 and click Apply.
Select the Medium subtype and set its Trail_Width default value to 6 and click Apply.
Select the Wide subtype and set its Trail_Width default value to 10 and click OK.
Now you have created subtypes and set default values for each.

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Solution step 4: Create and apply domains for trail width


Earlier, you added a field to store the trail width. Next, you will create validation for the trail
width field so you can locate invalid attribute values.
In the R2Trails feature class, there are three subtypes of features based on the Width_Class field.
You need to create trail width domains for each elevation of trail. Lower elevation trails are
generally wider than trails that are located at an elevation of 10,000 feet or more. At higher
elevations, the trails may be very narrow or cross rocky terrain. The domains you create will
help assign the correct trail width to each trail subtype.
Open the properties for Behavior.gdb and click the Domains tab.
Refer to the following table as you create domains:

Trail type

Width for trails

High elevation trails

0-4

Medium elevation trails 5-7


Low elevation trails

8-12

Scroll down until you find the first empty cell for Domain Name and type
HighElevationWidth.
For Description, type Width domain for high elevation trails.
Click the gray box next to the HighElevationWidth to select the domain.
Change the Field Type to Float, set a Maximum value of 4 for the range, and click Apply.

In the next empty cell for Domain Name, type MediumElevationWidth.


For Description, type Width domain for medium elevation trails.

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Select the new domain and change its Field Type to Float, its Minimum value to 5, and its
Maximum value to 7.
Click Apply.
Create another domain with the following properties:

Name: LowElevationWidth
Description: Width domain for low elevation trails
Field Type: Float
Domain Type: Range
Minimum value: 8
Maximum value: 12

Click OK when finished.


The next thing you want to do is apply the domains you just created. Earlier, you learned that
you can apply domains to fields or subtypes.
In the Catalog window, open the properties for R2Trails and if necessary, click the
Subtypes tab.
Select the first subtype, 1 Narrow.
In the Default Values and Domains section, scroll to the bottom and locate the
Trail_Width field.
Click in the cell for Domain and choose HighElevationWidth.

Click Apply.
Select the second subtype, Medium, and set its Trail_Width domain to
MediumElevationWidth and click Apply.

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Select the third subtype, Wide, and set its Trail_Width domain to LowElevationWidth
and click OK.
Notice that the default values you previously set fall within the range domain for each subtype.
If the default value fell outside of the range domain values, you would get an error at this point.

Solution step 5: Create coded value domains


Earlier in this course, you created coded value domains by typing them. Imagine having a large
number of codes and long descriptions to enter. This could make creating domains a lengthy
process. There are other ways to create domains that allow you to input a table of codes and
descriptions to generate the domains.
Add the AttributeSource table to the current map document.
Right-click the AttributeSource table in the table of contents and choose Open to view the
codes and descriptions.

Next, you will use a geoprocessing tool to automatically convert these codes and descriptions
into a coded value domain.

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Click the Search window tab.


Note: If the Search window is not docked, open it by clicking the Search window button
on the Standard toolbar. By default, it will dock on the right side of the
ArcMap interface.

Select Tools, type Table to Domain. then click the Search button

Double-click the result to open the tool.


Drag and drop the AttributeSource table from the Catalog window into the Input Table
parameter.
For Code Field, click the drop-down list and choose CODE.
For Description Field, click the drop-down list and choose DESCRIPTIO.
Drag and drop Behavior.gdb into the Input Workspace parameter.
For Domain Name, type AttributeSource.
For Domain Description (optional) type Source of attribute data.
Click OK.
Now, you will verify that the domain was added to Behavior.gdb.
Open the properties for Behavior.gdb.
On the Domains tab, locate the AttributeSource domain on top of the list.

In the Coded Values section, scroll through the various codes and descriptions that were
converted from the AttributeSource table.

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Click Cancel to close the Database Properties dialog box.


Close the table.
Next, you will apply this domain to a table field.
Open the properties for the R2VEG_POLY table and click the Fields tab.
Select the ATTRIB_SOURCE field.
In the Field Properties section, click the empty cell for Domain.
Choose AttributeSource.

Click OK.
The various descriptions you converted from the AttributeSource table will now be available for
this field when editing in ArcMap.

Solution step 6: Create relationship classes


In this step, you will create two relationship classes from scratch. One will be between R2VEG
and R2VEG_POLY and the other will be between R2VEG and R2VEG_POLY_LOCAL.
Right-click Behavior.gdb and choose New > Relationship Class.
Type R2VegToR2VegPoly for the name of the new relationship class.
Set the Origin table/feature class to R2VEG feature class (in R2VegFD).
Set the Destination table/feature class to R2VEG_POLY. Click Next.
Because you want to have a dependent relationship between the records in R2VEG and
R2VEG_POLY, choose Composite relationship and click Next.
Set the forward label to R2Veg To Poly and the backward label to Poly To R2Veg.
Verify that the messaging direction is forward and click Next.

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For Cardinality, choose 1-1 (one-to-one), then click Next.


Verify that you are not creating attributes for the relationship and click Next.
Set the primary and foreign key fields to VEG_LINK, then click Next.
Verify that your properties match the following graphic.

Click Finish.
A new relationship class is added to the geodatabase.

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Use the skills you just performed and the following table to create another relationship
class.

Property

Value

Name

R2VegToR2VegPolyLocal

Origin Table

R2VEG

Destination Table

R2VEG_POLY_LOCAL

Type

Composite

Forward label

R2Veg To PolyLocal

Backward label

PolyLocal To R2Veg

Messaging direction Forward


Cardinality

1 to 1

Attributes

No

Primary key

VEG_LINK

Foreign key

VEG_LINK

Click Finish and verify that you now have two new relationship classes in the
geodatabase.
Now you are ready to edit data using all of the behaviors you have created.

