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A STUDY OF OXIDATION OF FOODS

Purpose

: To compare the colour of apples when treated with different antioxidants.

Materials

: Fresh apple slices, Lemon juice, Drinking water, 1M aqueous Ascorbic acid, 1M aqueous
Citric acid, 1M aqueous Acetic acid, 1M aqueous NaCl solution, 1M aqueous Ethanoic
acid, 1M aqueous Glucose solution

Apparatus

: Tongs, Stirring rod, Beakers, Petri dishes, apple corer, knife, spatula, electronic balance,
stopwatch, measuring cylinder

Procedures

: 1. Prepare apple slices of approximately the same size by using apple corer
2. Using tongs, dip the apple slice into lemon juice which is filled in the beaker for 20
seconds, after 20 seconds, take out the apple slice, place it on the petri dish, and start the
stopwatch.
3. Check the apple slices at 10 minute intervals, up to three hours. Record your
information in the data table as: No browning (1) /Slight browning or brown patches
(2) /Half covered light brown (3) /Full covered light brown (4) /Completely dark brown
(5)
4. Repeat step 1-3 with Drinking water, 1M Ascorbic acid, 1M Citric acid, 1M Acetic
acid, 1M NaCl solution, 1M Ethanoic acid, 1M Glucose solution

Prepare chemical solution


1.
2.
3.
4.

Determine the mass in grams of one mole of solute, the molar mass, MMs.
Decide volume of solution required, in liters, V.
Decide molarity of solution required, M.
Calculate grams of solute (gs) required.
gs = MMs x M x V

Example: Prepare 100 mL of 1 M sodium chloride.


(Molecular Mass of NaCl = 58.45 g/mol)
Mass of NaCl = 58.45 g/mol x 1 mol/L x 0.1 L
gNaCl = 5.845g NaCl
Chemical
solution
Chemical
Formula
Molecular
mass
(g mol-1)
Molarity
(mol dm-3)
Volume
(cm3)

1M
Ascorbic
acid

1 M Citric
acid

1 M Acetic
acid

1M
Ethanoic
acid

1 M Salt
solution

1 M Glucose
Solution

C6H8O6

C6H8O7

CH3COOH

CH3COOH

NaCl

C6H12O6

176.12

192.124

60.05

60.05

58.44

180.16

100

100

100

100

100

100

Mass (g)

17.612

19.214

6.005

6.005

5.844

18.016

Observation

Time/mi
n

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180

No
solutio
n

Lemon
juice

Drinkin
g water

1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

Scale
5 = completely dark brown
4 = fully covered light brown
3 = half-covered light brown
2 = some brown patches
1 = no browning present

Level of browning
1M
1M
Ascorbi Citric
c acid
acid
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1M
Acetic
acid

1M
Ethanoi
c acid

1M1M
Salt
Glucose
solutio Solutio
n
n

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3

1
1
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4