Solution step 7: Edit in ArcMap


Once you create domains, subtypes, and relationship classes, you can use them in ArcMap for
editing. In this step, you will use the various behaviors you created to perform some data edits.
In ArcMap create a new, empty map and add the following layers:

R2Trails
R2VEG
Turn off the R2VEG layer.
The R2Trails draw based on the subtypes you created.
Adjust the line symbols for the R2Trails layer so you can easily tell which one is which.

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Next, you will digitize new trails and experiment with the Trail_Width values.
If necessary, turn on the Editor toolbar and start an edit session.
In the Create Features window, choose the Narrow trails subtype and set the Construction
Tool to Line.
Digitize a new trail by clicking to add vertices, then double-click to finish the sketch.
The resulting trail will be selected in the map.
On the Editor toolbar, click the Attributes button.
Notice that the Trail_Width field has been updated to 2. This is the default value you set earlier
for a high elevation (narrow) trail.
Change the value for Trail_Width to 10 and press Enter.
This value falls outside of the range (0-4) you set for a narrow trail.
From the Editor menu, choose Validate Features.
The resulting message states that 10 falls outside of the 0-4 range. You could change the value to
something within the 0-4 range, or you could save the invalid value of 10. Maybe this particular
trail is wider than most high elevation trails and 10 feet is a legitimate width.
Click OK to close the message.
Change the Trail_Width value to 3.5 and press Enter.
Validate the features again and then click OK.
All features are valid because 3.5 falls within the range domain. Not every feature will take on
all the default values you have set. In those cases, you can just change the value to the actual
value. Default values are common values for that type of feature, but may not always be the
right value.
With the Edit tool, select the new trail.
In the Attributes window, click the value Narrow to expose an ellipsis.

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Click the ellipsis to open a table.


These values appear to be domains, but they are the subtypes you built in R2Trails. The
database is storing integer values ranging from 1-3 in this field, but when you are editing in
ArcMap, you see the subtype descriptions you entered.
Choose Wide from the list.
Click OK, then click Yes to close the warning.
Notice the Trail_Width value changed to 10, the default value for a Wide trail. Changing the
subtype field will change all defaults associated with it.
Next, you will work with the relationship classes you created in the previous step.
Turn off R2Trails and turn on R2VEG.

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Zoom to the area shown in the following graphic.

In the Create Features window, select the R2Veg template and set the Construction Tool
to Auto Complete Polygon.

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Digitize a polygon anywhere along the border of another polygon. Begin and end your
sketch by adding vertices that overlap the existing polygon boundary. An example can be
seen in the following graphic:

Press F2 to finish the sketch.


Click the Attributes button.
Before you can add any related records in other tables, you need to update the VEG_LINK
value in the origin table (R2VEG).
In the Attributes window, click the entry for R2VEG.
For VEG_LINK, type 555555 (a generic number for this exercise) and press Enter.

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Expand VEG_LINK 555555 to view the relationship classes.

Each relationship class is present, but there are no related records yet. You have to manually
add them here or in the attribute table.
Right-click R2Veg To Poly and choose Add New.
Select the new record to view its attributes.
Notice that the VEG_LINK is 555555.
Click in the value to the right of the ATTRIB_SOURCE field.
The values listed here were imported from a geodatabase table using a geoprocessing tool.
Choose one of the values and close the Attributes window.
It was recently brought to your attention that the AttributeSource table of codes and descriptions
was not complete. There was supposed to be one more code and description added to it. In
addition, one of the codes that has been used to update many of the features has been removed.
Remember, you can update the domain at any point. You will use a geoprocessing tool to do so.
In the Search window, select Tools, type Add Coded Value To Domain , then click the
Search button
.
Double-click the result to open the tool.

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Using the following table, fill out the tool's parameters.

Parameter

Value

Input Workspace Behavior.gdb


Domain Name

Attribute Source

Code Value

WM

Code Description Wetland/Riparian Data


Run the tool.
Next, you will remove a domain code using a geoprocessing tool.
In the Search window, search for Delete Coded Value from Domain.
Open the tool.
For Input Workspace, navigate to Behavior.gdb.
Delete the CF domain code and description from the AttributeSource domain.
Run the tool.
In ArcMap, verify that your new polygon is selected and that the Attributes are open.
In the Attributes window, expand the selected feature and the R2Veg to Poly relationship
class.
Click the ATTRIB_SOURCE drop-down menu.

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Verify that the code/description you added is visible and the one you deleted is gone.

Whenever you change or remove a domain, you risk making some features invalid. For
example, you just removed the CF domain. Any features assigned a value of CF for the
ATTRIB_SOURCE field would now be invalid. For this reason, it is good practice to first locate
these records through a selection operation, and then change their domain values to the correct
values.
Stop editing and save your edits.
Close ArcMap without saving the map.

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Exercise 12B solution


This exercise provides the step-by-step solution for the self-directed project introduced in
exercise 12B, in which you worked with utilities data to create a geometric network.

Solution step 1: Import data into the geodatabase


In this step, you will create a new geodatabase, then import and organize data to create a
geometric network.
Start ArcMap with a new blank map.
In the Catalog window, navigate to the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks folder
and expand it.
The shapefiles shown here will be used to create a geometric network. In order to create the
network, you must first create a geodatabase.
Right-click Networks and choose New > File Geodatabase.
Rename the new geodatabase Corvallis.
Right-click Corvallis.gdb and choose Make Default Geodatabase.
Right-click Corvallis.gdb and choose New > Feature Dataset.
Note: Feature datasets are required for creating geometric networks.

For Name, type Water and click Next.


To choose a coordinate system, click Import and navigate to
..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks. Select Corvallis_WaterMains.shp and click
Add.
Notice that the coordinate system from the shapefile has been imported into the feature dataset.

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Click Next, then click Next again for vertical coordinate systems.
Accept the defaults for all tolerances and click Finish.
Now that you have a feature dataset created, you will load data into it.
In the Catalog tree, right-click the Water feature dataset and click Import > Feature Class
(multiple).
For Input Features, browse to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks and add the
following shapefiles:

Corvallis_Fittings.shp
Corvallis_Hydrants.shp
Corvallis_Laterals.shp
Corvallis_Valves.shp
Corvallis_WaterMains.shp
Corvallis_WaterMeters.shp
TreatmentPlant

Click OK.
Rename each feature class so Corvallis_ is not in the name.
Now that you have imported data into the geodatabase, you can add geodatabase behavior.

Solution step 2: Prepare data for subtypes


Next, you will create geodatabase behavior.
From within the Catalog window, drag and drop Fittings in the table of contents.
Right-click Fittings and select Open Attribute Table to view the fitting type.
The FittingTyp field contains information that describes which type of fitting is present. Notice
that there are a variety of tapping tee sizes within the fittings feature class table.
Close the attribute table.
Subtypes will categorize the fittings based on type. Once subtypes are created, you can use them
for display, editing, and creating additional behavior.
In the Catalog window, open the properties for Fittings and click the Fields tab.
Notice that FittingTyp is a text field.

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In order to create subtypes for this feature class, you first need to add an integer field to this
table, then calculate it according to values in the FittingTyp field.
In the first empty cell, for Field Name, type FitClass, make it a Short Integer field, then
click OK.
Notice how all fittings draw with the same symbol.
Right-click Fittings and choose Open Attribute Table.
You will select a certain type of fitting, then calculate the integer field for the selected fittings to
set the subtype code. First, you will summarize the FittingTyp field to see how many types of
fittings are available in this feature class.
Right-click FittingTyp, then click Summarize.
In the Summarize dialog box, keep all of the defaults except the output table.
Click the browse button and change the Save as type to File Geodatabase table. Navigate
to the Corvallis geodatabase.
Name the output table FittingTypes.

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Click Save.

Click OK, then click Yes to add the new table to the map.
In the table of contents, right-click FittingTypes and choose Open.

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The summary table reveals that there are six different types of fittings in this feature class.
Summary tables are a fast way to determine how many different values you have for a certain
field. They can be used for additional analysis or simply to get a count of features and codes.
You will use Select By Attributes to select fittings of a particular type, then calculate the FitClass
field to an integer code.
Click the Fittings tab in the Table window.
Click the Select By Attributes button

In the Select By Attributes dialog box, build the following expression: "FittingTyp" = '12
x 12 Tapping Tee' and click Apply.
In the table, right-click the FitClass field and choose Field Calculator.
In the Expression field, type 1, then click OK.
In the Select By Attributes dialog box, change the expression to: "FittingTyp" = '12 x 4
Tapping Tee' and click Apply.
Open the Field Calculator for FitClass.
In the Expression field, type 2, then click OK.
Using the following table as a guide, repeat this process to make your selection queries,
then calculate the FitClass field.

FittingTyp

FitClass

12 x 6 Tapping Tee

4 x 4 Tapping Tee

6 x 4 Tapping Tee

6 x 6 Tapping Tee

Close the Select By Attributes dialog box and all tables.


Clear the selected features.

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Now the Fittings feature class is ready to have subtypes created for it. Before you create
subtypes, however, you will prepare another feature class by adding and calculating a field in
ArcMap.
Add WaterMeters to the map.
Open its attribute table.
The CUSTTYPE field is a text field that tells you which type of customer is receiving water. P is
for private or residential and C is for commercial. Because subtypes require an integer field, you
will add one, then perform a simple calculation.
Add a short integer field named MeterType and click OK.
Click the Select By Attributes button

Using the skills you have learned regarding calculating values, use the following table to
calculate integer codes for each type of meter, based on the CUSTTYPE field:

CUSTTYPE MeterType
P

Close the attribute table and clear the selection.


These feature classes are now ready to have subtypes created.
Click the New Map File button
on the Standard toolbar to create a new blank map
document. Make sure Corvallis.gdb is the default geodatabase.
Do not save changes to the current map document.

Solution step 3: Create subtypes


In the last step, you added integer fields to feature class tables and calculated them based on
values in a type field. Now you can create subtypes, which classify features into categories
within each feature class.
In the Catalog window, right-click the Fittings feature class and choose Properties.
Click the Subtypes tab.

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For Subtype Field, choose FitClass.


In the Subtypes section, under code, type 1.
Under Description, type 12" x 12" Tapping Tee.
This becomes the first subtype. You will create the remaining subtypes based on the codes you
assigned in the previous step.
In the Subtypes section, set your subtypes to match the following graphic.

The Default Subtype will automatically be set to the first subtype you enter, but you can change
it. You will want to set the default subtype to the most common type of feature, so that when
you digitize a new feature, it goes into this subtype.
Change the Default Subtype to 6" x 4" Tapping Tee and click OK.
Next, you will create subtypes for the WaterMeters feature class.
Open the properties for the WaterMeters feature class and click the Subtypes tab.
For Subtype Field, choose MeterType.
In the Subtypes section, type a code of 1 and a description of Private, then click Apply.
In the next available line, type a code of 2 and a description of Commercial, then click
OK.

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Connectivity rules are important in any geometric network. In order for them to be as specific as
possible, it is good practice to create them using subtypes. WaterMains and Laterals already
have the appropriate calculated field added for creating subtypes. You will use these fields in
order to create subtypes.
Right-click Laterals and choose Properties.
On the Subtypes tab, set the Subtype Field to LateralSiz.
In the Subtypes section, enter a code of 1 and a description of 4", then click Apply.
On the next line, enter a code of 2 and a description of 6", then click OK.
Open the properties for WaterMains.
For Subtype Field, choose MainSize.
Make your Subtypes section match the following graphic.

Click OK.
You have just created subtypes for several feature classes. You will use subtypes later in this
project to display, edit, and create connectivity rules.

Solution step 4: Create domains


In this step, you will create range and coded value domains to facilitate data entry.
Right-click Corvallis.gdb and click Properties.
Click the Domains tab.

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For Domain Name, type WaterMainDiameter; for Description, type Water Main
Diameter.
In the Domain Properties section, for Field Type, choose Double.
For Domain Type, choose Coded Values.
In the Coded Values section at the bottom of the dialog box, enter the following
information for Code and Description.

Code Description
4

4"

6"

12

12"

When finished, click OK.


Next, you will create a domain for water meter size. To do this, you will import an XML
document that someone in a nearby county has already created for water meters. You have
already discussed the values in your attribute tables and they match perfectly. You can use a
domain they have already created. Because exporting to XML can single out schema you want
to share, they did not have to send you the entire geodatabase, and you won't have to deal with
additional geodatabase elements you don't need.
Right-click Corvallis.gdb and choose Import > XML Workspace Document.
Click Schema Only.
For Specify the XML source to import, click the Browse button.
Navigate to the Exercise12 folder, click WaterMetersDomain.xml, then click Open.
Click Next.

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The next panel of the wizard displays what will be loaded into your geodatabase. Notice the first
item in red is the feature class. This indicates that the names of the feature class in your
geodatabase and the one being imported are the same. Therefore, the one being imported will be
changed to WaterMeters_1. The second item being imported is a domain for meter size.
Click Finish.
Click Corvallis.gdb and press F5 to refresh the geodatabase.
Open the properties for Corvallis.gdb.
Click the MeterSize domain and notice the various codes and descriptions that were
imported.

Importing this domain from XML was a fast way to get all of these codes and descriptions
entered into a domain.
Click OK.
Before you create another domain, you will clean up your geodatabase from the XML import.
The feature class schema that came across with the domain is not needed.
Right-click Water_Meters_1 and choose Delete, then choose Yes to confirm the delete.
You will create one more domain for water main material type.
In the Exercise12 folder, expand WaterMains.xls.
You will convert the information in this Excel worksheet into a geodatabase coded values
domain. Notice the field names; you will use these when you convert the table into a domain to
specify where to get codes and descriptions from.
Open the properties for Corvallis.gdb and click the Domains tab.

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Create a new domain with the following properties:

Domain Name: MainMaterial


Description: Water Main Material
Field Type: Text
Domain Type: Coded Values

For Code and Description, enter the following information from the table.

Click OK to create the domain.


Next, you will create another domain for length. In this case, it will be a range domain that can
be applied to many feature classes in this geodatabase.
Click in the first empty cell under Domain Name and type LengthDomain.
For Description, type General Length Domain.
For FieldType, choose Double and for Domain Type, choose Range.
For Minimum value, type 0 and for Maximum value, type 2000, then click OK.
Now that you have created the domains, you will apply them to fields in various feature class
tables.
Open the properties for WaterMains.
Click the Fields tab.
Click NOM_DIAM.
In the Field Properties section, click the empty cell next to Domain and choose
WaterMainDiameter, then click Apply.

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Click the MATERIAL field and assign the MainMaterial domain, then click Apply.
Click the LENGTH field and apply LengthDomain to it, then click OK.
Right-click WaterMeters and choose Properties.
Click the Fields tab and select the METER_SIZE field.
In the Field Properties section, click the empty cell next to Domain and choose MeterSize,
then click OK.
You have created four domains within Corvallis.gdb that have been applied to different feature
classes, but could also be applied to additional ones in the future. You could create other
domains in this database, but for now, you will only create these four. These domains can be
used in ArcMap to facilitate attribute editing and to help maintain consistency in data entry.

Solution step 5: Create a geometric network


In this step, you will create a geometric network for water features. You just realized that this
network needs to contain sources and sinks and you don't have a feature class you can use as a
source of water (i.e., a treatment plant). You do have this data, however, in shapefile format,
which you can import into your geodatabase first. Schema changes can happen at any time and
ArcGIS offers several methods for creating schemas.
Right-click Water and choose Import > Feature Class (single).
For Input Features, browse to ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks and add
TreatmentPlant.shp.
For Output Feature Class, type TreatmentPlant.
Click OK.
Verify that TreatmentPlant is now a feature class within the Water feature dataset.
Now you are ready to create your geometric network.
Right-click Water and choose New > Geometric Network.
Click Next on the first panel.
Keep the default name of Water_Net, click Yes to snap the features and then click Next.
Click Select All to involve all feature classes in this network, click Next.

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Click Yes to enable network features, then click Next.


Click within the Sources and Sinks column of the Treatment Plant and choose Yes.
Click Next.
There will be no weights in this network. Click Next.
Review the summary and click Finish.
In the Water feature dataset, you should see the geometric network and default junctions feature
class.

Open the properties for WaterMains.


Click the Fields tab.
Note the new field named Enabled. This field is added by ArcCatalog to all network feature
classes. It determines whether a network feature is available for tracing or not.
Click Cancel.
Open the properties for TreatmentPlant.
Notice the Enabled field for this feature class as well. In addition to Enabled, there is another
field named AncillaryRole. This field indicates whether something is a source or sink in a
network.
Click Cancel.
You have just created a geometric network to store connectivity between water features. The
next step is to create connectivity rules that determine valid connections between features in the

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network. In the next step, you will create network connectivity rules for the new Water_Net
network.

Solution step 6: Create network connectivity rules


Network connectivity rules are a form of geodatabase behavior. You learned about connectivity
rules earlier in this course. These rules determine how features in a network connect to other
features. All water features in this network connect with a tapping tee. Each tapping tee is a
different size, based on the size of the lines it is connecting. You will set connectivity rules to
ensure the correct size of tapping tee exists where a main and a lateral connect.
Right-click Water_Net and choose Properties.
Click the Connectivity tab.

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Notice the subtypes for the Fittings feature class are displayed. Connectivity rules can be created
between feature classes or between subtypes.
In the Subtypes in the Network pane, expand Laterals, then expand WaterMains.
These are the subtypes you created earlier. Any subtypes you have created for feature classes in
the network will be available for connectivity rules.
There are two types of connectivity rules: edge-edge and edge-junction.
Edge-junction connectivity rules specify the legal types of junctions that may connect to an
edge, as well as how many of each type (i.e., cardinality) can be connected. For example, only
one meter can be attached to a lateral.
Edge-edge connectivity rules are really more like edge-junction-edge rules, because edges can
only connect to junctions (i.e., you cannot connect two pipes together without a fitting of some
kind). A great advantage of this type of rule is that it will automatically create a junction of the
correct type where two edges connect.
First you will create a edge-junction rule for Laterals.
For Connectivity rules for (feature class), choose Laterals.
For Subtypes in this feature class, click 4".
For Subtypes in this network, expand WaterMeters.
Notice the two subtypes, Commercial and Private, listed. You want both of these types of
meters to connect to a 4" lateral and you want a private meter to be the default.
Click the check box next to WaterMeters.
This will select both Commercial and Private.

Note: You can also select each subtype individually.

Right-click Private and choose Set as Default.


A private meter will be added automatically when you add a new lateral.

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Next, you will set cardinality for this rule to reflect the fact that, in the real world, only one
meter will be present on a lateral.
Click Private to select it.
In the upper-right corner of the dialog box, check the first check box and set your
cardinality to match the following graphic.
You must enter the Max value first because it must be higher than the Min value.

You are setting the rule to allow only one meter to be present on a lateral, which is a one-to-one
relationship.
Click Commercial and repeat this process.
Next, you will create the same rule for 6" laterals.
For Subtypes in this feature class, click 6".
For Subtypes in this network, expand WaterMeters.
Click the check box next to WaterMeters and set Private as the default.
In the Cardinality section for each type of meter, set Max to 1 and Min to 1.
Click Apply.
The connectivity rules for 4" and 6" laterals should match the following graphic.

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Geodatabase workflow

Next, you will create edge-to-edge connectivity rules that specify how laterals and mains will
connect.
For Connectivity rules for (feature class), click the drop-down arrow and choose
WaterMains.
For Subtypes in this feature class, click 12".
For Subtypes in the network, check the box for Laterals and expand it.
Select 4" and notice that the Junctions subtypes section on the right becomes enabled.
This is where you can set a junction that will connect a 12" main with a 4" lateral.
In the Junction subtypes section, expand Fittings.
Click the check box next to 12" x 4" Tapping Tee.

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Verify that the blue "D" for default appears next to 12" X 4" Tapping Tee and that your
settings match the following graphic:

This rule says that a 12" water main must connect to a 4" water lateral with a 12" x 4" Tapping
Tee. This is the only viable choice, so you will not set any other fittings for these sizes of water
lines.
Click Apply.
You have just set a connectivity rule for connecting a 12" main to a 4" lateral. There are two
lateral sizes in this network so now you have to set a rule for the 12" to 6" connection.
In the Subtypes in this network section, select 6" under Laterals.
In the Junction Subtypes section, check the box for 12" x 6" Tapping Tee and click Apply.

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Geodatabase workflow

You have successfully set connectivity rules for a 12" main as it connects to the two lateral sizes
(4" and 6"). Next, you will set connectivity rules for 4" and 6" water mains.
In the Subtypes in this feature class section, select 4".
In the Subtypes in this network section, check the check box next to Laterals and, if
necessary, expand it.
Under Laterals, check the box for 4".
In the Junction subtypes section, for Fittings, check 4" x 4" Tapping Tee.
For a 6" lateral, set a connectivity rule for a 6" x 4" Tapping Tee and click Apply.

Finally, you will set a connectivity rule for a 6" main to the two lateral sizes.
In the Subtypes in this feature class section, select 6".
In the Subtypes in the network section, click the check box next to Laterals.
Under Laterals, select 4".
In the Junction subtypes section, under Fittings, check the check box for 6" x 4" Tapping
Tee. Click Apply.
For a 6" lateral, set the Junction subtype to 6" x 6" Tapping Tee and click OK.
You have successfully created several connectivity rules. These rules are stored as a property of
the network and are used during editing in ArcMap.
Next, you will edit this geometric network.

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Solution step 7: Edit geometric networks


In this step, you will edit a geometric network in ArcMap using connectivity rules you set in the
previous step.
Open ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Networks\Networks.mxd.
This map contains water network and parcel data for an area in Corvallis, Oregon.
Navigate to the 4" x 4" Tapping Tee bookmark.
This bookmark zooms to an area of Corvallis where a 4" lateral needs to be digitized.

Start an edit session, and when prompted, choose to start editing Corvallis.gdb.
On the Snapping toolbar, ensure that only Edge snapping is enabled.
Note: To open the Snapping toolbar, from the Editor menu, choose Snapping >
Snapping Toolbar.

With the Edit tool, select the main that extends east to the end of the cul-de-sac.
Click the Attributes button.
Notice the value for NOM_DIAM is 4". You will create a 4" lateral extending into the parcel.
Close the Attributes window and clear the selection.
In the Create Features window, choose the Laterals: 4" template.

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Snap the cursor to the water main and click to add a vertex.

Double-click when the other end of the sketch extends into the parcel, as seen in the
previous graphic.
Clear the selection.
Notice that a fitting and a meter were added as you finished the sketch.
To make selecting easier, you will make Fittings and WaterMeters the only selectable layers.
On the Table of Contents window, click the List by Selection button
Click the Select icon

next to all layers except Fittings and WaterMeters.

Select the new meter and fitting.


Click the Attributes button

Expand WaterMeters and Fittings.


Click the value under WaterMeters and scroll to the bottom of the table.
The MeterType value is automatically set to Private.

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Click the value under Fittings.

Close the Attributes window and clear the selection.


Navigate to the 12" x 6" Tapping Tee and COM meter bookmark.
Click the Identify tool and click the large parcel.
In the Identify window, scroll to the bottom to verify that this parcel is zoned for
commercial (COM) use.
Close the Identify window.
In the Create Features window, choose the Laterals: 6" template.
Use the Sketch tool to digitize a lateral as shown in the following graphic:

Double-click to finish the sketch.

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Geodatabase workflow

Open the Attributes window.


Verify the fitting is a 12" x 6" Tapping Tee and the meter type is Private.
In the Attributes window, click the value under WaterMeters.
Locate the MeterType field and click Private.
Click the ellipsis to change the value to Commercial.

Click Commercial, then click OK.


Click Yes.
Close the Attributes window.
Connectivity rules help you keep your data relationships and connections consistent, but it is
good practice to validate any new features you add to ensure they are following any rules you
have set.
From the Editor menu, click Validate Features.
Click OK on the message stating that all features are valid.
There are two more edits that need to be made. For each of those edits, there is a bookmark.
The bookmarks are titled: 12" x 4" Tapping Tee and 6" x 6" Tapping Tee.

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Using the same method, navigate to the remaining two bookmarks, digitize a lateral, and
verify that the fitting type and meter type are correct. Make sure you set the target to the
proper subtype of Laterals.
Stop editing when you are finished and save your edits.
You have just edited geometric network data that you built from shapefiles using connectivity
rules. Connectivity rules are not available outside a geodatabase.

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Geodatabase workflow

Exercise 12C solution


This exercise provides the step-by-step solution for the self-directed project introduced in
exercise 12C, in which you worked with parcel data to create geodatabase topology and other
behavior rules.

Solution step 1: Create schema and import data


In this step, you will create geodatabase schemas and import data from a shapefile into the
geodatabase.
Start ArcMap and open a blank map document.
In the Catalog window, navigate to the ..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Cadastral folder.
Right-click Cadastral and choose New > File Geodatabase.
Rename the new geodatabase Corvallis, then press Enter.
Right-click Corvallis.gdb and choose Make Default Geodatabase.
Right-click Corvallis.gdb and choose New > Feature Dataset.
For Name, type Cadastral, then click Next.
On the coordinate system panel, click Import.
Navigate to the Cadastral folder and click Corvallis_Parcels.shp, then click Add.
The coordinate system for this feature dataset is set to
NAD_1927_StatePlane_Oregon_North_FIPS_3601.
Click Next until you get to the last panel, then click Finish.
Next, you will import a shapefile into the new feature dataset.
Right-click the Cadastral feature dataset and click Import > Feature Class (single).
Drag and drop Corvallis_Parcels.shp into the Input Features section of the dialog box.
Name the Output Feature Class Parcels and click OK.

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Drag and drop the Parcels feature class onto the map document.

You have successfully used a shapefile data source to create a parcel feature class in your new
file geodatabase.

Solution step 2: Create domains


In this step, you will create domains for the ZONE_CD field in the Parcels feature class.
In the table of contents, right-click Parcels and choose Open Attribute Table, then scroll to
view the ZONE_CD field at the far right of the table.
This field contains zoning information for each parcel. You will create domains based on these
codes.
Close the attribute table.
In the Catalog window, right-click Corvallis.gdb and choose Properties.

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Geodatabase workflow

Click the Domains tab.


In the first empty cell, under Domain Name, type ZoneCode.
For description, type Domain for zone codes.
In the Domain Properties section, for Field Type, click the current value and choose Text.
Verify that Domain Type is Coded Values.
In the Coded Values section, under Code, type COM.
Under Description, type Commercial.
Under COM, type RES, then type Residential for Description.
Click OK.
After you create domains, they are available for all feature classes and subtypes in the
geodatabase. Next, you will apply this domain to the Parcels feature class.
In the Catalog window, open the properties for Parcels.
Note: If the Parcels feature class is not visible, right-click the Cadastral feature dataset
and choose Refresh.

Click the Fields tab.


Scroll to the ZONE_CD field, then click it.
In the Field Properties section, for Domain, click the empty cell, then choose ZoneCode.
Click OK.
A new domain has been added to the geodatabase and applied to the ZONE_CD field in the
Parcels feature class.

Solution step 3: Create geodatabase topology


In this step, you will create a geodatabase topology.
In the Catalog window, right-click the Cadastral feature dataset and choose New >
Topology.

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Click Next on the first panel.


Accept the defaults for the name and cluster tolerance, then click Next.
Check the box for Parcels and click Next.
Enter 1 for the number of ranks.
Because Parcels is the only feature class in this topology, it will automatically get assigned a
rank of 1.
Click Next.
Click Add Rule.
Set the following topology rules:

Parcels: Must Not Overlap


Parcels: Must Not Have Gaps
Click Next, then click Finish.
Click No when asked to validate the topology.
You will validate the topology when you add it to ArcMap in the next step.

Solution step 4: Work with a topology in ArcMap


In this step, you will display and edit your topology in ArcMap.
In ArcMap, create a new blank map. Click No if prompted to save changes to the current
map.
Add Cadastral_Topology to the map, then click Yes to add all participating feature
classes.
Topology errors will draw in the default red color once you validate. By default, dirty areas are
not being displayed, so you will turn them on so you know what has been validated.
Click in the white area in the table of contents to deselect all of the layers.
Right-click Cadastral_Topology, then click Properties.
Click the Symbology tab.

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Check the box for Dirty Areas.


Click Dirty Areas and notice the symbol on the right.
Dirty areas are areas of the topology that have not been validated and display in a blue hatched
pattern by default.
Click OK.
Right-click the Cadastral topology layer and choose Zoom To Layer.
Notice that the entire extent of the data is symbolized as a dirty area. When you created the
topology, you chose not to validate after its creation.
Now, you will validate the topology using ArcMap.
Start an edit session.
If necessary, turn on the Topology toolbar.
On the Topology toolbar, click the Validate Topology in Current Extent button.
Note: Validating the entire topology can take a long time if you have many features and
complex relationships. It may be more efficient, to zoom in and validate the
current extent or a specified area.

In the table of contents, right-click Cadastral_Topology and choose Properties.


Click the Errors tab.
Click Generate Summary.

There are 13 errors in the topology. Notice that most of them are from the Must Not Have Gaps
rule you set. Earlier in the class, you learned that gaps are not always an error. There are several

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sections of parcels in this area of Oregon. Anywhere there is a gap between parcels, it is marked
as an error. It is up to you to know your data and be able to make the necessary distinctions
between actual and perceived errors. If it is not an error in the real world, you can set it as an
exception.
Close the Layer Properties dialog box.
On the Topology toolbar, click the Fix Topology Error tool

Click the western-most Must Not Have Gaps error to select it. (It will turn black.)
Right-click the selected error and choose Mark as Exception.

Select the Validate Topology in a Specified Area tool


parcels you just marked as an exception.

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, then drag a box around the

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The topology no longer views this gap as an error. Exceptions are stored in the geodatabase.
Open the properties for Cadastral_Topology and click the Errors tab.
Click Generate Summary.
Notice that there are now 10 errors and one exception for the Must Not Have Gaps rule.

Close the Layer Properties dialog box.


Some of the gaps, like the one you just marked as an exception, are not really errors. For
example, they might be the edge of a number of polygons along a street or the outer edge of a
polygon that marks the extent of the data.
Using the skills you have learned, mark the remaining occurrences of this type of gap error
as exceptions.
Note: The gaps that you are looking for are those that occur along streets or at the edges
of the data extent.

Validate the entire topology when you are done.


You will fix the remaining errors with the Topology Error Inspector.
On the Topology toolbar, click the Error Inspector button

Dock the Error Inspector window to the bottom of the ArcMap interface.
Click Search Now.
There should be four errors remaining.
Right-click the first Must Not Overlap error and choose Zoom To.

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Move the Error Inspector window and zoom out a little if necessary.
In the Error Inspector, right-click the error and choose Merge.
Merge with Parcel 253 (click each parcel in the list to see it flash on screen) and click OK.
A dirty area appears where the error used to be, because this area has been edited since the last
validation. Normally in a topology editing workflow, you will validate first to locate errors, fix
the errors, and then validate again to make sure you did not create additional errors.
On the Topology toolbar, click the Validate Topology in Current Extent button

With the Edit tool, select the parcel shown in the following graphic and press the Delete
key.

Validate the current extent of the topology again to clear the dirty area and see that the
erroneous polygon has been deleted.
Notice the external boundary of this group of parcels is still considered to be an error. This is
because the editing operations you just performed affected the boundary, which now lies along a
street. You can mark it as an exception as you did before.

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Geodatabase workflow

With the Fix Topology Error tool, click the boundary and then right-click it and choose
Mark as Exception.
In the Error Inspector, check off Visible Extent Only and then click Search Now.
Zoom to the other Must Not Overlap error, then zoom out gradually, if necessary.

The gap north of this parcel matches the overlap to the south, so it looks as if this overlap error
is caused by the parcel on top being moved down accidentally. Maybe the sticky move tolerance
was not set and the user was making a selection and moved the parcel inadvertently.
On the Snapping toolbar, enable Vertex and Edge snapping.
There are two ways to fix this error. You could move the entire parcel north and snap it to the
existing parcel boundary, or you could modify the vertices of the parcel and then merge the
overlapping portion with the parcel to the south. You will use the first method to fix the error.

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Click the Edit tool and then double-click the parcel to expose its vertices.

Hover your mouse cursor over the northwest vertex, click it, then drag it to snap to the
corner, as seen in the following graphic.

Do the same with the vertex to the northeast.


Click anywhere off the feature and it will update with its new shape.
In the Error Inspector, click Search Now in the visible extent.

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Geodatabase workflow

Right-click the Must Not Overlap error in the list and choose Merge.
Merge the error with parcel 244 and click OK.
Validate the current extent of the topology.
In fixing one error, another error was either created or discovered. The western boundary
contains a gap similar to the one you just fixed, only smaller.
Using the skills you just learned, fix the gap error along the western boundary.
Validate when you are finished to make sure the error is gone.
Fix the remaining two gap errors in the same manner in which you fixed the previous
ones.
Mark any external boundary errors as exceptions.
Validate the full extent of the topology to make sure there are no remaining errors.
Stop editing and save your edits.
Close the Error Inspector window.
Keep ArcMap open so you can create annotation for your parcels.

Solution step 5: Create annotation


Next, you will create feature-linked annotation for your parcels.
Right-click Parcels and choose Properties.
Click the Labels tab.
Check the box for Label features in this layer.
For Label Field, click the drop-down arrow, scroll down, and choose ACRES. Click OK.
These are not annotation, but labels, which are stored as a property of the layer in ArcMap. You
are not able to manage or edit one label at a time; you have to manage labels as a group.
Creating annotation from labels allows more flexibility in managing your map text.

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Note: Make sure that Corvallis.gdb is still the default geodatabase. In the Catalog
window, it should be bold and have the default geodatabase icon

next to it.

Right-click Parcels and choose Convert Labels to Annotation.


Verify that annotation will be stored in the geodatabase, created for all features, that it will
be feature-linked, and that it will be stored in the database as ParcelsAnno.
Click Convert.
A new layer called ParcelsAnno has been added to the map. This is the feature-linked
annotation you just created.
In the Catalog window, navigate to Corvallis.gdb.
Select the geodatabase, then press F5 to refresh it.
You should now have an annotation feature class and a relationship class stored in your
geodatabase.
Now you have annotation created for Parcels. If you were to add any new parcels, annotation
would automatically be created for them.
Start an edit session.
In the Create Features window, choose the Parcels template.
Digitize a new parcel in the southwestern section of the map.
Open the attribute table for Parcels and click the Show selected records button

Scroll to the right and locate the ACRES field.


Notice this field is <Null>. Once you set a value for it, the annotation will be created and
displayed automatically.
Right-click ACRES and choose Calculate Geometry.
In the Calculate Geometry dialog box, verify that the Property is set to Area and change
the Units to Acres US [ac] and click OK.
This will calculate the ACRES field based on the current Shape_Area field that is stored in this
feature class.

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Close the table.


Validate the topology.
Notice that annotation has been placed on the new parcel. Now, you will reduce the number of
decimal places being displayed.
Click the Edit tool and select the new annotation, then click the Attributes button

In the Attributes window, locate the TextString property and click its current value.
Modify it so there are only three decimal places being displayed.
Close the Attributes window.
Stop editing and save your edits.
You have just created feature-linked annotation from labels and edited a value in the Parcels
table to create new annotation. Next, you will add a new feature class to an existing topology.

Solution step 6: Add a feature class to a topology


Sometimes you have to modify the schema for a geodatabase element after it has been created.
For example, adding a field to an existing table, adding a code to a domain, or altering a
subtype. You may also have to add a feature class to an existing topology.
A topology can be created and used just to get the features within it corrected prior to involving
them in more complex relationships with features in other feature classes. So far in this exercise,
you have created a topology for parcels with two rules and then you fixed some errors in
ArcMap. Now that the errors are corrected, you can include more feature classes in this
topology.
An important part of a cadastral dataset is parcel lines. Parcel lines store the bearings and
distances of the parcels, as taken from a plat or deed. One of the tools in ArcToolbox creates
lines from polygons, so you don't have to manually create them.
In the Search window, click Tools, and type Polygon to Line in the text box.
Click the Search button
Double-click the Polygon To Line tool.
For Input Features, navigate to or drag and drop Parcels from C:\Student\Exercise12\
Cadastral\Corvallis.gdb\Cadastral feature dataset.

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For Output Features, verify that the output is being created in the
..\Student\BLDG\Exercise12\Cadastral\Corvallis.gdb\Cadastral feature class and name
it ParcelLines.
Click OK.
Preview the new ParcelLines feature class.

Using a geoprocessing tool, you have created parcel lines from existing parcel polygons and
saved yourself a lot of digitizing.
Open the properties for Cadastral_Topology.
Click the Feature Classes tab.

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Click Add Class.

Select ParcelLines and click OK.


Change the Number of Ranks to 2 and change the rank for Parcels to 2, then click Apply.
Click the Rules tab.
Now that there is an additional feature class in this topology, you can create more complex
rules.
Add the following rules to the topology:

Parcels: Boundary Must Be Covered By - ParcelLines


ParcelLines: Must Not Intersect Or Touch Interior
ParcelLines: Must Not Have Dangles
ParcelLines: Must Be Covered By Boundary Of - Parcels

Click OK.
Right-click the topology and choose Validate, then click OK when it is finished.
Open the properties for Cadastral_Topology.
Click the Errors tab.
Click Generate Summary.
Notice that there are some gap errors present. These are the same errors you marked as
exceptions in the previous step. Because a feature class was added to the topology and
additional rules were added, these exceptions are seen as errors. You learned a fast way to fix
them in the last step. For now, you will leave them as is. The topology workflow is usually a
looping cycle.

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A new feature class has been added and other properties have been updated to reflect this
addition. It would be good practice to validate this topology to locate and fix any errors. In the
interest of time, this exercise will end now.

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Appendix A

Esri data license agreement

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Appendix A

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Esri data license agreement

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VERIFY ACTUAL DATA, WHETHER MAP, SPATIAL, RASTER, TABULAR
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IN NO EVENT SHALL ESRI OR ITS LICENSOR(S) BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE FOR
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ESRI OR ITS LICENSOR(S) HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE. THESE LIMITATIONS SHALL APPLY NOTWITHSTANDING ANY
FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY.

A-3

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

Appendix A

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Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri

A-4

Appendix B

Additional geodatabase elements

Additional geodatabase elements

Additional geodatabase elements


In this course, you were exposed to many of the core geodatabase elements and behaviors, but
there are additional ones you may wish to explore further.
The following items are types of geodatabase elements or functionality available in core ArcGIS
desktop or with the addition of an extension:

B-1

Linear referencing (core)


Cartographic representations (core)
Dimension feature classes (core)
Geometric network weights (core)
Network datasets (ArcGIS Network Analyst extension)
Schematic datasets (ArcGIS Schematics extension)
Survey datasets (ArcGIS Survey Analyst extension)
Terrain datasets (ArcGIS 3D Analyst extension)

Copyright 2006-2008, 2010 Esri